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Batteries - Potential Electrical Energy Storage


Battery Types - Energy Storage

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How a Battery Works Battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars. When a battery is supplying electric power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode. The terminal marked negative is the source of electrons that when connected to an external circuit will flow and deliver energy to an external device. When a battery is connected to an external circuit, electrolytes are able to move as ions within, allowing the chemical reactions to be completed at the separate terminals and so deliver energy to the external circuit. It is the movement of those ions within the battery which allows current to flow out of the battery to perform work. Historically the term "battery" specifically referred to a device composed of multiple cells, however the usage has evolved to additionally include devices composed of a single cell. Make an AA Battery (youtube)

Electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water. The dissolved electrolyte separates into cations and anions, which disperse uniformly through the solvent. Electrically, such a solution is neutral. If an electric potential is applied to such a solution, the cations of the solution are drawn to the electrode that has an abundance of electrons, while the anions are drawn to the electrode that has a deficit of electrons. The movement of anions and cations in opposite directions within the solution amounts to a current. This includes most soluble salts, acids, and bases. Some gases, such as hydrogen chloride, under conditions of high temperature or low pressure can also function as electrolytes. Electrolyte solutions can also result from the dissolution of some biological (e.g., DNA, polypeptides) and synthetic polymers (e.g., polystyrene sulfonate), termed "polyelectrolytes", which contain charged functional groups. A substance that dissociates into ions in solution acquires the capacity to conduct electricity. Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate are examples of electrolytes, informally known as "lytes". Capacitors

Electrochemistry is the study of chemical processes that cause electrons to move. This movement of electrons is called electricity, which can be generated by movements of electrons from one element to another in a reaction known as an oxidation-reduction ("redox") reaction. It is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa. These reactions involve electric charges moving between electrodes and an electrolyte (or ionic species in a solution). Thus electrochemistry deals with the interaction between electrical energy and chemical change. When a chemical reaction is caused by an externally supplied current, as in electrolysis, or if an electric current is produced by a spontaneous chemical reaction as in a battery, it is called an electrochemical reaction. Chemical reactions where electrons are transferred directly between molecules and/or atoms are called oxidation-reduction or (redox) reactions. In general, electrochemistry describes the overall reactions when individual redox reactions are separate but connected by an external electric circuit and an intervening electrolyte.
Electro-Chemistry

Bio-Electro-Chemistry is a branch of electrochemistry and biophysical chemistry concerned with electrophysiological topics like cell electron-proton transport, cell membrane potentials and electrode reactions of redox enzymes.

Electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction. Electrolysis is commercially important as a stage in the separation of elements from naturally occurring sources such as ores using an electrolytic cell. The voltage that is needed for electrolysis to occur is called the decomposition potential.

Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst.

Chemical Energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction to transform other chemical substances. Examples include batteries, food, gasoline, and more. Breaking or making of chemical bonds involves energy, which may be either absorbed or evolved from a chemical system. Energy that can be released (or absorbed) because of a reaction between a set of chemical substances is equal to the difference between the energy content of the products and the reactants, if the initial and final temperatures are the same. This change in energy can be estimated from the bond energies of the various chemical bonds in the reactants and products.

Bio-Batteries - Fuel Cells - Photosynthesis


Energy Storage


Energy Storage is the capture of energy produced at one time for use at a later time.
Grid Energy Storage is a collection of methods used to store electrical energy on a large scale within an electrical power grid.
Energy Storage Terminology
List of Energy Storage Projects (wiki)
Amber Kinetics flywheel energy storage system for utility-scale applications. Perpetual
Energy Storage Research
Smart Grid
Smart Grid Battery Storage
Giga Factory
Ice Bear Distributed Mature Energy Storage Technology
Electricity Storage Technology

Capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores electrical energy in an electric field. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. While capacitance exists between any two electrical conductors of a circuit in sufficiently close proximity, a capacitor is specifically designed to provide and enhance this effect for a variety of practical applications by consideration of size, shape, and positioning of closely spaced conductors, and the intervening dielectric material. A capacitor was therefore historically first known as an electric condenser.

