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Evolution - Intelligent Design


Evolution is a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage. (especially a more advanced or mature stage)
(biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms.

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Evolution is about Natural Selection and the Adaptation of Species, because those are facts that can be explained and understood by most people. Evolution does not explain where species originate from, or how life starts, that would be Physics. To assume that you know the origin of life is the same thing as assuming that you know who God is.

Don't confuse Life with Evolution, or confuse Evolution with Adaptation. Though they are related in certain ways, those are three different things with different definitions that are not 100 percent defined.

Adapt is to adjust oneself to new or different conditions. Make fit for, or change to suit a new purpose. Brain Plasticity
Adaptation is a trait with a current functional role in the life of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of Natural Selection, which is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals over time due to differences in phenotype, which is the observable characteristics or traits, the expression of an organism's genetic code.
Differentiated is to evolve so as to lead to a new species or develop in a way most suited to the environment. Become distinct and acquire a different character. Made different (especially in the course of development) or shown to be different. Exhibiting biological specialization; adapted during development to a specific function or environment. Become different during development.

Evolution Diagram Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. Evolutionary processes give rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms, and molecules. Cause and Effect - Pyramid of Complexity
Evolutionary Biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth starting from a single origin of life. These processes include the descent of species, and the origin of new species.
Human Evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans.
Devolution is the notion that species can revert into more "primitive" forms over time.
Coevolution occurs when changes in at least two species' genetic compositions reciprocally affect each other’s evolution.
Natural Selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, phenology, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest). A phenotype results from the expression of an organism's genes as well as the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the two. When two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species, the species is called polymorph, which the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
Convergent Evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages. Convergent evolution creates analogous structures that have similar form or function but were not present in the last common ancestor of those group.
Exaptation describes a shift in the function of a trait during evolution. For example, a trait can evolve because it served one particular function, but subsequently it may come to serve another. Exaptations are common in both anatomy and behaviour. Bird feathers are a classic example: initially they may have evolved for temperature regulation, but later were adapted for flight. Interest in exaptation relates to both the process and products of evolution: the process that creates complex traits and the products (functions, anatomical structures, biochemicals, etc.) that may be imperfectly developed
Co-option (biology) refers to the capacity of intracellular parasites to use host-cell proteins to complete their vital cycle. Viruses use this mechanism, as their genome is small. It is also used in a different sense to refer to characters that have been exapted.
Teleology is the philosophical study of nature by attempting to describe things in terms of their apparent purpose, directive principle, or goal. A purpose that is imposed by a human use, such as that of a fork, is called extrinsic. Natural teleology, common in classical philosophy but controversial today, contends that natural entities also have intrinsic purposes, irrespective of human use or opinion. For instance, Aristotle claimed that an acorn's intrinsic telos is to become a fully grown oak tree.
Anomalistics is the use of scientific methods to evaluate anomalies (phenomena that fall outside of current understanding), with the aim of finding a rational explanation.
Phylogenetics is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms.
Genealogy also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.

Timeline of the Universe and Earth

Homo Futurus -The Inside Story (youtube - 54 mins.)

Sphenoid Bone is an unpaired bone of the neurocranium. It is situated in the middle of the skull towards the front, in front of the temporal bone and the basilar part of the occipital bone. The sphenoid bone is one of the seven bones that articulate to form the orbit. Its shape somewhat resembles that of a butterfly or bat with its wings extended.

Regulator Gene is a gene involved in controlling the expression of one or more other genes. Regulatory sequences, which encode regulatory genes, are often 5' to the start site of transcription of the gene they regulate. In addition , these sequences can also be found 3' to the transcription start site. In both cases, whether the regulatory sequence occurs before (5') or after (3') the gene it regulates, the sequence is often many kilobases away from the transcription start site. A regulator gene may encode a protein, or it may work at the level of RNA, as in the case of genes encoding microRNAs. An example of a regulator gene is a gene that codes for a repressor protein that inhibits the activity of an operator gene (a gene which binds repressor proteins thus inhibiting the translation of RNA to protein via RNA polymerase). 


Maturation:
Coming to full development; becoming mature (biology) the process of an individual organism growing organically;  Develop
A purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level.

Creationism is the religious belief that the universe and life originated "from specific acts of divine creation," as opposed to the scientific reasons that they came about through natural processes.

