Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence - Body Smart
entails the potential of using one’s whole Body
parts of the body to solve problems.
It is the acquisition / Clarification of values related to the
is a scientific study of human or non-human body
Kinesiology addresses physiological, biomechanical, and psychological
mechanisms of movement. Senses
has been used synonymously with motor learning, which
is a form of procedural memory
involves consolidating a specific motor task into memory through
. When a movement is
repeated over time
, a long-term
memory is created for that task, eventually allowing it to be performed
effort. This process decreases the need for
and creates maximum efficiency within the motor and
Examples of muscle memory are found in many everyday activities
and improve with
, such as riding a bicycle,
typing on a keyboard, typing in a PIN, playing a
martial arts or even
is a change, resulting from practice or a
novel experience, in the capability for responding. It often involves
improving the smoothness and accuracy of movements and is obviously
necessary for complicated movements such as
, playing the piano,
and climbing trees; but it is also important for calibrating simple
movements like reflexes
, as parameters of the body and environment change
over time. Child Development
is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an
organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs. An animal or
machine that usually moves in a bipedal manner is known as a biped,
meaning "two feet" (from the Latin bis for "double" and pes for "foot").
Types of bipedal movement include walking, running
, or hopping.
Golf Stroke Mechanics
relationship between cognitive functions
and physical movement.
Psychomotor learning is demonstrated by physical skills such as movement,
coordination, manipulation, dexterity
, grace, strength, speed; actions
which demonstrate the fine motor skills such as use of precision
instruments or tools. Behavioral examples include driving a car, throwing
a ball, and playing a musical instrument
. In psychomotor learning
research, attention is given to the learning of coordinated activity
involving the arms, hands, fingers, and feet, while verbal processes are
Movement in Learning
is a teaching method
based on the concept that
humans learn better through
. This teaching method can be applied to students, who should have
the opportunity throughout a class period to move around to take "brain
breaks" to refocus their attention
so they can learn new material.
research suggests that physical activity prior to class
(in PE for
example) and during class, increases students' ability to process and
retain new material. Evidence
in the classroom is promising.
refers to the different physical configurations that
the human body can take, like standing, sitting, kneeling, squatting or
crouching, lying down flat, on all-fours in the crawling position.
Atypical positions include:
standing on one
leg, handstand, head stand, spread-eagle, crab position. Humans can hang
in various positions. It is a position where the support is above the
center of gravity
. Such positions are common to break dancing, gymnastics
is the study of the
the mechanical aspects of biological
, at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell
organelles, using the methods of
, which is that area of
which is concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when
subjected to forces
displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their
or tactile learning is a
learning style in which learning takes place by the students carrying out
physical activities, rather than listening to a lecture or
. People with a preference for kinesthetic learning are also
commonly known as "do-ers".
start to learn how
to control movement of part of the body. This process involves the
coordination of muscles.
Fine Motor Skill
is the coordination of small
, in movements—usually involving
of hands and fingers—with the eyes. The complex levels
of manual dexterity that humans exhibit can be attributed to and
demonstrated in tasks controlled by the
. Fine motor skills
aid in the growth of intelligence
and develop continuously throughout the
stages of human development.
is the combination of body movements
created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force)
parameters that result in intended actions. Motor coordination is achieved
when subsequent parts of the same movement, or the movements of several
limbs or body parts are combined in a manner that is well timed, smooth,
and efficient with respect to the intended goal. This involves the
integration of proprioceptive information detailing the position and
movement of the musculoskeletal system
with the neural processes in the
brain and spinal cord which control, plan, and relay motor commands. The
cerebellum plays a critical role in this neural control of movement and
damage to this part of the brain or its connecting structures and pathways
results in impairment of coordination, known as
which is a
consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of
muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.
