Evolution - Intelligent Design
is a process in which something
passes by degrees to a different stage. (especially a more
advanced or mature stage)
events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic
group of organisms
Evolution is about
Adaptation of Species
, because those are facts that can be
explained and understood by most people. Evolution does not
explain where species originate from, or how life starts
, that would be
. To assume that
you know the origin of life is the same thing as assuming that you know
who God is.Intelligent Design
, or confuse
. Though they are related in certain ways, those
are three different things with different definitions that are not 100
is to adjust
oneself to new or different conditions. Make fit for, or change to suit a
new purpose. Brain Plasticity
is a trait with a current functional role in the
life of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of
, which is the differential survival and reproduction of
individuals over time due to differences in phenotype, which is the
observable characteristics or traits, the expression of an organism's
Adapting to lower levels of Oxygen
Human species have adapted to lowland
environment where oxygen is generally abundant. But
people in Tibet, the Andes and Ethiopia have acquired the
ability to survive at extremely high altitudes
. While the
rest of human population would suffer serious health
consequences, these native inhabitants thrive well in the
highest parts of the world. Tibetans has become the fastest case
of human evolution in the scientific record, as it is estimated
to have occurred in less than 3,000 years.
Adapting Genetically to Arsenic
Andean communities may have
evolved the ability to metabolize
a trait that could be the first documented example of a
toxic substance acting as an agent of natural selection in
humans, Arsenic exposure can be deadly, but high in the Andes,
drinking water laced with the chemical may have driven genetic
adaptation in local populations. In parts of Argentina, people
have been drinking poison—arsenic, to be specific—for thousands
of years. The river running through the Andean village of San
Antonio de los Cobres (SAC) has arsenic levels up to 80 times
the safe limit established by the World Health Organization. At
high doses, arsenic causes vomiting, convulsions and eventually
coma. At low, chronic exposure, the metal causes skin lesions,
liver damage and several types of cancers.
is to evolve so as to
lead to a new species or develop in a way most suited to the environment.
Become distinct and acquire a different character. Made different
(especially in the course of development) or shown to be different.
Exhibiting biological specialization; adapted during development to a
specific function or environment. Become different during development.
is change in the heritable characteristics
of biological populations over successive generations. Evolutionary
processes give rise to biodiversity at every level of biological
organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms, and
- Pyramid of
is the subfield of biology that studies
the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth
starting from a single origin of life
. These processes include the descent of species, and
the origin of new species.
is the evolutionary process that led to the
emergence of anatomically modern humans
is coming to full
; becoming mature (biology), the
of an individual organism growing organically; A purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism
changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level.
is the notion that species can revert into more "primitive" forms over
occurs when changes in at least two species' genetic
compositions reciprocally affect each other’s evolution.
is the differential survival and
reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as
its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties,
phenology, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest). A
phenotype results from the expression of an organism's genes as well as
the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the
two. When two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same
population of a species, the species is called
, which the occurrence of two or more clearly different
, also referred to as alternative
, in the population of a species.
is the independent evolution of similar features
in species of different lineages. Convergent evolution creates analogous
structures that have similar form or function but were not present in the
last common ancestor of those group.
describes a shift in the function of a trait during
evolution. For example, a trait can evolve because it served one
particular function, but subsequently it may come to serve another.
Exaptations are common in both anatomy and behaviour. Bird feathers are a
classic example: initially they may have evolved for temperature
regulation, but later were adapted for flight. Interest in exaptation
relates to both the process and products of evolution: the process that
creates complex traits and the products (functions, anatomical structures,
biochemicals, etc.) that may be imperfectly developed
refers to the capacity of intracellular parasites
to use host-cell proteins to complete their vital cycle. Viruses use this
mechanism, as their genome is small. It is also used in a different sense
to refer to characters that have been exapted.
is the philosophical study of nature by attempting to
describe things in terms of their apparent purpose, directive principle,
or goal. A purpose that is imposed by a human use, such as that of a fork,
is called extrinsic. Natural teleology, common in classical philosophy but
controversial today, contends that natural entities also have intrinsic
purposes, irrespective of human use or opinion. For instance, Aristotle
claimed that an acorn's intrinsic telos is to become a fully grown oak
is the use of scientific methods to evaluate anomalies (phenomena that
fall outside of current understanding), with the aim of finding a rational
is the study of the evolutionary history and
relationships among individuals or groups of organisms.
also known as family history, is the study of
families and the tracing of their
the Universe and Earth
Homo Futurus -The
(youtube - 54 mins.)
is an unpaired bone of the neurocranium. It is situated
in the middle of the skull towards the front, in front of the temporal
bone and the basilar part of the occipital bone. The sphenoid bone is one
of the seven bones that articulate to form the orbit. Its shape somewhat
resembles that of a butterfly or bat with its wings extended.
is a gene involved in controlling the expression of one
or more other genes. Regulatory sequences, which encode regulatory genes,
are often 5' to the start site of transcription of the gene they regulate.