Electric Double-Layer Capacitor are electrochemical capacitors which energy storage predominant is achieved by Double-layer capacitance. In the past, all electrochemical capacitors were called "double-layer capacitors". However, since some years it is known that double-layer capacitors together with pseudocapacitors are part of a new family of electrochemical capacitors[1] called supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors. Supercapacitors do not have a conventional solid dielectric.The capacitance value of a supercapacitor is determined by two storage principles: Double-layer capacitance – electrostatic storage of the electrical energy achieved by separation of charge in a Helmholtz double layer at the interface between the surface of a conductor electrode and an electrolytic solution electrolyte. The separation of charge distance in a double-layer is on the order of a few Ångströms (0.3–0.8 nm) and is static in origin. Pseudocapacitance – Electrochemical storage of the electrical energy, achieved by redox reactions electrosorption or intercalation on the surface of the electrode by specifically adsorbed ions that results in a reversible faradaic charge-transfer on the electrode.

Supercapacitor is a high-capacity electrochemical capacitor with capacitance values much higher than other capacitors (but lower voltage limits) that bridge the gap between electrolytic capacitors and rechargeable batteries. They typically store 10 to 100 times more energy per unit volume or mass than electrolytic capacitors, can accept and deliver charge much faster than batteries, and tolerate many more charge and discharge cycles than rechargeable batteries.

Ultracapacitor Buses
Graphene 

Electrostatics is a branch of physics that deals with the phenomena and properties of stationary or slow-moving electric charges.

EEstor Corp

Flexible Super-Capacitors that can store more energy and be recharged more than 30,000 times without degrading

Super-Capacitor is a high-capacity electrochemical capacitor with capacitance values much higher than other capacitors (but lower voltage limits) that bridge the gap between electrolytic capacitors and rechargeable batteries. They typically store 10 to 100 times more energy per unit volume or mass than electrolytic capacitors, can accept and deliver charge much faster than batteries, and tolerate many more charge and discharge cycles than rechargeable batteries.

Thermal Energy Storage


Solar Energy Batteries


Tesla Motors Powerwall

Deep Cycle Battery is a lead-acid battery designed to be regularly deeply discharged using most of its capacity. In contrast, starter batteries (e.g. most automotive batteries) are designed to deliver short, high-current bursts for cranking the engine, thus frequently discharging only a small part of their capacity. While a deep-cycle battery can be used as a starting battery, the lower "cranking current" implies that an oversized battery may be required. A deep-cycle battery is designed to discharge between 45% and 75% of its capacity, depending on the manufacturer and the construction of the battery. Although these batteries can be cycled down to 20% charge, the best lifespan vs cost method is to keep the average cycle at about 45% discharge. There is an indirect correlation between the depth of discharge of the battery, and the number of charge and discharge cycles it can perform.

Deepcycle Battery
US Battery
12v 155ah Deep Cycle Rechargeable
Smart Grid Energy Storage


Charging and Recharging Batteries


Charging Station supplies electric energy for the recharging of electric vehicles, such as plug-in electric vehicles, including electric cars, neighborhood electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids.

Charging Locations
Charge Point
Battery Switch Station

Instantly Rechargeable Battery could change the future of electric and hybrid automobiles

New Electric Car Batteries (youtube)
Tesla Motors Supercharger 
Wireless Charging
Human Energy Charging

Rechargeable Battery is a type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged into a load, and recharged many times, while a non-rechargeable or primary battery is supplied fully charged, and discarded once discharged.

Depth of Discharge (DOD) is an alternate method to indicate a battery's state of charge (SOC). The DOD is the complement of SOC: as the one increases, the other decreases. While the SOC units are percent points (0% = empty; 100% = full), DOD can use Ah units (e.g.: 0 = full, 50 Ah = empty) or percent points (100% = empty; 0% = full). As a battery may actually have higher capacity than its nominal rating, it is possible for the DOD value to exceed the full value (e.g.: 55 Ah or 110%), something that is not possible when using state of charge. Not letting your phone get below 50 percent can help extend its life? And not charging to 100 percent too because being charged at 100 percent produces a small amount of heat, and lithium-ion batteries hate heat.

