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Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence - Body Smart

Body Smart entails the potential of using one’s whole Body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the acquisition / Clarification of values related to the physical environment. Kinesiology is a scientific study of human or non-human body movement. Kinesiology addresses physiological, biomechanical, and psychological mechanisms of movement. Senses.

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Body Language - Handshake
Non-Verbal Communication

Muscle Memory has been used synonymously with motor learning, which is a form of procedural memory that involves consolidating a specific motor task into memory through repetition. When a movement is repeated over time, a long-term muscle memory is created for that task, eventually allowing it to be performed without conscious effort. This process decreases the need for attention and creates maximum efficiency within the motor and memory systems. Examples of muscle memory are found in many everyday activities that become automatic and improve with practice, such as riding a bicycle, typing on a keyboard, typing in a PIN, playing a musical instrument, martial arts or even dancing.

Dance - Music - Exercising

Motor Learning is a change, resulting from practice or a novel experience, in the capability for responding. It often involves improving the smoothness and accuracy of movements and is obviously necessary for complicated movements such as speaking, playing the piano, and climbing trees; but it is also important for calibrating simple movements like reflexes, as parameters of the body and environment change over time. Child Development

Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs. An animal or machine that usually moves in a bipedal manner is known as a biped, meaning "two feet" (from the Latin bis for "double" and pes for "foot"). Types of bipedal movement include walking, running, or hopping.

Sports - Sports Science - Golf Stroke Mechanics

Practice Learning - Training - Skills - Aptitude - Learning Styles - Memory

Psychomotor Learning is the relationship between cognitive functions and physical movement. Psychomotor learning is demonstrated by physical skills such as movement, coordination, manipulation, dexterity, grace, strength, speed; actions which demonstrate the fine motor skills such as use of precision instruments or tools. Behavioral examples include driving a car, throwing a ball, and playing a musical instrument. In psychomotor learning research, attention is given to the learning of coordinated activity involving the arms, hands, fingers, and feet, while verbal processes are not emphasized.

Movement in Learning is a teaching method based on the concept that humans learn better through movement. This teaching method can be applied to students, who should have the opportunity throughout a class period to move around to take "brain breaks" to refocus their attention so they can learn new material. Brain research suggests that physical activity prior to class (in PE for example) and during class, increases students' ability to process and retain new material. Evidence regarding the benefits of incorporating movement in the classroom is promising.

Human Positions refers to the different physical configurations that the human body can take, like standing, sitting, kneeling, squatting or crouching, lying down flat, on all-fours in the crawling position. Atypical positions include: standing on one leg, handstand, head stand, spread-eagle, crab position. Humans can hang in various positions. It is a position where the support is above the center of gravity. Such positions are common to break dancing, gymnastics and yoga. Sleeping Positions - Sex Positions

Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics, which is that area of science which is concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

Kinesthetic Learning or tactile learning is a learning style in which learning takes place by the students carrying out physical activities, rather than listening to a lecture or watching demonstrations. People with a preference for kinesthetic learning are also commonly known as "do-ers".

Motor Skills is when babies start to learn how to control movement of part of the body. This process involves the coordination of muscles.

Fine Motor Skill is the coordination of small muscles, in movements—usually involving the synchronization of hands and fingers—with the eyes. The complex levels of manual dexterity that humans exhibit can be attributed to and demonstrated in tasks controlled by the nervous system. Fine motor skills aid in the growth of intelligence and develop continuously throughout the stages of human development.

Motor Coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions. Motor coordination is achieved when subsequent parts of the same movement, or the movements of several limbs or body parts are combined in a manner that is well timed, smooth, and efficient with respect to the intended goal. This involves the integration of proprioceptive information detailing the position and movement of the musculoskeletal system with the neural processes in the brain and spinal cord which control, plan, and relay motor commands. The cerebellum plays a critical role in this neural control of movement and damage to this part of the brain or its connecting structures and pathways results in impairment of coordination, known as ataxia, which is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.

Eye Hand Coordination is the coordinated control of eye movement with hand movement, and the processing of visual input to guide reaching and grasping along with the use of proprioception of the hands to guide the eyes.

Motor System is the part of the central nervous system that is involved with movement. It consists of the pyramidal and extrapyramidal system.