Eye Hand Coordination
is the coordinated control of eye
movement with hand movement, and the processing of visual input to guide
reaching and grasping along with the use of proprioception of the hands to
guide the eyes.
is the part of the
central nervous system
that is involved with movement. It consists of the
The Speed Limit of Superfast Muscles 250 Times Per Second
Predictive Motor Control
Anatomical Terms of Motion
. The process of
, is described using
specific anatomical terms. Motion includes movement of organs, joints,
limbs, and specific sections of the body. The terminology used describes
this motion according to its direction relative to the anatomical position
of the joints. Anatomists use a unified set of terms to describe most of
the movements, although other, more specialized terms are necessary for
describing the uniqueness of the movements such as those of the hands,
feet, and eyes. In general, motion is classified according to the
anatomical plane it occurs in. Flexion and extension are examples of
angular motions, in which two axes of a joint are brought closer together
or moved further apart. Rotational motion may occur at other joints, for
example the shoulder, and are described as internal or external. Other
terms, such as elevation and depression, describe movement above or below
the horizontal plane. Many anatomical terms derive from Latin terms with
the same meaning.
is an internal copy of an outflowing (efferent),
movement-producing signal generated by the
. It can be collated with the (reafferent) sensory input that
results from the agent's movement, enabling a comparison of actual
movement with desired movement, and a shielding of perception from
particular self-induced effects on the sensory input to achieve perceptual
stability. Together with internal models, efference copies can serve to
enable the brain to predict the effects of an action.
peripheral nervous system
, an efferent nerve fiber is the axon of a
. The nerve fiber is a long process projecting far from the
neuron's body that carries nerve impulses away from the
central nervous system
toward the peripheral effector organs (mainly muscles and glands). A
bundle of these fibers is called a
or an efferent nerve. The opposite direction of neural activity
is afferent conduction, which carries impulses by way of the afferent
nerve fibers of sensory neurons
In the nervous system there is a "closed loop" system of sensation,
decision, and reactions. This process is carried out through the activity
of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons.
is a part of the primate
contributes to the control of movement. It is located on the midline
surface of the hemisphere just in front of (anterior to) the primary motor
cortex leg representation.
is a better (faster or more precise) performance
or individual preference for use of a hand, known as the dominant hand.
Handedness is not a discrete variable (right or left), but a continuous
one that can be expressed at levels between strong left and strong right.
There are four types of handedness: left-handedness, right-handedness,
. Left-handedness is somewhat more common among men than
The reasons for our left or right-handedness
refers to the preference most humans show for one
side of their body over the other. Examples include
left-handedness/right-handedness and left/right-footedness, it may also
refer to the primary use of the left or right hemisphere in the brain. It
may also apply to animals or plants. The majority of tests have been
conducted on humans, specifically to determine the effects on
as revealed by quickness and alertness of mind.
is an ability to maintain the line of gravity (vertical line
from centre of mass) of a body within the base of support with minimal
postural sway. Sway is the horizontal movement of the centre of gravity
even when a person is standing still. A certain amount of sway is
essential and inevitable due to small perturbations within the body (e.g.,
breathing, shifting body weight from one foot to the other or from
forefoot to rearfoot) or from external triggers (e.g., visual distortions,
floor translations). An increase in sway is not necessarily an indicator
of dysfunctional balance so much as it is an indicator of decreased
sensorimotor control. Maintaining balance requires coordination of input
from multiple sensory systems including the vestibular, somatosensory, and
visual systems. Vestibular system: sense organs that regulate equilibrium
(equilibrioception); directional information as it relates to head
position (internal gravitational, linear, and angular acceleration).
Somatosensory system: senses of proprioception and kinesthesia of joints;
information from skin and joints (pressure and vibratory senses); spatial
position and movement relative to the support surface; movement and
position of different body parts relative to each other Visual system:
Reference to verticality of body and head motion; spatial location
relative to objects. The senses must detect changes of spatial orientation
with respect to the base of support, regardless of whether the body moves
or the base is altered. There are environmental factors that can affect
balance such as light conditions, floor surface changes, alcohol, drugs,
and ear infection.
sense of balance
is the sense that allows you to keep your balance and sense body movement
in terms of acceleration and directional
. This sense also allows for
sensory system for this is found in your inner ears and is called the
vestibular labyrinthine system
. Anyone who’s ever had this sense go
out on them on occasion knows how important this is. When it’s not working
literally can’t tell up from down and moving from one location to another
without aid is nearly impossible.Head Spins
is a hypothesis that the body itself is capable
of storing memories
, as opposed to only the brain. The idea could be
pseudoscientific as there are no known means by which tissues other than
the brain are capable of storing memories. Body memory is used to explain
having memories for events where the brain was not in a position to store
memories and is sometimes a catalyst for repressed memory recovery. These
memories are often characterized with phantom pain in a part or parts of
the body – the body appearing to remember the past trauma.