Internal Resistance. When the power source delivers current, the measured voltage output is lower than the no-load voltage; the difference is the voltage drop (the product of current and resistance) caused by the internal resistance. The concept of internal resistance applies to all kinds of electrical sources and is useful for analyzing many types of electrical circuits.

Battery Management System is any electronic system that manages a rechargeable battery (cell or battery pack), such as by protecting the battery from operating outside its Safe Operating Area, monitoring its state, calculating secondary data, reporting that data, controlling its environment, authenticating it and / or balancing it. A battery pack built together with a battery management system with an external communication data bus is a smart battery pack. A smart battery pack must be charged by a smart battery charger.

New Breakthrough In Battery Charging Technology. UNIST researchers introduce new battery charging technology that uses light to charge batteries. UNIST has developed a single-unit, photo-rechargeable portable power source based on high-efficiency silicon solar cells and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). This newly-developed power source is designed to work under sunlight and indoor lighting, allowing users to power their portable electronics anywhere with access to light. In addition, the new device could power electric devices even in the absence of light.


Portable Backup Battery Power

Solar Powered Battery Backup Electricity (portable)
Portable Solar Power



Battery Types


Voltaic Pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electric current to a circuit. It was invented by Alessandro Volta, who published his experiments in 1800.

Betavoltaic Device is also known as betavoltaic cells, are generators of electric current, in effect a form of battery, which use energy from a radioactive source emitting beta particles (electrons). A common source used is the hydrogen isotope, tritium. Unlike most nuclear power sources, which use nuclear radiation to generate heat, which then is used to generate electricity (thermoelectric and thermionic sources), betavoltaics use a non-thermal conversion process; converting the electron-hole pairs produced by the ionization trail of beta particles traversing a semiconductor. Betavoltaic power sources (and the related technology of alphavoltaic power sources) are particularly well-suited to low-power electrical applications where long life of the energy source is needed, such as implantable medical devices or military and space applications.

Oxford Electric Bell is an experimental electric bell that was set up in 1840 and which has run nearly continuously ever since.

VRLA Battery (valve-regulated lead-acid battery), more commonly known as a sealed lead-acid (SLA), gel cell, or maintenance free battery, is a type of lead-acid rechargeable battery.

Alkaline Battery are a type of primary battery dependent upon the reaction between zinc and manganese(IV) oxide (Zn/MnO2). A rechargeable alkaline battery allows reuse of specially designed cells.

Batteriser: Extend Battery Life by 8X

Lead Acid Battery despite having a very low energy-to-weight ratio and a low energy-to-volume ratio, its ability to supply high surge currents means that the cells have a relatively large power-to-weight ratio. These features, along with their low cost, makes it attractive for use in motor vehicles to provide the high current required by automobile starter motors.

Nickel Cadmium Battery is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes. The abbreviation NiCd is derived from the chemical symbols of nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd): the abbreviation NiCad is a registered trademark of SAFT Corporation, although this brand name is commonly used to describe all Ni–Cd batteries.

Lithium-ion Batteries is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging. Li-ion batteries use an intercalated lithium compound as one electrode material, compared to the metallic lithium used in a non-rechargeable lithium battery. The electrolyte, which allows for ionic movement, and the two electrodes are the constituent components of a lithium-ion battery cell. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), lithium ion manganese oxide battery (LiMn2O4, Li2MnO3, or LMO) and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LiNiMnCoO2 or NMC) offer lower energy density, but longer lives and inherent safety. Such batteries are widely used for electric
tools, medical equipment and other roles. NMC in particular is a leading contender for automotive applications. Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (LiNiCoAlO2 or NCA) and lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12 or LTO) are specialty designs aimed at particular niche roles. The newer lithium–sulfur batteries promise the highest performance-to-weight ratio. Dendrites

Lithium-ion Battery Electrode Protection
Thermal Runaway
Lithium-Oxygen Battery which has very high energy density, is more than 90% efficient, and, to date, can be recharged more than 2000 times
Photoelectrode Lithium–Oxygen Battery
Kair Battery

Lithium Sulfur Battery is a type of rechargeable battery, notable for its high specific energy. The low atomic weight of lithium and moderate weight of sulfur means that Li–S batteries are relatively light (about the density of water).

