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Exercise Tips - Physical Education - Fitness


Though a lot of people know the importance of exercise there are still too many people who do not understand the importance of exercising regularly. Physical inactivity served as the leading risk factor for heart disease at every age from the early 30s to late 80s. And you have to fully understand that Food and Nutrition is the key to losing weight and being healthy. So do not rely on exercise alone. What you put in your mouth is the single most important thing.

What's Good For The Heart Is Good For The Brain. Life's Simple 7
Brain Food

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Exercise Methods Physical Fitness is a general state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities. Physical fitness is generally achieved through proper nutrition, moderate-vigorous physical exercise, and sufficient rest.

Warm Up First (slowly)

Physical Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons, including increasing growth and development, preventing aging, strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, and also enjoyment. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system and helps prevent "diseases of affluence" such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. It may also help prevent stress and depression, increase quality of sleep and act as a non-pharmaceutical sleep aid to treat diseases such as insomnia, help promote or maintain positive self-esteem, improve mental health, maintain steady digestion and treat constipation and gas, regulate fertility health, and augment an individual's sex appeal or body image, which has been found to be linked with higher levels of self-esteem.

Exercise is a great way to maintain your strength and endurance, and it's also a great way to measure your strength and endurance.

Exercise Physiology is the physiology of physical exercise. It is the study of the acute responses and chronic adaptations to a wide range of exercise conditions. Exercise physiologists study the effect of exercise on pathology, and the mechanisms by which exercise can reduce or reverse disease progression.

Exercise Physiologists
Personal Trainer
Personal Trainer Certification

Kinesiology (body smart)
Kinesthetic Intelligence
Body Image

Physical Health
Wellness

Breathing

Obesity - Diabetes

Physical Fitness Test

Aerobic Conditioning is a process whereby the heart and lungs are trained to pump blood more efficiently, allowing more oxygen to be delivered to muscles and organs. Aerobic conditioning is the use of continuous, rhythmic movement of large muscle groups to strengthen the heart and lungs (cardiovascular system). An improvement in aerobic conditioning occurs when an athlete exposes themselves to an increase in oxygen uptake and metabolism. But to keep this level of Aerobic conditioning the athlete must keep or progressively increase their training to increase their aerobic conditioning. Aerobic condition is usually achieved through cardiovascular exercise such as running, swimming, aerobics, etc. A stronger heart does not pump more blood by beating faster but by beating more efficiently. Trained endurance athletes can have resting heart rates as low as the reported 28 beats per minute in people such as Miguel Indurain or 32 beats per minute of Lance Armstrong, both of whom were professional cyclists at the highest level.

Cardiorespiratory Fitness refers to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity. Regular exercise makes these systems more efficient by enlarging the heart muscle, enabling more blood to be pumped with each stroke, and increasing the number of small arteries in trained skeletal muscles, which supply more blood to working muscles. Exercise improves the respiratory system by increasing the amount of oxygen that is inhaled and distributed to body tissue. A 2005 Cochrane review demonstrated that physical activity interventions are effective for increasing cardiovascular fitness. There are many benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness. It can reduce the risk of heart disease, lung cancer, type 2 diabetes, stroke, and other diseases. Cardiorespiratory fitness helps improve lung and heart condition, and increases feelings of wellbeing. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends aerobic exercise 3–5 times per week for 30–60 minutes per session, at a moderate intensity, that maintains the heart rate between 65–85% of the maximum heart rate.

Heart Rate Monitors
Electrocardiography (EKG)

Running
Sport Competitions

Sports and Health in America

Sports Training is the act of rehearsing a behavior over and over, or engaging in an activity again and again, for the purpose of improving or mastering it, as in the phrase "practice makes perfect". Sports teams practice to prepare for actual games. Playing a musical instrument well takes a lot of practice. Sessions scheduled for the purpose of rehearsing and performance improvement are called practices. They are engaged in by sports teams, bands, individuals, etc..

Promote Sports
Sports A-Z
Sports Medicine
Sports Safety and Healing
Sports Health Kids
PE 4 Life Research
PE Central
Jump Bunch

Nat. Physical Activity Plan
Physical Activity Guidelines (gov)

Sport and Physical Education
Physical Fitness Schools

The 4-Hour Body (Book)

Body Building
Time Under Tension
Exercise Guidelines

American Council on Exercise
Fitness Exercise Tips (webmd)
Exercising & Training Tips
Fitness & Exercise Tips (webmd)
Steady Health Exercise Tips (youtube)
Presidents Challenge
Support Real Teachers
A.A.H.PE.R.D.


Play Time

Jungle Gym PlaygroundJungle Gym is a piece of playground equipment made of many pieces of material, such as metal pipe or rope, on which children can climb, swing hang by feet or legs, and explore physical abilities and limitations.

Playgrounds that Educate
Think Scape Park
Homo Ludens
Build a Play Ground
Funding for Playgrounds
Accessible Playgrounds
Photos of Playgrounds
Adventure Playground
National Institute for Play
Play Manifesto (youtube)

Play Activity is a range of voluntary intrinsically motivated activities normally associated with
recreational pleasure and enjoyment.

Recess Break is when students have a mid morning snack and play (activity) before having lunch after a few more lessons for a daily period, typically ten to thirty minutes, in elementary school where students are allowed to leave the school's interior to enter its adjacent outdoor playground, where they can play on recreational equipment, such as seesaws and swing sets, or engage in activities such as basketball, dodgeball, or four square. Many middle schools also offer a recess to provide students with a sufficient opportunity to consume quick snacks, communicate with their peers, visit the restroom, study, and various other activities.

Recess Before Lunch
Less Homework more Play

Importance of Outdoor Activities

Educational Games
Outdoor Exercise Equipment
Outdoor Gym

How to do a Cartwheel (youtube) Hand, hand, foot, foot.

Disabilities (special needs)
There are over 38 million Americans with severe physical disabilities.
Wheelchair Accessible



Dangers of Sitting for Long Periods of Time

Too much sitting, too little exercise may accelerate biological aging.

Health Risks from Sitting too Long
Dangers of Sitting for a Long Time (youtube)

Sedentary Lifestyle is a type of lifestyle with no or irregular physical activity.

Sitting on the buttocks in contact with the ground or a horizontal object such as a chair seat. The torso is more or less upright. Sitting for much of the day may pose significant health risks, and people who sit regularly for prolonged periods have higher mortality rates than those who do not.

Nerve Compression caused by direct pressure on a Nerve. Symptoms include pain, tingling, numbness and muscle weakness.

Blood Clots or thrombus, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis. There are two components to a thrombus: aggregated platelets and red blood cells that form a plug, and a mesh of cross-linked fibrin protein. The substance making up a thrombus is sometimes called cruor. A thrombus is a healthy response to injury intended to prevent bleeding, but can be harmful in thrombosis, when clots obstruct blood flow through healthy blood vessels. Mural thrombi are thrombi that adhere to the wall of a blood vessel. They occur in large vessels such as the heart and aorta, and can restrict blood flow but usually do not block it entirely. They appear grey-red with alternating light and dark lines (known as lines of Zahn) which represent bands of fibrin (lighter) with entrapped white blood cells and red blood cells (darker).

