Smoke Point is the temperature that cooking
cooking oil begins to break down and produces smoke and then
burns releasing and volatile compounds, such as free fatty
acids, and short-chain degradation products of oxidation come up
from the oil. These volatile compounds degrade in air to give
Soot. The smoke point indicates the temperature limit up to
which that cooking oil can be used. The smoke point of oil
varies with its quality.
Effects of Chemicals and Toxins on the Human Body and Mind
Food Chemistry - Food Pairing
Barbecue is both a cooking method and an apparatus. The generally accepted differences between barbecuing and grilling are cooking durations and the types of heat used. Grilling is generally done quickly over moderate-to-high direct heat that produces little smoke, while barbecuing is done slowly over low, indirect heat and the food is flavored by the smoking process.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon PAHs can be decreased by 41-89% if drippings are removed and smoke is minimized.
nutrients are reduced with some cooking methods
Although cooking improves digestion and the absorption of many nutrients, the levels of some vitamins and minerals may decrease. Cooking food improves digestion and increases absorption of many nutrients. Protein in cooked eggs is 180% more digestible than in raw eggs.
The following nutrients are often reduced during cooking:
Water-soluble vitamins: vitamin C and the B vitamins — thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin
(B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid (B7) and cobalamin (B8).
Fat-soluble vitamins: vitamins A, D, E and K.
Minerals: primarily potassium, magnesium, sodium and calcium.
Poaching: less than 180°F/82°C.
Vegetables are generally a great source of vitamin C, but a large amount of it is lost when cooked in water. Boiling reduces vitamin C more than any other cooking. While water-based cooking methods cause the greatest losses of water-soluble vitamins, they have very little effect on omega-3 fats.
Eat pasta Al dente to lower the glycemic index for better blood sugar control - and eat smaller portions of pasta to avoid creating a carbohydrate overload and a spike in high blood sugar. Buy pasta with a low glycemic index.
Microwaving is the best method for retaining the antioxidant activity in garlic and mushrooms.
Baking refer to cooking food in an oven with dry heat.
Roasting or baking does not have a significant effect on most
vitamins and minerals, with the exception of B vitamins
Sautéing and Stir-Frying, food is cooked in a saucepan over medium to high heat in a small amount of oil or butter. Absorption of beta-carotene was 6.5 times greater in stir-fried carrots than in raw. Blood lycopene levels increased 80% more when people consumed tomatoes sautéed in olive oil rather than without. Sautéing and stir-frying improve the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and some plant compounds, but they decrease the amount of vitamin C in vegetables.
Frying tuna has been shown to degrade its omega-3 content by up to 70-85%, while baking caused only minimal losses. When oil is heated to a high temperature for a long period of time, toxic substances called aldehydes are formed. Use one of the healthiest oils for frying. Coconut Oil is the Healthiest Oil For Deep Frying. Others good oils are Olive oil, Avocado Oil, Peanut oil, and Palm oil. Oils for deep frying to avoid are Soybean oil, Corn oil, Sesame oil, Canola oil (also called rapeseed oil), Cottonseed oil, Safflower oil, Rice bran oil, Grape seed oil and Sunflower oil.
Steaming is one of the best cooking methods for preserving nutrients, including water-soluble vitamins that are sensitive to heat and water steaming broccoli, spinach and lettuce reduces their vitamin C content by only 9-15%. Steaming is one of the best cooking methods for preserving nutrients, including water-soluble vitamins.
Here are 10 tips to reduce nutrient loss while cooking:
Use as little water as possible for poaching or boiling.
Consume the liquid left in the pan after cooking vegetables.
Add back juices from meat that drip into the pan.
Don’t peel vegetables until after cooking them. Better yet, don’t peel at all to maximize fiber
and nutrient density.
Cook vegetables in smaller amounts of water to reduce loss of vitamin C and B vitamins.
Try to finish cooked vegetables within a day or two, as vitamin C content may continue to
decline when the cooked food is exposed to air.
Cut food after rather than before cooking, if possible. When food is cooked whole, less of it
is exposed to heat and water.
Cook vegetables for only a few minutes whenever possible. Low-Temperature Cooking
When cooking meat, poultry and fish, use the shortest cooking time needed for safe consumption.
Don’t use baking soda when cooking vegetables. Although it helps maintain color, vitamin C will
be lost in the alkaline environment produced by baking soda.
Rice - Starches
Cooking rice to have healthier carbohydrates that do not cause spikes in blood sugar and insulin levels. Poor digestibility of starch may have negative effects on the utilization of protein and minerals but is likely to have positive effects on the availability of certain vitamins. Depending on the method of preparation, rive undergoes observable chemical changes. Most notably, fried rice and pilaf style rice have a greater proportion of resistant starch than the most commonly eaten type, steamed rice.
New Method: Cook the rice as you normally do, but when the water is boiling, before adding the raw rice, add coconut oil—about 3 percent of the weight of the rice you're going to cook, After it was ready, let it cool in the refrigerator for about 12 hours.
Not all starches are created equal. Some, known as digestible starches, take only a little time to digest, are quickly turned into glucose, and then later glycogen. Excess glycogen ends up adding to the size of our guts if we don't expend enough energy to burn it off. Other starches, meanwhile, called resistant starches, take a long time for the body to process, aren't converted into glucose or glycogen because we lack the ability to digest them, and add up to fewer calories.
Rapidly Digestible Starch (RDS)
Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS)
Resistant Starch (RS)
Resistant Starch (RS) refers to starch and starch degradation products that escape from digestion in the small intestine of healthy individuals. Resistant starch occurs naturally in foods but is also added to foods by the addition of isolated or manufactured types of resistant starch.
Potatoes go from having the right kind of starch to the less healthful kind when they are cooked or mashed. The process of heating and cooling certain vegetables, like peas and sweet potatoes, can also alter the amount of resistant starches, according to a 2009 study.
Studies on effect of multiple heating/cooling cycles on the resistant starch formation in cereals, legumes and tubers.