In addition , these sequences can also be found 3' to the transcription
start site. In both cases, whether the regulatory sequence occurs before
(5') or after (3') the gene it regulates, the sequence is often many
kilobases away from the transcription start site. A regulator gene may
encode a protein, or it may work at the level of RNA, as in the case of
genes encoding microRNAs. An example of a regulator gene is a gene that
codes for a repressor protein that inhibits the activity of an operator
gene (a gene which binds repressor proteins thus inhibiting the
translation of RNA to protein via RNA
thought to be
part of the evolutionary process?
Point Accepted Mutation
Nature Specials - Mutation - The Science of Survival
the study of the form and structure of
organisms and their specific structural features.Genes
DNA mutation is less frequent, less than 1%, where a
is more frequent.
DNA is constantly subject to mutations
, accidental changes
in its code.
Mutations can lead to missing or malformed
proteins, and that can lead to disease.
Khan Academy: Different Types of Mutations
point mutations, frame shift mutation.
conservative mutation, non-conservative mutation.
Viruses revealed to be a major driver of human evolution.
protein adaptation over millions of years yields insights
relevant to fighting today's
Tree of Life
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
UC Museum of Paleontology - Understanding Evolution
Behaviour and Evolution Association
"Yes, humans are still animals, but humans
have an amazing
we either use it or lose it, now that's evolution."
Richard Dawkins: Why are there still Chimpanzees? - Nebraska
Vignettes #2 (youtube)
Richard Dawkins: Comparing the Human and Chimpanzee Genomes -
Nebraska Vignettes #3
2 million years ago, early humans were established and
had split into at least two species:
Homo Habilis and
Isochron Burial Dating uses Radioisotopes oldest hominid
skeletons ever dated at 3.67 million years old.
Chimpanzee Human last Common Ancestor (wiki)
chromosomes, 2 less then the common
Hominidae whose members are known as great apes or hominids,
are a taxonomic family of primates that includes seven extant
species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean and Sumatran
orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the
common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, the human and
near-human ancestors and relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal)
(5.5 million) is the binomial nomenclature (also known as the
scientific name) for the only extant human species.
(200,000) meaning "upright man", from the Latin ērigere, "to put
up, set upright") is still in existence species of hominid that
lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Human are the only extant members of Hominina clade (or
human clade), a branch of the taxonomical tribe Hominini
belonging to the family of great apes.
Homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair
of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Genetic Genealogy is the use of DNA
testing in combination with traditional genealogy and
traditional genealogical and historical records to infer
relationships between individuals.
Primate arose from ancestors that lived in the trees of
tropical forests; many primate characteristics represent
adaptations to life in this challenging three-dimensional
environment. Most primate species remain at least partly
distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of a
neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones
and mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animals on the
planet, the great whales, as well as some of the most
intelligent, such as elephants, primates and cetaceans.
Louise Leakey Digs for Humanity's Origins (video)
of the Jaguar (Part 1/5) (youtube)
Neanderthals, our closest relatives in the Homo genus,
thrived for hundreds of thousands of years, only to die out
about 40,000 years ago. No one wanted to marry a
Neanderthal, so the went extinct.
How did Brains Evolve?
Encephalization is defined as the amount of brain mass
related to an animal's total body mass.
Recapitulation Theory (wiki)
Devolution is what our current education system is doing.
“Change is not merely necessary to life
- it is life.”
"Knowing what you're made out of does
not explain how you were made....Knowing E=mc2 does not fully
explain what energy is, or does it explain what matter is, or
what light is. So what do we know?"
Yes we know animals evolve or adapt because we have evidence.
But you can’t prove that new species
evolve from other species. Why would a lizard want to evolve
into a horse? And why didn't
Dinosaurs eventually grow brains within 160 million years?
Yes those are stupid questions, but that's where it all starts.
When something doesn't make
sense it means you don't have all the information, so what's
missing? Just because animals share the same
Genes does not mean
that one animal evolved from the other animal, it simply means
that they share the same building blocks of
So what causes these little variations, like the variations we
see in humans? Is it a combination of a
Variable and a
Is evolution part
Evolution has a hard time proving
Diversity or Variety.
We also have some species staying the same
for millions of years while other species in the same time
period evolving or
Adapting. Something's just appear, so where did they
originate from? And somehow, even through
Mass Extinctions, life
still found a way to survive in some form. And after each
Extinction, life never returns in the same way that it was
before. So it doesn't look like a normal process of life, it
kind of looks like someone or something is trying something new,
like some form of Intelligence trying to define itself. There
are huge gaps of missing information. Both religious and
non-religious people love to fill those gaps with their beliefs.
But if I had a choice of filling the gap of missing
information with something, I would rather say that it was
then to say that it was nothing. Not that I would, but I do
understand why some people would say that.
I mean, who would
want to be considered just a freak of nature. I'm either a lucky
piece of shit or I'm here for a reason, I would like to
believe that I'm here for a
reason. If a
belief stops you from learning, then it's not a good belief to
hold. Being biased
against new knowledge and new information leaves you vulnerable
and reduces your ability to adapt and to make good decisions. I
know that there is no guarantee of survival, but reducing my
odds to live makes no sense at all.
I like to believe that Human Ascended
instead of Descended. Our ancestors where the
building blocks of life, not the origin of life.