Blood clots can sometimes form in your legs during air travel because you are immobile for long periods of time, often sitting in cramped spaces with little leg room. While commonly referred to as "economy class syndrome," the clinical term for this type of blood clot is deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The longer the flight, the more at risk you are for developing a clot. Flights lasting 8-10 hours or longer pose the greatest risk.

Posture - Standing Desks

Darma: Sit smart for a healthy body and mind

Two hours of sitting cancels out the benefits of 20 minutes of exercise when it came to cardio-respiratory fitness. Watching for more than three hours a day was linked with an increased risk of death in all but the most active people. The death rate was significantly higher in people who watched TV for five hours or more a day.

HOVR - Unconsciously Burn More Calories at Work

Sedentary Lifestyle may Impair Academic Performance in Boys
Lack of Healthy Food and Nutrition also Impairs Learning
Brain Food

How Does Inversion Therapy or Hanging Upside Down Help Back Pain? (youtube)
Hanging upside down using an inversion table reverse the effects of gravity.

What's the difference between being in shape and being out of shape?
Studies have found that simply interrupting your sitting time with short breaks of movement—just standing or walking slowly—has beneficial effects. One minute and 40 seconds of walking every 30 minutes for a nine-hour sitting period, as well as two-minute bouts of light-intensity treadmill walking every 20 minutes throughout a five-hour sitting period. Just a few hours of sitting suppresses a gene that helps keep your cardiovascular system healthy by controlling inflammation and blood clotting.
Individuals with low levels of physical activity are at risk for high levels of oxidative stress.

Weakness describes a condition where the force exerted by the muscles is less than would be expected, when a person feels more effort than normal is required to exert a given amount of force.

Muscle Atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and is most commonly experienced when persons suffer temporary disabling circumstances such as being restricted in movement and/or confined to bed as when hospitalized. When a muscle atrophies, this leads to muscle weakness, since the ability to exert force is related to mass. Modern medicine's understanding of the quick onset of muscle atrophy is a major factor behind the practice of getting hospitalized patients out of bed and moving about as active as possible as soon as is feasible, despite sutures, wounds, broken bones and pain.

Dizzyness


Physical Benefits and Mental Benefits of Exercising

Exercise can improve your mood, decrease stress, and improve your attention span and memory. The neurological benefits of exercise are well documented. Exercise enhances both the birth rate and the survival of new hippocampal brain cells. Exercise encourages new hippocampal cells to grow as well as the long-term growth of hippocampal cells by immediately increasing levels of a key growth factor in the hippocampus called Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). Exercise also increases levels of key neurotransmitters, including serotonin, noradrenalin, dopamine and endorphins, that are often depleted by anxiety and depression.

Benefits of Exercise on The Brain and Memory Performance

Other Benefits from exercising:
Improved cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness
Improved bone health
Improved cardiovascular and metabolic health biomarkers
Favorable body composition
Lower risk of early death
Lower risk of coronary heart disease
Lower risk of stroke
Lower risk of high blood pressure
Lower risk of adverse blood lipid profile
Lower risk of type 2 diabetes
Lower risk of metabolic syndrome
Lower risk of colon cancer
Lower risk of breast cancer
Prevention of weight gain
Weight loss, particularly when combined with reduced calorie intake
Improved cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness
Prevention of falls
Reduced depression
Better cognitive function (for older adults)
Better functional health (for older adults)
Reduced abdominal obesity
Lower risk of hip fracture
Lower risk of lung cancer
Lower risk of endometrial cancer
Weight maintenance after weight loss
Increased bone density
Improved sleep quality

Neurobiological Effects of Physical Exercise are numerous and involve a wide range of interrelated effects on brain structure, brain function, and cognition. A large body of research in humans has demonstrated that consistent aerobic exercise (e.g., 30 minutes every day) induces persistent improvements in certain cognitive functions, healthy alterations in gene expression in the brain, and beneficial forms of neuroplasticity and behavioral plasticity; some of these long-term effects include: increased neuron growth, increased neurological activity (e.g., c-Fos and BDNF signaling), improved stress coping, enhanced cognitive control of behavior, improved declarative, spatial, and working memory, and structural and functional improvements in brain structures and pathways associated with cognitive control and memory. The effects of exercise on cognition have important implications for improving academic performance in children and college students, improving adult productivity, preserving cognitive function in old age, preventing or treating certain neurological disorders, and improving overall quality of life. People who regularly perform aerobic exercise (e.g., running, jogging, brisk walking, swimming, and cycling) have greater scores on neuropsychological function and performance tests that measure certain cognitive functions, such as attentional control, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, working memory updating and capacity, declarative memory, spatial memory, and information processing speed. Aerobic exercise is also a potent antidepressant and euphoriant; as a result, consistent exercise produces general improvements in mood and self-esteem. Regular aerobic exercise improves symptoms associated with a variety of central nervous system disorders and may be used as an adjunct therapy for these disorders. There is clear evidence of exercise treatment efficacy for major depressive disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A large body of preclinical evidence and emerging clinical evidence supports the use of exercise therapy for treating and preventing the development of drug addictions. Reviews of clinical evidence also support the use of exercise as an adjunct therapy for certain neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson's disease Regular exercise is also associated with a lower risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders. Regular exercise has also been proposed as an adjunct therapy for brain cancers.

Risks from Eating Unhealthy Food

Association Between Physical Activity and Mental Health Study

Motivation
When exercising think about meditation and how great it feels. Think about traveling and seeing exotic places. Dream about things you would like to do someday. Pay attention to your breathing

Smile and Laugh
Inspiration

Purposeful exercise and lifestyle physical activity in the lives of young adult women: Findings from a diary study

The Difference between Exercise and Physical Activity

"Look at exercise as if you're going for ice cream or some kind of treat, a treat that always makes you feel good, that's exercise."

"Considering that we need to do things everyday, we might as well do things that matter."

It's recommended to exercise 4 times a week at least 20 minutes or 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity exercise or 75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity exercise. Of course consult professionals for guidance and recommendations.

There is some evidence that working out on a completely empty stomach — or, as scientists call this woozy, wee-hours condition, “in a fasted state” — prompts the body to burn more fat and potentially stave off weight gain, compared to exercising at other times. Men who had exercised first thing in the morning, before eating anything, had gained almost no weight and retained healthy insulin levels. Their bodies were also burning more fat throughout the day than were the other men.

