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Evolution - Intelligent Design

Evolution is a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage, especially a more advanced or mature stage. In biology evolution is the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms.

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Evolution is about Natural Selection and the Adaptation of Species, because those are facts that can be explained and understood by most people. Evolution does not explain where species originate from, or how life starts, that would be Physics. How did life evolve from nonliving matter? Evolution is a process of life, life is not a process of evolution. If the instructions are already in the DNA, then that's not evolution, that's a planned development. So who planned it?

Believing in God does not mean that you can't believe in evolution, and believing in evolution does not mean that you can't believe in God. Believing in God does not excuse you from knowing the facts in the same way that believing in evolution does not excuse you from knowing about religion and what it's like to believe in a God. Ignorance is the only thing that divides us. To assume that you know the origin of life is the same thing as assuming that you know who God is.

Intelligent Design

Don't confuse Life with Evolution, or confuse Evolution with Adaptation. Though they are related in certain ways, those are three different things with different definitions that are not 100 percent defined.

Traits - Heredity


Adapt is to adjust oneself to new or different conditions. Make fit for, progress or change to suit a new purpose.
Changeable is capable of or tending to change in form or quality or nature. Diverse
Fluidity is a changeable quality. The property of flowing easily. A continuous, amorphous substance whose molecules move freely past one another and that has the tendency to assume the shape of its container. Fluid intelligence.
Adjustable is capable of being changed so as to match or fit.
Adjustment is to change or alter something to work better or look better; adjusting to circumstances. Adjusting something to match a standard. The process of adapting to something. Modify.
Flexible is capable of being changed. Able to adjust readily to different conditions.
Alter is to cause to change; make different; cause a transformation. Make an alteration to.
Revise is to update, correct and improve something. Rewrite, or do or say something differently.
Transformation is a change. When something becomes different. An event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another. Plasticity (brain)

Adaptation is a trait with a current functional role in the life of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of Natural Selection, which is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals over time due to differences in phenotype, which is the observable characteristics or traits, the expression of an organism's genetic code.

Co-Adaptation is the process by which two or more species, genes or phenotypic traits undergo adaptation as a pair or group. This occurs when two or more interacting characteristics undergo natural selection together in response to the same selective pressure or when selective pressures alter one characteristic and consecutively alter the interactive characteristic. These interacting characteristics are only beneficial when together, sometimes leading to increased interdependence. Co-adaptation and coevolution, although similar in process, are not the same; co-adaptation refers to the interactions between two units, whereas
co-evolution refers to their evolutionary history. Co-adaptation and its examples are often seen as evidence for co-evolution.

Adaptive Behavior refers to behavior that enables a person (usually used in the context of children) to get along in his or her environment with greatest success and least conflict with others. This is a term used in the areas of psychology and special education. Adaptive behavior relates to every day skills or tasks that the average person is able to complete, similar to the
term life skills.

Life is a Learning Program - How digital DNA could help you make better health choices (video and interactive text)

Adaptationism is the view that many physical and psychological traits of organisms are evolved adaptations.

Adapting to lower levels of Oxygen

Human species have adapted to lowland environment where oxygen is generally abundant. But people in Tibet, the Andes and Ethiopia have acquired the ability to survive at extremely high altitudes. While the rest of human population would suffer serious health consequences, these native inhabitants thrive well in the highest parts of the world. Tibetans has become the fastest case of human evolution in the scientific record, as it is estimated to have occurred in less than 3,000 years.

People around the Arctic Circle are more adapted to cold and you can see them taking a swim or a sunbath on the beach when temperatures are just above 10 degrees C. Africans are more adapted to heat, but when temperature drops to 15 degrees C, you can see them wearing warm clothes. People around the Arctic Circle are used to eat meat and animal fat, but when they move to a large town, where their diet will consist mainly of vegetables, they get anemia. Europeans are most adapted for consuming milk, while Chinese people, where historically milk was not used for food, have a high percentage of lactose intolerance. This is an adaptation made by the organisms of European people for their food regime. People that remained around the contemned zone in Chernobyl seem to have adapted to a certain level of radiation.

Adapting Genetically to Arsenic

Andean communities may have evolved the ability to metabolize arsenic, a trait that could be the first documented example of a toxic substance acting as an agent of natural selection in humans, Arsenic exposure can be deadly, but high in the Andes, drinking water laced with the chemical may have driven genetic adaptation in local populations. In parts of Argentina, people have been drinking poison—arsenic, to be specific—for thousands of years. The river running through the Andean village of San Antonio de los Cobres (SAC) has arsenic levels up to 80 times the safe limit established by the World Health Organization. At high doses, arsenic causes vomiting, convulsions and eventually coma. At low, chronic exposure, the metal causes skin lesions, liver damage and several types of cancers.

Scientists have found that Cephalopods are able to edit their RNA, at the expense of evolution in their genomic DNA. In other words, they are able to rapidly change on the cellular level to suit their environment, rather than relying on the slow evolution of DNA to make changes.

Evolution Diagram Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. Evolutionary processes give rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organization, including the levels of species, individual organisms, and molecules.

Macroevolution is evolution on a scale at or above the level of species, in contrast with microevolution, which refers to smaller evolutionary changes of allele frequencies within a species or population. Macroevolution and microevolution describe fundamentally identical processes on different time scales. Mutations

Divergent Evolution is the accumulation of differences between groups, leading to the formation of new species.

Differentiated is to evolve so as to lead to a new species or develop in a way most suited to the environment. Become distinct and acquire a different character. Made different (especially in the course of development) or shown to be different. Exhibiting biological specialization; adapted during development to a specific function or environment. Become different during development or design.

Microevolution is the change in allele frequencies that occurs over time within a population. This change is due to four different processes: mutation, selection (natural and artificial), gene flow, and genetic drift. This change happens over a relatively short (in evolutionary terms) amount of time compared to the changes termed 'macroevolution' which is where greater differences in the population occur. Abiogenesis

Evolutionary Biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth starting from a single origin of life. These processes include the descent of species, and the origin of new species.

Adaptive Radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches. Starting with a recent single ancestor, this process results in the speciation and phenotypic adaptation of an array of species exhibiting different morphological and physiological traits.

Speciation is the evolutionary process by which biological populations evolve to become distinct species.

Convergent Evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages. convergence is the tendency of unrelated animals and plants to evolve superficially similar characteristics under similar environmental conditions.

Human Evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans.

Maturation is coming to full development; becoming mature (biology), the process of an individual organism growing organically; A purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level.

Devolution is the notion that species can revert into more "primitive" forms over time.

Coevolution occurs when changes in at least two species' genetic compositions reciprocally affect each other’s evolution.

Natural Selection is the change in heritable traits of a population over time. Some life forms can adapt while other species die off. The differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype. Variation exists within all populations of organisms.

Cause and Effect - Pyramid of Complexity - Anthropology

Phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, phenology, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest). A phenotype results from the expression of an organism's genes as well as the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the two. When two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species, the species is called polymorph, which the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.

Tree of Life - Biology Order

Genotype is the part (DNA sequence) of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines a specific characteristic (phenotype) of that cell/organism/individual. Genotype is one of three factors that determine phenotype, the other two being inherited epigenetic factors, and non-inherited environmental factors.

Gene Pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.

Genetic Drift is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms. The alleles in the offspring are a sample of those in the parents, and chance has a role in determining whether a given individual survives and reproduces. A population's allele frequency is the fraction of the copies of one gene that share a particular form. Genetic drift may cause gene variants to disappear completely and thereby reduce genetic variation.

Gene Flow is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another. If the rate of gene flow is high enough, then two populations are considered to have equivalent genetic diversity and therefore effectively a single population. It has been shown that it takes only "One migrant per generation" to prevent population diverging due to drift. Gene flow is an important mechanism for transferring genetic diversity among populations. Migrants into or out of a population may result in a change in allele frequencies (the proportion of members carrying a particular variant of a gene), changing the distribution of genetic diversity within the populations. Immigration may also result in the addition of new genetic variants to the established gene pool of a particular species or population. High rates of gene flow can reduce the genetic differentiation between the two groups, increasing homogeneity. For this reason, gene flow has been thought to constrain speciation by combining the gene pools of the groups, and thus, preventing the development of differences in genetic variation that would have led to full speciation.

Genetic Variation means that biological systems – individuals and populations – are different over space. Each gene pool includes various alleles of genes. The variation occurs both within and among populations, supported by individual carriers of the variant genes.

Allele is a variant form of a given gene. Sometimes, different alleles can result in different observable phenotypic traits, such as different pigmentation. A good example of this trait of color variation is the work Gregor Mendel did with the white and purple flower colors in pea plants; discovering that each color was the result of a “pure line” trait which could be used as a control for future experiments. However, most genetic variations result in little or no observable variation.

Allele Frequency is the relative frequency of an allele (variant of a gene) at a particular locus in a population, expressed as a fraction or percentage. Specifically, it is the fraction of all chromosomes in the population that carry that allele. Microevolution is the change in allele frequencies that occurs over time within a population.

Taxonomy (biology) is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean classification for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics, cladistics, and systematics, the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct.

Taxon is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

Purebred are cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal species, achieved through the process of selective breeding. When the lineage of a purebred animal is recorded, that animal is said to be pedigreed.

Bloodline are the descendants of one individual. Ancestry of a purebred animal.

Genetic Genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogy and traditional genealogical and historical records to infer relationships between individuals. Genetic genealogy involves the use of genealogical DNA testing to determine the level and type of the genetic relationship between individuals.

Phylogenetics is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms.

Genealogy also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.

Lineage (anthropology) is a unilineal descent group that can demonstrate their common descent from a known apical ancestor. Unilineal lineages can be matrilineal or patrilineal, depending on whether they are traced through mothers or fathers, respectively. Whether matrilineal or patrilineal descent is considered most significant differs from culture to culture.
Lineage (evolution) is a series of organisms, populations, cells, or genes connected by a continuous line of descent from ancestor to descendent. Lineages are subsets of the evolutionary tree of life. Lineages are often determined by the techniques of molecular systematics.
Lineage (genetic) is a series of mutations which connect an ancestral genetic type (allele, haplotype, or haplogroup) to derivative type.
Data Lineage includes the data's origins, what happens to it and where it moves over time.

Race (biology) is an informal rank in the taxonomic hierarchy, below the level of subspecies. It has been used as a higher rank than strain, with several strains making up one race. Various definitions exist. Races may be genetically distinct phenotypic populations of interbreeding individuals within the same species, or they may be defined in other ways, e.g. geographically, or physiologically. Genetic isolation between races is not complete, but genetic differences may have accumulated that are not (yet) sufficient to separate species.

Tree of Life

Foundation Stock or foundation stock are animals that are the progenitors, or foundation, of a new breed (or crossbreed or hybrid), or of a given bloodline within such. Although usually applied to individual animals, a group of animals may be referred to collectively as foundation bloodstock when one distinct population (such a breed or a breed group) provides part of the
underlying genetic base for a new distinct population.

Exaptation describes a shift in the function of a trait during evolution. For example, a trait can evolve because it served one particular function, but subsequently it may come to serve another. Exaptations are common in both anatomy and behaviour. Bird feathers are a classic example: initially they may have evolved for temperature regulation, but later were adapted for flight. Interest in exaptation relates to both the process and products of evolution: the process that creates complex traits and the products (functions, anatomical structures, biochemicals, etc.) that may be imperfectly developed

Co-option (biology) refers to the capacity of intracellular parasites to use host-cell proteins to complete their vital cycle. Viruses use this mechanism, as their genome is small. It is also used in a different sense to refer to characters that have been exapted.

Teleology is the philosophical study of nature by attempting to describe things in terms of their apparent purpose, directive principle, or goal. A purpose that is imposed by a human use, such as that of a fork, is called extrinsic. Natural teleology, common in classical philosophy but controversial today, contends that natural entities also have intrinsic purposes, irrespective of human use or opinion. For instance, Aristotle claimed that an acorn's intrinsic telos is to become a fully grown oak tree.