Intelligent Design is the view that "certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection. "Things just happen Dude" or "This looks to amazing to be just some natural sequence of events, first you need to define what natural is, which you can't because this is everyone's first time here, thus, we have nothing to compare life to, nothing."...so we need to start over, this time everyone needs to have an open mind.

Extra Terrestrial Life
Biogenesis, Abiogenesis or Spontaneous Generation?
Star Trek III The Search for Spock (youtube)
Anthropic Principle

Exogenesis
Panspermia
Astrobiology
Lazarus Taxon
Iteration
Endemism


Mutations
Why are Mutations thought to be part of the evolutionary process?
Mutation Rate
Point Accepted Mutation (wiki)
Pure Nature Specials - Mutation - The Science of Survival (youtube)
Morphology (biology) the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Genes - DNA
Traits - Heredity

DNA mutation is less frequent, less than 1%, where a  SNP Mutation is more frequent.  
Synonymous Substitution (wiki)

DNA is constantly subject to mutations, accidental changes in its code.
Mutations can lead to missing or malformed proteins, and that can lead to disease.

Khan Academy: Different Types of Mutations (video)  

DNA:
point mutations, frame shift mutation.
Protein:
non-sense mutation, missense mutation.
RNA:
conservative mutation, non-conservative mutation.
 
Irreducible Complexity
Irreducible Complexity (youtube)
Genetic Variation
Genetic Drift
Epigenetics

Viruses revealed to be a major driver of human evolution. Study tracking protein adaptation over millions of years yields insights relevant to fighting today's viruses.

Tree of Life

Atavism
Coccyx
Human Vestigiality
Divergent Evolution
Chromosomes
DNA - Genes

Adapting to lower levels of Oxygen
Human species have adapted to lowland environment where oxygen is generally abundant. But people in Tibet, the Andes and Ethiopia have acquired the ability to survive at extremely high altitudes. While the rest of human population would suffer serious health consequences, these native inhabitants thrive well in the highest parts of the world. Tibetans has become the fastest case of human evolution in the scientific record, as it is estimated to have occurred in less than 3,000 years.

Adapting Genetically to Arsenic
Andean communities may have evolved the ability to metabolize arsenic, a trait that could be the first documented example of a toxic substance acting as an agent of natural selection in humans, Arsenic exposure can be deadly, but high in the Andes,
drinking water laced with the chemical may have driven genetic adaptation in local populations. In parts of Argentina, people have been drinking poison—arsenic, to be specific—for thousands of years. The river running through the Andean village of San
Antonio de los Cobres (SAC) has arsenic levels up to 80 times the safe limit established by the World Health Organization. At high doses, arsenic causes vomiting, convulsions and eventually coma. At low, chronic exposure, the metal causes skin lesions, liver damage and several types of cancers.

Biological Anthropology
Archaeology
Bilateria
UCLA Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
UC Museum of Paleontology - Understanding Evolution
European Human Behaviour and Evolution Association

"Yes, humans are still animals, but humans have an amazing Brain, we either use it or lose it, now that's evolution."
Dollo


Evolution of the Human Skull


Humanoid Evolution
Richard Dawkins: Why are there still Chimpanzees? - Nebraska Vignettes #2 (youtube)
Richard Dawkins: Comparing the Human and Chimpanzee Genomes - Nebraska Vignettes #3 (youtube)

2 million years ago, early humans were established and had split into at least two species:
Homo Habilis and Homo Rudolfensis

Isochron Burial Dating uses Radioisotopes oldest hominid skeletons ever dated at 3.67 million years old.
Radionuclide (wiki)

Chimpanzee Human last Common Ancestor (wiki) 

Humans have 46 chromosomes, 2 less then the common potato.

Humans
Hominidae whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes seven extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean and Sumatran orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, the human and near-human ancestors and relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal)
Bonobo
Homo Sapiens (5.5 million) is the binomial nomenclature (also known as the scientific name) for the only extant human species.
Homo Erectus (200,000) meaning "upright man", from the Latin ērigere, "to put up, set upright") is still in existence species of hominid that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Human are the only extant members of Hominina clade (or human clade), a branch of the taxonomical tribe Hominini belonging to the family of great apes.
Homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Genetic Genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogy and traditional genealogical and historical records to infer relationships between individuals.
Primate arose from ancestors that lived in the trees of tropical forests; many primate characteristics represent adaptations to life in this challenging three-dimensional environment. Most primate species remain at least partly arboreal.
Mammal distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones and mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animals on the planet, the great whales, as well as some of the most intelligent, such as elephants, primates and cetaceans.

