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Electricity


Electricity is a Physical Phenomenon associated with stationary or moving Electrons and Protons. Energy made available by the flow of Electric Charge through a Conductor. Charge is the quantity of unbalanced electricity in a body (either positive or negative) and construed as an excess or deficiency of electrons. Voltage causes electrons to move in one direction.
Magnetics - Physics

"When we learned to Convert electricity into a Language, we realized that our potential is endless."

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What is Electricity? (youtube)

Electric Charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric charges: positive and negative. Like charges repel and unlike attract. An object is negatively charged if it has an excess of electrons, and is otherwise positively charged or uncharged.

Electric Discharge describes any flow of electric charge through a gas, liquid or solid. The properties and effects of electric discharges are useful over a wide range of magnitudes. Electric discharges can convey substantial energy to the electrodes at the ends of the discharge.

Capacitance is the ability of a body to store an electrical charge.

Resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.

Ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge. Ions can be created, by either chemical or physical means, via ionization, which is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions.

Speed of Electricity refers generally to the movement of electrons (or other charge carriers) through a conductor in the presence of potential and an electric field. The speed of this flow has multiple meanings. In everyday electrical and electronic devices, the signals or energy travel as electromagnetic waves typically on the order of 50%–99% of the speed of light, while the electrons themselves move (drift) much more slowly. The speed at which energy or signals travel down a cable is actually the speed of the electromagnetic wave, not the movement of electrons. Electromagnetic wave propagation is fast and depends on the dielectric constant of the material. In a vacuum the wave travels at the speed of light and almost that fast in air. The Speed of Sound is 4.689 miles in second., 768 mph or 12.8 miles a minute.

Energy Types

Electronics is the science of controlling electrical energy electrically, in which the electrons have a fundamental role. Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes, integrated circuits, associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies. Commonly, electronic devices contain circuitry consisting primarily or exclusively of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; such a circuit is described as an electronic circuit.

Micro Electronics relates to the study and manufacture (or microfabrication) of very small electronic designs and components.

Low-Power Electronics are electronics that have been designed to use less electric power, e.g. notebook processors.

Polyphase System is a means of distributing alternating-current electrical power. Polyphase systems have three or more energized electrical conductors carrying alternating currents with a definite time offset between the voltage waves in each conductor. Polyphase systems are particularly useful for transmitting power to electric motors. The most common example is the three-phase power system used for industrial applications and for power transmission. A major advantage of three phase power transmission (using three conductors, as opposed to a single phase power transmission, which uses two conductors), is that, since the remaining conductors act as the return path for any single conductor, the power transmitted by a balanced three phase system is three times that of a single phase transmission but only one extra conductor is used. Thus, a 50% / 1.5x increase in the transmission costs achieves a 200% / 3.0x increase in the power transmitted.

Analogue Electronics are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two levels. The term "analogue" describes the proportional relationship between a signal and a voltage or current that represents the signal. The word analogue is derived from the Greek word ανάλογος (analogos) meaning "proportional".

Digital Electronics are electronics that handle digital signals – discrete bands of analog levels – rather than by continuous ranges as used in analog electronics. All levels within a band of values represent the same information state. Because of this discretization, relatively small changes to the analog signal levels due to manufacturing tolerance, signal attenuation or noise do not leave the discrete envelope, and as a result are ignored by signal state sensing circuitry.

Solid-State Electronics are those circuits or devices built entirely from solid materials and in which the electrons, or other charge carriers, are confined entirely within the solid material. While solid-state can include crystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous solids and refer to electrical conductors, insulators and semiconductors, the building material is most often a crystalline semiconductor. Common solid-state devices include transistors, microprocessor chips, and RAM. A specialized type of RAM called flash memory is used in flash drives and, more recently, solid-state drives to replace mechanically rotating magnetic disc hard drive.

Flexible Electronics is a technology for assembling electronic circuits by mounting electronic devices on flexible plastic substrates, such as polyimide, PEEK or transparent conductive polyester film. Additionally, flex circuits can be screen printed silver circuits on polyester. Flexible electronic assemblies may be manufactured using identical components used for rigid printed circuit boards, allowing the board to conform to a desired shape, or to flex during its use. An alternative approach to flexible electronics suggests various etching techniques to thin down the traditional silicon substrate to few tens of micrometers to gain reasonable flexibility (~ 5 mm bending radius).