Anomalistics is the use of scientific methods to evaluate anomalies (phenomena that fall outside of current understanding), with the aim of finding a rational explanation.

Evolutionary Psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective. It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations – that is, the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection in human evolution. Adaptationist thinking about physiological mechanisms, such as the heart, lungs, and immune system, is common in evolutionary biology. Some evolutionary psychologists apply the same thinking to psychology, arguing that the modularity of mind is similar to that of the body and with different modular adaptations serving different functions. Evolutionary psychologists argue that much of human behavior is the output of psychological adaptations that evolved to solve recurrent problems in human ancestral environments.

Timeline of the Universe and Earth

Homo Futurus -The Inside Story (youtube - 54 mins.)

Sphenoid Bone is an unpaired bone of the neurocranium. It is situated in the middle of the skull towards the front, in front of the temporal bone and the basilar part of the occipital bone. The sphenoid bone is one of the seven bones that articulate to form the orbit. Its shape somewhat resembles that of a butterfly or bat with its wings extended.

Regulator Gene is a gene involved in controlling the expression of one or more other genes. Regulatory sequences, which encode regulatory genes, are often 5' to the start site of transcription of the gene they regulate. In addition , these sequences can also be found 3' to the transcription start site. In both cases, whether the regulatory sequence occurs before (5') or after (3') the gene it regulates, the sequence is often many kilobases away from the transcription start site. A regulator gene may encode a protein, or it may work at the level of RNA, as in the case of genes encoding microRNAs. An example of a regulator gene is a gene that codes for a repressor protein that inhibits the activity of an operator gene (a gene which binds repressor proteins thus inhibiting the translation of RNA to protein via RNA polymerase).


Why are Mutations thought to be part of the evolutionary process?

Mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements. Mutations result from errors during DNA replication or other types of damage to DNA, which then may undergo error-prone repair (especially microhomology-mediated end joining), or cause an error during other forms of repair, or else may cause an error during replication (translesion synthesis). Mutations may also result from insertion or deletion of segments of DNA due to mobile genetic elements. Mutations may or may not produce discernible changes in the observable characteristics (phenotype) of an organism. Mutations play a part in both normal and abnormal biological processes including: evolution, cancer, and the development of the immune system, including junctional diversity. Genetic Disorder

Mutation Rate is a measure of the rate at which various types of mutations occur over time. Mutation rates are typically given for a specific class of mutation, for instance point mutations, small or large scale insertions or deletions. The rate of substitutions can be further subdivided into a mutation spectrum which describes the influence of genetic context on the mutation rate.

Point Accepted Mutation is the replacement of a single amino acid in the primary structure of a protein with another single amino acid, which is accepted by the processes of natural selection.

Pure Nature Specials - Mutation - The Science of Survival (youtube)

Spontaneous Gene Mutations - Mutation

Morphology (biology) is the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

Genes - DNA - Traits - Heredity - Anomaly

DNA mutation is less frequent, less than 1%, where a SNP Mutation is more frequent.

A Mutational Timer is built into the Chemistry of DNA. DNA contains a kind of built-in timer that clocks the frequency with which mutations occur. They show that DNA bases can shape-shift for a thousandth of a second, transiently morphing into alternative states that allow the molecule's replication machinery to incorporate the wrong base pairs into its double heli.

Threshold Expression is a phenomenon in which phenotypic expression of a mitochondrial disease within an organ system occurs when the severity of the mutation, relative number of mutant mtDNA, and reliance of the organ system on oxidative phosphorylation combine in such a way that ATP production of the tissue falls below the level required by the tissue. The phenotype may be expressed even if the percentage of mutant mtDNA is below 50% if the mutation is severe enough.

Error Threshold is a limit on the number of base pairs a self-replicating molecule may have before mutation will destroy the information in subsequent generations of the molecule. The error threshold is crucial to understanding "Eigen's paradox". The error threshold is a concept in the origins of life (abiogenesis), in particular of very early life, before the advent of DNA. It is postulated that the first self-replicating molecules might have been small ribozyme-like RNA molecules. These molecules consist of strings of base pairs or "digits", and their order is a code that directs how the molecule interacts with its environment. All replication is subject to mutation error. During the replication process, each digit has a certain probability of being replaced by some other digit, which changes the way the molecule interacts with its environment, and may increase or decrease its fitness, or ability to reproduce, in that environment.

Synonymous Substitution is the evolutionary substitution of one base for another in an exon of a gene coding for a protein, such that the produced amino acid sequence is not modified. This is possible because the genetic code is "degenerate", meaning that some amino acids are coded for by more than one three-base-pair codon; since some of the codons for a given amino acid differ by just one base pair from others coding for the same amino acid, a mutation that replaces the "normal" base by one of the alternatives will result in incorporation of the same amino acid into the growing polypeptide chain when the gene is translated.

DNA is constantly subject to mutations, accidental changes in its code.
Mutations can lead to missing or malformed proteins, and that can lead to disease.

Khan Academy: Different Types of Mutations (video)

Point mutations, frame shift mutation.
Protein: Non-sense mutation, missense mutation.
RNA: Conservative mutation, non-conservative mutation.

Irreducible Complexity is the argument that certain biological systems cannot evolve by successive small modifications to pre-existing functional systems through natural selection. Irreducible Complexity (youtube)

Genetic Variation - Genetic Drift

Junctional Diversity describes the DNA sequence variations introduced by the improper joining of gene segments during the process of V(D)J recombination. This process of V(D)J recombination has vital roles for the vertebrate immune system, as it is able to generate a huge repertoire of different T-cell receptor (TCR) and immunoglobulin molecules required for pathogen antigen
recognition by T-cells and B cells, respectively. The inaccuracies of joining provided by junctional diversity is estimated to triple the diversity initially generated by these V(D)J recombinations.

Genetic Recombination is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent. In eukaryotes, genetic recombination during meiosis can lead to a novel set of genetic information that can be passed on from the parents to the offspring. Most recombination is naturally occurring.

is the division of something into two branches or parts. "You go that way and I will go this way".
Bifurcation Theory is the mathematical study of changes in the qualitative or topological structure of a given family, such as the integral curves of a family of vector fields, and the solutions of a family of differential equations. Most commonly applied to the mathematical study of dynamical systems, a bifurcation occurs when a small smooth change made to the parameter values (the bifurcation parameters) of a system causes a sudden 'qualitative' or topological change in its behaviour.


Viruses revealed to be a major driver of human evolution. Study tracking protein adaptation over millions of years yields insights relevant to fighting today's viruses.

Tree of Life

Atavism is an evolutionary throwback, such as traits reappearing that had disappeared generations before. Atavisms can occur in several ways. One way is when genes for previously existing phenotypical features are preserved in DNA, and these become expressed through a mutation that either knocks out the overriding genes for the new traits or makes the old traits override the new one. A number of traits can vary as a result of shortening of the fetal development of a trait (neoteny) or by prolongation of the same. In such a case, a shift in the time a trait is allowed to develop before it is fixed can bring forth an ancestral phenotype.

Coccyx commonly referred to as the tailbone, is the final segment of the vertebral column in humans and apes, and certain other mammals such as horses. In animals with bony tails, it is known as tailhead or dock, in bird anatomy as tailfan. It comprises three to five separate or fused coccygeal vertebrae below the sacrum, attached to the sacrum by a fibrocartilaginous joint, the sacrococcygeal symphysis, which permits limited movement between the sacrum and the coccyx.

Human Vestigiality involves those traits (such as organs or behaviors) occurring in humans that have lost all or most of their original function through evolution. Although structures called vestigial often appear functionless, a vestigial structure may retain lesser functions or develop minor new ones. In some cases, structures once identified as vestigial simply had an unrecognized function.

Chromosome 2 (human) is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 2 is the second-largest human chromosome, spanning more than 242 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and representing almost 8% of the total DNA in human cells.

DNA - Genes

Biological Anthropology is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors. It is a subfield of anthropology that provides a biological perspective to the systematic study of human beings.


Bilateria are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head ("anterior") and a tail ("posterior") as well as a back ("dorsal") and a belly ("ventral"); therefore they also have a left side and a right side. In contrast, radially symmetrical animals like jellyfish have a topside and a downside, but no identifiable front or back.

UCLA Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
UC Museum of Paleontology - Understanding Evolution
European Human Behaviour and Evolution Association

"Yes, humans are still animals, but humans have an amazing Brain, we either use it or lose it, now that's evolution."

Dollo's law of irreversibility states that evolution is not reversible.

Devolution is the notion that species can revert into more "primitive" forms over time.


Humanoid Evolution (image)

Evolution of the Human Skull Craniometry is measurement of the cranium (the main part of the skull), usually the human cranium. It is a subset of cephalometry, measurement of the head, which in humans is a subset of anthropometry, measurement of the human body. It is distinct from phrenology, the pseudoscience that tried to link personality and character to head shape, and physiognomy, which tried the same for facial features. However, these fields have all claimed the ability to predict traits or intelligence.

Richard Dawkins: Why are there still Chimpanzees? - Nebraska Vignettes #2 (youtube)
Richard Dawkins: Comparing the Human and Chimpanzee Genomes - Nebraska Vignettes #3 (youtube)

2 million years ago, early humans were established and had split into at least two species:
Homo Habilis is a species of the tribe Hominini, during the Gelasian and early Calabrian stages of the Pleistocene period, which lived between roughly 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago.
Homo Rudolfensis is an extinct species of the Hominini tribe known only through a handful of representative fossils, the first of which was discovered by Bernard Ngeneo, a member of a team led by anthropologist Richard Leakey and zoologist Meave Leakey in 1972, at Koobi Fora on the east side of Lake Rudolf (now Lake Turkana) in Kenya.

Isochron Burial Dating uses Radioisotopes oldest hominid skeletons ever dated at 3.67 million years old.
Radionuclide is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable. 

Chimpanzee Human last Common Ancestor is the last common ancestor shared by the extant Homo (human) and Pan (chimpanzee) genera of Hominini.

Humans have 46 chromosomes, 2 less then the common potato.

Hominidae are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes seven extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean and Sumatran orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, the human and near-human ancestors and relatives (e.g., the Neanderthals).

Archaic Humans in the period beginning 500,000 years ago (or 500ka).

Bonobo is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan; the other is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee.

Denisovan is an extinct species or subspecies of human in the genus Homo. Pending its status as either species or subspecies it currently carries the temporary names Homo sp. Altai, or Homo sapiens ssp. Denisova. In March 2010, scientists announced the
discovery of a finger bone fragment of a juvenile female who lived about 41,000 years ago, found in the remote Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains in Siberia, a cave that has also been inhabited by Neanderthals and modern humans. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the finger bone showed it to be genetically distinct from Neanderthals and modern humans. The nuclear genome from this specimen suggested that Denisovans shared a common origin with Neanderthals, that they ranged from
Siberia to Southeast Asia, and that they lived among and interbred with the ancestors of some modern humans, with about 3% to 5% of the DNA of Melanesians and Aboriginal Australians deriving from Denisovans.

Neanderthals are the closest relatives in the Homo genus, they thrived for hundreds of thousands of years, only to die out about 40,000 years ago. "The theory is that no one wanted to marry a Neanderthal, so they went extinct."

Homo Sapiens (5.5 million) is the binomial nomenclature (also known as the scientific name) for the only extant human species. Anatomically Modern Human distinguish Homo sapiens as having an anatomy consistent with the range of phenotypes seen in contemporary humans from varieties of extinct archaic humans.

Homo Erectus (200,000) meaning "upright man", from the Latin ērigere, "to put up, set upright") is still in existence species of hominid that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.

Human are the only extant members of Hominina clade (or human clade), a branch of the taxonomical tribe Hominini belonging to the family of great apes.

Homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

Genetic Genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogy and traditional genealogical and historical records to infer relationships between individuals.