The Speed Limit of Superfast Muscles 250 Times Per Second

Sensorimotor Maps
Predictive Motor Control

Anatomical Terms of Motion. The process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms. Motion includes movement of organs, joints, limbs, and specific sections of the body. The terminology used describes this motion according to its direction relative to the anatomical position of the joints. Anatomists use a unified set of terms to describe most of the movements, although other, more specialized terms are necessary for describing the uniqueness of the movements such as those of the hands, feet, and eyes. In general, motion is classified according to the anatomical plane it occurs in. Flexion and extension are examples of angular motions, in which two axes of a joint are brought closer together or moved further apart. Rotational motion may occur at other joints, for example the shoulder, and are described as internal or external. Other terms, such as elevation and depression, describe movement above or below the horizontal plane. Many anatomical terms derive from Latin terms with the same meaning.

Efference-Copy is an internal copy of an outflowing (efferent), movement-producing signal generated by the motor system. It can be collated with the (reafferent) sensory input that results from the agent's movement, enabling a comparison of actual movement with desired movement, and a shielding of perception from particular self-induced effects on the sensory input to achieve perceptual stability. Together with internal models, efference copies can serve to enable the brain to predict the effects of an action.

Efferent Nerve Fiber in the peripheral nervous system, an efferent nerve fiber is the axon of a motor neuron. The nerve fiber is a long process projecting far from the neuron's body that carries nerve impulses away from the central nervous system toward the peripheral effector organs (mainly muscles and glands). A bundle of these fibers is called a motor nerve or an efferent nerve. The opposite direction of neural activity is afferent conduction, which carries impulses by way of the afferent nerve fibers of sensory neurons. In the nervous system there is a "closed loop" system of sensation, decision, and reactions. This process is carried out through the activity of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons.

Supplementary Motor is a part of the primate cerebral cortex that contributes to the control of movement. It is located on the midline surface of the hemisphere just in front of (anterior to) the primary motor cortex leg representation.

Motion (physics)

Handedness is a better (faster or more precise) performance or individual preference for use of a hand, known as the dominant hand. Handedness is not a discrete variable (right or left), but a continuous one that can be expressed at levels between strong left and strong right. There are four types of handedness: left-handedness, right-handedness, mixed-handedness, and ambidexterity. Left-handedness is somewhat more common among men than among women.

The reasons for our left or right-handedness

Laterality refers to the preference most humans show for one side of their body over the other. Examples include left-handedness/right-handedness and left/right-footedness, it may also refer to the primary use of the left or right hemisphere in the brain. It may also apply to animals or plants. The majority of tests have been conducted on humans, specifically to determine the effects on language.

Nimbleness is Intelligence as revealed by quickness and alertness of mind.

Balance is an ability to maintain the line of gravity (vertical line from centre of mass) of a body within the base of support with minimal postural sway. Sway is the horizontal movement of the centre of gravity even when a person is standing still. A certain amount of sway is essential and inevitable due to small perturbations within the body (e.g., breathing, shifting body weight from one foot to the other or from forefoot to rearfoot) or from external triggers (e.g., visual distortions, floor translations). An increase in sway is not necessarily an indicator of dysfunctional balance so much as it is an indicator of decreased sensorimotor control. Maintaining balance requires coordination of input from multiple sensory systems including the vestibular, somatosensory, and visual systems. Vestibular system: sense organs that regulate equilibrium (equilibrioception); directional information as it relates to head position (internal gravitational, linear, and angular acceleration). Somatosensory system: senses of proprioception and kinesthesia of joints; information from skin and joints (pressure and vibratory senses); spatial position and movement relative to the support surface; movement and position of different body parts relative to each other Visual system: Reference to verticality of body and head motion; spatial location relative to objects. The senses must detect changes of spatial orientation with respect to the base of support, regardless of whether the body moves or the base is altered. There are environmental factors that can affect balance such as light conditions, floor surface changes, alcohol, drugs, and ear infection.

Equilibrioception, or sense of balance, is the sense that allows you to keep your balance and sense body movement in terms of acceleration and directional changes. This sense also allows for perceiving gravity. The sensory system for this is found in your inner ears and is called the vestibular labyrinthine system. Anyone who’s ever had this sense go out on them on occasion knows how important this is. When it’s not working or malfunctioning, you literally can’t tell up from down and moving from one location to another without aid is nearly impossible.