23 and 1/2 hours: What is the single best thing we can do for our health? (youtube)
Evans Health Lab

National Physical Education and Sport Week - May 1-7, 2015

National Get Fit Don't Sit Day - May 6, 2015

Physical Education is extremely important and should never be thought of as insignificant. Some people actually believe that they don’t need to Exercise because they have a physical job that keeps them busy all day. This is completely inaccurate and ignorant. People who have a physically demanding job actually need to exercise more then a person with who doesn’t have a physically demanding job. This is because physically demanding jobs cause a lot of stress and unnatural demands on the body that could have lasting negative effects, like arthritis, back pain, joint pain, mussel pain and carpel tunnel syndrome, to name a few. Exercise not only helps avoid these problems but also helps avoid injury, fatigue and depression. Working out with weights is totally different then physical labor. Working out with weights benefits your muscles and tendons, while some physical labor actually causes damage, which is usually unnoticeable because the damage is gradual over a long period of time. 20 minutes every other day working out with weights can help you avoid a life full of pain and discomfort as well as other ailments and diseases. A nice easy work out with push-ups, sit-ups, military presses, curls, squats and lunges will not take a long time and can actually be done at home. Using dumbbells in your workout 3 times a week is also a good idea. Keeping your legs strong with squats and lunges is always recommended. You also need Aerobic Exercise. So Biking, Hiking, Running, Swimming, Skiing, and many other Action Sports or even just walking fast can give the Heart and Lungs the exercise they need.

Pay Attention to your Vitals
Walking vs. Running
Aerobic Capacity Improves Exercise Performance

People need to learn early in life why exercising the Body is so important. People need to learn what effects certain exercises have on particular Muscles, Tendons, Skin, Bones, and how it also effects Body Weight, Mood and Endurance. Know your Body, understand why you are doing a particular exercise and how much and how long you need to do it. You also have to understand when to change your exercise program and why you need to change it. Remember your body is a Machine, and every machine needs Maintenance.

Exercise is the manual manipulation of matter. We are performing an action that has known benefits. In a sense we are just maximizing the amazing abilities of our own body. Our bodies have Autonomous characteristics, but only to a certain degree. Automatic features are great because you don't have to worry about them, so you can focus on other things. But of course, automatic features don't do everything. Some things we need to do manually, which is a great feature to have, but it could also get us into trouble. Because having choice is only valuable when you are making good choices. Manual control is an excellent feature, it allows us to chose, so we can adapt and control our environment when needed. But we have to be conscious. We need to be aware of subconscious bad habits so that we can replace them with known good habits. Just like exercising our body, we need to exercise our awareness too, from Autonomous mode to manual controlled mode.

A Person 18-65 should have 2.5 Hours of Moderate Exercise a week or 1.5 Hours of Vigorous Exercise a week.
Moderate Exercise is 60-70% of your maximal heart rate. Your maximal heart rate can be calculated by subtracting your age from 220. Vigorous exercise is 70-80% of your maximal Heart Rate. This is when you break a sweat and your breathing becomes strenuous. These exercise estimates will vary depending on your current physical health and your current physical needs.

"When you have those moments when you don't feel like exercising because you feel lazy or lethargic, those are actually the best times to exercise."


Muscles


Muscle Groups Muscles is a soft tissue found in most animals. Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion. They are primarily responsible for maintaining and changing posture, locomotion, as well as movement of internal organs, such as the contraction of the heart and the movement of food through the digestive system via peristalsis.

Skeletal Muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle. It is a form of striated muscle tissue which is under the voluntary control of the somatic nervous system. Most skeletal muscles are attached to bones by bundles of collagen fibers known as tendons. A skeletal muscle refers to multiple bundles of cells called muscle fibers (fascicles). The fibres and muscles are surrounded by connective tissue layers called fasciae. Muscle fibres, or muscle cells, are formed from the fusion of developmental myoblasts in a process known as myogenesis. Muscle fibres are cylindrical, and have more than one nucleus. Muscle fibers are in turn composed of myofibrils. The myofibrils are composed of actin and myosin filaments, repeated in units called sarcomeres, which are the basic functional units of the muscle fiber. The sarcomere is responsible for the striated appearance of skeletal muscle, and forms the basic machinery necessary for muscle contraction.

Muscle Hypertrophy involves an increase in size of skeletal muscle through a growth in size of its component cells. Two factors contribute to hypertrophy: sarcoplasmic hypertrophy, which focuses more on increased muscle glycogen storage; and myofibrillar hypertrophy, which focuses more on increased myofibril size.

Myofibril is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell. Muscles are composed of tubular cells called myocytes, known as muscle fibers in striated muscle, and these cells in turn contain many chains of myofibrils. They are created during embryonic development in a process known as myogenesis. Myofibrils are composed of long proteins including actin, myosin, and titin, and other proteins that hold them together. These proteins are organized into thick and thin filaments called myofilaments, which repeat along the length of the myofibril in sections called sarcomeres. Muscles contract by sliding the thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments along each other.

Myostatin is a myokine, a protein produced and released by myocytes that acts on muscle cells' autocrine function to inhibit myogenesis: muscle cell growth and differentiation. In humans it is encoded by the MSTN gene. Myostatin is a secreted growth differentiation factor that is a member of the TGF beta protein family.

Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissues line the cavities and surfaces of blood vessels and organs throughout the body.

Sarcoplasm is the cytoplasm of a myocyte (muscle fiber). It is comparable to the cytoplasm of other cells, but it contains unusually large amounts of glycosomes (granules of stored glycogen) and significant amounts of myoglobin, an oxygen-binding protein. The calcium ion concentration in sarcoplasma is also a special element of the muscle fiber; it is the means by which the muscle contractions take place and are regulated. It contains mostly myofibrils (which are composed of sarcomeres), but its contents are otherwise comparable to those of the cytoplasm of other cells. It has a Golgi apparatus near the nucleus, mitochondria just inside the cell membrane (sarcolemma), and a smooth endoplasmic reticulum (specialized for muscle function and called the sarcoplasmic reticulum).

Muscle Cramp - Charley Horse is a sudden, involuntary contraction of one or more muscles (cramp), often in the legs. Muscles of your calf or foot suddenly become hard, tight, and painful. Often the result of long exercise or physical labor, especially in the heat. Many things can trigger a muscle cramp. They include: Working muscles too hard while exercising, Dehydration, Muscle fatigue, Not stretching enough, Poor blood circulation in your legs, Being active in hot temperatures, Magnesium and/or potassium deficiency, Muscle cramps can also occur as a side effect of some drugs or medications. A charley horse is harmless but can be very painful. It often awakens a person during the night. Slowly wiggling your toes and slowly extending your legs and relax. To avoid cramps in muscles try to eat more foods high in vitamins and magnesium and calcium. Stay well-hydrated. stretch properly before exercise.

Muscle Injuries

Muscle Weakness from Sitting to much

Biceps is a two-headed muscle that lies on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow.

Triceps is a large muscle on the back of the upper limb of many vertebrates. It is the muscle principally responsible for extension of the elbow joint (straightening of the arm).

Deltoids is the muscle forming the rounded contour of the shoulder.

Pecs is a thick, fan-shaped muscle, situated at the chest (anterior) of the human body. It makes up the bulk of the chest muscles in the male and lies under the breast in the female. Underneath the pectoralis major is the pectoralis minor, a thin, triangular muscle. In sports as well as bodybuilding, the pectoral muscles may colloquially be referred to as "pecs", "pectoral muscle" or "chest muscle". What are Man Breasts??

Abs is a muscle layer of the anterior and lateral (front and side) abdominal wall which is deep to (layered below) the internal oblique muscle. It is thought by most fitness instructors to be a significant component of the core.

Gluteals are a group of three muscles which make up the buttocks: the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and gluteus minimus.