Fast Charging Lithium-ion Battery
Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery LFP

Lithium Air Battery is a metal–air electrochemical cell or battery chemistry that uses oxidation of lithium at the anode and reduction of oxygen at the cathode to induce a current flow.

Reversible Nitrogen Fixation Based on a Rechargeable Lithium-Nitrogen Battery for Energy Storage. A rechargeable Li-N2 battery is proposed for a reversible N2 fixation process. The Li-N2 battery provides technological progress in N2 fixation. The Li-N2 battery shows high faradic efficiency for N2 fixation. The catalyst can improve faradic efficiency and decrease energy consumption.

Lithium Cobalt Oxide is a chemical compound commonly used in the positive electrodes of lithium-ion batteries.

All Solid State Lithium Batteries with Solid Electrolytes
Semisolid Lithium-Ion

Safe Rechargeable Battery using Glass Electrolytes, substitution of low-cost sodium  for lithium sodium is extracted from seawater that is widely available.

Solid-State Battery is a battery that has both solid electrodes and solid electrolytes. As a group, these materials are very good conductors of ions, which is necessary for good electrolyte and electrode performance, and are essentially insulating toward electrons, which is desirable in electrolytes but undesirable in electrodes. The high ionic conductivity minimizes the internal resistance of the battery, thus permitting high power densities, while the high electronic resistance minimizes its self-discharge rate, thus enhancing its charge retention.

All-solid-state polymer electrolyte with plastic crystal materials for rechargeable lithium-ion battery

Sodium Sulfur Battery s a type of molten-salt battery constructed from liquid sodium (Na) and sulfur (S). This type of battery has a high energy density, high efficiency of charge/discharge (89–92%) and long cycle life, and is fabricated from inexpensive materials. The operating temperatures of 300 to 350 °C and the highly corrosive nature of the sodium polysulfides, primarily make them suitable for stationary energy storage applications. The cell becomes more economical with increasing size.
(5 kwh's for 4 hours)

Battery Electric Vehicle is a type of electric vehicle (EV) that uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs. BEVs use electric motors and motor controllers instead of internal combustion engines (ICEs) for propulsion. They derive all power from battery packs and thus have no internal combustion engine, fuel cell, or fuel tank. BEVs include bicycles, scooters, skateboards, rail cars, watercraft, forklifts, buses, trucks and cars.
Battery Technology

Battery Regulator refer to techniques that maximize the capacity of a battery pack with multiple cells in series to make all of its energy available for use and increase the battery's longevity. A battery balancer or battery regulator is a device in a battery pack that performs battery balancing. Balancers are often found in lithium-ion battery packs for cell phones and laptop computers. They can also be found in battery electric vehicle battery packs.

Zinc Carbon Battery is a dry cell battery that delivers a potential of 1.5 volts between a zinc metal electrode and a carbon rod from an electrochemical reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide mediated by a suitable electrolyte.

Zinc Bromine Battery is a type of hybrid flow battery. A solution of zinc bromide is stored in two tanks. When the battery is charged or discharged the solutions (electrolytes) are pumped through a reactor stack and back into the tanks. One tank is used to store the electrolyte for the positive electrode reactions and the other for the negative.

Zinc-ion battery that costs half the price of current lithium-ion batteries - Waterloo chemists develop promising cheap, sustainable battery for grid energy storage.
Aerographite is a synthetic foam consisting of a porous interconnected network of tubular carbon.