Last Universal Ancestor (LUA), also called the last
universal common ancestor (LUCA), cenancestor, or progenote, is
the most recent organism from which all organisms now living on
Earth have a common descent. Thus, it is the most recent common
ancestor (MRCA) of all current life on Earth. As such, it should
not be assumed to be the first living organism. The LUA is
estimated to have lived some 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago
(sometime in the Paleoarchean era). The earliest evidence for
life on Earth is biogenic graphite found in 3.7 billion-year-old
metamorphized sedimentary rocks discovered in Western Greenland
and microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old
sandstone discovered in Western Australia. A study in 2015 found
biogenic carbon from 4.1 billion years ago in
ancient rocks in Western Australia. Such findings would indicate
the existence of different conditions on Earth during that
period than what is generally assumed today and point to an
earlier origination of life. In July 2016, scientists reported
identifying a set of 355 genes from the Last Universal Common
Ancestor (LUCA) of all life living on Earth.
Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms
is the most recent individual from which all organisms in a
group, for example a haplogroup, are directly descended. The
term is often applied to human genealogy.
because you can’t explain something now, doesn’t mean that you
never will. Believing you know the answer is different from
actually knowing the answer. Plus we only have one planet that
we know of where life exists.
So from a science point of view, having only one example of life
can never be hard evidence, and that this is just the normal process
of life. To me this is a silly argument and I take no sides in
this discussion. Both sides have good claims, good points and
good theories. Even though this is a healthy discussion that
needs more looking into, I can’t help to know that we have more
important and more urgent problems that need to be addressed.
This is a distraction, but we will come back to this, just
just another form of
some form of intelligence that we are unable to comprehend.
Maybe evolution is Gods work? Who else could have figured out that the only way
you can have a sustaining planet is to give plants and animals
the ability to evolve, adapt and to flourish. If you don’t adapt
you die. And that is exactly where humans are today. Evolution
has given all of us some extremely valuable information that
Cause and Effect is real and that Cause and Effect
should not be ignored. Everyone should just stick with the
facts. Evolution does not explain everything and
not explain everything, so why are we so threatened by
someone else's beliefs? As long as no one ever stops asking
questions, no one should ever fear or feel threatened by other
peoples beliefs. The most important thing is that we keep
sharing information and keep documenting our world. You should
never claim that you have all the answers. If you are stubborn
and selfish with your beliefs then the message you are trying to
convey will only distort information and confuse people into
believing that there are no more questions to ask. And that is
simply a crime against humanity. A good documentary to watch is
War on Science. People are overreacting in this film but
I understand their passion. Another example of people
overreacting is in a film called “The
Shape of Life” from PBS. This film has great information but
it's kind of ruined because they pretend to know the answers of
evolution. These are the kinds of things we need to stop doing
if we are going to educate people and secure our species
survival. A better film to watch is
Planet. To me it seems that a single cell is intelligent
life. How and why? I don't know.
Humans are 90%
bacteria. So I guess if you want to survive on a planet you
better find a way to have a symbiotic relationship with a
planets natural life forms, life forms that have lived and
survived on this planet for billions of years. I guess that is
how we will
survive on another planet, by finding out what has lived and
survived there the longest, and then learn how to have a
symbiotic relationship with those organisms.
So what's wrong with saying "I don't know?
evolution is not bad, what's bad is
how you teach evolution and
how it's understood by people. The same thing with religion,
teaching religion is not bad, it's how you teach
Religion and how it's
understood." If evolution is information evolving, and if
is information, then I guess you're both right.
This is just another Human Transition, maybe evolution and
intelligent design are the same thing?....Can I go now?
"You can't prove that God does not
exist, or can you prove that God does exist. We should stick
with the things that we can prove and save the things that we
cannot prove for later time. Because if we don't solve our
greatest problems, that we all face, we will never live to see
God, or live to see if there isn't a God."
It is difficult to understand how anyone
can believe that the
Nervous System, particularly the
brain, could have been
produced by evolutionary randomness and selection. We have
barely touched on some of the electrical design present in the
rest of the body. The truth is that scientists are always
discovering more about its workings, since its complexity, which
far surpasses anything produced by man, is nothing short of a
miracle. Truly we can say with David, “I will praise You, for I
am fearfully and wonderfully made; Your works are marvelous and
my soul knows it very well” (Psalm 139:14). (Craig Savige)
"Whether you believe that evolution or
God designed our brain doesn't really matter, what matters is
that you never ignore the human brains enormous potential, and
its weaknesses. The knowledge that we have acquired about
human brain is invaluable. So knowing who or what made it
will not be as important as learning how the brain works and
learning how effectively we can use its power. So when we
finally do figure out who or what made us, it will not come to
us as some big surprise, because after all, we have brains."
"Thank God my brain is smarter then I am."
"God has reasons for doing things, and
evolution has reasons too, and if God created evolution, then
evolution can't be wrong."
"I couldn't even imagine being anything
else but human. Human to me is the greatest way to experience
life. And when we imagine what other life from other planets
looks like, that makes me even prouder, because the human form
to me is the most enjoyable machine a person could ever design.
I couldn't even dream of a better human. Some people would say a
human with wings, or a human with superman powers. But we
already have those because of the machines that we will built."