Body Parts (anatomy)



Breathing


Respiratory System is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism. The respiratory system is involved in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and the environment. In air-breathing vertebrates like human beings, respiration takes place in the respiratory organs called Lungs. The passage of air into the lungs to supply the body with Oxygen is known as inhalation, and the passage of air out of the lungs to expel carbon dioxide is known as exhalation; this process is collectively called breathing or ventilation. In humans and other mammals, the anatomical features of the respiratory system include trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm. Molecules of oxygen and carbon dioxide are passively exchanged, by diffusion, between the gaseous external environment and the blood. This exchange process occurs in the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs.

Spirometer Pulmonary Function Testing (PFT) is an apparatus for measuring the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs. A spirometer measures ventilation, the movement of air into and out of the lungs. The spirogram will identify two different types of abnormal ventilation patterns, obstructive and restrictive. There are various types of spirometers which use a number of different methods for measurement (pressure transducers, ultrasonic, water gauge).

Lung Volumes refer to the volume of air associated with different phases of the respiratory cycle. Lung volumes are directly measured; lung capacities are inferred from lung volumes.The average total lung capacity of an adult human male is about 6 litres of air. Tidal breathing is normal, resting breathing; the tidal volume is the volume of air that is inhaled or exhaled in only a single such breath. The average human respiratory rate is 30-60 breaths per minute at birth, decreasing to 12-20 breaths per minute in adults.

Lungs are the primary organs of respiration in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails. In mammals and most other vertebrates, two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their function in the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer it into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere, in a process of gas exchange. Respiration is driven by different muscular systems in different species. Mammals, reptiles and birds use their musculoskeletal systems to support and foster breathing. In early tetrapods, air was driven into the lungs by the pharyngeal muscles via buccal pumping, a mechanism still seen in amphibians. In humans, the primary muscle that drives breathing is the diaphragm. The lungs also provide airflow that makes vocal sounds including human speech possible. Humans have two lungs, a right lung and a left lung. They are situated within the thoracic cavity of the chest. The right lung is bigger than the left, which shares space in the chest with the heart. The lungs together weigh approximately 1.3 kilograms (2.9 lb), and the right is heavier. The lungs are part of the lower respiratory tract that begins at the trachea and branches into the bronchi and bronchioles and which receive air breathed in via the conducting zone. These divide until air reaches microscopic alveoli, where the process of gas exchange takes place. Together, the lungs contain approximately 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) of airways and 300 to 500 million alveoli. The lungs are enclosed within the pleural sac which allows the inner and outer walls to slide over each other whilst breathing takes place, without much friction. This sac encloses each lung and also divides each lung into sections called lobes. The right lung has three lobes and the left has two. The lobes are further divided into bronchopulmonary segments and lobules. The lungs have a unique blood supply, receiving deoxygenated blood sent from the heart for the purposes of receiving oxygen (the pulmonary circulation) and a separate supply of oxygenated blood (the bronchial circulation).The tissue of the lungs can be affected by a number of diseases, including pneumonia and lung cancer. Chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema can be related to smoking or exposure to harmful substances. Diseases such as bronchitis can also affect the respiratory tract. In embryonic development, the lungs begin to develop as an outpouching of the foregut, a tube which goes on to form the upper part of the digestive system. When the lungs are formed the fetus is held in the fluid-filled amniotic sac and so they do not function to breathe. Blood is also diverted from the lungs through the ductus arteriosus. At birth however, air begins to pass through the lungs, and the diversionary duct closes, so that the lungs can begin to respire. The lungs only fully develop in early childhood.

Surprising New Role for Lungs: Making Blood

Running: Improper breathing technique can impair speed and performance. One breath for every two foot strikes taking two steps (one left, one right) while breathing in and two steps while breathing out 2:2 rhythm. Synchronizing the breath to running cadence will keep the organs from putting unnecessary pressure on the diaphragm, which can impede breathing (and make running more uncomfortable than it needs to be). There is also the 3:2 inhale-to-exhale ratio; full inhales and full exhales. This means you INHALE on the LEFT, RIGHT, LEFT foot strikes and EXHALE fully on the RIGHT, LEFT foot strikes.

Running Websites for Runners - When starting to run, concentrate solely on form. Keep your hips, spine and neck aligned.
Minimize up and down movement. Run in as straight a line as possible.

Nose breathing has its own benefits, including increased CO2 saturation in the blood, which creates a more calming effect. Breathing in through the nose can also help warm the air entering the lungs. The breath should come from the diaphragm (the most efficient breathing muscle)—not the chest. Breathing deeper, calmer, and more efficiently can also give athletes a psychological edge.

Bench Press: Exhale slowly and continuously while pressing the bar, then inhale at the top of the lift or on the return. Some say you should always exhale on exertion. For example, when you are pushing a bench press off your chest, you exhale on the push and inhale as you bring it slowly to your chest.

Pull-Up:
You exhale on the pulling up motion and inhale on the way down. "Inhale on the less strenuous phase of the exercise, and exhale on the more demanding phase of the exercise.

How to Breathe in every type Exercise
Breathing while Exercising
Asthma is a common long term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Breathalyzers
Congestion (Colds)
Correct Workout Breathing Techniques for Better Results ! (youtube)
Breathing Techniques During Exercise | Day #10 WellFit 365 (youtube)
Stretching and Yoga

Breathing Exercises for Stress Relief

Why do my lungs burn during strenuous exercise?
During high-intensity aerobic activities such as running, cycling, or swimming, you increase the need for oxygen, ventilation and both the rate and the depth of breathing. As a result many people experience a burning sensation in their lungs and windpipe. A variety of factors affect the degree to which people experience this sensation. If you are new to exercising and are not yet accustomed to the rigors of intense activity, you breathe through your mouth and not just your nose, so the air rushing toward your lungs tends to dry the mucus membranes in your mouth and bronchial passages, resulting in irritation and a burning sensation. This condition gets worse in cold weather. And if you are suffering from an acute condition that originates in or affects the lungs or airways, such as bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia, asthma or strep throat, then any burning sensation you experience when breathing during exercise is apt to be exacerbated. And if you are a smoker or exercise in an environment heavy in lung irritants, such as an industrial zone, consider removing the source of the physiological distress by moving indoors or quitting smoking. If you have no health issues, with improved conditioning, you will adapt to this and feel less irritation, and the burning sensation will be minimal. 

Vitals

Pulmonary Function Testing evaluation of the Respiratory System.

Plethysmograph measures the functional residual capacity (FRC) of the lungs.

Functional Residual Capacity is the volume of air present in the lungs at the end of passive expiration.

Airway Resistance is the resistance of the respiratory tract to airflow during inspiration and expiration. Airway resistance can be measured using body plethysmography, which is an instrument for measuring changes in volume within an organ or whole body (usually resulting from fluctuations in the amount of blood or air it contains).

Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome is a sleep disorder characterized by airway resistance to breathing during sleep.