Head Spins - Dizzy - Spin (action physics)

Dancing (art performance)

Body Memory is a hypothesis that the body itself is capable of storing memories, as opposed to only the brain. The idea could be pseudoscientific as there are no known means by which tissues other than the brain are capable of storing memories. Body memory is used to explain having memories for events where the brain was not in a position to store memories and is sometimes a catalyst for repressed memory recovery. These memories are often characterized with phantom pain in a part or parts of the body – the body appearing to remember the past trauma.

Muscle Memory exists at a DNA Level. Periods of skeletal muscle growth are ‘remembered’ by the genes in the muscle, helping them to grow larger later in life.

Illusions of Self-Motion refers to a phenomenon that occurs when someone feels like their body is moving when no movement is taking place. One can experience illusory movements of the whole body or of individual body parts, such as arms or legs.

How the Brain tells our Limbs apart. Legs and arms perform very different functions. Our legs are responsible primarily for repetitive locomotion, like walking and running. Our arms and hands, by contrast, must be able to execute many highly specialized jobs -- picking up a pen and writing, holding a fork, or playing the violin, just to name three.

Spinal Interneuron is found in the spinal cord that relays signals between (afferent) sensory neurons, and (efferent) motor neurons. Different classes of spinal interneurons are involved in the process of sensory-motor integration. Most interneurons are found in the grey column, a region of grey matter in the spinal cord.

Tics (reflex)

Formication is the medical term for a sensation that exactly resembles that of small insects crawling on (or under) the skin. It is one specific form of a set of sensations known as paresthesias, which also include the more common prickling, tingling sensation known as "pins and needles". Formication is a well documented symptom, which has numerous possible causes. The word is derived from formica, the Latin word for ant.

Delusional Parasitosis is a delusional disorder in which individuals incorrectly believe they are infested with parasites, insects, or bugs, whereas in reality no such infestation is present. Reflex

Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles. It describes a medical sign and, generally, is not a diagnosis of a disease. These myoclonic twitches, jerks, or seizures are usually caused by sudden muscle contractions (positive myoclonus) or brief lapses of contraction (negative myoclonus). The most common circumstance under which they occur is while falling asleep (hypnic jerk). Myoclonic jerks occur in healthy persons and are experienced occasionally by everyone. However, when they appear with more persistence and become more widespread they can be a sign of various neurological disorders. Hiccups are a kind of myoclonic jerk specifically affecting the diaphragm. When a spasm is caused by another person it is known as a provoked spasm. Shuddering attacks in babies fall in this category. Myoclonic jerks may occur alone or in sequence, in a pattern or without pattern. They may occur infrequently or many times each minute. Most often, myoclonus is one of several signs in a wide variety of nervous system disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Dystonia, Alzheimer's disease, Gaucher's disease, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), serotonin toxicity, some cases of Huntington's disease, some forms of epilepsy, and occasionally in intracranial hypotension. Some researchers indicate that jerks persistently may even cause early tremors. In almost all instances in which myoclonus is caused by central nervous system disease it is preceded by other symptoms; for instance, in CJD it is generally a late-stage clinical feature that appears after the patient has already started to exhibit gross neurological deficits. Anatomically, myoclonus may originate from lesions of the cortex, subcortex or spinal cord. The presence of myoclonus above the foramen magnum effectively excludes spinal myoclonus; further localisation relies on further investigation with electromyography (EMG) and electroencephalography.

Phantom Limb is the sensation that an amputated or missing limb is still attached. Approximately 60 to 80% of individuals with an amputation experience phantom sensations in their amputated limb, and the majority of the sensations are painful. Phantom sensations may also occur after the removal of body parts other than the limbs, e.g. after amputation of the breast, extraction of a tooth (phantom tooth pain) or removal of an eye, phantom eye syndrome, which is visual hallucinations after the removal of an eye. Dreams - Virtual Reality Reduces Phantom Pain in Paraplegics - VR

Congenital Insensitivity to Pain also known as congenital analgesia, is one or more rare conditions in which a person cannot feel (and has never felt) physical pain. The conditions described here are separate from the HSAN group of disorders, which have more specific signs and etiology. It is an extremely dangerous condition.