Society

Louise Leakey Digs for Humanity's Origins (video)
A World Without Humans
Children of the Jaguar (Part 1/5) (youtube)

Neanderthals, our closest relatives in the Homo genus, thrived for hundreds of thousands of years, only to die out about 40,000 years ago. No one wanted to marry a Neanderthal, so the went extinct.

How did Brains Evolve?
Encephalization is defined as the amount of brain mass related to an animal's total body mass.

Recapitulation Theory (wiki)

Devolution is what our current education system is doing.

“Change is not merely necessary to life - it is life.”  Alvin Toffler

"Knowing what you're made out of does not explain how you were made....Knowing E=mc2 does not fully explain what energy is, or does it explain what matter is, or what light is. So what do we know?"

Yes we know animals evolve or adapt because we have evidence. But you can’t prove that new species evolve from other species. Why would a lizard want to evolve into a horse? And why didn't Dinosaurs eventually grow brains within 160 million years? Yes those are stupid questions, but that's where it all starts. 

Cope's Rule (wiki)

When something doesn't make sense it means you don't have all the information, so what's missing? Just because animals share the same Genes does not mean that one animal evolved from the other animal, it simply means that they share the same building blocks of Life. So what causes these little variations, like the variations we see in humans? Is it a combination of a Variable and a Fractal? Is evolution part Physics?

Evolution has a hard time proving Diversity or Variety.
Cambrian Explosion

We also have some species staying the same for millions of years while other species in the same time period evolving or Adapting. Something's just appear, so where did they originate from? And somehow, even through Mass Extinctions, life still found a way to survive in some form. And after each Mass Extinction, life never returns in the same way that it was before. So it doesn't look like a normal process of life, it kind of looks like someone or something is trying something new, like some form of Intelligence trying to define itself. There are huge gaps of missing information. Both religious and non-religious people love to fill those gaps with their beliefs. But if I had a choice of filling the gap of missing information with something, I would rather say that it was God then to say that it was nothing. Not that I would, but I do understand why some people would say that. I mean, who would want to be considered just a freak of nature. I'm either a lucky piece of shit or I'm here for a reason, I would like to
believe that I'm here for a reason. If a belief stops you from learning, then it's not a good belief to hold. Being biased against new knowledge and new information leaves you vulnerable and reduces your ability to adapt and to make good decisions. I know that there is no guarantee of survival, but reducing my odds to live makes no sense at all.

I like to believe that Human Ascended instead of Descended. Our ancestors where the building blocks of life, not the origin of life.

Last Universal Ancestor (LUA), also called the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), cenancestor, or progenote, is the most recent organism from which all organisms now living on Earth have a common descent. Thus, it is the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all current life on Earth. As such, it should not be assumed to be the first living organism. The LUA is estimated to have lived some 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago (sometime in the Paleoarchean era). The earliest evidence for life on Earth is biogenic graphite found in 3.7 billion-year-old metamorphized sedimentary rocks discovered in Western Greenland and microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone discovered in Western Australia. A study in 2015 found potentially
biogenic carbon from 4.1 billion years ago in ancient rocks in Western Australia. Such findings would indicate the existence of different conditions on Earth during that period than what is generally assumed today and point to an earlier origination of life. In July 2016, scientists reported identifying a set of 355 genes from the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) of all life living on Earth.
Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in a group, for example a haplogroup, are directly descended. The term is often applied to human genealogy.

Just because you can’t explain something now, doesn’t mean that you never will. Believing you know the answer is different from actually knowing the answer. Plus we only have one planet that we know of where life exists. So from a science point of view, having only one example of life can never be hard evidence, and that this is just the normal process of life. To me this is a silly argument and I take no sides in this discussion. Both sides have good claims, good points and good theories. Even though this is a healthy discussion that needs more looking into, I can’t help to know that we have more important and more urgent problems that need to be addressed. This is a distraction, but we will come back to this, just not now.