Primate arose from ancestors that lived in the trees of tropical forests; many primate characteristics represent adaptations to life in this challenging three-dimensional environment. Most primate species remain at least partly arboreal.

Mammal distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones and mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animals on the planet, the great whales, as well as some of the most intelligent, such as elephants, primates and cetaceans.

Society - Human Studies (culture)

Louise Leakey Digs for Humanity's Origins (video)
A World Without Humans
Children of the Jaguar (Part 1/5) (youtube)

How did Brains Evolve? - Intelligence

Encephalization is defined as the amount of brain mass related to an animal's total body mass.

Recapitulation Theory is a largely discredited biological hypothesis that the development of the embryo of an animal, from fertilization to gestation or hatching (ontogeny), goes through stages resembling or representing successive stages in the evolution of the animal's remote ancestors (phylogeny).

Devolution is what our current education system is doing.

“Change is not merely necessary to life - it is life.” - Alvin Toffler

"Knowing what you're made out of does not explain how you were made....Knowing E=mc2 does not fully explain what energy is, or does it explain what matter is, or what light is. So what do we know?"

Yes we know animals evolve or adapt because we have evidence. But you can’t prove that new species evolve from other species. Why would a lizard want to evolve into a horse? And why didn't Dinosaurs eventually grow brains within 160 million years? Yes those are stupid questions, but that's where it all starts.

Cope's Rule postulates that population lineages tend to increase in body size over evolutionary time.

When something doesn't make sense it means you don't have all the information, so what's missing? Just because animals share the same Genes does not mean that one animal evolved from the other animal, it simply means that they share the same building blocks of Life. So what causes these little variations, like the variations we see in humans? Is it a combination of a Variable and a Fractal? Is evolution part Physics?

Evolution has a hard time proving Diversity or Variety.

Cambrian Explosion was the relatively short evolutionary event, beginning around 541 million years ago in the Cambrian period, during which most major animal phyla appeared, as indicated by the fossil record. Lasting for about the next 20–25 million years, it resulted in the divergence of most modern metazoan phyla. Additionally, the event was accompanied by major diversification of other organisms. Prior to the Cambrian explosion, most organisms were simple, composed of individual cells occasionally organized into colonies. Over the following 70 to 80 million years, the rate of diversification accelerated by an order of magnitude and the diversity of life began to resemble that of today. Almost all the present phyla appeared during this period, with the exception of Bryozoa, which made its earliest known appearance later, in the Lower Ordovician. The Cambrian marked a profound change in life on Earth; prior to the Cambrian, the majority of living organisms on the whole were small, unicellular and simple; the Precambrian Charnia being exceptional. Complex, multicellular organisms gradually became more common in the millions of years immediately preceding the Cambrian, but it was not until this period that mineralized—hence readily fossilized—organisms became common. The rapid diversification of lifeforms in the Cambrian, known as the Cambrian explosion, produced the first representatives of all modern animal phyla. Phylogenetic analysis has supported the view that during the Cambrian radiation, metazoa (animals) evolved monophyletically from a single common ancestor: flagellated colonial protists similar to modern choanoflagellates. Although diverse life forms prospered in the oceans, the land was comparatively barren—with nothing more complex than a microbial soil crust and a few molluscs that emerged to browse on the microbial biofilm. Most of the continents were probably dry and rocky due to a lack of vegetation. Shallow seas flanked the margins of several continents created during the breakup of the supercontinent Pannotia. The seas were relatively warm, and polar ice was absent for much of the period.

Why do we have some species staying the same for millions of years while other species in the same time period evolving or Adapting?

Freak of Nature

Something's just seem to appear out of no where, so where did they originate from? And somehow, even through Mass Extinctions, life still found a way to survive in some form. And after each Mass Extinction, life never returns in the same way that it was before. So it doesn't look like a normal process of life, it kind of looks like someone or something is trying something new, like some form of Intelligence trying to define itself. There are huge gaps of missing information. Both religious and non-religious people love to fill those gaps with their beliefs. But if I had a choice of filling the gap of missing information with something, I would rather say that it was God then to say that it was nothing. Not that I would, but I do understand why some people would say that. I mean, who would want to be considered just a Freak of Nature. I'm either a lucky piece of sh*t or I'm here for a reason, I would like to believe that I'm here for a Reason. If a belief stops you from learning, then it's not a good belief to hold. Being Biased against new knowledge and new information leaves you vulnerable and reduces your ability to adapt and to make good decisions. I know that there is no guarantee of survival, but reducing my odds to live makes no sense at all.

I like to believe that Human Ascended instead of Descended. Our ancestors where the building blocks of life, not the origin of life.

Last Universal Ancestor (LUA), also called the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), cenancestor, or progenote, is the most recent organism from which all organisms now living on Earth have a common descent. Thus, it is the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all current life on Earth. As such, it should not be assumed to be the first living organism. The LUA is estimated to have lived some 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago (sometime in the Paleoarchean era). The earliest evidence for life on Earth is biogenic graphite found in 3.7 billion-year-old metamorphized sedimentary rocks discovered in Western Greenland and microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone discovered in Western Australia. A study in 2015 found potentially biogenic carbon from 4.1 billion years ago in ancient rocks in Western Australia. Such findings would indicate the existence of different conditions on Earth during that period than what is generally assumed today and point to an earlier origination of life. In July 2016, scientists reported identifying a set of 355 genes from the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) of all life living on Earth.

Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in a group, for example a haplogroup, are directly descended. The term is often applied to human genealogy.

Just because you can’t explain something now, doesn’t mean that you never will. Believing you know the answer is different from actually knowing the answer. Plus we only have one planet that we know of where life exists. So from a science point of view, having only one example of life can never be hard evidence, and that this is just the normal process of life. To me this is a silly argument and I take no sides in this discussion. Both sides have good claims, good points and good theories. Even though this is a healthy discussion that needs more looking into, I can’t help to know that we have more important and more urgent problems that need to be addressed. This is a distraction, but we will come back to this, just not now.

Beck - Loser (youtube)

"Adaptation can be dangerous, especially when you become adapted to something that is slowly killing you. Adaptation only buys you some time, it does not guarantee you survival. Only humans have the ability to over come this vulnerability, that's why we are here. So we can't f*ck this up, if we do, we're dead, like all other animal species before us. I don't want to become bacteria again, that would suck, it's not the life that I want, or want for anyone else."

Maybe evolution is just another form of consciousness, or some form of intelligence that we are unable to comprehend. Maybe evolution is Gods work? Who else could have figured out that the only way you can have a sustaining planet is to give plants and animals the ability to evolve, adapt and to flourish. If you don’t adapt you die. And that is exactly where humans are today. Evolution has given all of us some extremely valuable information that Cause and Effect is real and that Cause and Effect should not be ignored. Everyone should just stick with the facts. Evolution does not explain everything and Religion does not explain everything, so why are we so threatened by someone else's beliefs? As long as no one ever stops asking questions, no one should ever fear or feel threatened by other peoples beliefs. The most important thing is that we keep sharing information and keep documenting our world. You should never claim that you have all the answers. If you are stubborn and selfish with your beliefs then the message you are trying to convey will only distort information and confuse people into believing that there are no more questions to ask. And that is simply a crime against humanity. A good documentary to watch is War on Science. People are overreacting in this film but I understand their passion. Another example of people overreacting is in a film called “The Shape of Life” from PBS. This film has great information but it's kind of ruined because they pretend to know the answers of evolution. These are the kinds of things we need to stop doing if we are going to educate people and secure our species survival. A better film to watch is Miracle Planet. To me it seems that a single cell is intelligent life. How and why? I don't know.

Humans are 90% bacteria. So I guess if you want to survive on a planet you better find a way to have a symbiotic relationship with a planets natural life forms, life forms that have lived and survived on this planet for billions of years. I guess that is how we will survive on another planet, by finding out what has lived and survived there the longest, and then learn how to have a symbiotic relationship with those organisms.

So what's wrong with saying "I Don't Know"

Teaching evolution is not bad, what's bad is how you teach evolution and how it's understood by people. The same thing with religion, teaching religion is not bad, it's how you teach Religion and how it's understood." If evolution is information evolving, and if God is information, then I guess you're both right.

This is just another Human Transition, maybe evolution and intelligent design are the same thing?....Can I go now?

You can't prove that God does not exist, or can you prove that God does exist. We should stick with the things that we can prove and save the things that we cannot prove for later time. Because if we don't solve our greatest problems, that we all face, we will never live to see God, or live to see if there isn't a God.

It is difficult to understand how anyone can believe that the Nervous System, particularly the brain, could have been produced by evolutionary randomness and selection. We have barely touched on some of the electrical design present in the rest of the body. The truth is that scientists are always discovering more about its workings, since its complexity, which far surpasses anything produced by man, is nothing short of a miracle. Truly we can say with David, “I will praise You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; Your works are marvelous and my soul knows it very well”  (Psalm 139:14). (Craig Savige)

Modern Humans

"Whether you believe that evolution or God designed our brain doesn't really matter, what matters is that you never ignore the human brains enormous potential, and its weaknesses. The knowledge that we have acquired about the human brain is invaluable. So knowing who or what made it will not be as important as learning how the brain works and learning how effectively we can use its power. So when we finally do figure out who or what made us, it will not come to us as some big surprise, because after all, we have brains."

"Thank God my brain is smarter then I am."

"God has reasons for doing things, and evolution has reasons too, and if God created evolution, then evolution can't be wrong."

"I couldn't even imagine being anything else but human. Human to me is the greatest way to experience life. And when we imagine what other life from other planets looks like, that makes me even prouder, because the human form to me is the most enjoyable machine a person could ever design. I couldn't even dream of a better human. Some people would say a human with wings, or a human with superman powers. But we already have those because of the machines that we will built."

If you didn't have what you needed to know what you were missing, then how would you evolve into it? I know information is some form of intelligence, what I don't know is how did information see when it didn't have what was needed to see what it didn't have?

I think that humans take for granted that our way of seeing through the eyes is the only form of sight.

"I'm the evolutionary result of a seed that was born thousands of years ago, and yet it feels like the first time being alive."

Some people believe that 10 million years ago that some of the monkeys changed their diet just enough to evolve into humans. Though I fully understand the importance of nutrition and how diet can improve appearance and health, I'm having a little trouble understanding just what nutritional substances can cause a species body to change and grow a better brain? I'm positive we can repeat this theory. We just need to start feeding monkeys better food and lets see what happens. Of course it will take many life times to see the results, but we should start seeing some changes, maybe Planet of the Apes?

Humanzee is a hypothetical chimpanzee/human hybrid. An unsuccessful attempt to breed such a hybrid was made by Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov in the 1920s. There have been occasional reports of human-chimpanzee hybridization, notably regarding a performing chimp named Oliver during the 1970s, but none of them have been confirmed. There has been what people think to be a sighting of a humanzee in July of 2012 in Colorado. Similarly, the possibility of a chimpanzee–gorilla hybrid, known as koolakamba, also remains unsubstantiated. Devolution

We know the about the negative effects from a poor nutritional diet and isolation, children are smaller and less developed, just like early man. Does that mean that only a man can grow into man. Humans evolved from humans? This is like finding out that your father is not your real father. Welcome to the party.

Monkey Shines (youtube)
Project X (youtube)
Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov (wiki)
The World's Smartest Apes (youtube)
Chimpanzee, Gorilla, or Orangutan?

And since we have evidence and experience in knowing that some Miracles can actually be explained, we still have to keep trying to understand our world. We have enough evidence to prove that our increased understanding of the world has benefited us in many ways. Not to say that it was Perfect, But at least we are definitely more aware of our possibilities and of our human potential.

"It's not the strongest of species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change."

Charles Darwin was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. He believed that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors. (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882). Charles wrote the 1859 book the Origin of Species, which introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. It presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution. Darwin included evidence that he had gathered on the Beagle expedition in the 1830s and his subsequent findings from research, correspondence, and experimentation.