Nano-Crystals
Carbon Nanotube

Nanowire Battery uses nanowires to increase the surface area of one or both of its electrodes. Some designs (silicon, germanium and transition metal oxides), variations of the lithium-ion battery have been announced, although none are commercially available. All of the concepts replace the traditional graphite anode and could improve battery performance.
100k Cycles and Beyond: Extraordinary Cycle Stability for MnO2 Nanowires Imparted by a Gel Electrolyte.

New Anode Material Set to Boost Lithium-ion Battery Capacity hybrid anode using silicon-nanolayer-embedded graphite/carbon.

Next-generation smartphone battery inspired by the gut lithium-sulphur battery could have five times the energy density of a typical lithium-ion battery. Advanced Lithium–Sulfur Batteries Enabled by a Bio-Inspired Polysulfide Adsorptive Brush

Food waste could store solar and wind energy

Flow Battery Diagram Flow Battery is a type of rechargeable battery where rechargeability is provided by two chemical components dissolved in liquids contained within the system and separated by a membrane. Ion exchange (providing flow of electric current) occurs through the membrane while both liquids circulate in their own respective space. Cell voltage is chemically determined by the Nernst equation and ranges, in practical applications, from 1.0 to 2.2 volts. The performance of these devices is governed by the considerations of electrochemical engineering. A flow battery is technically akin both to a fuel cell and an electrochemical accumulator cell (electrochemical reversibility). While it has technical advantages such as potentially separable liquid tanks and near unlimited longevity over most conventional rechargeables, current implementations are comparatively less powerful and require more sophisticated electronics. The energy capacity is a function of the electrolyte volume (amount of liquid electrolyte) and the power a function of the surface area of the electrodes.

Flow Battery (youtube)

Long-Lasting Flow Battery could Run for more than a Decade with Minimum Upkeep. Battery stores energy in nontoxic, noncorrosive aqueous solutions.

Salt Water Battery employs a concentrated saline solution as its electrolyte. They are nonflammable and more easily recycled than batteries that employ toxic and/or flammable materials. Aquion Energy

Molten Salt Battery are a class of battery that uses molten salts as an electrolyte and offers both a high energy density and a high power density. Traditional "use once" thermal batteries can be stored in their solid state at room-temperature for long periods of time before being activated by heating. Rechargeable liquid metal batteries are used for electric vehicles and potentially also for grid energy storage, to balance out intermittent renewable power sources such as solar panels and wind turbines.

Sodium-Ion Batteries. Sodium, as the sixth most abundant element in the earth’s crust.

Thin Layers of Water Hold Promise for the Energy Storage of the Future

Energy Storage

Silicon Air Battery is based on electrodes of oxygen and silicon. Such batteries can be lightweight, with a high tolerance for both extremely dry conditions and high humidity. Like other anode-air batteries, in particular metal-air batteries, silicon–air batteries rely on atmospheric oxygen for their cathodes; they accordingly do not include any cathodes in their structures, and this permits economies in cost and weight.

Aqueous Hybrid Ion Battery
uses sodium ions of saltwater as its electricity-carrying electrolyte. Low cost.

Aluminum Battery 1 Minute Charging
Aluminum-Ion Battery Stanford (youtube)

Ceramatec Deep Storage Battery (PDF)

Liquid Metal Battery (video)

Liquidmetal a series of amorphous metal alloys with a number of desirable material features, including high tensile strength, excellent corrosion resistance, very high coefficient of restitution and excellent anti-wearing characteristics, while also being able to be heat-formed in processes similar to thermoplastics. Despite the name, they are not liquid at room temperature.
New concept turns battery technology upside-down

Magnesium is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (Group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all Group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure.

Antimony is a lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were powdered for use as medicine and cosmetics, often known by the Arabic name, kohl.

Biobattery is an energy storing device that is powered by organic compounds, usually being glucose, such as the glucose in human blood. When enzymes in human bodies break down glucose, several electrons and protons are released. Therefore, by using enzymes to break down glucose, bio-batteries directly receive energy from glucose. These batteries then store this energy for later use. This concept is almost identical to how both plants and many animals obtain energy. Although the batteries are still being tested before being commercially sold, several research teams and engineers are working to further advance the development of these batteries.