Spirometer is an apparatus for measuring the volume of air inspired and expired by the Lungs

POWERbreathe - How it Works (youtube)
Breathe Strong Faqs
Power Lung

Humans need Oxygen to live, but oxygen can also hurt us

Oxygen Toxicity is a condition resulting from the harmful effects of breathing molecular oxygen (O2) at increased partial pressures.

Reactive Oxygen Species are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen. Examples include peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen.

CO2

Oxidative Stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.

Red Blood Cell delivers oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

Antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules.

Radical is an atom, molecule, or ion that has unpaired valence electrons.

Atmosphere Knowledge

Empty Nose Syndrome is people who have clear nasal passages experience a range of symptoms, most commonly feelings of nasal obstruction, nasal dryness and crusting, and a sensation of being unable to breathe.
Otorhinolaryngology ear, nose, and throat (ENT)

Shallow Breathing thoracic breathing, or chest breathing is the drawing of minimal breath into the lungs, usually by drawing air into the chest area using the intercostal muscles rather than throughout the lungs via the diaphragm. Shallow breathing can result in or be symptomatic of rapid breathing and hypoventilation. Most people who breathe shallowly do it throughout the day and are almost always unaware of the condition. In upper lobar breathing, clavicular breathing, or clavicle breathing air is drawn predominantly into the chest by the raising of the shoulders and collarbone (clavicles), and simultaneous contracting of the abdomen during inhalation. Maximum amount of air can be drawn this way only for short periods of time, since it requires a lot of effort. When used for prolonged time, this is the most superficial mode of shallow breathing.


Don't Sweat the Small Stuff

Perspiration also known as sweating or diaphoresis is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. Two types of sweat glands can be found in humans: eccrine glands and apocrine glands. The eccrine sweat glands are distributed over much of the body. In humans, sweating is primarily a means of thermoregulation, which is achieved by the water-rich secretion of the eccrine glands. Maximum sweat rates of an adult can be up to 2–4 liters per hour or 10–14 liters per day (10–15 g/min•m²), but is less in children prior to puberty. Evaporation of sweat from the skin surface has a cooling effect due to evaporative cooling. Hence, in hot weather, or when the individual's muscles heat up due to exertion, more sweat is produced. Animals with few sweat glands, such as dogs, accomplish similar temperature regulation results by panting, which evaporates water from the moist lining of the oral cavity and pharynx. Primates and horses have armpits that sweat like those of humans. Although sweating is found in a wide variety of mammals, relatively few (exceptions include humans and horses) produce large amounts of sweat in order to cool down.

Dew Point Effects - Heat Index - Body Temperature

Your feet can produce a pint of sweat a day: There are 500,000 (250,000 for each) sweat glands in your feet, and that can mean a great deal of stinky sweat.

Macro Close-Up Of Fingers Sweating (youtube)

How much Water should I Drink when Exercising (Info-Graph Image)

It's recommended that Women drink around a half gallon of water per day  and up to one gallon of water a day for men.

Dehydration (water facts)

Drink Water after Execising

Water Knowledge
Oxygen + Water = Fat Burn

Why does Saliva increase during strenuous exercise?
When exercising you inhale a lot more air at once, this needs to be cleaned before entering your body otherwise you have a risk of infections, therefore, your body produced mucus and saliva to remove the large dust molecules and bacteria. When you exercise your body takes in a lot more air at a quicker pace, so you produce more mucus to help clean it. It is important that you regularly blow your nose and spit to get rid of the excess and old mucus that is full of bacteria and dust particles from the air. Swallowing your saliva completely goes against the point of your mucus as the dust and bacteria can then enter your body anyway! So make sure that you do not swallow your spit and you blow your nose regularly when exercising. Make sure that you also drink fluid during and after exercise to replace the water levels that have gone. You should be made of about 80% water, so it's important that you drink water to enable all the processes in the body to work properly.  Drool  Cortisol (wiki)


Dizzy - Fainting - Head Spins

What Causes a Head Rush During Exercise?

Orthostatic Hypotension or head rush, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.

Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability. Dizziness

Vertigo is the sensation of spinning or having one's surroundings spin about them.

Syncope or fainting, is defined as a short loss of consciousness and muscle strength, characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery. It is due to a decrease in blood flow to the entire brain usually from low blood pressure.

Vasovagal Response is a malaise mediated by the vagus nerve. When it leads to fainting.

Balance Disorder is a disturbance that causes an individual to feel unsteady, for example when standing or walking. It may be accompanied by feelings of giddiness, or wooziness, or having a sensation of movement, spinning, or floating. Balance is the result of several body systems working together: the visual system (eyes), vestibular system (ears) and proprioception (the body's sense of where it is in space). Degeneration or loss of function in any of these systems can lead to balance deficits.

Human Senses
Immune System

Alcohol Effects
Alcohol thins the blood which distorts the shape of the inner ear creating a false signal. The swollen ear parts push on the tiny
sensory hairs, deceiving the brain into producing the sense of motion, or spinning. When in the dark the spinning sense is
enhanced, since you can no longer rely upon visual cues to counteract the false sense of motion.

Vestibular System is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution about the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance, in your ear is a set of three fluid-filled canals which work like a three-directional spirit level. So your head knows which direction your head is moving.

Endolymph is the fluid contained in the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. It is also called Scarpa's fluid, after Antonio Scarpa

Ampullary Cupula is a structure in the vestibular system, providing the sense of spatial orientation
Cochlea

Dizzy - Tommy Roe (youtube)

Vestibulo-ocular Reflex is a reflex eye movement that elicits eye movement by stimulating the vestibular system. This reflex functions to stabilize images on the retinas (in yoked vision) during head movement by producing eye movements in the direction opposite to head movement, thus preserving the image on the center of the visual field(s). For example, when the head moves to the right, the eyes move to the left, and vice versa. Since slight head movement is present all the time, the VOR is very important for stabilizing vision: patients whose VOR is impaired find it difficult to read using print, because they cannot stabilize the eyes during small head tremors, and also because damage to the VOR can cause vestibular nystagmus.

Image Stabilization
Fixation Reflex

The muscles wrapped around the Z-axis of your eyes are there to keep everything level – up to a point. This reduces the amount of processing power your brain needs to decode the world around you – provided that your head is within about 15 degrees of vertical. (This is why it’s harder to recognize someone when you’re standing on your head, or their face isn’t the same way up as yours). Once your head tilts past that point, your eyes stop trying to keep things horizontal, and gives up,
untwisting themselves.

Spatial Intelligence
Body Kinesthetic Intelligence


Exercising


The Four Basic Exercises

Aerobic Exercise is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. Aerobic literally means "relating to, involving, or requiring free oxygen", and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism. Generally, light-to-moderate intensity activities that are sufficiently supported by aerobic metabolism can be performed for extended periods of time.

Weight Training is a common type of strength training for developing the strength and size of skeletal muscles. It utilizes the force of gravity in the form of weighted bars, dumbbells or weight stacks in order to oppose the force generated by muscle through concentric or eccentric contraction. Weight training uses a variety of specialized equipment to target specific muscle groups and types of movement. Sports where strength training is central are bodybuilding, weightlifting, powerlifting, and strongman, highland games, shot put, discus throw, and javelin throw. Many other sports use strength training as part of their training regimen, notably; mixed martial arts, American football, wrestling, rugby football, track and field, rowing, lacrosse, basketball, baseball, and hockey. Strength training for other sports and physical activities is becoming increasingly popular.