NUS researchers achieve major breakthrough in flexible electronics

Wearable Sensors - Sensors

Failure Modes of Electronics are failures that can be caused by excess temperature, excess current or voltage, ionizing radiation, mechanical shock, stress or impact, and many other causes. In semiconductor devices, problems in the device package may cause failures due to contamination, mechanical stress of the device, or open or short circuits.

Failure Rate is the frequency with which an engineered system or component fails, expressed in failures per unit of time. It is often denoted by the Greek letter λ (lambda) and is highly used in reliability engineering.

Planed Obsolescence

Failure Analysis is the process of collecting and analyzing data to determine the cause of a failure, often with the goal of determining corrective actions or liability.

Short Circuit is an electrical circuit that allows a current to travel along an unintended path with no or a very low electrical impedance. The electrical opposite of a short circuit is an "open circuit", which is an infinite resistance between two nodes. It is common to misuse "short circuit" to describe any electrical malfunction, regardless of the actual problem.

Thermal Management of Electronics. All electronic devices and circuitry generate excess heat and thus require thermal management to improve reliability and prevent premature failure. The amount of heat output is equal to the power input, if there are no other energy interactions. There are several techniques for cooling including various styles of heat sinks, thermoelectric coolers, forced air systems and fans, heat pipes, and others. In cases of extreme low environmental temperatures, it may actually be necessary to heat the electronic components to achieve satisfactory operation.

Electric Generator
Human Energy

AC is Alternating Current, An electric current that reverses direction sinusoidally, a succession of waves or curves.
DC is Direct Current, An electric current that flows in one direction steadily.

Amps is the rate at which electrons are flowing.
Ampere is the basic unit of electric current. Ampere
Current is the flow of electricity through a conductor. Current   Speed of Electricity
Voltage is the the rate at which energy is drawn from a source. Voltage
Watt is a unit of power. Watt - Microwatt is one millionth (10-6) of a watt, abbreviated as µW.
Ohm is a unit of electrical resistance equal to the resistance between two points on a Conductor when a potential difference of one volt between them produces a current of one ampere.  Ohm

When in doubt, call a professional  An electrical impulse as small as 14 milliamps is enough to kill a person.

Electrician is a tradesperson specializing in electrical wiring of buildings, stationary machines, and related equipment. Electricians may be employed in the installation of new electrical components or the maintenance and repair of existing electrical infrastructure. Electricians may also specialize in wiring ships, airplanes, and other mobile platforms, as well as data and cable.
Other Professions

Electrical Safety Inspection Check List (pdf)
Electrical Safety Inspection List (pdf)
Power Outage Safety Check List (image)

Electrical Wiring is the electrical wiring and associated devices such as switches, meters and light fittings used in buildings or other structures. Electrical wiring uses insulated conductors.

Electrical Wiring Tips
Wires (image for reference only, colors may change)
Wire Colors Meanings by Country (image)

Grounded (earthing)

Define Electronics Terms (App)

Electronic Circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow. The combination of components and wires allows various simple and complex operations to be performed: signals can be amplified, computations can be performed, and data can be moved from one place to another. Science Kits

Integrated Circuit (IC's)

Circuit Diagram is a graphical representation of an electrical circuit. A pictorial circuit diagram uses simple images of components, while a schematic diagram shows the components and interconnections of the circuit using standardized symbolic representations. The presentation of the interconnections between circuit components in the schematic diagram does not necessarily correspond to the physical arrangements in the finished device. Unlike a block diagram or layout diagram, a circuit diagram shows the actual electrical connections. A drawing meant to depict the physical arrangement of the wires and the components they connect is called artwork or layout, physical design, or wiring diagram. Circuit diagrams are used for the design (circuit design), construction (such as PCB layout), and maintenance of electrical and electronic equipment.

Electrical Network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).

Voltage Source is a two terminal device which can maintain a fixed voltage.