Muscle Memory exists at a DNA Level
. Periods of skeletal muscle growth
are ‘remembered’ by the genes in the muscle, helping them to grow larger
later in life.
Illusions of Self-Motion
refers to a phenomenon that occurs
when someone feels like their body is moving when no movement is taking
place. One can experience illusory movements of the whole body or of
individual body parts, such as arms or legs.
How the Brain tells our Limbs apart
. Legs and arms perform very
different functions. Our legs are responsible primarily for repetitive
locomotion, like walking and running. Our arms and hands, by contrast,
must be able to execute many highly specialized jobs -- picking up a pen
and writing, holding a fork, or playing the violin, just to name three.
is found in the
that relays signals
between (afferent) sensory neurons
and (efferent) motor neurons. Different classes of spinal interneurons are
involved in the process of sensory-motor integration. Most interneurons
are found in the grey column, a region of grey matter in the spinal cord. Tics
is the medical term for a sensation that exactly resembles
that of small insects crawling on (or under) the skin. It is one specific
form of a set of sensations known as paresthesias, which also include the
more common prickling, tingling sensation known as "pins and needles".
Formication is a well documented symptom, which has numerous possible
causes. The word is derived from formica, the Latin word for ant.
is a delusional disorder in which individuals
incorrectly believe they are infested with parasites, insects, or
bugs, whereas in reality no such infestation is present.
is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle
or a group of
describes a medical sign and, generally, is not a diagnosis of a disease.
These myoclonic twitches, jerks, or seizures are usually caused by sudden
muscle contractions (positive myoclonus) or brief lapses of contraction
(negative myoclonus). The most common circumstance under which they occur
is while falling asleep (hypnic jerk). Myoclonic jerks occur in healthy
persons and are experienced occasionally by everyone. However, when they
appear with more persistence and become more widespread they can be a sign
of various neurological disorders. Hiccups are a kind of myoclonic jerk
specifically affecting the diaphragm. When a spasm is caused by another
person it is known as a provoked spasm. Shuddering attacks in babies fall
in this category. Myoclonic jerks may occur alone or in sequence, in a
pattern or without pattern. They may occur infrequently or many times each
minute. Most often, myoclonus is one of several signs in a wide variety of
nervous system disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease,
Dystonia, Alzheimer's disease, Gaucher's disease, subacute sclerosing
panencephalitis, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), serotonin toxicity, some
cases of Huntington's disease, some forms of epilepsy, and occasionally in
intracranial hypotension. Some researchers indicate that jerks
persistently may even cause early tremors. In almost all instances in
which myoclonus is caused by central nervous system disease it is preceded
by other symptoms; for instance, in CJD it is generally a late-stage
clinical feature that appears after the patient has already started to
exhibit gross neurological deficits. Anatomically, myoclonus may originate
from lesions of the cortex, subcortex or spinal cord. The presence of
myoclonus above the foramen magnum effectively excludes spinal myoclonus;
further localisation relies on further investigation with electromyography
(EMG) and electroencephalography.
the sensation that an amputated or missing limb is still attached.
Approximately 60 to 80% of individuals with an amputation experience
phantom sensations in their amputated limb, and the majority of the
sensations are painful. Phantom sensations may also occur after the
removal of body parts other than the limbs, e.g. after amputation of the
breast, extraction of a tooth (phantom tooth pain) or removal of an eye,
phantom eye syndrome
, which is visual
the removal of an eye. Dreams
Virtual Reality Reduces Phantom Pain in Paraplegics
Congenital Insensitivity to Pain
also known as congenital analgesia,
is one or more rare conditions in which a person cannot feel (and has
never felt) physical pain
The conditions described here are separate from the HSAN group of
disorders, which have more specific signs and etiology. It is an
extremely dangerous condition.