Michael Archer: How we'll Resurrect the Gastric Brooding Frog the Tasmanian Tiger (video)

People didn't have enough information and knowledge years ago that was needed in order to explain complex ideas and concepts. But now we do, and we can be more precise. Not that we can fully explain all knowledge correctly to all people, but at least we know now that the acquisition of more knowledge is always needed to further our understanding and also to help to explain knowledge so that more people can understand. The mistake that most people make is that they believed that all knowledge is known, so they make assumptions instead of realizing that more knowledge, information and research is needed. So not only do we have more knowledge and information today, we also have the intelligence to know that more knowledge and information is always needed. So we can now make less assumptions, make less mistakes, and we never assume that we know everything, thus we keep learning.

"I wouldn't want to assume that life started on this planet. I'm just saying that life had to start somewhere. Where and how, I don't know? But I hope we find out, because that would be an incredible story. We know that our galaxy was not the first galaxy born in our universe. So we may have brothers and sisters, some we may never know? But my guess is, that we will find our siblings, because everything usually leaves some kind of a trace."

Trace is a just detectable amount. An indication that something has been present. A visible mark (as a footprint) left by the passage of person or animal or vehicle. Discover traces of. Follow, discover, or ascertain the course of development of something. To go back over again. Pursue or chase relentlessly.

Detect is to discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of.

Indication is a datum about some physical state that is presented to a user by a meter or similar instrument.

Intelligent Design

Intelligent Design is the view that "certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection. We can't say that "Things just happened Dude" or "This looks to amazing to be just some natural sequence of events, because first you need to define what natural is, which you can't because this is everyone's first time here, thus, we have nothing to Compare Life to, nothing."...So we need to start over, this time everyone needs to have an open mind. Are we just Iterations in the process of Development?

Biogenesis is the production of new living organisms or organelles. The hypothesis of biogenesis, attributed to Louis Pasteur, states that complex living things come only from other living things, by reproduction (e.g. a spider lays eggs, which develop into spiders). That is, modern life does not arise from non-living material, which was the position held by spontaneous generation. Morphogenesis is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape. Creating Matter.

Star Trek III The Search for Spock (youtube)

Extra Terrestrial Life (space)

Terraforming is the process of deliberately modifying a planets atmosphere, temperature, surface topography or ecology to be similar to the environment of Earth to make it habitable by Earth-like life.

Bioforming is the opposite conception to terraforming. While terraforming requires the transformation of a celestial body (planet or moon) into a place where humans and other Earth-like life forms can exist, bioforming requires to transform us and other Earth-like bioforms into something that can survive on an untransformed planet. An intermediary concept is terrabioforming.

Planetary Engineering is the application of technology for the purpose of influencing the global environments of a planet. Its objectives usually involve increasing the habitability of other worlds or mitigating decreases in habitability to Earth. Perhaps the best-known type of planetary engineering is terraforming, by which a planet's surface conditions are altered to be more like those of Earth. Planetary engineering is largely the realm of science fiction at present, although recent climate change on Earth shows that human technology can cause change on a global scale.

Paraterraforming involves the construction of a habitable enclosure on a planet which eventually grows to encompass most of the planet's usable area. The enclosure would consist of a transparent roof held one or more kilometers above the surface, pressurized with a breathable atmosphere, and anchored with tension towers and cables at regular intervals. Proponents claim worldhouses can be constructed with technology known since the 1960s. The Biosphere 2 project built a dome on Earth that contained a habitable environment. The project encountered difficulties in operation, including unexpected population explosions of some plants and animals, and a lower than anticipated production of oxygen by plants, requiring extra oxygen to be pumped in. i(also known as the "worldhouse" concept, or domes in smaller versions).

Megascale Engineering is a form of exploratory engineering concerned with the construction of structures on an enormous scale. Typically these structures are at least 1,000 kilometers in length—in other words, at least 1 megameter, hence the name. Such large-scale structures are termed megastructures. In addition to large-scale structures, megascale engineering is also defined as including the transformation of entire planets into a human-habitable environment, a process known as terraforming or planetary engineering. This might also include transformation of the surface conditions, changes in the planetary orbit, and structures in orbit intended to modify the energy balance. Astroengineering is the extension of megascale engineering to megastructures on a stellar scale or larger, such as Dyson spheres, Ringworlds, and Alderson disks. (macro-engineering).

Exogenesis or
Panspermia, is the hypothesis that Life exists throughout the Universe, distributed by meteoroids, asteroids, comets, planetoids, and also by spacecraft in the form of unintended contamination by microorganisms. Panspermia is a hypothesis proposing that microscopic life forms that can survive the effects of space, such as extremophiles, become trapped in debris that is ejected into space after collisions between planets and small Solar System bodies that harbor life. Some organisms may travel dormant for an extended amount of time before colliding randomly with other planets or intermingling with protoplanetary disks. If met with ideal conditions on a new planet's surfaces, the organisms become active and the process of evolution begins. Panspermia is not meant to address how life began, just the method that may cause its distribution in the Universe.

Knowledge Preservation

Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of Life in the universe: extraterrestrial life and life on Earth. Astrobiology addresses the question of whether life exists beyond Earth, and how humans can detect it if it does (the term exobiology is similar but more specific—it covers the search for life beyond Earth, and the effects of extraterrestrial environments on living things.

Anthropic Principle is the philosophical consideration that observations of the Universe must be compatible with the conscious and sapient life that observes it. Some proponents of the anthropic principle reason that it explains why this universe has the age and the fundamental physical constants necessary to accommodate conscious life. As a result, they believe it is unremarkable that this universe has fundamental constants that happen to fall within the narrow range thought to be compatible with life.

Cosmological Constant fine-tuned to 120 decimal places. Symmetry

Cellular Automaton is a discrete model studied in computability theory, mathematics, physics, complexity science, theoretical biology and microstructure modeling. A cellular automaton consists of a regular grid of cells, each in one of a finite number of states, such as on and off (in contrast to a coupled map lattice). The grid can be in any finite number of dimensions. For each cell, a set of cells called its neighborhood is defined relative to the specified cell. An initial state (time t = 0) is selected by assigning a state for each cell. A new generation is created (advancing t by 1), according to some fixed rule (generally, a mathematical function) that determines the new state of each cell in terms of the current state of the cell and the states of the cells in its neighborhood. Typically, the rule for updating the state of cells is the same for each cell and does not change over time, and is applied to the whole grid simultaneously, though exceptions are known, such as the stochastic cellular automaton and asynchronous cellular automaton.

Conway's Game of Life is a cellular automaton devised by the British mathematician John Horton Conway in 1970. The "game" is a zero-player game, meaning that its evolution is determined by its initial state, requiring no further input. One interacts with the Game of Life by creating an initial configuration and observing how it evolves, or, for advanced "players", by creating patterns with particular properties. The universe of the Game of Life is an infinite two-dimensional orthogonal grid of square cells, each of which is in one of two possible states, alive or dead, or "populated" or "unpopulated". Every cell interacts with its eight neighbours, which are the cells that are horizontally, vertically, or diagonally adjacent. At each step in time, the following transitions occur: Any live cell with fewer than two live neighbours dies, as if caused by underpopulation. Any live cell with two or three live neighbours lives on to the next generation. Any live cell with more than three live neighbours dies, as if by overpopulation. Any dead cell with exactly three live neighbours becomes a live cell, as if by reproduction. The initial pattern constitutes the seed of the system. The first generation is created by applying the above rules simultaneously to every cell in the seed—births and deaths occur simultaneously, and the discrete moment at which this happens is sometimes called a tick (in other words, each generation is a pure function of the preceding one). The rules continue to be applied repeatedly to create further generations.

Zero-Player Game is a game that has no sentient players. In computer games, the term refers to programs that use artificial intelligence rather than human players.

Creationism is the religious belief that the universe and Life originated "from specific acts of divine creation," as opposed to the scientific reasons that they came about through natural processes.

Abiogenesis is believed to be the origin of life, a natural process by which life arises from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds. It is thought to have occurred on Earth between 3.8 and 4.1 billion years ago. Abiogenesis is studied through a combination of laboratory experiments and extrapolation from the characteristics of modern organisms, and aims to determine how pre-life chemical reactions gave rise to life on Earth. (good luck with that). Freak of Nature.

Spontaneous Generation is an obsolete body of thought on the ordinary formation of living organisms without descent from similar organisms. Typically, the idea was that certain forms such as fleas could arise from inanimate matter such as dust, or that maggots could arise from dead flesh. A variant idea was that of equivocal generation, in which species such as tapeworms arose from unrelated living organisms, now understood to be their hosts. Doctrines supporting such processes of generation held that these processes are commonplace and regular. Such ideas are in contradiction to that of univocal generation: effectively exclusive reproduction from genetically related parent(s), generally of the same species.

RNA World is a hypothetical stage in the evolutionary history of life on Earth, in which self-replicating RNA molecules proliferated before the evolution of DNA and proteins. The term also refers to the hypothesis that posits the existence of this stage.

Self-Replication is any behavior of a dynamical system that yields construction of an identical copy of itself. Biological Cells, given suitable environments, reproduce by cell division. During Cell Division, DNA is replicated and can be transmitted to offspring during reproduction. Biological viruses can replicate, but only by commandeering the reproductive machinery of cells through a process of infection. Harmful prion proteins can replicate by converting normal proteins into rogue forms.

Self-Organization also called spontaneous order (in the social sciences), is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system. The process is spontaneous, not needing control by any external agent. It is often triggered by random fluctuations, amplified by positive feedback. The resulting organization is wholly decentralized, distributed over all the components of the system. As such, the organization is typically robust and able to survive or self-repair substantial perturbation. Chaos theory discusses self-organization in terms of islands of predictability in a sea of chaotic unpredictability. Self-organization occurs in many physical, chemical, biological, robotic, and cognitive systems. Examples can be found in crystallization, thermal convection of fluids, chemical oscillation, animal swarming, and artificial and biological neural networks. Nothing configures itself or learns on its own. Something's have to be present and available.

"To say that things self-organize is to say that you have no idea why these things organized the way they did. It's like if you never knew what a computer was and you saw computer programs running, you would assume that they were doing things all by themselves. And then some dude shows up and says, what came first, the computer program or the computer?"

Self-Assembly is a process in which a disordered system of pre-existing components forms an organized structure or pattern as a consequence of specific, local interactions among the components themselves, without external direction. When the constitutive components are molecules, the process is termed molecular self-assembly. Self-assembly can be classified as either static or dynamic. In static self-assembly, the ordered state forms as a system approaches equilibrium, reducing its free energy. However, in dynamic self-assembly, patterns of pre-existing components organized by specific local interactions are not commonly described as "self-assembled" by scientists in the associated disciplines. These structures are better described as "self-organized"

Spontaneous Order also named self-organization in the hard sciences, is the spontaneous emergence of order out of seeming chaos. It is a process in social networks including economics, though the term "self-organization" is more often used for physical changes and biological processes, while "spontaneous order" is typically used to describe the emergence of various kinds of social orders from a combination of self-interested individuals who are not intentionally trying to create order through planning. The evolution of life on Earth, language, crystal structure, the Internet and a free market economy have all been proposed as examples of systems which evolved through spontaneous order. Naturalists often point to the inherent "watch-like" precision of uncultivated ecosystems and to the universe itself as ultimate examples of this phenomenon.

Artificial Magnetic Shield Could Help In Terraforming Mars (PDF)
Community Coordinated Modeling Center
Universities Space Research Association

Lazarus Taxon is a taxon that disappears for one or more periods from the fossil record, only to appear again later. Likewise in conservation biology and ecology, it can refer to species or populations that were thought to be extinct, and are rediscovered. The term refers to the story in the Christian biblical Gospel of John, in which Jesus Christ raised Lazarus from the dead.


Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species that is endemic is precinctive, which applies to species (and subspecific categories) that are restricted to a defined geographical area.