If you didn't have what you needed to know
what you were missing, then how would you evolve into it? I know
information is some form of intelligence, what I don't know is
how did information see when it didn't have what was needed to
see what it didn't have?
I think that humans take for granted
that our way of seeing through the eyes is the only form of
"I'm the evolutionary result of a seed
that was born thousands of years ago, and yet it feels like the
first time being alive."
Some people believe
that 10 million years ago that some of the monkeys changed their
diet just enough to evolve into humans. Though I fully
the importance of nutrition and how diet can improve
appearance and health, I'm having a little trouble understanding
just what nutritional substances can cause a species body to
change and grow a better brain? I'm positive we can repeat this
theory. We just need to start feeding monkeys better food and
lets see what happens. Of course it will take many life times to
see the results, but we should start seeing some changes, maybe
We know the about the negative effects from a poor nutritional
isolation, children are smaller and less developed, just
like early man. Does that mean that only a man can grow into
man. Humans evolved from humans? This is like finding out that
your father is not your real father. Welcome to the party.
Project X (youtube)
Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov (wiki)
World's Smartest Apes (youtube)
And since we have evidence and experience in knowing that
can actually be explained, we still have to keep trying to
understand our world. We have enough evidence to prove that our
increased understanding of the world has benefited us in many
ways. Not to say that it was
Perfect, But at least we are
definitely more aware of our possibilities and of our human
"It's not the strongest of species
that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most
adaptable to change."
Michael Archer: How we'll Resurrect the Gastric Brooding Frog
the Tasmanian Tiger (video)
People didn't have enough
information and knowledge years ago that was needed in order to
explain complex ideas and concepts. But now we do, and we can be
more precise. Not that we can fully explain all knowledge
correctly to all people, but at least we know now that the
acquisition of more knowledge is always needed to further our
understanding and also to help to explain knowledge so that more
people can understand. The mistake that most people make is that
they believed that all knowledge is known, so they make
assumptions instead of realizing that more knowledge,
information and research is needed. So not only do we have more
knowledge and information today, we also have the intelligence
to know that more knowledge and information is always needed. So
we can now make less assumptions, make less mistakes, and we
never assume that we know everything, thus we keep learning.
"I wouldn't want to
assume that life started on this planet. I'm just saying that
life had to start somewhere. Where and how, I don't know? But I
hope we find out, because that would be an incredible story. We
galaxy was not the first galaxy born in our universe. So we
may have brothers and sisters, some we may never know? But my
guess is, that we will find our siblings, because everything
usually leaves some kind of a trace."
Trace is a
just detectable amount. An indication that something has been
present. A visible mark (as a footprint) left by the passage of
person or animal or vehicle. Discover traces of. Follow,
discover, or ascertain the course of development of something.
To go back over again. Pursue or chase relentlessly.
Detect is to discover or determine the
existence, presence, or fact of.
Indication is a datum about some
physical state that is presented to a user by a meter or similar
is the view that "certain features
of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent
cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection. "Things just
happen Dude" or "This looks to amazing to be just some natural sequence of
events, first you need to define what natural is, which you can't because
this is everyone's first time here, thus, we have nothing to compare life
to, nothing."...so we need to start over, this time everyone needs to have
an open mind.
is the production of new living organisms or
organelles. The hypothesis of biogenesis, attributed to Louis Pasteur,
states that complex living things come only from other living things, by
reproduction (e.g. a spider lays eggs, which develop into spiders). That
is, modern life does not arise from non-living material, which was the
position held by spontaneous generation.
Star Trek III The Search for Spock
Exogenesis or Panspermia, is the hypothesis that life exists
throughout the Universe, distributed by meteoroids, asteroids, comets,
planetoids, and also by spacecraft in the form of unintended contamination
by microorganisms. Panspermia is a hypothesis proposing that microscopic
life forms that can survive the effects of space, such as extremophiles,
become trapped in debris that is ejected into space after collisions
between planets and small Solar System bodies that harbor life. Some
organisms may travel dormant for an extended amount of time before
colliding randomly with other planets or intermingling with protoplanetary
disks. If met with ideal conditions on a new planet's surfaces, the
organisms become active and the process of evolution begins. Panspermia is
not meant to address how life began, just the method that may cause its
distribution in the Universe.
Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution,
distribution, and future of life in the universe: extraterrestrial life
and life on Earth. Astrobiology addresses the question of whether life
exists beyond Earth, and how humans can detect it if it does (the term
exobiology is similar but more specific—it covers the search for life
beyond Earth, and the effects of extraterrestrial environments on living
is the philosophical consideration that observations of the
Universe must be compatible with the conscious and sapient life that
observes it. Some proponents of the anthropic principle reason that it
explains why this universe has the age and the fundamental physical
constants necessary to accommodate conscious life. As a result, they
believe it is unremarkable that this universe has fundamental constants
that happen to fall within the narrow range thought to be compatible with
is the religious belief that the universe
and life originated "from specific acts of
," as opposed to
the scientific reasons that they came about through natural processes.