Abdominal Exercise are those that affect the abdominal muscles (colloquially known as the stomach muscles or "abs").

Pelvis is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs.

Coordination Exercises
- Jumping-Rope, tai chi and Dancing helps improve coordination, balance, rhythm, spatial orientation and reaction to visual and auditory stimuli.


Basic Exercises you can do almost anywhere in 15 minutes.

Basic Exercises done Anywhere in 15 Minutes

You need to train smarter, not harder.
Using principles of size, all it takes is 3 exercises, 3 days a week.   Abs Workout, 30 Day's Progressive Routine

Monday
1. Bench press
2. Chinup
3. Deadlift

Do 25 total reps of each exercise, using a weight you can lift 4 to 6 times before your speed slows down or your form changes. Rest about 60 seconds between sets.

Tuesday: Rest

Wednesday
1. Dumbbell single-arm shoulder press
2. Dumbbell single-arm row
3. Dumbbell lunge or stepup

Do 40 total reps of each exercise with each arm or each leg, using a weight you can lift 10 to 12 times before your speed slows down or your form changes. Do all the reps of each exercise before resting. Rest 45 seconds between sets.

Thursday: Rest

Friday
1. Barbell bent-over row
2. Dip
3. Squat

Do 15 total reps of each exercise, using a weight you can lift 2 to 3 times before your speed slows down or your form changes. Rest about 90 seconds between sets.

Saturday
Project day, Organizing day, Cleaning day

Sunday
Do what you want day: walk, hike, bike, meditate or learn something new.

12 Hand and Finger Exercises 

"Enjoying the moments when you're exercising will have immediate benefits, and not just from knowing the future benefits that you normally get from exercising, but from the benefits you get in those moments when you finally put your body into motion."

"Exercise is simply a human requirement. If you want to live a happy, healthy and pain free life, with a body that's full of energy and has good endurance, you should exercise a few times a week. The benefits of maintenance are awesome."

"One of the rewards for peak physical condition is the abundance of energy, physically and mentally. You also have a greater tolerance for stress. You also create more options to move through the environment, you also create more abilities, just to name a few. But you disconnect from that energy when you become out of shape, and the sad part is you are not even aware of it."

"Exercise is about Maintaining Good Health, Measuring Strength and Comparing your progress to previous levels, so have Fun."

"When exercising stay connected to the end result and the benefits...visualize it, memorize it and feel good about it."

"I like to exercise using a combination of body movements, strength training with weights, yoga, ti-chi and deep breathing."

Please Exercise Moderately

Exercise helps boost your energy level, mentally and physically, and also helps improve your mood. To keep yourself interested and motivated in exercising try having variety in your workouts and also use playful competition with yourself or others. Listening to music sometimes helps too. Always warm up first before a workout. Loosen up your body by doing some simple gentle bending and stretching. Gentle bending and stretching can also relieve tightness in your hands, back, neck, shoulders, knees and waist. Being aware of the strength and Flexibility of your body will also help you avoid injury. Remember there are many benefits that come from exercising. And these benefits will far out way all the problems that you’ll have if you never exercise at all. And it’s always a good idea to avoid prolonged sitting. Get Up! Get Out! Get Going! 

Exercising and Physical Education Websites
Thirty Minute Workout for Home Gym or Office

Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness is the pain and stiffness felt in muscles several hours to days after unaccustomed or strenuous exercise. The soreness is felt most strongly 24 to 72 hours after the exercise. It is thought to be caused by eccentric (lengthening) exercise, which causes microtrauma to the muscle fibers. After such exercise, the muscle adapts rapidly to prevent muscle damage, and thereby soreness, if the exercise is repeated. Delayed onset muscle soreness is one symptom of exercise-induced muscle damage. The other is acute muscle soreness, which appears during and immediately after exercise.

Knee Diagram showing Ligaments Strain is an injury to a muscle in which the muscle fibers tear as a result of overstretching. A strain is also colloquially known as a pulled muscle or torn muscle. The equivalent injury to a ligament is a sprain.

Sprain is damage to one or more ligaments in a joint, often caused by trauma or the joint being taken beyond its functional range of motion. The severity of sprain ranges from a minor injury which resolves in a few days to a major rupture of one or more ligaments requiring surgical fixation and a period of immobilisation. Sprains can occur in any joint but are most common in the ankle and wrist.

Joints are the place where two bones meet or connect. Cracking Joints sound is not yet fully understood, it is mainly attributed to nitrogen or carbon dioxide bubbles building up between the joints.

Ligament are a short band of tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint.

Tendon is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension. Tendons are similar to ligaments; both are made of collagen. Ligaments join one bone to another bone, while tendons connect muscle to bone.

Diagram showing Bone Tedons Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components. It is not as hard and rigid as bone, but it is stiffer and less flexible than muscle.

Sports Injury are injuries that occur in athletic activities or exercising. In the United States there are about 30 million teenagers and children alone that participate in some form of organized sport.

Repetitive Strain Injury is an "injury to the musculoskeletal and nervous systems that may be caused by repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical compression, or sustained or awkward positions.

Body Smart (nerve damage)

Massage - Physical Therapy - Pain

Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.

Muscles in the Body

A repetition is a single exercise, one squat is s rep, and a set is a series of reps or repetitions, 10 squats is one set

Man Lifting Weight for ExerciseSquats
Deadlifts
Lunges 
Burpee (squat thrust)
Downward Facing Dog Pose
Calf Raises

Bodyweight Exercise are strength training exercises that do not require free weights or machines as the individual's own weight provides resistance against gravity. It is recognised that bodyweight exercises can enhance a range of biomotor abilities including strength, power, endurance, speed, flexibility, coordination and balance. This type of strength training has grown in popularity for both recreational and professional athletes, with a range of sports disciplines using bodyweight resistance training as part of their fitness programs. Bodyweight training utilises simple abilities such as pushing, pulling, squatting, bending, twisting and balancing. Movements such as the push-up, the pull-up, and the sit-up are some of the most common bodyweight exercises.

Push-ups hit six muscles at once.
Sit-ups
Pull-ups

Lat Pull Downs
Military Press 
Proper Weightlifting Techniques (youtube)
FORM Lifting: Train Smarter Real-time feedback. Every rep. Every workout. Every time.
Proper Form when Exercising

Exercise Machine is any machine used for physical exercise. These range from simple spring-like devices to computerized electromechanical rides to recirculating-stream swimming pools. Most exercise machines incorporate an Ergometer. An ergometer is an apparatus for measuring the work a person exerts while exercising as used in training or cardiac stress tests or other medical tests.

Stationary Bicycle that creates Electricity (Human Energy Machines)

Resistance Training is a type of physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles.

Weight Training is a common type of strength training for developing the strength and size of skeletal muscles. It utilizes the force of gravity in the form of weighted bars, dumbbells or weight stacks in order to oppose the force generated by muscle through concentric or eccentric contraction. Weight training uses a variety of specialized equipment to target specific muscle groups and types of movement. Hans und Franz - Pump you up! (youtube)

Weight-Bearing Exercises Promote Bone Formation in Men. Human hormone and protein linked to bone mass are impacted by 12 months of targeted exercise.