Topology (electrical circuits) is what connections exist between the components.

Series and Parallel Circuits - All About Circuits

Components connected in Series are connected along a single path, so the same current flows through all of the components.
Series Circuit

Components Connected in Parallel are connected, so the same voltage is applied to each component.

Parallel Circuit

Solar Panels

Parallel circuits have multiple paths for the current to move along. If an item in the circuit is broken, current will continue to move along the other paths, while ignoring the broken one. This type of circuit is used for most household electrical wiring. For example: when you turn off your TV, it doesn’t also turn off your lights. Solar Energy

When wiring solar panels in parallel, the amperage (current) is additive, but the voltage remains the same. eg. If you had 4 solar panels in parallel and each was rated at 12 volts and 5 amps, the entire array would be 12 volts and 20 amps.

Series circuits have only one path for current to travel along. Therefore, all the current in the circuit must flow through all the loads. A series circuit is a continuous, closed loop - breaking the circuit at any point stops the entire series from operating. An example of a series circuit is a string of old Christmas lights - if one bulb breaks, the whole string turns off.

When wiring solar panels in a series, the voltage is additive, but the amperage remains the same. eg. If you had 4 solar panels in a series and each was rated at 12 volts and 5 amps, the entire array would be 48 volts and 5 amps.
Remember: just like batteries, solar panels have a negative terminal ( - ) and a positive terminal ( + ). Current flows from the negative terminal through a load (current consumed by a piece of equipment) to the positive terminal.

Human Power - Generators




Components


Electronic Component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields.

Passive Component may be either a component that consumes (but does not produce) energy (thermodynamic passivity), or a component that is incapable of power gain (incremental passivity).

Computer Components
Battery

Fuse is a type of low resistance resistor that acts as a sacrificial device to provide overcurrent protection, of either the load or source circuit. Its essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows through it, interrupting the circuit that it connects. Short circuits, overloading, mismatched loads, or device failure are the prime reasons for excessive current. Fuses can be used as alternatives to circuit breakers.

Diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance to the flow of current in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.

Capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to temporarily store electrical energy in an electric field.

Transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.

Resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, and terminate transmission lines, among other uses.

Inductor also called a coil or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component which resists changes in electric current passing through it. It consists of a conductor such as a wire, usually wound into a coil. Energy is stored in a magnetic field in the coil as long as current flows. When the current flowing through an inductor changes, the time-varying magnetic field induces a voltage in the conductor, according to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.

Bridge is a type of electrical circuit in which two circuit branches (usually in parallel with each other) are "bridged" by a third branch connected between the first two branches at some intermediate point along them.

Connector is an electro-mechanical device used to join electrical terminations and create an electrical circuit. Electrical connectors consist of plugs (male-ended) and jacks (female-ended). The connection may be temporary, as for portable equipment, require a tool for assembly and removal, or serve as a permanent electrical joint between two wires or devices. An adapter can be used to effectively bring together dissimilar connectors.

Sensor is an object whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment, and then provide a corresponding output. A sensor is a type of transducer; sensors may provide various types of output, but typically use electrical or optical signals.

Conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions. A metal wire is a common electrical conductor.

Semiconductor are crystalline or amorphous solids with distinct electrical characteristics. They are of high resistance — higher than typical resistance materials, but still of much lower resistance than insulators. Their resistance decreases as their temperature increases, which is behavior opposite to that of a metal. Integrated Circuit

Nano-Materials

Graphene is a 1,000 more times conductive then copper. Materials

Strontium Ruthenate is the first reported perovskite superconductor that did not contain copper.

Electrical Resistance and Conductance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor. The inverse quantity is electrical conductance, and is the ease with which an electric current passes. Electrical resistance shares some conceptual parallels with the notion of mechanical friction. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm (Ω), while electrical conductance is measured in siemens (S).

Charge-Transfer Complex is an association of two or more molecules, or of different parts of one large molecule, in which a fraction of electronic charge is transferred between the molecular entities. The resulting electrostatic attraction provides a stabilizing force for the molecular complex. The source molecule from which the charge is transferred is called the electron donor and the receiving species is called the electron acceptor.