Life is not a process of evolution, evolution is a process of life. First comes life then comes evolution. Evolution does not create life. Life creates evolution. How did life get here? Is there another dimension or invisible landscape that allows life to travel any where in the universe? Life may sense where life can exist, so life goes to that planet and adapts to the environment of that planet, so that life can evolve and develop using the chemical building blocks that are available. There can only be life where life has existed before. What came first, the chicken or the egg? Neither. Neither the chicken nor the egg came first. Something made something similar to chicken and then that thing had an egg, which then grew into a chicken. Of course we may never know where life truly originated from. Life certainly did not originate from this planet. Our planet was not the first planet or will it be the last planet to support life.

Convergent Evolution - Divergent Evolution

Iteration - Development

The Universe is not perfect or finely tuned. But the Universe does have some consistencies, stabilities and order, most likely by design, why else? Is Chaos also by Design or is it just Meaningful Coincidences? The fact is that nothing lasts forever. Though Atoms do last for an extremely long time that seems to be forever, (10^35 years). Planets and stars do have limited life spans on the average of around 10 billion years, which seems to be plenty of time to enjoy Life, and also, plenty of time to find a new home when that time comes. The Universe looks like someone had an idea about how they wanted to create a universe, and then experimented and learned along the way to find out which processes work the best. Earth seems to be the only successful result that we know of from all those different experiments that the universe is still currently experimenting with. The Universe is chaotic, stars exploding, planets dying, radiation, and asteroids destroying planets causing mass extinctions. Then on earth you have diseases, wars, crimes and lots of natural disasters. You can't say that all those horrible things that happen to people are by design or from God. No one in their right mind would design a world like that on purpose, so it must be the current limits of our reality, a set of rules that we must learn to understand and work within. So maybe all these things that kill life are all part of the process of learning and trying to figure out how to make life flourish. Life and the Universe looks like one big experiment. Life is trying to figure out what works best. So of course we still have some work to do, and so does God. And I would rather help God succeed then work against God. I really think that God is on to something. Intelligent design is work in progress. So this is more about persistence. And Persistence is something that humans are born with. Look at any child and you can see the human spirit is alive and well. Life is a work in progress, it's not all by design or from evolution, but by will. And we will survive.

I Will Survive - Gloria Gaynor (1978) This song is about how she no longer needs ignorance in her life. So the man she sings about represents ignorance.

What does Life need in order to exist? A Creator, Space, Atoms, Electricity and Magnetism, Heat and Cold, Light and Dark, Environment, Chemical Reactions, Molecules, DNA, Cells, Metabolism, Reproduction, Adaptation, and Some Luck.


Cell Diagram Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms; they may exist as independent units of life (as in monads) or may form colonies or tissues as in higher plants and animals. A cell is made of molecules and a molecule is made of atoms. A cell has around 10 trillion to 100 trillion atoms. The number of molecules in a typical human cell is somewhere between 5 million and 2 trillion. The number of cells in the human body is estimated to be about the same as the number of atoms in a human cell. Biology. If you have 50 trillion cells in the human body with each cell having around 500 trillion atoms, then the human body is made up of around 2,500 trillion atoms or over 2 quadrillion atoms.

Cells Poster (image)

The Cell Map - Cellular Level (PDF)

The human body is made up of trillions and trillions cells. And of those trillions of cells, there are hundreds of different types, each with its own specific function, from forming your tissue and organs to reproduction and fighting off infections. They provide structure for the body, take in nutrients, and create energy. Basically, it’s all about the cell.

Blood Cells (heart)

Building Blocks of Life - Tiny Machines

Cells (youtube)
The Human Cell (youtube) - 50 trillion cells in the human body. (5 followed by 13 zeroes)
The Next Software Revolution: Life. | Andrew Hessel | TEDxSanFrancisco (youtube)

Stem Cells

The largest cell in the human body is the Female Egg, and the smallest cell is the Male Sperm, 500 Million from Ejaculation.

The Cell (youtube)

Immune System Cells - Cells and Longevity

Cell Biology is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life that can replicate independently, and cells are often called the "Building Blocks of Life". The study of cells is called Cell Biology. Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion (1012) cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres.

Cell Physiology is the biological study about the activities that take place in a cell to keep it alive, like nutrition, environmental response, cell growth, cell division, reproduction and differentiation.

Chimera is a single organism composed of cells from different zygotes. This can result in male and female organs, two blood types, or subtle variations in form.

Mitochondrion is a double membrane-bound organelle found in all eukaryotic organisms. Some cells in some multicellular organisms may however lack them (for example, mature mammalian red blood cells). A number of unicellular organisms, such as microsporidia, parabasalids, and diplomonads, have also reduced or transformed their mitochondria into other structures. To date, only one eukaryote, Monocercomonoides, is known to have completely lost its mitochondria. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek μίτος, mitos, "thread", and χονδρίον, chondrion, "granule" or "grain-like". Mitochondria generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. Mitochondria are commonly between 0.75 and 3 μm in diameter but vary considerably in size and structure. Unless specifically stained, they are not visible. In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in other tasks, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, and cell death, as well as maintaining control of the cell cycle and cell growth. Mitochondrial biogenesis is in turn temporally coordinated with these cellular processes. Mitochondria have been implicated in several human diseases, including mitochondrial disorders, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure and autism. The number of mitochondria in a cell can vary widely by organism, tissue, and cell type. For instance, red blood cells have no mitochondria, whereas liver cells can have more than 2000; The organelle is composed of compartments that carry out specialized functions. These compartments or regions include the outer membrane, the intermembrane space, the inner membrane, and the cristae and matrix. Although most of a cell's DNA is contained in the cell nucleus, the mitochondrion has its own independent genome that shows substantial similarity to bacterial genomes. Mitochondrial proteins (proteins transcribed from mitochondrial DNA) vary depending on the tissue and the species. In humans, 615 distinct types of protein have been identified from cardiac mitochondria, whereas in rats, 940 proteins have been reported. The mitochondrial proteome is thought to be dynamically regulated.

Ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein production. Ribosomes link amino acids together in the order specified by messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules. Ribosomes consist of two major components: the small ribosomal subunit, which reads the RNA, and the large subunit, which joins amino acids to form a polypeptide chain. Each subunit is composed of one or more ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules and a variety of ribosomal proteins. The ribosomes and associated molecules are also known as the translational apparatus. Ribosome is a minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and Protein.

Hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon, and thus are group 14 hydrides. Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been removed are functional groups, called hydrocarbyls. Aromatic hydrocarbons (arenes), alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes and alkyne-based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).

Lipids comprise a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others. The main biological functions of lipids include storing energy, signaling, and acting as structural components of cell membranes.

Carbohydrates - Cell Energy

Amino Acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side-chain (R group) specific to each amino acid. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, though other elements are found in the side-chains of certain amino acids. About 500 amino acids are known (though only 20 appear in the genetic code) and can be classified in many ways.

Cellulose is an organic compound, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units. Cellulose is an important structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and the oomycetes. Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms. Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. The cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40–50% and that of dried hemp is approximately 57%. Endothelium (blood)

Cytostasis is the inhibition of cell growth and multiplication. Cytostatic refers to a cellular component or medicine that inhibits cell growth. Cytostasis is an important prerequisite for structured multicellular organisms. Without regulation of cell growth and division only unorganized heaps of cells would be possible. Chemotherapy of cancer, treatment of skin diseases and treatment of infections are common use cases of cytostatic drugs. Active hygienic products generally contain cytostatic substances. Cytostatic mechanisms and drugs generally occur together with cytotoxic ones.

Cellular Respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy in the process, as weak so-called "high-energy" bonds are replaced by stronger bonds in the products. Respiration is one of the key ways a cell releases chemical energy to fuel cellular activity. Cellular respiration is considered an exothermic redox reaction which releases heat. The overall reaction occurs in a series of biochemical steps, most of which are redox reactions themselves. Although technically, cellular respiration is a combustion reaction, it clearly does not resemble one when it occurs in a living cell because of the slow release of energy from the series of reactions. Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the most common oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2). The chemical energy stored in ATP (its third phosphate group is weakly bonded to the rest of the molecule and is cheaply broken allowing stronger bonds to form, thereby transferring energy for use by the cell) can then be used to drive processes requiring energy, including biosynthesis, locomotion or transportation of molecules across cell membranes.

Cellular Waste Product are formed as a by-product of cellular respiration, a series of processes and reactions that generate energy for the cell, in the form of ATP. Two examples of cellular respiration creating cellular waste products are aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration.

Necrosis is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by Autolysis, which is known as self-digestion, refers to the destruction of a cell through the action of its own enzymes. It may also refer to the digestion of an enzyme by another molecule of the same enzyme.

Cell Cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells. In bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. The B period extends from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA replication. DNA replication occurs during the C period. The D period refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the splitting of the bacterial cell into two daughter cells.

Stem Cells

Cell Division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reproductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half to produce haploid gametes (meiosis). Meiosis results in four haploid daughter cells by undergoing one round of DNA replication followed by two divisions: homologous chromosomes are separated in the first division, and sister chromatids are separated in the second division. Both of these cell division cycles are used in sexually reproducing organisms at some point in their life cycle, and both are believed to be present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor. Prokaryotes also undergo a vegetative cell division known as binary fission, where their genetic material is segregated equally into two daughter cells. All cell divisions, regardless of organism, are preceded by a single round of DNA Replication. Cells divide at least a billion times in the average person, usually without any problem. However, when cell division goes wrong, it can lead to a range of diseases. The process of dividing the cell takes around an hour in mammals.

Hayflick Limit is the number of times a normal human cell population will divide before cell division stops.

Cell Death is the event of a biological cell ceasing to carry out its functions. This may be the result of the natural process of old cells dying and being replaced by new ones, or may result from such factors as disease, localized injury, or the death of the organism of which the cells are part. Longevity (senescence).

Programmed Cell Death is cell death mediated by an intracellular program. PCD is carried out in a regulated process, which usually confers advantage during an organism's life-cycle. For example, the differentiation of fingers and toes in a developing human embryo occurs because cells between the fingers apoptose; the result is that the digits are separate. PCD serves fundamental functions during both plant and metazoa (multicellular animals) tissue development.

Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes (morphology) and death. These changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, chromosomal DNA fragmentation, and global mRNA decay. Between 50 and 70 billion cells die each day due to apoptosis in the average human adult.[a] For an average child between the ages of 8 and 14, approximately 20 billion to 30 billion cells die a day.

Brain Cells

Cell Damage can occur as a result of an adverse stimulus which disrupts the normal homeostasis of affected cells. Among other causes, this can be due to physical, chemical, infectious, biological, nutritional or immunological factors. Cell damage can be reversible or irreversible. Depending on the extent of injury, the cellular response may be adaptive and where possible, homeostasis is restored. Cell death occurs when the severity of the injury exceeds the cell’s ability to repair itself. Cell death is relative to both the length of exposure to a harmful stimulus and the severity of the damage caused. Cell death may occur by necrosis or apoptosis.

DNA Repair (natural defenses)

Mitotic Catastrophe refers to a mechanism of delayed mitotic-linked cell death, a sequence of events resulting from premature or inappropriate entry of cells into mitosis that can be caused by chemical or physical stresses.

Cell Signaling is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions. The ability of cells to perceive and correctly respond to their microenvironment is the basis of development, tissue repair, and immunity as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Errors in signaling interactions and cellular information processing are responsible for diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and diabetes. By understanding cell signaling, diseases may be treated more effectively and, theoretically, artificial tissues may be created. Neuron Brain Signals

Signal Transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalysed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response. Proteins responsible for detecting stimuli are generally termed receptors, although in some cases the term sensor is used. The changes elicited by ligand binding (or signal sensing) in a receptor give rise to a signaling cascade, which is a chain of biochemical events along a signaling pathway. When signaling pathways interact with one another they form networks, which allow cellular responses to be coordinated, often by combinatorial signaling events. At the molecular level, such responses include changes in the transcription or translation of genes, and post-translational and conformational changes in proteins, as well as changes in their location. These molecular events are the basic mechanisms controlling cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and many other processes. In multicellular organisms, signal transduction pathways have evolved to regulate cell communication in a wide variety of ways. Each component (or node) of a signaling pathway is classified according to the role it plays with respect to the initial stimulus. Ligands are termed first messengers, while receptors are the signal transducers, which then activate primary effectors. Such effectors are often linked to second messengers, which can activate secondary effectors, and so on. Depending on the efficiency of the nodes, a signal can be amplified (a concept known as signal gain), so that one signaling molecule can generate a response involving hundreds to millions of molecules. As with other signals, the transduction of biological signals is characterised by delay, noise, signal feedback and feedforward and interference, which can range from negligible to pathological. With the advent of computational biology, the analysis of signaling pathways and networks has become an essential tool to understand cellular functions and disease, including signaling rewiring mechanisms underlying responses to acquired drug resistance.