Beck - Loser (youtube)

Maybe evolution is just another form of consciousness, or some form of intelligence that we are unable to comprehend. Maybe evolution is Gods work? Who else could have figured out that the only way you can have a sustaining planet is to give plants and animals the ability to evolve, adapt and to flourish. If you don’t adapt you die. And that is exactly where humans are today. Evolution has given all of us some extremely valuable information that Cause and Effect is real and that Cause and Effect should not be ignored. Everyone should just stick with the facts. Evolution does not explain everything and Religion does not explain everything, so why are we so threatened by someone else's beliefs? As long as no one ever stops asking questions, no one should ever fear or feel threatened by other peoples beliefs. The most important thing is that we keep sharing information and keep documenting our world. You should never claim that you have all the answers. If you are stubborn and selfish with your beliefs then the message you are trying to convey will only distort information and confuse people into believing that there are no more questions to ask. And that is simply a crime against humanity. A good documentary to watch is War on Science. People are overreacting in this film but I understand their passion. Another example of people overreacting is in a film called “The Shape of Life” from PBS. This film has great information but it's kind of ruined because they pretend to know the answers of evolution. These are the kinds of things we need to stop doing if we are going to educate people and secure our species survival. A better film to watch is Miracle Planet. To me it seems that a single cell is intelligent life. How and why? I don't know.

Humans are 90% bacteria. So I guess if you want to survive on a planet you better find a way to have a symbiotic relationship with a planets natural life forms, life forms that have lived and survived on this planet for billions of years. I guess that is how we will survive on another planet, by finding out what has lived and survived there the longest, and then learn how to have a symbiotic relationship with those organisms.

So what's wrong with saying "I don't know?

"Teaching evolution is not bad, what's bad is how you teach evolution and how it's understood by people. The same thing with religion, teaching religion is not bad, it's how you teach Religion and how it's understood." If evolution is information evolving, and if God is information, then I guess you're both right.

This is just another Human Transition, maybe evolution and intelligent design are the same thing?....Can I go now?
 
"You can't prove that God does not exist, or can you prove that God does exist. We should stick with the things that we can prove and save the things that we cannot prove for later time. Because if we don't solve our greatest problems, that we all face, we will never live to see God, or live to see if there isn't a God."

It is difficult to understand how anyone can believe that the Nervous System, particularly the brain, could have been produced by evolutionary randomness and selection. We have barely touched on some of the electrical design present in the rest of the body. The truth is that scientists are always discovering more about its workings, since its complexity, which far surpasses anything produced by man, is nothing short of a miracle. Truly we can say with David, “I will praise You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; Your works are marvelous and my soul knows it very well”  (Psalm 139:14). (Craig Savige)

Modern Humans

"Whether you believe that evolution or God designed our brain doesn't really matter, what matters is that you never ignore the human brains enormous potential, and its weaknesses. The knowledge that we have acquired about the human brain is invaluable. So knowing who or what made it will not be as important as learning how the brain works and learning how effectively we can use its power. So when we finally do figure out who or what made us, it will not come to us as some big surprise, because after all, we have brains."

"Thank God my brain is smarter then I am."

"God has reasons for doing things, and evolution has reasons too, and if God created evolution, then evolution can't be wrong."

"I couldn't even imagine being anything else but human. Human to me is the greatest way to experience life. And when we imagine what other life from other planets looks like, that makes me even prouder, because the human form to me is the most enjoyable machine a person could ever design. I couldn't even dream of a better human. Some people would say a human with wings, or a human with superman powers. But we already have those because of the machines that we will built."

If you didn't have what you needed to know what you were missing, then how would you evolve into it? I know information is some form of intelligence, what I don't know is how did information see when it didn't have what was needed to see what it didn't have?

I think that humans take for granted that our way of seeing through the eyes is the only form of sight.

"I'm the evolutionary result of a seed that was born thousands of years ago, and yet it feels like the first time being alive."

Some people believe that 10 million years ago that some of the monkeys changed their diet just enough to evolve into humans. Though I fully understand the importance of nutrition and how diet can improve appearance and health, I'm having a little trouble understanding just what nutritional substances can cause a species body to change and grow a better brain? I'm positive we can repeat this theory. We just need to start feeding monkeys better food and lets see what happens. Of course it will take many life times to see the results, but we should start seeing some changes, maybe Planet of the Apes?