or informally, the origin of life, is the
natural process by which life arises from non-living matter, such as
simple organic compounds. It is thought to have occurred on Earth between
3.8 and 4.1 billion years ago
Abiogenesis is studied through a combination of laboratory experiments and
extrapolation from the characteristics of modern organisms, and aims to
determine how pre-life chemical reactions gave rise to life on Earth.
is an obsolete body of thought on the
ordinary formation of living organisms without descent from similar
organisms. Typically, the idea was that certain forms such as fleas could
arise from inanimate matter such as dust, or that maggots could arise from
dead flesh. A variant idea was that of equivocal generation, in which
species such as tapeworms arose from unrelated living organisms, now
understood to be their hosts. Doctrines supporting such processes of
generation held that these processes are commonplace and regular. Such
ideas are in contradiction to that of univocal generation: effectively
exclusive reproduction from genetically related parent(s), generally of
the same species.
is a taxon that disappears for one or more
periods from the fossil record, only to appear again later. Likewise in
conservation biology and ecology, it can refer to species or populations
that were thought to be extinct, and are rediscovered. The term refers to
the story in the Christian biblical Gospel of John, in which Jesus Christ
raised Lazarus from the dead.
is a group of one
or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to
form a unit.
is the ecological state of a species being unique
to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or
other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a
place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme
opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for
a species that is endemic is precinctive, which applies to species (and
subspecific categories) that are restricted to a defined geographical
are the basic structural and functional unit of
all organisms; they may exist as independent units of life (as in monads)
or may form colonies or tissues as in higher
The Cell Map
Building Blocks of Life
The Human Cell
The largest cell in the human body is the
, and the smallest cell is the
, 500 Million from Ejaculation.
Immune System Cells
is a complex molecular machine
, found within all living
cells, that serves as the site of biological protein production. Ribosomes
link amino acids together in the order specified by messenger
(mRNA) molecules. Ribosomes consist of two
major components: the small ribosomal subunit, which reads the RNA, and
the large subunit, which joins amino acids to form a polypeptide chain.
Each subunit is composed of one or more ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules and
a variety of ribosomal proteins. The ribosomes and associated molecules
are also known as the translational apparatus. Ribosome is a minute
particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers
in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA
to synthesize polypeptides and
is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and
carbon, and thus are group 14 hydrides. Hydrocarbons from which one
hydrogen atom has been removed are functional groups, called hydrocarbyls.
Aromatic hydrocarbons (arenes), alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes and
alkyne-based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons.
comprise a group
of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols,
fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides,
diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others. The main
biological functions of lipids include storing
, signaling, and acting as
structural components of cell membranes.
biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and
carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side-chain (R group)
specific to each amino acid. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, though other elements are found in the
side-chains of certain amino acids. About 500 amino acids are known
(though only 20 appear in the genetic code) and can be classified in many
is the event of a biological cell ceasing to carry out its functions. This
may be the result of the natural process of old cells dying and being
replaced by new ones, or may result from such factors as disease,
localized injury, or the death of the organism of which the cells are
Programmed Cell Death
is cell death mediated by an intracellular
program. PCD is carried out in a regulated process, which usually confers
advantage during an organism's life-cycle. For example, the
differentiation of fingers and toes in a developing human embryo occurs
because cells between the fingers apoptose; the result is that the digits
are separate. PCD serves fundamental functions during both plant and
metazoa (multicellular animals) tissue development.
process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes (morphology) and
death. These changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear
fragmentation, chromatin condensation, chromosomal DNA
fragmentation, and global mRNA decay. Between 50
and 70 billion cells die each day
due to apoptosis in the average
human adult.[a] For an average child between the ages of 8 and 14,
approximately 20 billion to 30 billion cells die a day.
refers to a mechanism of delayed mitotic-linked cell
death, a sequence of events resulting from premature or inappropriate
entry of cells into mitosis that can be caused by chemical or
is the inhibition of
cell growth and multiplication
Cytostatic refers to a cellular component or medicine that inhibits cell
growth. Cytostasis is an important prerequisite for structured
multicellular organisms. Without regulation of cell growth and division
only unorganized heaps of cells would be possible. Chemotherapy of cancer,
treatment of skin diseases and treatment of infections are common use
cases of cytostatic drugs. Active hygienic products generally contain
cytostatic substances. Cytostatic mechanisms and drugs generally occur
together with cytotoxic ones.
can occur as a result of an
adverse stimulus which disrupts the normal homeostasis of affected cells.
Among other causes, this can be due to physical, chemical, infectious,
biological, nutritional or immunological factors. Cell damage can be
reversible or irreversible. Depending on the extent of injury, the
cellular response may be adaptive and where possible, homeostasis is
restored. Cell death occurs when the severity of the injury exceeds the
cell’s ability to repair itself. Cell death is relative to both the length
of exposure to a harmful stimulus and the severity of the damage caused.
Cell death may occur by necrosis or apoptosis.
is a form of cell injury which
results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by
, which is known as self-digestion, refers to the destruction
of a cell through the action of its own enzymes. It may also refer to the
digestion of an enzyme by another molecule of the same enzyme.
is the series of events that
take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its
(DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells. In bacteria, which lack a
cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. The
B period extends from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA
replication. DNA replication occurs during the C period. The D period
refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the splitting
of the bacterial cell into two daughter cells.
is a single organism composed of
cells from different
This can result in male and female organs, two blood types, or subtle
variations in form.
is the process by which a
parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually
occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. In eukaryotes, there are two
distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each
daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a
reproductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the
daughter cells is reduced by half to produce haploid gametes (meiosis).