Strength Training is a type of physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles.

Super Slow - Time Under Load is a form of strengthening physical exercise (resistance training). Super Slow involves the combination of very slow speeds of lifting and lowering the weight, along with the general principles of the High intensity training approach.

Benefits of Super Slow Workouts
Building Muscle without Weights
AXIUS: Functional Core Balance and Mobility System using varied levels of instability

Isometric Exercise are a type of strength training in which the joint angle and muscle length do not change during contraction (compared to concentric or eccentric contractions, called dynamic/isotonic movements). Isometrics are done in static positions, rather than being dynamic through a range of motion.

Dynamic Tension is a self-resistance exercise method which pits muscle against muscle. The practitioner tenses the muscles of a given body part and then moves the body part against the tension as if a heavy weight were being lifted. Dynamic Tension exercises are not merely isometrics, since they call for movement. Instead, the method comprises a combination of exercises in three disciplines: isotonic, isokinetic, and some exercises in the isometric discipline. Gyrotonic

Whole Body Vibration is when a vibration of a particular frequency is transferred to the human body. Sometimes standing or lying on a machine with a vibrating platform. When the machine vibrates, it transmits energy to the body, and muscles contract and relax multiple times during each second. Vibration Training  on the other hand is a discipline where varying frequencies/amplitudes/forces will be transferred into separate body parts using precise joint angles for any limited time (approximately 1 minute sets). This is done to create a purely eccentric muscle reaction and enable anaerobic activity (burning energy without oxygen – the opposite of cardio).


Mix it Up

Having a varied workout routine has many benefits. Moving your body in different directions and planes of motion helps reduce strain on the muscles and joints that come from doing the same motions over and over. Variety in your workouts makes you more interested in exercise. 

Cross Fit incorporates elements from high-intensity interval training, Olympic weightlifting, plyometrics, powerlifting, gymnastics, girevoy sport, calisthenics, strongman, and other exercises.

Cross Fit
Cross Fit done Right
Cross Fit Kids
Biomechanics (body smart)
Cross Training resistance training, sprint intervals, stretching/yoga/Pilates and endurance exercise.

Interval Training alternates between two activities, typically requiring different rates of speed, degrees of effort, etc. A type of physical training that involves a series of low- to high-intensity exercise workouts interspersed with rest or relief periods. The high-intensity periods are typically at or close to anaerobic exercise, while the recovery periods involve activity of lower intensity. Varying the intensity of effort exercises the heart muscle, providing a cardiovascular workout, improving aerobic capacity and permitting the person to exercise for longer and/or more intense levels.

I Mix Tabata with Weight Training into a 25 min Workout
First I warm up with gentle body twists and bending, some sit-ups and yoga. Then I do one tabata set, then a 20 second rest, then 10 military presses with dumbbells, then a 20 second rest, then another tabata exercise set, then 10 dumbell curls, and so on and so on.
Regular Tabata is 5 different exercises: Jumping Jacks - Split Squats - Washing Machine - Star Jumps - Burpees.  (20 secs work, 10 secs rest, 8 times). Tabata Style 20 Min. Cardio (youtube)

Stretching is a form of physical exercise in which a specific muscle or tendon (or muscle group) is deliberately flexed or stretched in order to improve the muscle's felt elasticity and achieve comfortable muscle tone. The result is a feeling of increased muscle control, flexibility, and range of motion. Stretching is also used therapeutically to alleviate cramps. Yoga

Calisthenics are exercises consisting of a variety of gross motor movements; often rhythmical and generally without equipment or apparatus.

Calisthenics Exercises - Calisthenics Workout

General Fitness Training works towards broad goals of overall health and well-being, rather than narrow goals of sport competition, larger muscles or concerns over appearance. A regular moderate workout regimen and healthy diet can improve general appearance markers of good health such as muscle tone, healthy skin, hair and nails, while preventing age or lifestyle-related reductions in health and the series of heart and organ failures that accompany inactivity and poor diet. Diet itself helps to increase calorie burning by boosting metabolism, a process further enhanced while gaining more lean muscle. An aerobic exercise program can burn fat and increase the metabolic rate.

High-Intensity Interval Training is a form of interval training, a cardiovascular exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less intense recovery periods. HIIT is the concept where one performs a short burst of high-intensity (or max-intensity) exercise followed by a brief low-intensity activity, repeatedly, until too exhausted to continue. Though there is no universal HIIT session duration, these intense workouts typically last under 30 minutes, with times varying based on a participant's current fitness level.

High Intensity Training is a form of strength training that focuses on performing quality weight training repetitions to the point of momentary muscular failure. The training takes into account the number of repetitions, the amount of weight, and the amount of time the muscle is exposed to tension in order to maximize the amount of muscle fiber recruitment.

Threshold Training is a physical exercise intense enough to cause lactate to form. It is used by athletes in non-endurance sports to promote strength, speed and power and by body builders to build muscle mass. Muscle energy systems trained using anaerobic exercise develop differently compared to aerobic exercise, leading to greater performance in short duration, high intensity activities, which last from mere seconds to up to about 2 minutes. Any activity lasting longer than about two minutes has a large aerobic metabolic component.

vVO2 Max is an intense running or swimming pace. This is the minimum speed for which the organism's maximal oxygen uptake is reached (after a few minutes of exercise at this intensity); at higher paces, additional power is entirely delivered by anaerobic processes. At this pace, blood lactate in the muscles reaches levels around 8-10 mM.
VO2 Max

Plyometrics also known as "jump training" or "plyos", are exercises in which muscles exert maximum force in short intervals of time, with the goal of increasing power (speed-strength). This training focuses on learning to move from a muscle extension to a contraction in a rapid or "explosive" manner, such as in specialized repeated jumping. Plyometrics are primarily used by athletes, especially martial artists, sprinters and high jumpers, to improve performance, and are used in the fitness field to a much lesser degree.

15 minute Extreme Full Body Home Workout ( Using just 5 Movements ) (youtube)
Metabolic Training Workout
Core Strength
Caveman Power

Toning Exercises are physical exercises that are used with the aim of developing a physique with a large emphasis on musculature. In this context, the term toned implies leanness in the body (low levels of body fat), noticeable muscle definition and shape, but not significant muscle size ("bulk").

Vertical Training vs Horizontal Training
44 Best Bodyweight Exercises Ever! (High Def) (youtube)
Sports A to Z

Circuit Training is a form of body conditioning or resistance training using high-intensity aerobics. It targets strength building and muscular endurance. An exercise "circuit" is one completion of all prescribed exercises in the program. When one circuit is complete, one begins the first exercise again for the next circuit. Traditionally, the time between exercises in circuit training is short, often with rapid movement to the next exercise.