Ulnar Nerve Entrapment ulnar nerve entrapment is a condition where the ulnar nerve becomes trapped or pinched due to some physiological abnormalities. "pinched nerve".

Radiculopathy also commonly referred to as pinched nerve, refers to a set of conditions in which one or more nerves are affected and do not work properly (a neuropathy). This can result in pain (radicular pain), weakness, numbness, or difficulty controlling specific muscles. Physical Therapy

Nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs. Pain

Too Much Sitting - Bad Sleeping Position - Technology Addiction

Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause. The manifestation of a paresthesia may be transient or chronic. The most familiar kind of paresthesia is the sensation known as "pins and needles" or of a limb "falling asleep". A less well-known and uncommon but important paresthesia is formication, the sensation of bugs crawling underneath the skin.

Pectoralis Minor Muscle is a thin, triangular muscle, situated at the upper part of the chest, beneath the pectoralis major in the human body.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a medical condition due to compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist at the carpal tunnel. The main symptoms are Pain, numbness, and tingling, in the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and the thumb side of the ring fingers. Symptoms typically start gradually and during the night. Pain may extend up the arm. Weak grip strength may occur and after a long period of time the muscles at the base of the thumb may waste away. In more than half of cases both sides are affected.

Elastic Energy is the potential mechanical energy stored in the configuration of a material or physical system as work is performed to distort its volume or shape. Elastic energy occurs when objects are compressed and stretched, or generally deformed in any manner. Elasticity theory primarily develops formalisms for the mechanics of solid bodies and materials.
Elastic Energy Storage in Shoulder

Multisensory Integration is the study of how information from the different sensory modalities, such as sight, sound, touch, smell, self-motion and taste, may be integrated by the nervous system. A coherent representation of objects combining modalities enables us to have meaningful perceptual experiences.

Haptic Technology - (Haptic Feedback)

Spatial Intelligence - Body Image
Body Temperature - Physical Health

Ergonomics is the practice of designing products, systems, or processes to take proper account of the interaction between them and the people who use them. Posture

Action (physics) - Awareness - Brain - Robotics

Body Browser  (Sample on Youtube)

Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of biological systems such as humans, animals, plants, organs, fungi, and cells by means of the methods of mechanics.

Entrainment in the biomusicological sense refers to the synchronization of organisms (only humans as a whole, with some particular instances of a particular animal) to an external perceived rhythm, such as human music and dance such as foot tapping.

Kinematics is the branch of classical mechanics which describes the motion of points (alternatively "particles"), bodies (objects), and systems of bodies without consideration of the masses of those objects nor the forces that may have caused the motion. Kinematics as a field of study is often referred to as the "geometry of motion" and as such may be seen as a branch of mathematics.

Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.

Mental Chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations. Mental chronometry is one of the core paradigms of experimental and cognitive psychology, and has found application in various disciplines including cognitive psychophysiology, cognitive neuroscience, and behavioral neuroscience to elucidate mechanisms underlying cognitive processing. Brian Mac

Training Finger Dexterity and Speed (youtube)

Sleight of Hand refers to fine motor skills when used by performing artists in different art forms to entertain or manipulate. It is closely associated with close-up magic, card cheating, card flourishing and stealing.

Misdirection (magic) is a form of deception in which the attention of an audience is focused on one thing in order to distract its attention from another. False-Flag

List of Magic Tricks (wiki)
Apollo Robbins: The art of Misdirection (youtube)
Sleight of Hand Magic Tricks : How to Make a Coin Disappear (youtube)
Hand Tricks (youtube)
Stroop Effect


Interactions with the Physical Environment (youtube)

Acclimatization is the process in which an individual organism adjusts to a gradual change in its environment (such as a change in altitude, temperature, humidity, photoperiod, or pH), allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions. Acclimatization occurs in a short period of time (days to weeks), and within the organism's lifetime (compare to adaptation).

Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test NNAT

Good with Both Hands - Can you Rub your Tummy and Pat your Head at the Same Time?

Did you know that you can’t hum while holding your nose?

Most people have only one dominate side of the brain that they use. Such as right or left handed. If you are an experienced guitar player, piano player or you are good at Juggling, you have taught yourself to be both right and left handed. Ambidextrous 

Motor Control System (PDF)
Sensory and Motor Tracks (PDF)
Right Brain - Left Brain

Surprisingly exact timing of voluntary movements, movements can be controlled at will.