Meiosis results in four haploid daughter cells by undergoing one round of
DNA replication followed by two divisions: homologous chromosomes are
separated in the first division, and sister chromatids are separated in
the second division. Both of these cell division cycles are used in
sexually reproducing organisms at some point in their life cycle, and both
are believed to be present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor.
Prokaryotes also undergo a vegetative cell division known as binary
fission, where their genetic material is segregated equally into two
daughter cells. All cell divisions, regardless of organism, are preceded
by a single round of DNA
is a structure formed in the early development of mammals.
It possesses an inner cell mass (ICM) which subsequently forms the embryo.
The outer layer of the blastocyst consists of cells collectively called
the trophoblast. This layer surrounds the inner cell mass and a
fluid-filled cavity known as the blastocoele. The trophoblast gives rise
to the placenta.
are cells that multiply
constantly throughout life. The cells are alive for only a short period of
time. Due to this, they can end up reproducing new
replace functional cells
. Especially if the
cells become injured through a process called necrosis, or even if the
cells go through apoptosis. The way these cells regenerate and replace
themselves is quite unique. While going through cell division, one of the
two daughter cells actually becomes a new stem cell. This occurs so then
that daughter cell can end up restoring the population of the stem cells
that were lost. The other daughter cell separates itself into a functional
cell in order to replace the lost, or injured cells during this process.
Labile cells are one type of the cells that are involved in the division
of cells. The other two types that are involved include stable cells and
permanent cells. Each of these type of cells respond to injuries of the
cells they occupy differently. Hepatocytes of the liver are thought to be
a form of a labile cell because they can regenerate after they become
injured. An example of this kind of regeneration can consist of performing
a pediatric liver transplant. In which it consists of taking a piece of an
adult's liver to replace a child's whole liver. Then the adult liver that
was transplanted for the child's, would regenerate very quickly to around
a normal size liver. Other cell types that are thought to be cells that
are constantly dividing include skin cells, cells in the gastrointestinal
tract, and blood cells in the bone marrow. Acting as stem cells for these
cell types. In labile cells, it is not a speed-up in the segments of the
cell cycle (i.e. G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase and M phase), but rather a
short or absent G0 phase that is responsible for the cells' constant
are cells that multiply only
when needed. They spend most of the time in the quiescent G0 phase of the
cell cycle, but can be stimulated to enter the cell cycle when needed.
Examples include: the liver, the proximal tubules of the kidney, and
are cells that are
incapable of regeneration. These cells are considered to be terminally
differentiated and non proliferative in postnatal life. This includes
brain cells, neurons, heart cells, skeletal muscle cells and RBCs.
is the division of a single entity into two or more
parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities
resembling the original. The object experiencing fission is usually a
cell, but the term may also refer to how organisms, bodies, populations,
or species split into discrete parts. The fission may be binary fission,
in which a single entity produces two parts, or multiple fission, in which
a single entity produces multiple parts.
is the material or protoplasm within a living cell,
excluding the cell nucleus. It comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance
enclosed within the cell membrane) and the organelles – the cell's
internal sub-structures. All of the contents of the cells of prokaryote
organisms (such as bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus) are contained
within the cytoplasm. Within the cells of eukaryote organisms the contents
of the cell nucleus are separated from the cytoplasm, and are then called
the nucleoplasm. The cytoplasm is about 80% water and usually colorless.
are a component of the cytoskeleton, found
throughout the cytoplasm.
is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea,
bacteria, eukaryotes). It is a complex network of interlinking filaments
and tubules that extend throughout the cytoplasm, from the nucleus to the
plasma membrane. The cytoskeletal systems of different organisms are
composed of similar proteins. In eukaryotes, the cytoskeletal matrix is a
dynamic structure composed of three main proteins, which are capable of
rapid growth or disassembly dependent on the cell's requirements at a
certain period of time.
Scientists turn skin cells into heart cells and brain cells using drugs
Studies represent first purely chemical cellular reprogramming, changing a
cell's identity without adding external genes.
contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant, fungus, or bacterium.
All known types of organisms are capable of some degree of response to
stimuli, reproduction, growth and development and homeostasis. An organism
consists of one or more cells; when it has one cell it is known as a
unicellular organism; and when it has more than one it is known as a
multicellular organism. Most unicellular organisms are of microscopic size
and are thus classified as microorganisms. Humans are multicellular
organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized
tissues and organs.
is any organism that does not require
for growth. It may react
negatively or even die if oxygen is present. In contrast, an
(aerobe) is an organism that can survive
and grow in an oxygenated environment.
is a microscopic living organism, which may be single-celled or
is a non-human species that is extensively studied
to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that
discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the
workings of other organisms. Model organisms are in vivo models and are
widely used to research human disease when human experimentation would be
unfeasible or unethical. This strategy is made possible by the common
descent of all living organisms, and the conservation of metabolic and
developmental pathways and genetic material over the course of evolution.
are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic
byproduct in anoxic conditions.
refers to low oxygen conditions. Normally,
20.9% of the gas in the atmosphere is oxygen.
is a microbe which derives energy from reduced
compounds of mineral origin.
are a diverse group of organisms using inorganic substrate
(usually of mineral origin) to obtain reducing equivalents for use in
biosynthesis (e.g., carbon dioxide fixation) or energy conservation (i.e.,
ATP production) via aerobic or anaerobic respiration. Known
chemolithotrophs are exclusively microbes; no known macrofauna possesses
the ability to utilize inorganic compounds as energy sources.