Exosome (vesicle) are cell-derived vesicles that are present in many and perhaps all eukaryotic fluids, including blood, urine, and cultured medium of cell cultures.

Vesicle (biology and chemistry) is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer. Vesicles form naturally during the processes of secretion (exocytosis), uptake (endocytosis) and transport of materials within the cytoplasm. Vesicles perform a variety of functions. Because it is separated from the cytosol, the inside of the vesicle can be made to be different from the cytosolic environment. For this reason, vesicles are a basic tool used by the cell for organizing cellular substances. Vesicles are involved in metabolism, transport, buoyancy control, and temporary storage of food and enzymes. They can also act as chemical reaction chambers.

Quorum Sensing is a system of stimuli and response correlated to population density. Quorum sensing (QS) enables bacteria to restrict the expression of specific genes to the high cell densities at which the resulting phenotypes will be most beneficial. Many species of bacteria use quorum sensing to coordinate gene expression according to the density of their local population. In similar fashion, some social insects use quorum sensing to determine where to nest. In addition to its function in biological systems, quorum sensing has several useful applications for computing and robotics. Quorum sensing can function as a decision-making process in any decentralized system, as long as individual components have: (a) a means of assessing the number of other components they interact with and (b) a standard response once a threshold number of components is detected.

Microbial Intelligence is the intelligence shown by microorganisms. The concept encompasses complex adaptive behaviour shown by single cells, and altruistic or cooperative behavior in populations of like or unlike cells mediated by chemical signalling that induces physiological or behavioral changes in cells and influences colony structures.

Potassium Channel are the most widely distributed type of ion channel and are found in virtually all living organisms. They form potassium-selective pores that span cell membranes. Furthermore potassium channels are found in most cell types and control a wide variety of cell functions.

Cell Potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types. The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency. Potency is also described as the gene activation potential within a cell which like a continuum begins with totipotency to designate a cell with the most differentiation potential, pluripotency, multipotency, oligopotency and finally unipotency. Potency is taken from the Latin term "potens" which means "having power".

Zygote is a Eukaryotic Cell formed by a Fertilization event between two gametes. Permeability

Cell Nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a few others have many. Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome and are structured in such a way to promote cell function. The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression—the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell. The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nuclear matrix (which includes the nuclear lamina), a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton, which supports the cell as a whole. Because the nuclear membrane is impermeable to large molecules, nuclear pores are required to regulate nuclear transport of molecules across the envelope. The pores cross both nuclear membranes, providing a channel through which larger molecules must be actively transported by carrier proteins while allowing free movement of small molecules and ions. Movement of large molecules such as proteins and RNA through the pores is required for both gene expression and the maintenance of chromosomes. Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound sub compartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of sub-nuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. The best-known of these is the nucleolus, which is mainly involved in the assembly of ribosomes. After being produced in the nucleolus, ribosomes are exported to the cytoplasm where they translate mRNA.

Scientists turn skin cells into heart cells and brain cells using drugs. Studies represent first purely chemical cellular reprogramming, changing a cell's identity without adding external genes.

Blastocyst is a structure formed in the early development of mammals. It possesses an inner cell mass (ICM) which subsequently forms the embryo. The outer layer of the blastocyst consists of cells collectively called the trophoblast. This layer surrounds the inner cell mass and a fluid-filled cavity known as the blastocoele. The trophoblast gives rise to the placenta.

Labile Cell are cells that multiply constantly throughout life. The cells are alive for only a short period of time. Due to this, they can end up reproducing new Stem Cells and replace functional cells. Especially if the cells become injured through a process called necrosis, or even if the cells go through apoptosis. The way these cells regenerate and replace themselves is quite unique. While going through cell division, one of the two daughter cells actually becomes a new stem cell. This occurs so then that daughter cell can end up restoring the population of the stem cells that were lost. The other daughter cell separates itself into a functional cell in order to replace the lost, or injured cells during this process. Labile cells are one type of the cells that are involved in the division of cells. The other two types that are involved include stable cells and permanent cells. Each of these type of cells respond to injuries of the cells they occupy differently. Hepatocytes of the liver are thought to be a form of a labile cell because they can regenerate after they become injured. An example of this kind of regeneration can consist of performing a pediatric liver transplant. In which it consists of taking a piece of an adult's liver to replace a child's whole liver. Then the adult liver that was transplanted for the child's, would regenerate very quickly to around a normal size liver. Other cell types that are thought to be cells that are constantly dividing include skin cells, cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and blood cells in the bone marrow. Acting as stem cells for these cell types. In labile cells, it is not a speed-up in the segments of the cell cycle (i.e. G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase and M phase), but rather a short or absent G0 phase that is responsible for the cells' constant division.

Stable Cell are cells that multiply only when needed. They spend most of the time in the quiescent G0 phase of the cell cycle, but can be stimulated to enter the cell cycle when needed. Examples include: the liver, the proximal tubules of the kidney, and endocrine glands.

Permanent Cell are cells that are incapable of regeneration. These cells are considered to be terminally differentiated and non proliferative in postnatal life. This includes brain cells, neurons, heart cells, skeletal muscle cells and RBCs.

Fission (biology) is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the original. The object experiencing fission is usually a cell, but the term may also refer to how organisms, bodies, populations, or species split into discrete parts. The fission may be binary fission, in which a single entity produces two parts, or multiple fission, in which a single entity produces multiple parts.

Metabolic Pathways Diagram Metabolic Network is the complete set of metabolic and physical processes that determine the physiological and biochemical properties of a cell. As such, these networks comprise the chemical reactions of metabolism, the metabolic pathways, as well as the regulatory interactions that guide these reactions. With the sequencing of complete genomes, it is now possible to reconstruct the network of biochemical reactions in many organisms, from bacteria to human.

Metabolic Network Modelling allows for an in-depth insight into the molecular mechanisms of a particular organism. In particular, these models correlate the genome with molecular physiology. A reconstruction breaks down metabolic pathways (such as glycolysis and the Citric acid cycle) into their respective reactions and enzymes, and analyzes them within the perspective of the entire network. In simplified terms, a reconstruction collects all of the relevant metabolic information of an organism and compiles it in a mathematical model. Validation and analysis of reconstructions can allow identification of key features of metabolism such as growth yield, resource distribution, network robustness, and gene essentiality. This knowledge can then be applied to create novel biotechnology. In general, the process to build a reconstruction is as follows: Draft a reconstruction. Refine the model. Convert model into a mathematical/computational representation. Evaluate and debug model through experimentation.

Cytoplasm is the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus. It comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane) and the organelles – the cell's internal sub-structures. All of the contents of the cells of prokaryote organisms (such as bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus) are contained within the cytoplasm. Within the cells of eukaryote organisms the contents of the cell nucleus are separated from the cytoplasm, and are then called the nucleoplasm. The cytoplasm is about 80% water and usually colorless.

Microtubule are a component of the cytoskeleton, found throughout the cytoplasm.

Cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes). It is a complex network of interlinking filaments and tubules that extend throughout the cytoplasm, from the nucleus to the plasma membrane. The cytoskeletal systems of different organisms are composed of similar proteins. In eukaryotes, the cytoskeletal matrix is a dynamic structure composed of three main proteins, which are capable of rapid growth or disassembly dependent on the cell's requirements at a certain period of time.

Stem Cells

Stem Cell are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells. They are found in multicellular organisms. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells—ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm (see induced pluripotent stem cells)—but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues. There are three known accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans: Bone marrow, which requires extraction by harvesting, that is, drilling into bone (typically the femur or iliac crest). Adipose tissue (lipid cells), which requires extraction by liposuction. Blood, which requires extraction through apheresis, wherein blood is drawn from the donor (similar to a blood donation), and passed through a machine that extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor. Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. Adult stem cells are frequently used in various medical therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation). Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.

Adult Stem Cell are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. More accurately known as somatic stem cells (from Greek Σωματικóς, meaning of the body), because they are usually more plentiful in juvenile (child) than in adult animal and human bodies.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells. (also known as iPS cells or iPSCs).

Neural Stem Cell are self-renewing, multipotent cells that generate the neurons and glia of the nervous system of all animals during embryonic development. Some neural stem cells persist in the adult vertebrate brain and continue to produce neurons throughout life. Stem cells are characterized by their capacity to differentiate into multiple cell types. They undergo symmetric or asymmetric cell division into two daughter cells. In symmetric cell division, both daughter cells are also stem cells. In asymmetric division, a stem cells produces one stem cell and one specialized cell. NSCs primarily differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Neurogenesis.

Asymmetric Cell Division asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell divisions which give rise to daughter cells of equivalent fates. Notably, stem cells divide asymmetrically to give rise to two distinct daughter cells: one copy of the original stem cell as well as a second daughter programmed to differentiate into a non-stem cell fate. (In times of growth or regeneration, stem cells can also divide symmetrically, to produce two identical copies of the original cell.

Cellular Differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another. Most commonly the cell changes to a more specialized type.

Decellularization is the process used in biomedical engineering to isolate the extracellular matrix (ECM) of a tissue from its inhabiting cells, leaving an ECM scaffold of the original tissue, which can be used in artificial organ and tissue regeneration.

Embryonic Stem Cell are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage preimplantation embryo. Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4–5 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50–150 cells. Isolating the embryoblast or inner cell mass (ICM) results in destruction of the blastocyst, which raises ethical issues, including whether or not embryos at the pre-implantation stage should be considered to have the same moral or legal status as more developed human beings.

Amniotic Fluid is a rich source of Stem Cells that can now be Harvested

Amniotic Fluid is the protective liquid contained by the amniotic sac of a Gravid Amniote. This fluid serves as a cushion for the growing fetus, but also serves to facilitate the exchange of nutrients, water, and biochemical products between mother and fetus. For humans, the amniotic fluid is commonly called water or waters (Latin liquor amnii).

Induced Progenitor-like Cells from Mature Epithelial Cells Using Interrupted Reprogramming

Progenitor Cell is a biological cell that, like a stem cell, has a tendency to differentiate into a specific type of cell, but is already more specific than a stem cell and is pushed to differentiate into its "target" cell. The most important difference between stem cells and progenitor cells is that stem cells can replicate indefinitely, whereas progenitor cells can divide only a limited number of times. Controversy about the exact definition remains and the concept is still evolving. The terms "progenitor cell" and "stem cell" are sometimes equated.

Mesenchymal Stem Cell are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including: osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), myocytes (muscle cells) and adipocytes (fat cells). This phenomenon has been documented in specific cells and tissues in living animals and their counterparts growing in tissue culture.

Stem Cell Research
Adipose-derived Mesenchymal

Mesenchyme is a type of tissue characterized by loosely associated cells that lack polarity and are surrounded by a large extracellular matrix.

Stromal Cell are connective tissue cells of any organ, for example in the uterine mucosa (endometrium), prostate, bone marrow, lymph node and the ovary. They are cells that support the function of the parenchymal cells of that organ. Fibroblasts and pericytes are among the most common types of stromal cells.

Beta Cell are a type of cell found in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas. They make up 65-80% of the cells in the islets.