Reflex is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
Reflexive is acting without conscious choice or conscious control.
Flinch is to make a quick, nervous movement of the face or body as an Instinctive Reaction to surprise, fear or pain. "ah ha made you flinch".

Made you Flinch

Premovement Neuronal Activity refers to neuronal modulations that alter the rate at which neurons fire before a subject produces movement.

Bereitschaftspotential is a measure of activity in the motor cortex and supplementary motor area of the brain leading up to voluntary muscle movement.

Movement Disorder can be defined as neurologic syndromes in which either an excess or movement or a paucity of voluntary and automatic movements, unrelated to weakness or spasticity.

Spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle.

Tic is a sudden, repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movement or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups. Tics can be invisible to the observer, such as abdominal tensing or toe crunching. Common motor and phonic tics are, respectively, eye blinking and throat clearing.

Illusions of Self-Motion (twitching)

A bad bite in teeth is associated with worse postural and balance control

Development of gait motor control: what happens after a sudden increase in height during adolescence?
The Neurological Control System for Normal Gait

Phantom Vibration Syndrome is the perception that one's mobile phone is vibrating or ringing, when in fact the telephone is not doing so.

Stickybones: Rapid Posing & Animation Made Easy

Human Musculoskeletal System is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems. The musculoskeletal system provides form, support, stability, and movement to the body. It is made up of the bones of the skeleton, muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints, and other connective tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together. The musculoskeletal system's primary functions include supporting the body, allowing motion, and protecting vital organs. The skeletal portion of the system serves as the main storage system for calcium and phosphorus and contains critical components of the hematopoietic system. This system describes how bones are connected to other bones and muscle fibers via connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments. The bones provide stability to the body. Muscles keep bones in place and also play a role in the movement of bones. To allow motion, different bones are connected by joints. Cartilage prevents the bone ends from rubbing directly onto each other. Muscles contract to move the bone attached at the joint.

Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of unverified mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine.

Human Senses

Sight - Seeing:
This technically is two senses given the two distinct types of receptors present, one for color (cones) and one for brightness (rods). Spatial Intelligence - Eyes - Visual Cortex - Seeing Problems

This is sometimes argued to be five senses by itself due to the differing types of taste receptors (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami), but generally is just referred to as one sense. For those who don’t know, umami receptors detect the amino acid glutamate, which is a taste generally found in meat and some artificial flavoring. The taste sense, unlike sight, is a sense based off of a chemical reaction. Flavors

Touch: This has been found to be distinct from pressure, temperature, pain, and even itch sensors. Message - Skin - Touch.
Mechanosensitive Channels senses of touch, hearing and balance. PIEZO2
Haptic Perception is achieved through the active exploration of surfaces and objects by a moving subject, as opposed to passive contact by a static subject during tactile perception. "to grasp something", the sensibility of the individual to the world adjacent to his body by use of his body. Haptic Technology
Haptic Communication refers to the ways in which people and other animals communicate and interact via the sense of touch.

Somatosensory System is a complex system of nerve cells that responds to changes to the surface or internal state of the body. Nerve cells called "sensory receptors" (including thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors and nociceptors) send signals along a chain of nerve cells to the spinal cord where they may be processed by other nerve cells and then relayed to the brain for further processing. Sensory receptors are found in many parts of the body including the skin, epithelial tissues, skeletal muscles, bones and joints, internal organs, and the cardiovascular system.
Pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Pressure Sensor measures is an expression of the force required to stop a fluid from expanding, and is usually stated in terms of force per unit area.
Pressure MeasurementWeather - Stress

Itch: itch is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch. Reflex is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus, which is the ability of an organism or organ to respond to external stimuli called sensitivity. Control.

Ability to sense heat and cold. This also is thought of as more than one sense. This is not just because of the two hot/cold receptors, but also because there is a completely different type of thermoceptor, in terms of the mechanism for detection, in the brain. These thermoceptors in the brain are used for monitoring internal body temperature.