Ulnar Nerve Entrapment
ulnar nerve entrapment is a condition where the
ulnar nerve becomes trapped or pinched due to some physiological
abnormalities. "pinched nerve".
also commonly referred to as
, refers to a set of conditions in which one or more
nerves are affected and do not work properly (a neuropathy). This can
result in pain (radicular pain), weakness, numbness, or difficulty
controlling specific muscles.
is an enclosed,
cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections
of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common
pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along
each of the axons to peripheral organs.
Pain Too Much
- Bad Sleeping
is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling,
pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical
cause. The manifestation of a paresthesia may be transient or chronic. The
most familiar kind of paresthesia is the sensation known as "pins and
needles" or of a limb "falling asleep". A less well-known and uncommon but
important paresthesia is formication, the sensation of bugs crawling
underneath the skin.
Pectoralis Minor Muscle
is a thin, triangular muscle, situated at the
upper part of the chest, beneath the pectoralis major in the human
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
is a medical condition due to compression of
the median nerve as it travels through the wrist at the carpal tunnel. The
main symptoms are Pain
, numbness, and tingling, in the thumb, index
finger, middle finger, and the thumb side of the ring fingers. Symptoms
typically start gradually and during the night. Pain may extend up the
arm. Weak grip strength may occur and after a long period of time the
muscles at the base of the thumb may waste away. In more than half of
cases both sides are affected.
potential mechanical energy
stored in the configuration of a material
or physical system as work is performed to distort its volume or shape.
Elastic energy occurs when objects are compressed and stretched, or
generally deformed in any manner. Elasticity theory primarily develops
formalisms for the mechanics of solid bodies and materials.
Elastic Energy Storage in Shoulder
is the study of how information
from the different sensory modalities
, such as
sight, sound, touch, smell, self-motion and taste, may be integrated by
the nervous system. A coherent representation of objects combining
modalities enables us to have meaningful perceptual experiences.
- (Haptic Feedback)
- Physical Health
is the practice of designing products, systems,
or processes to take proper account of the interaction between them and
the people who use them. Posture
(Sample on Youtube
is the study of the structure and function of
such as humans, animals, plants, organs, fungi, and
cells by means of the methods of mechanics.
in the biomusicological sense refers to the synchronization of organisms
(only humans as a whole, with some particular instances of a particular
animal) to an external perceived rhythm
, such as human
such as foot tapping.
is the branch of classical mechanics which
describes the motion of points (alternatively "particles"), bodies
(objects), and systems of bodies without consideration of the masses of
those objects nor the forces that may have caused the motion. Kinematics
as a field of study is often referred to as the "geometry of motion
as such may be seen as a branch of mathematics.
quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and
the sensations and perceptions they produce.
is the use of response time in
perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and
sequencing of cognitive operations
. Mental chronometry is one of the core
paradigms of experimental and cognitive psychology, and has found
application in various disciplines including cognitive psychophysiology,
mechanisms underlying cognitive processing.
Training Finger Dexterity and Speed
Sleight of Hand
refers to fine motor skills when used by
performing artists in different art forms to entertain or
is closely associated with close-up magic, card cheating, card flourishing
is a form of
in which the
of an audience is focused on one thing
in order to distract its attention from another.
List of Magic Tricks
Apollo Robbins: The art of Misdirection
Sleight of Hand
Magic Tricks : How to Make a Coin Disappear
Interactions with the Physical Environment
is the process in which an individual organism
adjusts to a gradual change in its environment
(such as a change in
altitude, temperature, humidity, photoperiod, or pH), allowing it to
maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions.
Acclimatization occurs in a short period of time (days to weeks), and
within the organism's lifetime (compare to adaptation).
Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test
Good with Both Hands
Can you Rub your Tummy and Pat your Head at the Same Time?
Did you know that you can’t hum while holding your nose?