Stem Cell Information - Basics

Stem Cell Research (youtube)
Growing Organs (youtube)
Susan Solomon (youtube)
Susan Lim Stem Cells (youtube)

Method of accelerating the maturation of stem cells to form neurons discovered. Hydrogel can be used as a scaffold for engineering artificial brain tissue and promotes the development of neurons.

New technology to manipulate cells could one day help treat Parkinson's, arthritis, other diseases. DNA strands in materials act like traffic signals to start, stop cell activity or regenerate tissue. One of the findings is the possibility of using the synthetic material to signal neural stem cells to proliferate, then at a specific time selected by the operator, trigger their differentiation into neurons and then return the stem cells back to a proliferative state on demand. Spinal cord neural stem cells, initially grouped into structures known as “neurospheres,” can be driven to spread out and differentiate using a signal. But when this signal is switched off, the cells spontaneously re-group themselves into colonies.

Stem Cell Therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.

Scientists have created Expanded Potential Stem Cells (EPSCs) that, for the first time, can produce all three types of blastocyst stem cells - embryo, placenta and yolk sac.

Activating a single gene is sufficient to change skin cells into stem cells using CRISPR Genome Activation.


New stem cell method produces millions of human brain and muscle cells in days. The new platform technology, OPTi-OX, optimizes the way of switching on genes in human stem cells.

Regenerative Medicine is a branch of translational research in tissue engineering and molecular biology which deals with the "process of replacing, engineering or regenerating human cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function". This field holds the promise of engineering damaged tissues and organs by stimulating the body's own repair mechanisms to functionally heal previously irreparable tissues or organs. Regenerative medicine also includes the possibility of growing tissues and organs in the laboratory and implanting them when the body cannot heal itself. If a regenerated organ's cells would be derived from the patient's own tissue or cells, this would potentially solve the problem of the shortage of organs available for donation, and the problem of organ transplant rejection.

Salamanders are capable of regenerating lost limbs, as well as other damaged parts of their bodies. Researchers hope to reverse engineer the remarkable regenerative processes for potential human medical applications, such as brain and spinal cord
injury treatment or preventing harmful scarring during heart surgery recovery. Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults. Regenerative Medicine.

Liver Fix Thyself. How some liver cells switch identities to build missing plumbing. By studying a rare liver disease called Alagille syndrome, scientists discovered the mechanism behind a form of tissue regeneration that may someday reduce the need for organ transplants. Researchers report that when disease or injury causes a shortage in one type of liver cell, the organ can instruct another type of liver cell to change identities to provide replacement supplies. The findings one day may lead to a viable treatment for human disease.

Regeneration in Humans is the regrowth of lost tissues or organs in response to injury. This is in contrast to wound healing, which involves closing up the injury site with a scar. Some tissues such as skin and large organs including the liver regrow quite readily, while others have been thought to have little or no capacity for regeneration. However ongoing research, particularly in the heart and lungs, suggests that there is hope for a variety of tissues and organs to eventually become regeneration-capable.

A Universal Solution for Regenerative Medicine. Revolutionary Nano-Materials developed at Northwestern could make it possible to repair any part of the body.

Super-Silenced DNA Hints at New Ways to Reprogram Cells in Regenerative Medicine

Cardiac Stem Cells from Young Hearts could Rejuvenate Old Hearts

Researchers Develop Regenerative Medicine Breakthrough. Breakthrough device heals organs with a single touch. Device instantly delivers new DNA or RNA into living skin cells to change their function. Tissue Nanotransfection (TNT), injects genetic code into skin cells, turning those skin cells into other types of cells required for treating diseased conditions. Researchers were able to reprogram skin cells to become vascular cells in badly injured legs that lacked blood flow. Within one week, active blood vessels appeared in the injured leg, and by the second week, the leg was saved.

Bone Regeneration (healing)

A Thermo-Responsive Poly-Diolcitrate-Gelatin Scaffold and delivery system mediates effective bone formation from BMP9-transduced mesenchymal stem cells. PPCN-g. New Material Regrows Bone

Regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage. Every species is capable of regeneration, from bacteria to humans. Regeneration can either be complete where the new tissue is the same as the lost tissue, or incomplete where after the necrotic tissue comes fibrosis. At its most elementary level, regeneration is mediated by the molecular processes of gene regulation. Regeneration in biology, however, mainly refers to the morphogenic processes that characterize the phenotypic plasticity of traits allowing multi-cellular organisms to repair and maintain the integrity of their physiological and morphological states. Above the genetic level, regeneration is fundamentally regulated by asexual cellular processes. Regeneration is different from reproduction. For example, hydra perform regeneration but reproduce by the method of budding.
transforming human Scar Cells into Blood Vessel Cells

Endothelium (blood) - Adipose Tissue (fat)

Neural Crest cells are a temporary group of cells unique to vertebrates that arise from the embryonic ectoderm cell layer, and in turn give rise to a diverse cell lineage—including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, peripheral and enteric neurons and glia.

A Cellular Biologic Scaffold

Activating the innate immune system opens up the DNA," said Cooke, the study's senior author. " This open state enhances the formation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or cells that can have the ability to regenerate into other cell types and tissues, such as that of the brain, heart or liver."

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells.

A Universal Solution for Regenerative Medicine Revolutionary nanomaterials developed at Northwestern could make it possible to repair any part of the body.

Cell mechanism that transforms electrical signals into chemical ones explained. Electro-chemical coupling through protein super complexes: The calcium channel (Cav2) delivers calcium ions (Ca2+) that activate the enzyme NO synthase (NOS) for generation of the messenger NO. The enzymes nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS1) and protein kinase C (PKC) play an important role in a variety of signal transfer processes in neurons of the brain, as well as in many cell types of other organs. Enzymes can be activated under physiological conditions through sole electrical stimulation of the cell membrane. Protein super complexes that rapidly transform electrical signals at the cell membrane into chemical signal processes inside the cell emerge through direct structural interaction of both enzymes with voltage-gated calcium channels.

Human Skin Cells transformed directly into Motor Neurons. Scientists have converted skin cells from healthy adults directly into motor neurons without going through a stem cell state.

Regeneration of the entire Human Epidermis using Transgenic Stem Cells

Long-Term Stability and Safety of Transgenic Cultured Epidermal Stem Cells in Gene Therapy of Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa


Eukaryote Organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant, fungus, or bacterium. All known types of organisms are capable of some degree of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development and homeostasis. An organism consists of one or more cells; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism. Most unicellular organisms are of microscopic size and are thus classified as microorganisms. Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs.

Unicellular Organism also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell. Historically, simple unicellular organisms have been referred to as monads, though this term is also used more specifically to describe organisms of the genus Monas and similar flagellate ameboids. The main groups of unicellular organisms are bacteria, archaea, protozoa, unicellular algae, and unicellular fungi. Unicellular organisms fall into two general categories: prokaryotic organisms and eukaryotic organisms. Unicellular organisms are thought to be the oldest form of life, with early protocells possibly emerging 3.8–4 billion years ago.

Multicellular Organism are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms. All species of animals, land plants and most fungi are multicellular, as are many algae, whereas a few organisms are partially uni- and partially multicellular, like slime molds and social amoebae such as the genus Dictyostelium. Multicellular organisms arise in various different ways, for example by cell division or by aggregation of many single cells. Colonial organisms are the result of many identical individuals joining together to form a colony. However, it can often be hard to separate colonial protists from true multicellular organisms, because the two concepts are not distinct; colonial protists have been dubbed "pluricellular" rather than "multicellular".

Eukaryote - Prokaryote

Protist is any eukaryotic organism that is not an animal, plant or fungus. The protists do not form a natural group, or clade, but are often grouped together for convenience, like algae or invertebrates. In some systems of biological classification, such as the popular five-kingdom scheme.

Anaerobic Organism is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. It may react negatively or even die if oxygen is present. In contrast, an Aerobic Organism (aerobe) is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.

Microbe or Microorganism is a microscopic organism, which may be single-celled or multicellular. The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, viewing plant cells under a microscope. Microorganisms are very diverse and include all bacteria, archaea and most protozoa. This group also contains some fungi, algae, and some micro-animals such as rotifers. Many macroscopic animals and plants have microscopic juvenile stages. Some microbiologists classify viruses and viroids as microorganisms, but others consider these as nonliving. In July 2016, scientists identified a set of 355 genes from the last universal common ancestor of all life, including microorganisms, living on Earth. Microorganisms live in every part of the biosphere, including soil, hot springs, inside rocks at least 19 km (12 mi) deep underground, the deepest parts of the ocean, and at least 64 km (40 mi) high in the atmosphere. Microorganisms, under certain test conditions, have been observed to thrive in the vacuum of outer space. Microorganisms likely far outweigh all other living things combined. The mass of prokaryote microorganisms including the bacteria and archaea may be as much as 0.8 trillion tons of carbon, out of the total biomass of between 1 and 4 trillion tons. Microorganisms appear to thrive in the Mariana Trench, the deepest spot in the Earth's oceans. Other researchers reported related studies that microorganisms thrive inside rocks up to 580 m (1,900 ft; 0.36 mi) below the sea floor under 2,590 m (8,500 ft; 1.61 mi) of ocean off the coast of the northwestern United States, as well as 2,400 m (7,900 ft; 1.5 mi) beneath the seabed off Japan. In August 2014, scientists confirmed the existence of microorganisms living 800 m (2,600 ft; 0.50 mi) below the ice of Antarctica. According to one researcher, "You can find microbes everywhere — they're extremely adaptable to conditions, and survive wherever they are." Microorganisms are crucial to nutrient recycling in ecosystems as they act as decomposers. As some microorganisms can fix nitrogen, they are a vital part of the nitrogen cycle, and recent studies indicate that airborne microorganisms may play a role in precipitation and weather. Microorganisms are also exploited in biotechnology, both in traditional food and beverage preparation, and in modern technologies based on genetic engineering. A small proportion of microorganisms are pathogenic, causing disease and even death in plants and animals.

Human Microbes

Model Organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. Model organisms are in vivo models and are widely used to research human disease when human experimentation would be unfeasible or unethical. This strategy is made possible by the common descent of all living organisms, and the conservation of metabolic and developmental pathways and genetic material over the course of evolution.

Biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often these cells adhere to a surface. These adherent cells are frequently embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Biofilm extracellular polymeric substance, which is also referred to as slime (although not everything described as slime is a biofilm), is a polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. Microbes form a biofilm in response to many factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated.

Biopolymer are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules. Since they are polymers, biopolymers contain monomeric units that are covalently bonded to form larger structures. There are three main classes of biopolymers, classified according to the monomeric units used and the structure of the biopolymer formed: polynucleotides (RNA and DNA), which are long polymers composed of 13 or more nucleotide monomers; polypeptides, which are short polymers of amino acids; and polysaccharides, which are often linear bonded polymeric carbohydrate structures. Cellulose is the most common organic compound and biopolymer on Earth. About 33 percent of all plant matter is cellulose. The cellulose content of cotton is 90 percent, for wood is 50 percent.

Biosynthesis is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms. In biosynthesis, simple compounds are modified, converted into other compounds, or joined together to form macromolecules. This process often consists of metabolic pathways. Some of these biosynthetic pathways are located within a single cellular organelle, while others involve enzymes that are located within multiple cellular organelles. Examples of these biosynthetic pathways include the production of lipid membrane components and nucleotides. The prerequisite elements for biosynthesis include: precursor compounds, chemical energy (e.g. ATP), and catalytic enzymes which may require coenzymes (e.g.NADH, NADPH). These elements create monomers, the building blocks for macromolecules. Some important biological macromolecules include: proteins, which are composed of amino acid monomers joined via peptide bonds, and DNA molecules, which are composed of nucleotides joined via phosphodiester bonds.

Methanogen are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.

Hypoxia (environmental) refers to low oxygen conditions. Normally, 20.9% of the gas in the atmosphere is oxygen.

Lithoautotroph is a microbe which derives energy from reduced compounds of mineral origin.