Hearing - Sound:
Detecting vibrations along some medium, such as air or water that is in contact with your ear drums.
Auditory Cortex
Auditory Scene Analysis is a proposed model for the basis of auditory perception. This is understood as the process by which the human auditory system organizes sound into perceptually meaningful elements.

Yet another of the sensors that work off of a chemical reaction. This sense combines with taste to produce flavors.
Smelling Problems - Aromas - Sensors

This sense gives you the ability to tell where your body parts are, relative to other body parts. This sense is one of the things police officers test when they pull over someone who they think is driving drunk. The “close your eyes and touch your nose” test is testing this sense. This sense is used all the time in little ways, such as when you scratch an itch on your foot, but never once look at your foot to see where your hand is relative to your foot.
Proprioception - Interoception

Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: time, place and person.

Tension Sensors:
These are found in such places as your muscles and allow the brain the ability to monitor muscle tension.

In a word, pain. This was once thought to simply be the result of overloading other senses, such as “touch”, but this has been found not to be the case and instead, it is its own unique sensory system. There are three distinct types of pain receptors: cutaneous (skin), somatic (bones and joints), and visceral (body organs).

The sense that allows you to keep your balance and sense body movement in terms of acceleration and directional changes. This sense also allows for perceiving gravity. The sensory system for this is found in your inner ears and is called the vestibular labyrinthine system. Anyone who’s ever had this sense go out on them on occasion knows how important this is. When it’s not working or malfunctioning, you literally can’t tell up from down and moving from one location to another without aid is nearly impossible. Sense of Balance helps prevent falling over when standing or moving. Equilibrioception

Stretch Receptors:
These are found in such places as the lungs, bladder, stomach, and the gastrointestinal tract. A type of stretch receptor, that senses dilation of blood vessels, is also often involved in headaches.

These trigger an area of the medulla in the brain that is involved in detecting blood born hormones and drugs. It also is involved in the vomiting reflex. Peripheral Chemoreceptors are so named because they are sensory extensions of the peripheral nervous system into blood vessels where they detect changes in chemical concentrations. As transducers of patterns of variability in the surrounding environment, carotid and aortic bodies count as ‘sensors’ in a similar way as taste buds and photoreceptors. However, because carotid and aortic bodies detect variation within the body’s internal organs, they are considered interoceptors. Taste buds, olfactory bulbs, photoreceptors, and other receptors associated with the five traditional sensory modalities, by contrast, are exteroceptors in that they respond to stimuli outside the body. The body also contains proprioceptors, which respond to the amount of stretch within the organ, usually muscle, that they occupy.

This system more or less allows your body to monitor its hydration level and so your body knows when it should tell you to drink.

Hunger: This system allows your body to detect when you need to eat something. Over Eating  Saliva

This is the ability to detect magnetic fields, which is principally useful in providing a sense of direction when detecting the Earth’s magnetic field. Unlike most birds, humans do not have a strong magentoception, however, experiments have demonstrated that we do tend to have some sense of magnetic fields. The mechanism for this is not completely understood; it is theorized that this has something to do with deposits of ferric iron in our noses. This would make sense if that is correct as humans who are given magnetic implants have been shown to have a much stronger magnetoception than humans without.

Time: This one is debated as no singular mechanism has been found that allows people to perceive time. However, experimental data has conclusively shown humans have a startling accurate sense of time, particularly when younger. The mechanism we use for this seems to be a distributed system involving the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia. Long term time keeping seems to be monitored by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (responsible for the circadian rhythm). Short term time keeping is handled by other cell systems. Chronoception refers to how the passage of time is perceived and experienced.

What are Senses?

Human Senses is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.

Sensory organs are very highly developed and specialized organs that are an extension of the central nervous system, with a sole function to take in information and relate it to the brain. The sensory neurons are highly adapted to detect changes of both external and internal changes in the environment and report these changes to the brain. Whether through touch, sound, taste, sight, or smell, the senses are constantly reporting variances, nuances, and dramatic changes within the environment to the brain. This is done through nerve actions, or action potentials. A stimulus, through any nerve pattern, is sensed and must be interpreted by the brain in an uninterrupted flow in order for the sense to become real for the body. The sensory system supplies the body with pleasurable sensation as well as warning the body to dangers, such as the sensation of heat, the sounds which warn, and the smell of toxic chemicals, smoke, or other alerting odors. This combination of stimuli makes the sensory system on of the most complex in the human body.