Most people have only
side of the brain that they use
. Such as right or left
handed. If you are an experienced
guitar player, piano
or you are good at
, you have taught yourself
to be both right and left handed
Motor Control System
Sensory and Motor Tracks
- Left Brain
Surprisingly exact timing of voluntary movements, movements can be
controlled at will.
involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a
is acting without
is to make a quick, nervous movement
of the face or body as an Instinctive Reaction
to surprise, fear or pain.
"ah ha made you flinch".
Premovement Neuronal Activity
refers to neuronal modulations
that alter the rate at which neurons fire before a subject
is a measure of activity in the motor cortex and supplementary
motor area of the brain leading up to voluntary muscle movement.
can be defined as neurologic syndromes in
which either an excess or movement or a paucity of voluntary and
automatic movements, unrelated to weakness or spasticity.
sudden involuntary contraction of a
is a sudden,
repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movement or vocalization involving discrete
muscle groups. Tics can be invisible to the observer, such as abdominal
tensing or toe crunching. Common motor and phonic tics are, respectively,
eye blinking and throat clearing.Illusions of Self-Motion
A bad bite in teeth is associated with worse postural and
Development of gait motor control: what happens after a sudden increase in
height during adolescence?
The Neurological Control System for Normal Gait
Phantom Vibration Syndrome
is the perception that one's
mobile phone is vibrating or ringing, when in fact the telephone
is not doing so.
Stickybones: Rapid Posing & Animation Made Easy
Human Musculoskeletal System
is an organ system that gives humans the
ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems. The
musculoskeletal system provides form, support, stability, and movement to
the body. It is made up of the bones of the skeleton, muscles, cartilage,
tendons, ligaments, joints, and other connective tissue that supports and
binds tissues and organs together. The musculoskeletal system's primary
functions include supporting the body, allowing motion, and protecting
vital organs. The skeletal portion of the system serves as the main
storage system for calcium and phosphorus and contains critical components
of the hematopoietic system. This system describes how bones are connected
to other bones and muscle fibers via connective tissue such as tendons and
ligaments. The bones provide stability to the body. Muscles keep bones in
place and also play a role in the movement of bones. To allow motion,
different bones are connected by joints. Cartilage prevents the bone ends
from rubbing directly onto each other. Muscles contract to move the bone
attached at the joint.
is a form of alternative medicine concerned with the
diagnosis and treatment of unverified mechanical disorders of the
musculoskeletal system, especially the spine.
Sight - Seeing:
This technically is two
senses given the two distinct types of receptors present, one for color
(cones) and one for brightness (rods). Spatial Intelligence
This is sometimes argued to be five
senses by itself due to the differing types of
salty, sour, bitter, and umami), but generally is just referred to as one
sense. For those who don’t know, umami receptors detect the amino acid
glutamate, which is a taste generally found in meat and some artificial
flavoring. The taste sense, unlike sight, is a sense based off of a
chemical reaction. FlavorsTouch:
This has been
found to be distinct from pressure,
and even itch
senses of touch, hearing and balance.
is achieved through the active exploration of surfaces and
objects by a moving subject, as opposed to passive contact by a static
subject during tactile perception
. "to grasp
something", the sensibility of the individual to the world adjacent to his
body by use of his body. Haptic Technology
refers to the ways in which people and other animals
communicate and interact via the sense of touch.
is a complex system of nerve cells that responds
to changes to the surface or internal state of the body.
Nerve cells called "sensory receptors" (including thermoreceptors,
mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors and nociceptors) send signals along a
chain of nerve cells to the spinal cord where they may be processed by
other nerve cells and then relayed to the brain for further processing.
Sensory receptors are found in many parts of the body including the skin,
epithelial tissues, skeletal muscles, bones and joints, internal organs,
and the cardiovascular system.
is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit
area over which that force is distributed.
measures is an expression of the force required to
stop a fluid from expanding, and is usually stated in terms of force per
- StressItch: itch
is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a
, which is the ability of an organism or organ to respond to
external stimuli called
Ability to sense
. This also is thought of as more than one sense. This is not just
because of the two hot/cold receptors, but also because there is a
completely different type of
, in terms of the mechanism for
detection, in the brain. These thermoceptors in the brain are used for
monitoring internal body temperature.