Lithotroph are a diverse group of organisms using inorganic substrate (usually of mineral origin) to obtain reducing equivalents for use in biosynthesis (e.g., carbon dioxide fixation) or energy conservation (i.e., ATP production) via aerobic or anaerobic respiration. Known chemolithotrophs are exclusively microbes; no known macrofauna possesses the ability to utilize inorganic compounds as energy sources.

Slim Mold The Blob can Learn - and Teach ! It isn't an animal, a plant, or a fungus. The Slime Mold (Physarum polycephalum) is a strange, creeping, bloblike organism made up of one giant cell. Though it has no brain, it can learn from experience, as biologists at the Research Centre on Animal Cognition. Imagine you could temporarily fuse with someone, acquire that person's knowledge, and then split off to become your separate self again, you don't have to imagine because that is what schools are supposed to do, but fail to understand the process.

A single-celled organism capable of learning

Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases to respond to a stimulus after repeated presentations. Essentially, the organism learns to stop responding to a stimulus which is no longer biologically relevant. For example, organisms may habituate to repeated sudden loud noises when they learn these have no consequences. Habituation usually refers to a reduction in innate behaviours, rather than behaviours developed during conditioning in which the process is termed "extinction".

Organelles is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function. Individual organelles are usually separately enclosed within their own lipid bilayers.


Bacteria constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals.

Germs - Viruses

Cyanobacteria is a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen. The name "cyanobacteria" comes from the color of the bacteria (Greek: κυανός (kyanós) = blue). Sometimes, they are called blue-green algae, and incorrectly so, because cyanobacteria are prokaryotes and the term "algae" is reserved for eukaryotes. Like other prokaryotes, cyanobacteria have no membrane-sheathed organelles. Photosynthesis is performed in distinctive folds in the outer membrane of the cell (unlike green plants which use organelles adapted for this specific role, called chloroplasts). Biologists commonly agree that chloroplasts found in eukaryotes have their ancestry in cyanobacteria, via a process called endosymbiosis. By producing oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis, cyanobacteria are thought to have converted the early oxygen-poor, reducing atmosphere, into an oxidizing one, causing the "rusting of the Earth" and the Great Oxygenation Event, that dramatically changed the composition of life forms and led to the near-extinction of anaerobic organisms.

Premordial Life or Abiogenesis is said to be a natural process of life arising from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds. Primordial Soup is thought to have occurred on Earth between 3.8 and 4.1 billion years ago. How can abiogenesis be a natural process when you have no proof and no other planet to compare it to. Information does not come from nothing, this information had to originate from somewhere.

Archaea constitute a domain and kingdom of single-celled microorganisms. These microbes (archaea; singular archaeon) are prokaryotes, meaning that they have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles in their cells.

Eukaryote is any organism whose cells contain a Nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotes belong to the taxon Eukarya or Eukaryota. The defining feature that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells (Bacteria and Archaea) is that they have membrane-bound organelles, especially the nucleus, which contains the genetic material and is enclosed by the nuclear envelope. The presence of a nucleus gives eukaryotes their name.

Prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus (karyon), mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

Prokaryotic DNA Replication is the process by which a prokaryote duplicates its entire genome into another copy that is passed on to daughter cells. Although it is often studied in the model organism E. coli, other bacteria show many similarities. Replication is bi-directional and originates at a single origin of replication (OriC). It consists of three steps: Initiation, elongation, and termination. DNA replication begins at the origin of replication, a region commonly containing repeating sequences (DnaA boxes) that bind DnaA, an initiation protein. DnaA-ATP will first bind high-affinity boxes (R1, R2, and R4, which have a highly conserved 9 bp consensus sequence 5' - TTATCCACA - 3'), then oligomerize into several low-affinity boxes. This accumulation will displace a protein called Fis, allowing another protein, IHF, to bind the DNA and induce a bend. This bend allows the DnaA chain to load onto an AT-rich region of 13-mers (the DUE, Duplex unwinding element), causing the double-stranded DNA to separate. The DnaC helicase loader will interact with the DnaA on the single-stranded DNA to recruit the DnaB helicase, which will continue to unwind the DNA as the DnaG primase lays down an RNA primer and DNA Polymerase III holoenzyme begins elongation. Mutations

Complex Archaea that bridge the gap between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Histology is the study of the microscopic anatomy (microanatomy) of cells and tissues of plants and animals.

Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and (in animals) physical activity are temporarily stopped. This minimizes metabolic activity and therefore helps an organism to conserve energy. Dormancy tends to be closely associated with environmental conditions. Organisms can synchronize entry to a dormant phase with their environment through predictive or consequential means. Predictive dormancy occurs when an organism enters a dormant phase before the onset of adverse conditions. For example, photoperiod and decreasing temperature are used by many plants to predict the onset of winter. Consequential dormancy occurs when organisms enter a dormant phase after adverse conditions have arisen. This is commonly found in areas with an unpredictable climate. While very sudden changes in conditions may lead to a high mortality rate among animals relying on consequential dormancy, its use can be advantageous, as organisms remain active longer and are therefore able to make greater use of available resources.

Glass formation in plant anhydrobiotes: survival in the dry state
Cytoplasmic viscosity near the cell plasma membrane: measurement by evanescent field frequency-domain microfluorimetry.

Microfluorimetry is an adaption of fluorimetry for studying the biochemical and biophysical properties of cells by using microscopy to image cell components tagged with fluorescent molecules. It is a type of microphotometry that gives a quantitative measure of the qualitative nature of fluorescent measurement and therefore, allows for definitive results that would have been previously indiscernible to the naked eye.

Intracellular glasses and seed survival in the dry state
Building Blocks of Life

How did the chemistry of simple carbon-based molecules lead to the information storage of ribonucleic acid, or RNA? The RNA molecule must store information to code for proteins. (Proteins in biology do more than build muscle — they also regulate a host of processes in the body.) 

List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules
Swapped human genes into the genetic code used by common yeast cells found that the cells could continue to function and grow. 
Systematic humanization of yeast genes reveals conserved functions and genetic modularity

Pyramid of Complexity
Size Variations - Nano Machines
Central Nervous System
Human Energy

Tree of Life

Six Kingdoms Tree of Life "Bacteria looks the same as bacteria of the same region from 2.3 billion years ago—and that both sets of ancient bacteria are indistinguishable from modern sulfur bacteria found in mud off of the coast of Chile."

"Life has been using a standard set of 20 Amino Acids to build Proteins for more than 3 billion years"  ~ Quoted by Stephen J. Freeland of the NASA Astrobiology Institute at the University of Hawaii.

Remnants of an Ancient Metabolism without Phosphate

Phylogenetic Tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics. The taxa joined together in the tree are implied to have descended from a common ancestor. Phylogenetic trees are central to the field of phylogenetics.

New Updated Tree of Life

Phylogenetic Network is any graph used to visualize evolutionary relationships (either abstractly or explicitly) between nucleotide sequences, genes, chromosomes, genomes, or species. They are employed when reticulation events such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, recombination, or gene duplication and loss are believed to be involved. They differ from phylogenetic trees by the explicit modeling of richly-linked networks, by means of the addition of hybrid nodes (nodes with two parents) instead of only tree nodes (a hierarchy of nodes, each with only one parent). Phylogenetic trees are a subset of phylogenetic networks. Phylogenetic networks can be inferred and visualised with software such as SplitsTree and, more recently, Dendroscope. A standard format for representing phylogenetic networks is a variant of Newick format which is extended to support networks as well as trees.
Phylogenetic tree
Molecular Phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyses hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.

Molecular Systematics is the use of molecular genetics to study the evolution of relationships among individuals and species. The goal of systematic studies is to provide insight into the history of groups of organisms and the evolutionary processes that create diversity among species.

Porphyrian Tree is a classic device for illustrating what is also called a "scale of being" which indicates that a species is defined by a genus and a differentia and that this logical process continues until the lowest species is reached, which can no longer be so defined.

Open Tree
Open Tree of Life

Pedigree Chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next, most commonly humans, show dogs, and race horses.

Pyramid of Complexity
Building Blocks of Life
Mind Maps


Tree of Life is a widespread mytheme or archetype in the world's mythologies, related to the concept of sacred tree more generally, and hence in religious and philosophical tradition.

Great Chain of Being is a strict, religious hierarchical structure of all matter and life, believed to have been decreed by God. The chain starts from God and progresses downward to angels, demons (fallen/renegade angels), stars, moon, kings, princes, nobles, commoners, wild animals, domesticated animals, trees, other plants, precious stones, precious metals, and other minerals.

Microbes in Humans

Falsifying Phylogeny (youtube)

Parsimony is an optimality criterion under which the phylogenetic tree that minimizes the total number of character-state changes is to be preferred. Under the maximum-parsimony criterion, the optimal tree will minimize the amount of homoplasy (i.e., convergent evolution, parallel evolution, and evolutionary reversals). In other words, under this criterion, the shortest possible tree that explains the data is considered best. The principle is akin to Occam's razor, which states that—all else being equal—the simplest hypothesis that explains the data should be selected.

Phylogeny Archive
Arizona Tree of Life Web Project

Binary Fission is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the original. The object experiencing fission is usually a cell, but the term may also refer to how organisms, bodies, populations, or species split into discrete parts. The fission may be binary fission, in which a single entity produces two parts, or multiple fission, in which a single entity produces multiple parts.

500 Million years ago was the Cambrian Explosion - Earth Timeline

Transitional Fossils is a tentative partial list of transitional fossils (fossil remains of groups that exhibits both "primitive" and derived traits). The fossils are listed in series, showing the transition from one group to another, representing significant steps in the evolution of major features in various lineages. These changes often represent major changes in morphology and anatomy, related to mode of life, like the acquisition of feathered wings for an aerial lifestyle in birds, or limbs in the fish/tetrapod transition onto land.

The Missing Link

Richard Dawkins: Intermediate Fossils (youtube)
Darwin's Dilemma

Descriptive Complexity Theory is a branch of computational complexity theory and of finite model theory that characterizes complexity classes by the type of logic needed to express the languages in them.

Evolution of Biological Complexity
Earth Botany
Most Animals Start out the Same Way, but they never end the same way.

Horizontal Gene Transfer is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than via vertical transmission (the transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.) HGT is synonymous with lateral gene transfer (LGT) and the terms are interchangeable. HGT has been shown to be an important factor in the evolution of many organisms. Horizontal gene transfer is the primary reason for the spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and plays an important role in the evolution of bacteria that can degrade novel compounds such as human-created pesticides and in the evolution, maintenance, and transmission of virulence. This horizontal gene transfer often involves temperate bacteriophages and plasmids. Genes that are responsible for antibiotic resistance in one species of bacteria can be transferred to another species of bacteria through various mechanisms such as F-pilus, subsequently arming the antibiotic resistant genes' recipient against antibiotics, which is becoming a medical challenge to deal with. Most thinking in genetics has focused upon vertical transfer, but there is a growing awareness that horizontal gene transfer is a highly significant phenomenon and among single-celled organisms, perhaps the dominant form of genetic transfer. Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering.

The tree of life does not say you grew out of bacteria, the tree of life is the biological history of planet earth, things that we have learned so far. The tree of life shows the path that certain information took, or transcended from. The tree of life shows some of the things that we and other life forms are made out of, not grew out of, but made out of. If you were creating advanced animal life, you would want animals made out of certain things like bacteria, things that have learned to survive for millions of years. This is more then a symbiotic relationship with microbes, this is the blueprint for life, use the strongest material available, give life the ability to adapt, to evolve and to learn. Intelligent Design

The responsibility of life is now in our hands. Humans have been given the ability to manually adjust information, which gives life even more chances to survive, pure genius. But it is also pure hell when the ability to manually adjust information causes death and destruction, all because the information being adjusted reduces our chances of survival, like pollution that poisons the water, land and air. There is also corruption. Bad information is cancer, actions being made based on bad information. Bad cells are multiplying when bad cells should be dying.

The Thinker Man