Humanzee
Devolution

We know the about the negative effects from a poor nutritional diet and isolation, children are smaller and less developed, just like early man. Does that mean that only a man can grow into man. Humans evolved from humans? This is like finding out that your father is not your real father. Welcome to the party.

Monkey Shines
Project X
Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov
The World's Smartest Apes (youtube)
Chimpanzee, Gorilla, or Orangutan?

And since we have evidence and experience in knowing that some Miracles can actually be explained, we still have to keep trying to understand our world. We have enough evidence to prove that our increased understanding of the world has benefited us in many ways. Not to say that it was Perfect, But at least we are definitely more aware of our possibilities and of our human potential.

"It's not the strongest of species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change."

Charles Darwin

Michael Archer: How we'll Resurrect the Gastric Brooding Frog the Tasmanian Tiger (video)

People didn't have enough information and knowledge years ago that was needed in order to explain complex ideas and concepts. But now we do, and we can be more precise. Not that we can fully explain all knowledge correctly to all people, but at least we know now that the acquisition of more knowledge is always needed to further our understanding and also to help to explain knowledge so that more people can understand. The mistake that most people make is that they believed that all knowledge is known, so they make assumptions instead of realizing that more knowledge, information and research is needed. So not only do we have more knowledge and information today, we also have the intelligence to know that more knowledge and information is always needed. So we can now make less assumptions, make less mistakes, and we never assume that we know everything, thus we keep learning.

"I wouldn't want to assume that life started on this planet. I'm just saying that life had to start somewhere. Where and how, I don't know? But I hope we find out, because that would be an incredible story. We know that our galaxy was not the first galaxy born in our universe. So we may have brothers and sisters, some we may never know? But my guess is, that we will find our siblings, because everything usually leaves some kind of a trace."

Trace is a just detectable amount. An indication that something has been present. A visible mark (as a footprint) left by the passage of person or animal or vehicle. Discover traces of. Follow, discover, or ascertain the course of development of something. To go back over again. Pursue or chase relentlessly.

Detect is to discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of.

Indication is a datum about some physical state that is presented to a user by a meter or similar instrument


Cells


Prokaryote Cell Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms; they may exist as independent units of life (as in monads) or may form colonies or tissues as in higher plants and animals. Biology

Cells Poster
The Cell Map
Blood Cells
Building Blocks of Life
Tiny Machines
Cells (youtube)
The Human Cell (youtube)

The largest cell in the human body is the Female Egg, and the smallest cell is the Male Sperm, 500 Million from Ejaculation.

The Cell (youtube)

Cell Death is the event of a biological cell ceasing to carry out its functions. This may be the result of the natural process of old cells dying and being replaced by new ones, or may result from such factors as disease, localized injury, or the death of the organism of which the cells are part. Longevity
Programmed Cell Death is cell death mediated by an intracellular program. PCD is carried out in a regulated process, which usually confers advantage during an organism's life-cycle. For example, the differentiation of fingers and toes in a developing human embryo occurs because cells between the fingers apoptose; the result is that the digits are separate. PCD serves fundamental functions during both plant and metazoa (multicellular animals) tissue development.
Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. Brain Cells
Mitotic Catastrophe refers to a mechanism of delayed mitotic-linked cell death, a sequence of events resulting from premature or inappropriate entry of cells into mitosis that can be caused by chemical or physical stresses.
Cell Damage can occur as a result of an adverse stimulus which disrupts the normal homeostasis of affected cells. Among other causes, this can be due to physical, chemical, infectious, biological, nutritional or immunological factors. Cell damage can be reversible or irreversible. Depending on the extent of injury, the cellular response may be adaptive and where possible, homeostasis is restored. Cell death occurs when the severity of the injury exceeds the cell’s ability to repair itself. Cell death is relative to both the length of exposure to a harmful stimulus and the severity of the damage caused. Cell death may occur by necrosis or apoptosis.
Cell Cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells. In bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. The B period extends from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA replication. DNA replication occurs during the C period. The D period refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the splitting of the bacterial cell into two daughter cells.
Chimera is a single organism composed of cells from different zygotes. This can result in male and female organs, two blood types, or subtle variations in form.