Hearing - Sound:
along some medium, such as air or water that is in
contact with your ear drums
is a proposed model for the basis of
. This is
understood as the process by which the human auditory system organizes
sound into perceptually meaningful elements.
another of the sensors that work off of a
. This sense
combines with taste
This sense gives you
the ability to tell where your
body parts are
, relative to other body parts. This sense is one of the
things police officers test when they pull over someone who they think is
driving drunk. The “close your eyes and touch your nose” test is testing
this sense. This sense is used all the time in little ways, such as when
you scratch an itch on your foot, but never once look at your foot to see
where your hand is relative to your foot.
is a function of the mind involving awareness of
place and person.
These are found in such places as your
allow the brain the ability to monitor muscle tension.
In a word,
. This was once
thought to simply be the result of overloading other senses, such as
“touch”, but this has been found not to be the case and instead, it is its
own unique sensory system. There are three distinct types of pain
receptors: cutaneous (skin), somatic (bones and joints), and visceral
sense that allows you to keep your balance
and sense body movement in
terms of acceleration
and directional changes. This sense also allows for
. The sensory system for this is found in your
and is called the vestibular labyrinthine system. Anyone who’s ever
had this sense go out on them on occasion knows how important this is.
When it’s not working or malfunctioning, you literally can’t tell up from
down and moving from one location to another without aid is nearly
Sense of Balance
helps prevent falling over when standing or moving.
found in such places as the lungs, bladder, stomach, and the
gastrointestinal tract. A type of stretch receptor, that senses dilation
of blood vessels, is also often involved in headaches.
These trigger an area of
the medulla in the brain that is involved in detecting blood born
and drugs. It also is involved in the
are so named because they are sensory
extensions of the
peripheral nervous system
into blood vessels where they detect changes
in chemical concentrations. As transducers of patterns of variability in
the surrounding environment, carotid and aortic bodies count as ‘sensors’
in a similar way as taste buds and photoreceptors. However, because
carotid and aortic bodies detect variation within the body’s internal
organs, they are considered interoceptors. Taste buds, olfactory bulbs,
photoreceptors, and other receptors associated with the five traditional
sensory modalities, by contrast, are exteroceptors in that they respond to
stimuli outside the body. The body also contains proprioceptors, which
respond to the amount of stretch within the organ, usually muscle, that
This system more or less allows
your body to monitor its hydration level
and so your body knows when it
should tell you to drink.Hunger:
system allows your body to detect when you need to eat something.
This is the ability to
detect magnetic fields
, which is principally useful in providing a sense
of direction when detecting the Earth’s magnetic field. Unlike most birds,
humans do not have a strong magentoception, however, experiments have
demonstrated that we do tend to have some sense of magnetic fields. The
mechanism for this is not completely understood; it is theorized that this
has something to do with deposits of
in our noses. This would
make sense if that is correct as humans who are given magnetic implants
have been shown to have a much stronger magnetoception than humans
This one is debated as no
singular mechanism has been found that allows people to perceive time.
However, experimental data has conclusively shown humans have a startling
accurate sense of time
, particularly when younger. The mechanism we use
for this seems to be a distributed system involving the
cerebellum, and basal ganglia. Long term time keeping seems to be
monitored by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (responsible for the
). Short term time keeping is handled by other cell systems.
refers to how the passage of time is perceived and experienced.
What are Senses?
is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides
perception. Sensory organs
highly developed and specialized
an extension of the central
, with a sole function to take in
and relate it to the brain. The sensory neurons are highly adapted to
detect changes of both external and internal changes in the environment
and report these changes to the brain. Whether through touch, sound,
taste, sight, or smell, the senses are constantly reporting variances,
nuances, and dramatic changes within the environment to the brain. This is
done through nerve actions, or action potentials. A stimulus, through any
nerve pattern, is sensed and must be interpreted by the brain in an
uninterrupted flow in order for the sense to become real for the body. The
sensory system supplies the body with pleasurable sensation as well as
warning the body to dangers, such as the sensation of heat, the sounds
which warn, and the smell of toxic chemicals, smoke, or other alerting
odors. This combination of stimuli makes the sensory system on of the most
complex in the human
is the neurological process that organizes sensation from
one’s own body and the environment, thus making it possible to use the
body effectively within the environment. Specifically, it deals with how
the brain processes multiple sensory modality inputs, such as
proprioception, vision, auditory system, tactile, olfactory, vestibular
system, interoception, and taste into usable functional outputs.