Bio-Electro Chemical Reactor are a type of bioreactor where bioelectrochemical processes can take place. They are used in bioelectrochemical syntheses, environmental remediation and electrochemical energy conversion. Examples of bioelectrochemical reactors include microbial electrolysis cells, microbial fuel cells and enzymatic biofuel cells and electrolysis cells, microbial electrosynthesis cells, and biobatteries. This bioreactor is divided in two parts: The anode, where the oxidation reaction takes place; And the cathode, where the reduction occurs.

Electrochemical Cell is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or facilitating chemical reactions through the introduction of electrical energy. A common example of an electrochemical cell is a standard 1.5-volt cell meant for consumer use. This type of device is known as a single Galvanic cell. A battery consists of two or more cells, connected in either parallel or series pattern.

Earth Battery is a pair of electrodes made of two dissimilar metals, such as iron and copper, which are buried in the soil or immersed in the sea. Earth batteries act as water activated batteries and if the plates are sufficiently far apart, they can tap telluric currents. Earth batteries are sometimes referred to as telluric power sources and telluric generators.

Magnetite is a mineral and one of the main iron ores. With the chemical formula Fe3O4, it is one of the oxides of iron. Magnetite is ferrimagnetic; it is attracted to a magnet and can be magnetized to become a permanent magnet itself. It is the most magnetic of all the naturally-occurring minerals on Earth. Naturally-magnetized pieces of magnetite, called lodestone, will attract small pieces of iron, which is how ancient peoples first discovered the property of magnetism. Today it is mined as iron ore.

Fuel Cells (energy)

Bacteria-Powered Battery on single sheet of paper

Water Battery charging water by means of a mini water bridge.

Memory Effect is an effect observed in nickel-cadmium and nickel–metal hydride rechargeable batteries that causes them to hold less charge.

Inexpensive Organic Material Gives Safe Batteries a Longer Life. Quinones -- an inexpensive, earth-abundant and easily recyclable material -- to create stable anode composites for any aqueous rechargeable battery.

Quinone represent a class of organic compounds that are formally "derived from aromatic compounds [such as benzene or naphthalene] by conversion of an even number of –CH= groups into –C(=O)– groups with any necessary rearrangement of double bonds", resulting in "a fully conjugated cyclic dione structure". The class includes some heterocyclic compounds. The prototypical member of the class is 1,4-benzoquinone or cyclohexadienedione, often called simply 'quinone' (thus the name of the class). Other important examples are 1,2-benzoquinone (ortho-quinone), 1,4-naphthoquinone and 9,10-anthraquinone.

Electricity Knowledge

SAM L21 32-bit ARM Microcontroller

Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Storing Energy in Magnets.

Vanadium Redox Battery

Vanadium is a hard, silvery grey, ductile, and malleable transition metal. The elemental metal is rarely found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer (passivation) stabilizes the free metal somewhat against further oxidation.

Battery Stuff
Buffalo Grid

Battery Made from Wood
Nanocellulose and Conductive Polymer

Potato Batteries

Battery Inspired by Vitamins

NEI Corporation
Saft Batteries 

Cal Charge

Portable Wall Outlet

Battery Recycling


Battery Recycling is a recycling activity that aims to reduce the number of batteries being disposed as municipal solid waste. Batteries contain a number of heavy metals and toxic chemicals and disposing them by the same process as regular trash has raised concerns over soil contamination and water pollution.

Battery Recycling

Making Batteries From Waste Glass Bottles. UCR researchers are turning glass bottles into high performance lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles and personal electronics.

Rare Earth Elements

Recycling nickel-metal hydride batteries
Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells from Recycled Car Batteries

Recycling Knowledge

Batteries from Scrap Metal. Direct conversion of rusty stainless steel mesh into stable, low-cost electrodes for potassium-ion batteries.

When you here someone say that batteries cause to much pollution ask them what type of battery and what process are they talking about?

Environmental Websites

Catalyst - Battery Powered Homes (2016) Jonica Newby (youtube 28:41)


The Thinker Man