Superconductor is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

Organic Superconductor is a synthetic organic compound that exhibits superconductivity at low temperatures.

Type-II Superconductor is characterized by the formation of magnetic vortices in an applied magnetic field.

Room Temperature Superconductor is a hypothetical material that would be capable of exhibiting superconductivity at operating temperatures above 0° C (273.15 K). While this is not strictly "room temperature", which would be approximately 20–25 °C, it is the temperature at which ice forms and can be reached and easily maintained in an everyday environment.

High-Temperature Superconductivity are materials that behave as superconductors at unusually high temperatures. Whereas "ordinary" or metallic superconductors usually have transition temperatures (temperatures below which they are superconductive) below 30 K (−243.2 °C), and must be cooled using liquid helium in order to achieve superconductivity, HTS have been observed with transition temperatures as high as 138 K (−135 °C), and can be cooled to superconductivity using liquid nitrogen.

Vacuum
Magnetics

Insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely, and therefore make it nearly impossible to conduct an electric current under the influence of an electric field. Thermal Insulator

Avogadro Constant is the number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole, which is the unit of measurement in the International System of Units (SI) for amount of substance. It is defined as the amount of a chemical substance that contains as many elementary entities, e.g., atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, or photons, as there are atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12 (12C), the isotope of carbon with relative atomic mass 12 by definition. This number is expressed by the Avogadro constant, which has a value of 6.022140857(74)×1023 mol-1. The mole is one of the base units of the SI, and has the unit symbol mol.

Voltage Regulator  is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative feedback control loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.

Thermodynamics

Videos

Electrostatic Discharge (youtube)
Nikola Tesla (youtube)
Nikola Tesla was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system. (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943). Build a Tesla Coil.
Westinghouse (youtube 1:52:20)
Two men + two Tesla coils + special suits = ELECTRICITY FIGHT! (youtube)
Lords of Lightning
Electric bacteria connect to form wires (youtube) 
Way To Splice Wires Manly-Man Skills: The Lineman Splice (youtube)


Waves

Transmitter is an electronic device which, with the aid of an antenna, produces radio waves. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves.

Antenna (radio) is an electrical device which converts electric power into radio waves, and vice versa. It is usually used with a radio transmitter or radio receiver. In transmission, a radio transmitter supplies an electric current to the antenna's terminals, and the antenna radiates the energy from the current as electromagnetic waves (radio waves). In reception, an antenna intercepts some of the power of an electromagnetic wave in order to produce an electric current at its terminals, that is applied to a receiver to be amplified.

Tuner is a subsystem that receives radio frequency (RF) transmissions like radio broadcasts and converts the selected carrier frequency and its associated bandwidth into a fixed frequency that is suitable for further processing, usually because a lower frequency is used on the output.

Radio Receiver is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form. It is used with an antenna. The antenna intercepts radio waves (electromagnetic waves) and converts them to tiny alternating currents which are applied to the receiver, and the receiver extracts the desired information. The receiver uses electronic filters to separate the desired radio frequency signal from all the other signals picked up by the antenna, an electronic amplifier to increase the power of the signal for further processing, and finally recovers the desired information through demodulation.

Fading is deviation of the attenuation affecting a signal over certain propagation media. The fading may vary with time, geographical position or radio frequency, and is often modeled as a random process.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise. It is defined as the ratio of signal power to the noise power, often expressed in decibels. A ratio higher than 1:1 (greater than 0 dB) indicates more signal than noise. While SNR is commonly quoted for electrical signals, it can be applied to any form of signal (such as isotope levels in an ice core or biochemical signaling between cells).

Fourier Transform decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the amplitude (or loudness) of its constituent notes. The Fourier transform of a function of time itself is a complex-valued function of frequency, whose absolute value represents the amount of that frequency present in the original function, and whose complex argument is the phase offset of the basic sinusoid in that frequency.

Ultrasound are sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing. Ultrasound is no different from 'normal' (audible) sound in its physical properties, except in that humans cannot hear it. This limit varies from person to person and is approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz) in healthy, young adults. Ultrasound devices operate with frequencies from 20 kHz up to several gigahertz.