Sensory Processing is the neurological process that organizes sensation from one’s own body and the environment, thus making it possible to use the body effectively within the environment. Specifically, it deals with how the brain processes multiple sensory modality inputs, such as proprioception, vision, auditory system, tactile, olfactory, vestibular system, interoception, and taste into usable functional outputs. Sensory Processing

Sensory Processing Disorder exists when multisensory integration is not adequately processed in order to provide appropriate responses to the demands of the environment. Desensitization (stimulus).

Hypersensitivity is a set of undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including Allergies and autoimmunity. They are usually referred to as an over- reaction of the immune system and these reactions may be damaging, uncomfortable, or occasionally fatal. Hypersensitivity reactions require a pre-sensitized (immune) state of the host. (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance). Food Allergy

Sensory System is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information. A sensory system consists of sensory receptors, neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception. Commonly recognized sensory systems are those for vision, auditory (hearing), somatic sensation (touch), gustatory (taste), olfaction (smell) and vestibular (balance/movement). In short, senses are transducers from the physical world to the realm of the mind where we interpret the information, creating our perception of the world around us. Sensory Nervous System (wiki)

Sensory Receptor is a sensory nerve ending that responds to a stimulus in the internal or external environment of an organism. In response to stimuli, the sensory receptor initiates sensory transduction by creating graded potentials or action potentials in the same cell or in an adjacent one.

Sensory Cortex or somatosensory cortex or the primary and secondary cortices of the different senses (two cortices each, on left and right hemisphere).

Postcentral Gyrus - Primary Somatosensory Cortex

Stimulus (physiology) (reward - no reward) - Sensory Deprivation

Sensory Processing Sensitivity has been described as having hypersensitivity to external stimuli, a greater depth of cognitive processing, and high emotional reactivity.

Sensory Substitution is a non-invasive technique for circumventing the loss of one sense by feeding its information through another channel to change of the characteristics of one sensory modality into stimuli of another sensory modality. A sensory substitution system consists of three parts: a sensor, a coupling system, and a stimulator. The sensor records stimuli and gives them to a coupling system which interprets these signals and transmits them to a stimulator. In case the sensor obtains signals of a kind not originally available to the bearer it is a case of sensory augmentation. Sensory substitution concerns human perception and the plasticity of the human brain; and therefore, allows us to study these aspects of neuroscience more through neuroimaging. It is hoped[according to whom?] that sensory substitution systems can help people by restoring their ability to perceive certain defective sensory modality by using sensory information from a functioning sensory modality. Ai

Synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway. Hypnosis - Brain Plasticity

Transduction (physiology) is the Conversion of a sensory stimulus from one form to another. Transduction in the nervous system typically refers to stimulus alerting events wherein a physical stimulus is converted into an action potential, which is transmitted along axons towards the central nervous system where it is integrated. A receptor cell converts the energy in a stimulus into a change in the electrical potential across its membrane. It causes the depolarization of the membrane to allow the action potential to be transduced to the brain for integration. Convert is to exchange or replace with another.

Transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another. Usually a transducer converts a signal in one form of energy to a signal in another. Accepts energy in one form and gives back related energy in a different form. Microphone.

Classical Conditioning - Learning Methods

A functional MRI study of 17 people blind since birth found that areas of visual cortex became active when the participants were asked to solve algebra problems, a team from Johns Hopkins reports in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. In 19 sighted people doing the same problems, visual areas of the brain showed no increase in activity.

Tangibility is the attribute of being easily detectable with the senses.

Agnosia is the inability to process sensory information. Often there is a loss of ability to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells while the specific sense is not defective nor is there any significant memory loss.

Beyond or Senses

Our senses are not perfect and could easily mislead us. Like when you're with someone and the other person is looking one way and you are looking another way, you will not see the same things. But what if you are looking at the same thing, you still might see two different things because one person's knowledge and experience is different, which gives them the ability to see more or see it differently. Same with hearing, Did you hear that? No, because I was not listening. Or the person does not recognize the sound the same way that you do because of your knowledge and experience is different. And it's not just how you perceive things through your senses, it's also how trained you are with using your senses. Like when reading peoples faces, or knowing when people are lying.