The Blob can
Learn - and Teach !
It isn't an animal, a plant, or a fungus. The
(Physarum polycephalum) is a
strange, creeping, bloblike organism made up of one giant cell. Though it
has no brain, it can learn from experience, as biologists at the Research
Centre on Animal Cognition. Imagine you could temporarily fuse with
someone, acquire that person's knowledge, and then split off to become
your separate self again, you don't have to imagine because that is what
schools are supposed to do, but fail to understand the process.
A single-celled organism capable of learning
is a form of learning
in which an organism decreases or
ceases to respond to a stimulus
after repeated presentations. Essentially,
the organism learns to stop responding
which is no longer
biologically relevant. For example, organisms may habituate to
repeated sudden loud noises when they learn these have no consequences.
Habituation usually refers to a reduction in innate
than behaviours developed during conditioning in which the process is
is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific
function. Individual organelles are usually separately enclosed within
their own lipid bilayers.Metaorganisms
constitute a large domain of prokaryotic
microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a
number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were
among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of
its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs,
radioactive waste, and the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria also
live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals.
is said to be a natural process of life arising from
non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds.
is thought to have occurred on Earth between 3.8 and
4.1 billion years ago. How can abiogenesis be a natural process when you
have no proof and no other planet to compare it to. Information does not
come from nothing, this information had to originate from somewhere.
constitute a domain and kingdom of single-celled
microorganisms. These microbes (archaea; singular archaeon) are
prokaryotes, meaning that they have no cell nucleus or any other
membrane-bound organelles in their cells.
is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and
other organelles enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotes belong to the taxon
Eukarya or Eukaryota. The defining feature that sets eukaryotic cells
apart from prokaryotic cells (Bacteria and Archaea) is that they have
membrane-bound organelles, especially the nucleus, which contains the
genetic material and is enclosed by the nuclear envelope. The presence of
a nucleus gives eukaryotes their name.
is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus (karyon),
mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Complex Archaea that bridge the gap between Prokaryotes and
is the study of the microscopic anatomy (microanatomy) of cells and
tissues of plants and animals.
is a period in an organism's life cycle when
growth, development, and (in animals) physical activity are temporarily
stopped. This minimizes metabolic activity and therefore helps an organism
to conserve energy. Dormancy tends to be closely associated with
environmental conditions. Organisms can synchronize entry to a dormant
phase with their environment through predictive or consequential means.
Predictive dormancy occurs when an organism enters a dormant phase before
the onset of adverse conditions. For example, photoperiod and decreasing
temperature are used by many plants to predict the onset of winter.
Consequential dormancy occurs when organisms enter a dormant phase after
adverse conditions have arisen. This is commonly found in areas with an
unpredictable climate. While very sudden changes in conditions may lead to
a high mortality rate among animals relying on consequential dormancy, its
use can be advantageous, as organisms remain active longer and are
therefore able to make greater use of available resources.
Glass formation in plant anhydrobiotes: survival in the dry
Cytoplasmic viscosity near the cell plasma membrane: measurement
by evanescent field frequency-domain microfluorimetry
is an adaption of fluorimetry for studying
the biochemical and biophysical properties of cells by using microscopy to
image cell components tagged with
. It is a type of microphotometry that gives a
quantitative measure of the qualitative nature of fluorescent measurement
and therefore, allows for definitive results that would have been
previously indiscernible to the naked eye.
Intracellular glasses and seed survival in the dry state
Building Blocks of Life
"Life has been using a standard set of
20 Amino Acids
for more than 3 billion years"
~ Quoted by Stephen
J. Freeland of the
NASA Astrobiology Institute
at the University
How did the chemistry of simple
carbon-based molecules lead to the information storage of
ribonucleic acid, or RNA? The
must store information to code for proteins.
(Proteins in biology do more than build muscle — they also
regulate a host of processes in the body.)
List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules
Swapped human genes into the genetic code used by common yeast
found that the cells could continue to function and
Systematic humanization of yeast genes reveals conserved
functions and genetic modularity
Pyramid of Complexity
- Nano Machines
Central Nervous System
Tree of Life
"Bacteria looks the same as bacteria of the
same region from 2.3 billion years ago
—and that both sets of
ancient bacteria are indistinguishable from modern sulfur bacteria found in mud off of the coast of Chile."
is a branching diagram or "tree" showing
the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species
or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences
in their physical or genetic characteristics. The taxa joined together in
the tree are implied to have descended from a common ancestor.
Phylogenetic trees are central to the field of phylogenetics.