Sound
Voice - Music
Vacuum
Magnetics


Wave or Particle?
Harmonic Waves

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit Time. It is also referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency. The period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example, if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second (that is, 60 seconds divided by 120 beats). Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the Rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio (Sound) signals, Radio Waves, Light and Brain Waves (meditation).

Very Low Frequency is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 kHz to 30 kHz and corresponding wavelengths from 100 to 10 kilometres, respectively.

Hertz is the unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second. As an SI unit, Hz can be prefixed; commonly used multiples are kHz (kilohertz, 10 to 3p Hz), MHz (megahertz, 10 to 6p Hz), GHz (gigahertz, 10 to 9p Hz) and THz (Terahertz, 10 to 12power Hz). 

Cycles Per Second Hertz Comparison

Cycle Per Second or CPS was a once-common English name for the unit of frequency now known as the hertz.

Sine Wave is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation. It is named after the function sine, of which it is the graph. It occurs often in pure and applied mathematics, as well as physics, engineering, signal processing and many other fields.

Wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats, and thus the inverse of the spatial frequency.

Fundamental Frequency is defined as the lowest frequency of a periodic waveform. In music, the fundamental is the musical pitch of a note that is perceived as the lowest partial present.

Modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.

Phase Modulation is a modulation pattern that encodes information as variations in the instantaneous phase of a carrier wave. The phase of a carrier signal is modulated to follow the changing voltage level (amplitude) of modulation signal. The peak amplitude and frequency of the carrier signal remain constant, but as the amplitude of the information signal changes, the phase of the carrier changes correspondingly. The analysis and the final result (modulated signal) are similar to those of frequency modulation. Phase modulation is widely used for transmitting radio waves and is an integral part of many digital transmission coding schemes that underlie a wide range of technologies like Wi-Fi, GSM and satellite television. Phase modulation is closely related to frequency modulation (FM); it is often used as an intermediate step to achieve FM. Mathematically both phase and frequency modulation can be considered a special case of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). PM is used for signal and waveform generation in digital synthesizers, such as the Yamaha DX7 to implement FM synthesis. A related type of sound synthesis called phase distortion is used in the Casio CZ synthesizers.

Radio Waves
Microwaves
Alpha Theta Beta

Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point. The word comes from Latin vibrationem ("shaking, brandishing"). The oscillations may be periodic, such as the motion of a pendulum—or random, such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road. PDF

Good Vibrations: The Science of Sound (youtube)
Music for Plants - Life of Plants
Sonic Bloom (website)

An oscillation of the parts of a fluid or an elastic solid whose equilibrium has been disturbed, or of an electromagnetic wave. A person's emotional state, the atmosphere of a place, or the associations of an object, as communicated to and felt by others. A distinctive emotional aura experienced instinctively. (physics) a regular periodic variation in value about a mean.


Vibration Wave
Oscillation is the process of oscillating between states. A single complete execution of a periodically repeated phenomenon.
Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. The term vibration is precisely used to describe mechanical oscillation. Familiar examples of oscillation include a swinging pendulum and alternating current power. PDF

Resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at a specific preferential frequency.

Cycle
is an interval during which a recurring sequence of events occurs. Recur in repeating sequences. A periodically repeated sequence of events. Cause to go through a recurring sequence. The unit of frequency; one hertz has a periodic interval of one second. A single complete execution of a periodically repeated phenomenon. 

Patterns - Rate

Electromagnetic Spectrum


Tools for Electronics

Power Supply is an electronic device that supplies electric energy to an electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert one form of electrical energy to another and, as a result, power supplies are sometimes referred to as electric power converters.

Oscilloscope is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of constantly varying signal voltages, usually as a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time. Other signals (such as sound or vibration) can be converted to voltages and displayed. Picotech

Multimeter is an electronic measuring instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit. A typical multimeter can measure voltage, current, and resistance. Analog multimeters use a microammeter with a moving pointer to display readings. Digital multimeters (DMM, DVOM) have a numeric display, and may also show a graphical bar representing the measured value. Digital multimeters are now far more common due to their cost and precision, but analog multimeters are still preferable in some cases, for example when monitoring a rapidly varying value.