Sensory Cue is a statistic or signal that can be extracted from the sensory input by a perceiver, that indicates the state of some property of the world that the perceiver is interested in perceiving. A cue is some organization of the data present in the signal which allows for meaningful extrapolation. For example, Sensory cues include Visual cues, auditory cues, haptic cues, olfactory cues, environmental cues, and so on. Sensory cues are a fundamental part of theories of perception, especially theories of appearance (how things look).

Sentience is the capacity to feel, perceive, or experience subjectively that allows them to experience pain, recognize individual humans and have memory.

Absolute Threshold was originally defined as the lowest level of a stimulus – light, sound, touch, etc. – that an organism could detect. Under the influence of signal detection theory, absolute threshold has been redefined as the level at which a stimulus will be detected a specified percentage (often 50%) of the time. The absolute threshold can be influenced by several different factors, such as the subject's motivations and expectations, cognitive processes, and whether the subject is adapted to the stimulus. The absolute threshold can be compared to the difference threshold, which is the measure of how different two stimuli must be for the subject to notice that they are not the same.

Sensory Threshold is the weakest stimulus that an organism can detect. Unless otherwise indicated, it is usually defined as the weakest stimulus that can be detected half the time, for example, as indicated by a point on a probability curve. Methods have been developed to measure thresholds in any of the senses.

PIEZO2 Gene Piezos are large transmembrane proteins conserved among various species, all having between 24 and 36 predicted transmembrane domains. 'Piezo' comes from the Greek 'piesi,' meaning 'pressure.' The PIEZO2 protein has a role in rapidly adapting mechanically activated (MA) currents in somatosensory neurons.

Osteocrin is a gene found in the skeletal muscles of all mammals and well-known for its role in bone growth and muscle function. Osteocrin is also found in cells of the neocortex -- the most evolved part of the primate brain, which regulates sensory perception, spatial reasoning and higher-level thinking and language in humans.

Mental Practice can complement Physical Practice.
Motor imagery promotes motor learning. Imagination is a form of self-deceit—a good portion of your brain reacts to your motor activity in the same way, whether the muscles are moving or not. People who simply imagined putting a golf ball into the hole before they take the shot had 30.4 percent more successful putts than those who did not.

Proprioception is the sense of the relative position of neighboring parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.

Exteroception is how one perceives the outside world.

Interoception is how one perceives pain, hunger, etc.

Gestalt Principles is also known as the "Law of Simplicity" or the "Law of Pragnanz" (the entire figure or configuration), which states that every stimulus is perceived in its most simple form. Gestalt theorists followed the basic principle that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Gestalt psychology tries to understand the laws of our ability to acquire and maintain meaningful perceptions in an apparently chaotic world. The central principle of gestalt psychology is that the mind forms a global whole with self-organizing tendencies.

Meaning-Making is the process of how persons construe, understand, or make sense of life events, relationships, and the self especially during bereavement in which persons attribute some sort of meaning to an experienced death or loss. Through meaning-making, persons are "retaining, reaffirming, revising, or replacing elements of their orienting system to develop more nuanced, complex and useful systems"

Expanding our Senses using Artificial Intelligent Tools
Mechanical Sensors (Ai)
Smartphone Accessories
Medical Sensors

Synesthesia shows that the brain does not always work the way it is designed to do. But these small malfunctions can teach us a lot.

Neuroscience research shows the brain is strobing, not constant. Perception and attention are intrinsically rhythmic in nature. We concentrate limited cognitive resources on specific items of interest, rather than diluting resources over the entire space. Oscillating attention would produce an analogous result over time, with resources concentrated into small temporal epochs instead of being sustained in a uniform but thin allocation. Oscillations, or 'strobes', are a general feature of human perception. Sensitivity for detecting weak sounds is not constant, but fluctuates rhythmically over time. Senses are not constant, they go through cycles, prioritizing processes. Brain oscillations can occur at up to 100 times per second. Auditory cycles happen at the rate of about six per second. This strobing approach to attention would bind together relevant information at regular time points and allow new groupings of information to reassemble at other moments.

The ear is mute, the lips deaf. But the eye senses and speaks. In it the world is reflected from without, and man from within. ~ Johann Wolfgang con Goethe. (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832)

The Thinker Man