Upper-body
Squat ups
Bench dips
Back extensions
Medicine ball chest pass
Bench lift
Inclined press up

Core & trunk
Sit ups (lower abdominal)
Stomach crunch (upper abdominal)
Back extension chest raise

Lower-body
Squat jumps
Compass jumps
Astride jumps
Step ups
Shuttle runs
Hopping shuttles
Bench squat

Total-body
Burpees
Treadmills
Squat thrusts
Skipping
Jogging

Women Running for Exercise Long Slow Distance is a form of aerobic endurance training in running and cycling. Physiological adaptations to LSD training include improved cardiovascular function, improved thermoregulatory function, improved mitochondrial energy production, increased oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle, and increased utilization of fat for fuel. Ernst van Aaken, a German physician and coach, is generally recognized as the founder of the long slow distance method of endurance training.

Super Compensation is the post training period during which the trained function/parameter has a higher performance capacity than it did prior to the training period.

Exhale Core Fusion
Adventure Competitions
Functional Movement Exercises
Working out for Real Life Functions
Tracy Anderson (youtube)

Running

Swimming
Aquatic Therapy for Recovering Addicts

Somasole Exercise when Traveling 
Easy Exercises to do When Traveling  (Info-Graph)

Bodybuilding Supplements (wiki)
Vitamins
Why are Steroids dangerous?

Athletic Heart Syndrome which the human heart is enlarged, and the resting heart rate is lower than normal. Athlete's heart is common in athletes who routinely exercise more than an hour a day, and occurs primarily in endurance athletes, though it can occasionally arise in heavy weight trainers. The condition is generally considered benign, but may occasionally hide a serious medical condition, or may even be mistaken for one. Also known as athlete's heart, athletic bradycardia, or exercise-induced cardiomegaly

Longevity
Physical Education
Adventure Schools and Courses

Practice Good Posture by keeping your back straight and your shoulders back.

You don’t have to spend a lot of time on your fitness, but you definitely need to be aware of how much exercise your mind and body actually needs. You need to exercise a particular muscle if you want that muscle to stay strong. If you want a certain ability in the Brain to stay strong, you have to exercise that ability almost like you would a muscle. There is no short cut to achieving good fitness. Whether it’s a strong body or a sharp mind, you still have to make the time, and you still have to understand what exercising is all about and learning Proper Techniques. This is you thinking logically, this is you learning to love yourself, and this is you excepting the responsibilities for the inside of you as well as for the outside of you. 

Exercising Tips and Videos

Of all the different things that I will exercise this year I will exercise my ability of Self Control the most. Use it or lose it. 

Shaping the body using exercise:
Body builders do it and so do actors and actresses and other people. Body Builders are not necessarily more athletic. It's more about competition and body image then it is about practical optimal all around athletic ability. Not to say that body building is bad, because it's good to know the capabilities of the human body and knowing how big and strong muscles can grow. But keep in mind when Body Shaping that larger muscles can hinder certain mobility and motions, like running fast and running long distance. And Smaller and weaker muscles can hinder some strength movements. So it makes sense not to cause any hindrance or minimize any of your physical abilities that you have, or can have. All around athletic ability should be your goal unless you have a specific reason like a particular competition or special physical needs.

Hexoskin Advanced Exercise Clothing

I always here women say that they don't want to lift weights because they are afraid of bulking up to much, which they think would stop them from looking feminine. And I always say "I'm not saying to lift weights for 2-4 hours a day, I'm just saying that a few minutes every other day would benefit you. But some how they believe that lifting weights magically inflates your muscles, which it doesn't of course unless you put in the extra time and effort. Reaching your physical goals takes time and sacrifice, but once you reach your goal you will have more time to enjoy your beautiful physique because maintaining a good physical condition takes less time then getting there.

Do Hot Girls make you want to exercise more or are they just fun to watch? transformation
Body Rock (youtube)
Body Sculpting

Are beautiful bodies and faces inspiring? Or are they just distracting and unrealistic?  
Body Image

How much time, effort, and disciplined diet, does it take to have a beautiful and Athletic body?
Bikini Model Fitness (youtube) 
Classic Bodyshaping - Deprise Brescia & Jennifer Dempster (youtube)
Bodyshaping - Kiana Kimiko Jen (youtube)
Brittany Diamond at the Arnold Strongman Classic (youtube)
Women Body Builders Photograph
The Different Body Types of Athletes Photograph

Exercising is not about looking good, because that's irrelevant.

The main goals of exercise should be about increasing your energy level, having less pain and discomforts, having greater endurance, and having a higher threshold for stress. Looking good just happens to be a pleasant side effect of having a strong and healthy body. Your body should be strong enough to handle most of the physically demanding challenges that we have in our world today. And a physically fit person is healthier and stronger, as long as they eat healthy too. And a strong and healthy body is also more efficient, so very little food energy is wasted. But of course all these benefits from being healthy and strong can only be worth the time and effort if the person is being more productive in the areas of life that produce the most positive outcomes. You don't want to waste good looks, but more importantly, you don't want to waste time and energy either. And you definitely don't want to be over confident. You also don't want to end up being so in love with yourself that you spend more time in front of the mirror, because that would just waste your good health and strong body on your own vanity.

"Your body doesn't have to be perfect, you just have to use your body perfectly."
Body Image


Certified Personal Trainers  -  Certified Fitness Instructor


Personal Trainer is an individual certified to have a varying degree of knowledge of general fitness involved in exercise prescription and instruction. They motivate clients by setting goals and providing feedback and accountability to clients. Trainers also measure their client's strengths and weaknesses with fitness assessments. These fitness assessments may also be performed before and after an exercise program to measure their client's improvements in physical fitness. They may also educate their clients in many other aspects of wellness besides exercise, including general health and nutrition guidelines. Qualified personal trainers recognize their own areas of expertise. If a trainer suspects that one of his or her clients has a medical condition that could prevent the client from safe participation in an exercise program, they must refer the client to the proper health professional for prior clearance.

personal trainer American Fitness Professionals & Associates
American Sport and Fitness
Fitness Certifications
NCSF
Physical Education
Nutrition Consulting
International Sports Sciences Association
NAFC
National Exercise Trainers Association
Powhow
Personal Trainer Certification
International Fitness Association
Water Fitness Association
Find a Personal Trainer
Personal Trainers Search
Occupation Outlook Stats
Skulpt Aim: The Ultimate Fitness Tracker

Books about Exercise

The No Sweat Exercise Plan: Lose Weight, Get Healthy, and Live Longer (Harvard Medical School Guides) Paperback – December 19, 2006 (amazon)
Complete Physical Education Plans for Grades 7-12 [With CDROM] Paperback – July 1, 2001 (amazon)
The Human Body (An Illustrated Guide to Its Structure, Function, and Disorders) Hardcover – April 4, 1995 (amazon)
Health, Mind & Body Books (amazon) 
On a Mission of Nutrition, Paperback – October 22, 2015 by Joseph Esposito (amazon)


30-Minute Workout Plan with Ivy (Core & Balance) (youtube)
Tony Horton creator of P90X, P90X2 Exercise (youtube)
The Best Calorie Burning Workout Routine! (youtube)

Health Videos
Health Central

Dumbbell Romanian Deadlift Motion Gif

Single-Arm Dumbbell Snatch Motion Gif





The Thinker Man