Transducer is a device that converts one form of energy to another. Usually a transducer converts a signal in one form of energy to a signal in another. Transducers are often employed at the boundaries of automation, measurement, and control systems, where electrical signals are converted to and from other physical quantities (energy, force, torque, light, motion, position, etc.). The process of converting one form of energy to another is known as transduction.

Electronic Test Equipment is used to create signals and capture responses from electronic devices under test (DUTs). In this way, the proper operation of the DUT can be proven or faults in the device can be traced. Use of electronic test equipment is essential to any serious work on electronics systems. Practical electronics engineering and assembly requires the use of many different kinds of electronic test equipment ranging from the very simple and inexpensive (such as a test light consisting of just a light bulb and a test lead) to extremely complex and sophisticated such as automatic test equipment (ATE). ATE often includes many of these instruments in real and simulated forms. Generally, more advanced test gear is necessary when developing circuits and systems than is needed when doing production testing or when troubleshooting existing production units in the field.

Science Tools

Engineering Knowledge

Amprobe AT-7030 Advanced Wire Tracer Kit Traces wires in walls, ceilings, floors and corners. Locates breakers and fuses, Pinpoints shorts and opens.

LED's - Light


Nikola Tesla

Help to Republish Tesla's Secrets (Go Fund Me)
 
Man Solves Tesla’s Secret To Amplifying Power By Nearly 5000% (youtube)

Jim Murray (website)

Lenz's Law states that the current induced in a circuit due to a change or a motion in a magnetic field is so directed as
to oppose the change in flux and to exert a mechanical force opposing the motion.

Faraday's Law of Induction is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF)—a phenomenon called electromagnetic induction. It is the fundamental
operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators and solenoids.

Induction Generator is a type of alternating current (AC) electrical generator that uses the principles of induction motors to produce power. Induction generators operate by mechanically turning their rotors faster than synchronous speed.

Dynaflux Alternator (website)

Elliptical Electric Rotor

Rotor is a moving component of an electromagnetic system in the electric motor, electric generator, or alternator. Its rotation is due to the interaction between the windings and magnetic fields which produces a torque around the rotor's axis.

Rotating Magnetic Field is a magnetic field that has moving polarities in which its opposite poles rotate about a central point or axis. Ideally the rotation changes direction at a constant angular rate. This is a key principle in the operation of the alternating-current motor. Rotating magnetic fields are often utilized for electromechanical applications such as induction motors and electric generators. However, they are also used in purely electrical applications such as induction regulators.

Electrical Reactance is the opposition of a circuit element to a change in current or voltage, due to that element's inductance or
capacitance. A built-up electric field resists the change of voltage on the element, while a magnetic field resists the change of current. The notion of reactance is similar to electrical resistance, but it differs in several respects.

Gap-Power Overunity Device
GAP Power Magnetic Neutralization

Muammer Yildiz Magnet Motor with Downloadable Patent Info (youtube)

John Christie Magnetic Generator – How To Generate 7 Kilowatts For Free Using A Christie Generator. Magnetism can be converted into rotary motion and then electricity is the result of zero point technology.


Searl Effect Generator

Neodymium The Searl Effect, Free Energy Generator - Documentary (youtube - 28mins.)

Searl Solution - Levity Disk

Law of Squares (symmetry)

Perpetual Motion - Zero-Point Energy

Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60. A yellow trivalent metallic element of the rare earth group; occurs in monazite and bastnasite in association with cerium and lanthanum and praseodymium. Neodymium is classed as a rare earth, it is a fairly common element, no rarer than cobalt, nickel, and copper, and is widely distributed in the Earth's crust. Most of the world's commercial neodymium is mined in China. Another important use of neodymium is as a component in the alloys used to make high-strength neodymium magnets—powerful permanent magnets. Neodymium is a metal is ferromagnetic. Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2.

When electric current flows through a coil, it produces electromagnetic waves that propagate in all directions. When the coil is placed inside a cylinder it reflects the waves.


Mind over Matter, because Matter Matters.



The Thinker Man