Cell Division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reproductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half to produce haploid gametes (meiosis). Meiosis results in four haploid daughter cells by undergoing one round of DNA replication followed by two divisions: homologous chromosomes are separated in the first division, and sister chromatids are separated in the second division. Both of these cell division cycles are used in sexually reproducing organisms at some point in their life cycle, and both are believed to be present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor. Prokaryotes also undergo a vegetative cell division known as binary fission, where their genetic material is segregated equally into two daughter cells. All cell divisions, regardless of organism, are preceded by a single round of DNA replication.

Blastocyst is a structure formed in the early development of mammals. It possesses an inner cell mass (ICM) which subsequently forms the embryo. The outer layer of the blastocyst consists of cells collectively called the trophoblast. This layer surrounds the inner cell mass and a fluid-filled cavity known as the blastocoele. The trophoblast gives rise to the placenta.

Labile Cell
Stable Cell
Permanent Cell
Fission (biology)

Cytoplasm is the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus. It comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane) and the organelles – the cell's internal sub-structures. All of the contents of the cells of prokaryote organisms (such as bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus) are contained within the cytoplasm. Within the cells of eukaryote organisms the contents of the cell nucleus are separated from the cytoplasm, and are then called the nucleoplasm. The cytoplasm is about 80% water and usually colorless.
Microtubule are a component of the cytoskeleton, found throughout the cytoplasm.
Cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes). It is a complex network of interlinking filaments and tubules that extend throughout the cytoplasm, from the nucleus to the plasma membrane. The cytoskeletal systems of different organisms are composed of similar proteins. In eukaryotes, the cytoskeletal matrix is a dynamic structure composed of three main proteins, which are capable of rapid growth or disassembly dependent on the cell's requirements at a certain period of time.

Eukaryote Stem Cells

Scientists turn skin cells into heart cells and brain cells using drugs. Studies represent first purely chemical cellular reprogramming, changing a cell's identity without adding external genes.

Organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant, fungus, or bacterium. All known types of organisms are capable of some degree of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development and homeostasis. An organism consists of one or more cells; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism. Most unicellular organisms are of microscopic size and are thus classified as microorganisms. Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs.

Microorganisms is a microscopic living organism, which may be single-celled or multicellular.

Methanogen are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.
Hypoxia (environmental) refers to low oxygen conditions. Normally, 20.9% of the gas in the atmosphere is oxygen.
Lithoautotroph is a microbe which derives energy from reduced compounds of mineral origin.
Lithotroph are a diverse group of organisms using inorganic substrate (usually of mineral origin) to obtain reducing equivalents for use in biosynthesis (e.g., carbon dioxide fixation) or energy conservation (i.e., ATP production) via aerobic or anaerobic respiration. Known chemolithotrophs are exclusively microbes; no known macrofauna possesses the ability to utilize inorganic compounds as energy sources.

Slim Mold The Blob can Learn - and Teach ! It isn't an animal, a plant, or a fungus. The Slime Mold (Physarum polycephalum) is a strange, creeping, bloblike organism made up of one giant cell. Though it has no brain, it can learn from experience, as biologists at the Research Centre on Animal Cognition. Imagine you could temporarily fuse with someone, acquire that person's knowledge, and then split off to become your separate self again, you don't have to imagine because that is what schools are supposed to do, but fail to understand the process.

A single-celled organism capable of learning

Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases to respond to a stimulus after repeated presentations. Essentially, the organism learns to stop responding to a stimulus which is no longer biologically relevant. For example, organisms may habituate to repeated sudden loud noises when they learn these have no consequences. Habituation usually refers to a reduction in innate behaviours, rather than behaviours developed during conditioning in which the process is termed "extinction".

Organelles is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function. Individual organelles are usually separately enclosed within their own lipid bilayers.

Metaorganisms
Bacteria constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals.

Premordial Life or Abiogenesis is said to be a natural process of life arising from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds. Primordial Soup is thought to have occurred on Earth between 3.8 and 4.1 billion years ago. How can abiogenesis be a natural process when you have no proof and no other planet to compare it to. Information does not come from nothing, this information had to originate from somewhere.

Archaea
Eukaryote
Prokaryote
Complex Archaea that bridge the gap between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Histology is the study of the microscopic anatomy (microanatomy) of cells and tissues of plants and animals.

Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and (in animals) physical activity are temporarily stopped. This minimizes metabolic activity and therefore helps an organism to conserve energy. Dormancy tends to be closely associated with environmental conditions. Organisms can synchronize entry to a dormant phase with their environment through predictive or consequential means. Predictive dormancy occurs when an organism enters a dormant phase before the onset of adverse conditions. For example, photoperiod and decreasing temperature are used by many plants to predict the onset of winter. Consequential dormancy occurs when organisms enter a dormant phase after adverse conditions have arisen. This is commonly found in areas with an unpredictable climate. While very sudden changes in conditions may lead to a high mortality rate among animals relying on consequential dormancy, its use can be advantageous, as organisms remain active longer and are therefore able to make greater use of available resources.

Glass formation in plant anhydrobiotes: survival in the dry state
Cytoplasmic viscosity near the cell plasma membrane: measurement by evanescent field frequency-domain microfluorimetry.
Microfluorimetry is an adaption of fluorimetry for studying the biochemical and biophysical properties of cells by using microscopy to image cell components tagged with fluorescent molecules. It is a type of microphotometry that gives a quantitative measure of the qualitative nature of fluorescent measurement and therefore, allows for definitive results that would have been previously indiscernible to the naked eye.
Intracellular glasses and seed survival in the dry state
Building Blocks of Life

"Life has been using a standard set of 20 Amino Acids to build Proteins for more than 3 billion years"  
~ Quoted by Stephen J. Freeland of the NASA Astrobiology Institute at the University of Hawaii.

How did the chemistry of simple carbon-based molecules lead to the information storage of ribonucleic acid, or RNA? The RNA molecule must store information to code for proteins. (Proteins in biology do more than build muscle — they also regulate a host of processes in the body.) 

List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules
Hypertrophy
Swapped human genes into the genetic code used by common yeast cells found that the cells could continue to function and grow. 
Systematic humanization of yeast genes reveals conserved functions and genetic modularity

Pyramid of Complexity
Atoms
Molecules
DNA
Microbes
Size Variations - Nano Machines
Central Nervous System
Electricity
Human Energy


Tree of Life


"Bacteria looks the same as bacteria of the same region from 2.3 billion years ago—and that both sets of ancient bacteria are indistinguishable from modern sulfur bacteria found in mud off of the coast of Chile."



Six Kingdoms Tree of Life




Phylogenetic tree

Tree of Life (wiki)
New Updated Tree of Life
Great Chain of Being (wiki)
Porphyrian Tree (wiki)
Open Tree
Open Tree of Life

Pedigree Chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its
ancestors from one generation to the next, most commonly humans, show dogs, and race horses.

Microbes in Humans

Falsifying Phylogeny (youtube)
Parsimony
Phylogeny Archive
Arizona Tree of Life Web Project
Binary Fission
Phylogenetic Tree
Phylogenetic Network
Molecular Phylogenetics
Molecular Systematics
Darwin's Dilemma
500 Million years ago was the Cambrian Explosion
Earth Timeline
Transitional Fossils
The Missing Link
Richard Dawkins: Intermediate Fossils (youtube)
Descriptive Complexity Theory
Evolution of Biological Complexity
Earth Botany
Most Animals Start out the Same Way, but they never end the same way.
Horizontal Gene Transfer


The tree of life does not say you grew out of bacteria, the tree of life is the biological history of planet earth, things that we have learned so far. The tree of life shows the path that certain information took, or transcended from. The tree of life shows some of the things that we and other life forms are made out of, not grew out of, but made out of. If you were creating advanced animal life, you would want animals made out of certain things like bacteria, things that have learned to survive for millions of years. This is more then a symbiotic relationship with microbes, this is the blueprint for life, use the strongest material available, give life the ability to adapt, to evolve and to learn.

The responsibility of life is now in our hands. Humans have been given the ability to manually adjust information, which gives life even more chances to survive, pure genius. But it is also pure hell when the ability to manually adjust information causes death and destruction, all because the information being adjusted reduces our chances of survival, like pollution that poisons the water, land and air. There is also corruption. Bad information is cancer, actions being made based on bad information. Bad cells are multiplying when bad cells should be dying.

Pyramid of Complexity
Connected
Associations
Building Blocks of Life
Mind Maps





The Thinker Man