Sensory Processing Disorder
exists when multisensory
integration is not adequately processed in order to provide appropriate
responses to the demands of the environment.
is a set of undesirable reactions produced by the normal
and autoimmunity. They are usually referred to as an over- reaction of the
immune system and these reactions may be damaging, uncomfortable, or
occasionally fatal. Hypersensitivity reactions require a pre-sensitized
(immune) state of the host. (also called hypersensitivity reaction or
intolerance). Food Allergy
is a part of the nervous system
responsible for processing sensory
information. A sensory system consists of sensory receptors, neural
pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception. Commonly
recognized sensory systems are those for vision, auditory (hearing),
somatic sensation (touch), gustatory (taste), olfaction (smell) and
vestibular (balance/movement). In short, senses are transducers from the
physical world to the realm of the mind where we interpret the
information, creating our perception
world around us.
is a sensory nerve
responds to a stimulus in the internal or external environment of an
organism. In response to stimuli, the sensory receptor initiates sensory
transduction by creating graded potentials or action potentials in the
same cell or in an adjacent one.
or the primary and secondary cortices of the
different senses (two cortices each, on
left and right hemisphere
Postcentral Gyrus - Primary Somatosensory Cortex
(reward - no reward) -
Sensory Processing Sensitivity
has been described as having
hypersensitivity to external stimuli, a greater depth of cognitive
processing, and high emotional reactivity.
is a non-invasive technique for circumventing the loss of
one sense by feeding its information through another channel to change of
the characteristics of one
another sensory modality. A sensory substitution system consists of three
parts: a sensor, a coupling system, and a stimulator. The sensor records
stimuli and gives them to a coupling system which interprets these signals
and transmits them to a stimulator. In case the sensor obtains signals of
a kind not originally available to the bearer it is a case of sensory
augmentation. Sensory substitution concerns human perception and the
plasticity of the human brain; and therefore, allows us to study these
aspects of neuroscience more through neuroimaging. It is hoped[according
to whom?] that sensory substitution systems can help people by restoring
their ability to perceive certain defective sensory modality by using
sensory information from a functioning sensory modality.
is a neurological phenomenon in which
of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic,
involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway.
of a sensory stimulus from
one form to another. Transduction in the nervous system typically refers
to stimulus alerting events wherein a physical
is converted into
an action potential
, which is
transmitted along axons towards the
central nervous system
where it is integrated. A receptor cell converts the energy in a stimulus
into a change in the electrical potential across its membrane. It causes
the depolarization of the membrane to allow the
transduced to the brain for integration. Convert
is to exchange or replace with another.
is a device that converts energy from one form to another.
Usually a transducer converts a signal in one form of energy to a signal
in another. Accepts energy in one form and gives back related
a different form. Microphone
A functional MRI study of 17 people blind since birth found that areas of
visual cortex became active when the participants were asked to solve
, a team from Johns Hopkins reports in the Proceedings
of the National Academy of Sciences. In 19 sighted people doing the
same problems, visual areas of the brain showed no increase in activity.
is the attribute of being easily detectable with
is the inability to process sensory information. Often there is a loss of
ability to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells while the
specific sense is not defective nor is there any significant memory loss.