Tree of Life
is any graph used to visualize
evolutionary relationships (either abstractly or explicitly) between
nucleotide sequences, genes, chromosomes, genomes, or species. They are
employed when reticulation events such as hybridization, horizontal gene
transfer, recombination, or gene duplication and loss are believed to be
involved. They differ from phylogenetic trees by the explicit modeling of
richly-linked networks, by means of the addition of hybrid nodes (nodes
with two parents) instead of only tree nodes (a hierarchy of nodes, each
with only one parent). Phylogenetic trees are a subset of phylogenetic
networks. Phylogenetic networks can be inferred and visualised with
software such as SplitsTree and, more recently, Dendroscope. A standard
format for representing phylogenetic networks is a variant of Newick
format which is extended to support networks as well as trees.
is the branch of phylogeny that
analyses hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA sequences, to
gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
is the use of molecular genetics to study the evolution of
relationships among individuals and species. The goal of systematic
studies is to provide insight into the history of groups of organisms and
the evolutionary processes that create diversity among species.
is a classic device for illustrating what is
also called a "scale of being" which indicates that a species is defined
by a genus and a differentia and that this logical process continues until
the lowest species is reached, which can no longer be so defined.
is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance
or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its
one generation to the next, most commonly humans, show dogs, and race
Building Blocks of Life
Tree of Life
is a widespread mytheme or archetype in the
world's mythologies, related to the concept of sacred tree more generally,
and hence in religious and philosophical tradition.
Great Chain of Being
is a strict, religious hierarchical
structure of all matter and life, believed to have been decreed by God.
The chain starts from God and progresses downward to
, demons (fallen/renegade angels),
stars, moon, kings, princes, nobles, commoners, wild animals, domesticated
animals, trees, other plants, precious stones, precious metals, and other
Microbes in Humans
is an optimality criterion under which the
phylogenetic tree that minimizes the total number of character-state
changes is to be preferred. Under the maximum-parsimony criterion, the
optimal tree will minimize the amount of homoplasy (i.e., convergent
evolution, parallel evolution, and evolutionary reversals). In other
words, under this criterion, the shortest possible tree that explains the
data is considered best. The principle is akin to Occam's razor, which
states that—all else being equal—the simplest hypothesis that explains the
data should be selected.
of Life Web Project
is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and
the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the
original. The object experiencing fission is usually a cell, but the term
may also refer to how organisms, bodies, populations, or species split
into discrete parts. The fission may be binary fission, in which a single
entity produces two parts, or multiple fission, in which a single entity
produces multiple parts.
500 Million years ago
is a tentative partial list of
transitional fossils (fossil remains of groups that exhibits both
"primitive" and derived traits). The fossils are listed in series, showing
the transition from one group to another, representing significant steps
in the evolution of major features in various lineages. These changes
often represent major changes in morphology and anatomy, related to mode
of life, like the acquisition of feathered wings for an aerial lifestyle
in birds, or limbs in the fish/tetrapod transition onto land.The Missing Link
Richard Dawkins: Intermediate Fossils
Descriptive Complexity Theory
is a branch of computational
complexity theory and of finite model theory that characterizes complexity
classes by the type of logic needed to express the languages in them.
Evolution of Biological Complexity
Most Animals Start out the Same Way
, but they never end the same way.
Horizontal Gene Transfer
is the movement of genetic material
between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than via vertical
transmission (the transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.) HGT is
synonymous with lateral gene transfer (LGT) and the terms are
interchangeable. HGT has been shown to be an important factor in the
evolution of many organisms. Horizontal gene transfer is the primary
reason for the spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and plays an
important role in the evolution of bacteria that can degrade novel
compounds such as human-created pesticides and in the evolution,
maintenance, and transmission of virulence. This horizontal gene transfer
often involves temperate bacteriophages and plasmids. Genes that are
responsible for antibiotic resistance in one species of bacteria can be
transferred to another species of bacteria through various mechanisms such
as F-pilus, subsequently arming the antibiotic resistant genes' recipient
against antibiotics, which is becoming a medical challenge to deal with.
Most thinking in genetics has focused upon vertical transfer, but there is
a growing awareness that horizontal gene transfer is a highly significant
phenomenon and among single-celled organisms, perhaps the dominant form of
genetic transfer. Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic
The tree of life does not say you grew out of bacteria, the
tree of life is the
biological history of planet earth,
things that we have
. The tree of life shows the
path that certain information took, or transcended from. The tree
of life shows some
of the things that we and other life forms are made out of, not grew out of, but
made out of.
If you were creating advanced animal life, you would want
animals made out of
certain things like bacteria, things that have learned to
survive for millions of
years. This is more then a symbiotic relationship with
, this is the
blueprint for life, use the strongest material available, give
life the ability to
adapt, to evolve and to learn.
The responsibility of life is now in our hands. Humans have been
given the ability to manually adjust information, which
gives life even more chances to survive, pure genius. But it is
also pure hell when the
ability to manually adjust
information causes death and destruction, all because the
information being adjusted
reduces our chances of survival, like pollution that poisons the
water, land and air. There is also corruption. Bad information is
cancer, actions being made based on bad information. Bad cells
are multiplying when
bad cells should be dying.