Beyond or Senses
Our senses are not perfect and could easily mislead us
when you're with someone and the other person is looking one way and you
are looking another way, you will not see the same things. But what if you
are looking at the same thing, you still might see two different things
because one person's knowledge and experience is different, which gives
them the ability to see more or see it differently. Same with hearing, Did
you hear that? No, because I was not listening. Or the person does not
recognize the sound the same way that you do because of your knowledge and
experience is different. And it's not just how you perceive things through
your senses, it's also how trained you are with using your senses. Like
when reading peoples faces
knowing when people are lying
is a statistic or signal that can be extracted from the
sensory input by a perceiver, that indicates the state of some property of
the world that the perceiver is interested in perceiving. A cue is some
organization of the data present in the signal which allows for meaningful
extrapolation. For example, Sensory cues include Visual cues, auditory
cues, haptic cues, olfactory cues, environmental cues, and so on. Sensory
cues are a fundamental part of theories of perception, especially theories
of appearance (how things look).
is the capacity to feel, perceive
or experience subjectively that allows them to experience
individual humans and have memory
was originally defined as the lowest level of a
– light, sound, touch, etc. –
that an organism could detect. Under the influence of signal detection
theory, absolute threshold has been redefined as the level at which a
stimulus will be detected a specified percentage (often 50%) of the time.
The absolute threshold can be influenced by several different factors,
such as the subject's motivations and expectations, cognitive processes,
and whether the subject is adapted to the stimulus. The absolute threshold
can be compared to the difference threshold, which is the measure of how
different two stimuli must be for the subject to notice that they are not
is the weakest stimulus that an organism can detect.
Unless otherwise indicated, it is usually defined as the weakest stimulus
that can be detected half the time, for example, as indicated by a point
on a probability curve. Methods have been developed to measure thresholds
in any of the senses.
Piezos are large transmembrane proteins conserved among various
species, all having between 24 and 36 predicted transmembrane domains.
'Piezo' comes from the Greek 'piesi,' meaning 'pressure.' The PIEZO2
protein has a role in rapidly adapting mechanically activated (MA)
currents in somatosensory neurons.
is a gene found in the skeletal muscles of all mammals and
well-known for its role in bone growth and muscle function. Osteocrin
is also found in cells of the
-- the most evolved part of the primate brain, which
regulates sensory perception, spatial
and higher-level thinking and language in humans.
Mental Practice can complement Physical
Motor imagery promotes motor learning. Imagination is
a form of self-deceit—a good portion of your brain reacts to your motor
activity in the same way, whether the muscles are moving or not. People
who simply imagined putting a golf ball into the hole before they take the
shot had 30.4 percent more successful putts than those who did not.
is the sense of the relative position of neighboring parts of the body
and strength of effort being employed in movement.
is how one
is how one
perceives pain, hunger, etc.Gestalt Principles
is also known as the
"Law of Simplicity" or the "Law of Pragnanz" (the entire figure or
configuration), which states that every stimulus
is perceived in its most
simple form. Gestalt theorists followed the basic principle that
is greater than the sum of its parts
tries to understand the laws of our ability to
acquire and maintain meaningful perceptions in an apparently chaotic
world. The central principle of gestalt psychology is that the mind forms
a global whole with self-organizing tendencies.
is the process of how persons construe, understand, or
make sense of life events
, relationships, and the self especially
in which persons attribute some sort of
to an experienced
death or loss. Through meaning-making, persons are "retaining,
reaffirming, revising, or replacing elements of their orienting system to
develop more nuanced, complex and useful systems"
Expanding our Senses using
Artificial Intelligent Tools
Synesthesia shows that the brain does not always work the way it is
designed to do. But these small malfunctions can teach us a lot.
Neuroscience research shows the brain is strobing, not constant
Perception and attention are intrinsically rhythmic in nature. We
concentrate limited cognitive resources on specific items of interest,
rather than diluting resources over the entire space. Oscillating
attention would produce an analogous result over time, with resources
concentrated into small temporal epochs instead of being sustained in a
uniform but thin allocation. Oscillations, or 'strobes', are a general
feature of human perception. Sensitivity for detecting weak sounds is not
constant, but fluctuates rhythmically over time. Senses are not constant,
they go through cycles, prioritizing processes. Brain oscillations can
occur at up to 100 times per second. Auditory cycles happen at the rate of
about six per second. This strobing approach to attention would bind
together relevant information at regular time points and allow new
groupings of information to reassemble at other moments.
The ear is mute, the lips deaf. But the eye senses and speaks. In
it the world is reflected from without, and man from within. ~
Johann Wolfgang con Goethe
. (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832)