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Longevity - Live Longer - Life Extension

The quality of your life life is more important to then how long you live. So don't spend your whole life trying to live longer without actually living your life. Plan to live long, but don't forget to live your life. And remember that you can't do everything. So trying to do it all might end up being nothing at all. So choose what you do with your life wisely and carefully. Seek Balance.

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Live Well Live Longer
Life Expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of their birth, their current age and other demographic factors including sex. Human Lifespan
Life Expectancy Rates (Long Life Statistics)
Longevity is the length of life, the average number of years remaining at a given age.
How many Years do you have left to Live?
Causes of Death

Immortality is eternal life, the ability to live forever.
Biological Immortality is a state in which the rate of mortality from senescence is stable or decreasing, thus decoupling it from chronological age. Various unicellular and multicellular species, including some vertebrates, achieve this state either throughout their existence or after living long enough. A biologically immortal living being can still die from means other than senescence, such as through injury or disease.

Cynthia Kenyon (youtube)
Tony Wyss: Young Blood (video and text)
Dan Buettner: Live over 100 (youtube)
Live Long, Die Young (youtube)

Blue Zone is a concept used to identify a demographic and/or geographic area of the world where people live measurably longer lives. The concept grew out of demographic work done by Gianni Pes and Michel Poulain, who identified Sardinia's Nuoro province as the region with the highest concentration of male centenarians. As the two men zeroed in on the cluster of villages with the highest longevity, they drew concentric blue circles on the map and began referring to the area inside the circle as the Blue Zone.
Blue Zones

Life Extension is the study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.
Anti-Aging Medicine organization that promotes the field of anti-aging medicine and trains and certifies physicians in this specialty.

Freezing the Body

Rejuvenation is a medical discipline focused on the practical reversal of the aging process to repair of the damage that is associated with aging or replacement of damaged tissue with new tissue.
Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Death Resistant Cells is removing dysfunctional cells.
Cell Aging
Naturally occurring p16Ink4a-positive cells shorten healthy lifespan
Platelet Rich Plasma is blood plasma that has been enriched with platelets. As a concentrated source of autologous platelets, PRP contains several different growth factors and other cytokines that can stimulate healing of soft tissue. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an old therapy and used extensively in specialities of dermatology, orthopedics and dentistry. Platelet rich plasma therapy utilizes growth factors present in alpha granules of platelets in an autologous manner. Main indications in dermatology for PRP are androgenetic alopecia, wound healing, face rejuvenation etc. For preparation of PRP, various protocols are used and no standard protocol exists but main principles essentially involve concentrating platlets in a concentration of 3–5 times the physiological value and then injecting this concentrated plasma in the tissue where healing or effect is desired. As of 2016, no large-scale randomized controlled trials have confirmed the efficacy of PRP as a treatment for musculoskeletal or nerve injuries, the accelerated healing of bone grafts, or the reduction of androgenic hair loss.

Niacin B3 is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NO2 and, depending on the definition used, one of the 20 to 80 essential human nutrients. Pharmaceutical and supplemental niacin are primarily used to treat hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol) and pellagra (niacin deficiency). Insufficient niacin in the diet can cause nausea, skin and mouth lesions, anemia, headaches, and tiredness. The lack of niacin may also be observed in pandemic deficiency disease, which is caused by a lack of five crucial vitamins (niacin, vitamin C, thiamin, vitamin D, and vitamin A) and is usually found in areas of widespread poverty and malnutrition. Niacin is provided in the diet from a variety of whole and processed foods, with highest contents in fortified packaged foods and meat from various animal sources.
Nicotinamide Riboside is a pyridine-nucleoside form of vitamin B3 that functions as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD+. According to the peer-reviewed literature, NR was discovered as a human vitamin precursor of NAD+ in 2004 and as a sirtuin-activating compound in 2007 by Charles Brenner.

Vampire Facelift or Platelet-rich fibrin matrix method is a process in cosmetic surgery. It is a way of extracting platelets from the patient's own blood and using them as a dermal filler – that is, as a substance injected under the skin of the face to fill out wrinkles so as to provide a more youthful appearance.

AMP-Activated Protein Kinase is an enzyme (EC that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis. It belongs to a highly conserved eukaryotic protein family and its orthologues are SNF1 and SnRK1 in yeast and plants, respectively. It consists of three proteins (subunits) that together make a functional enzyme, conserved from yeast to humans. It is expressed in a number of tissues, including the liver, brain, and skeletal muscle. The net effect of AMPK activation is stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, stimulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake, inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis, inhibition of adipocyte lipolysis and lipogenesis, and modulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells. It should not be confused with cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (protein kinase A).
Oct-4 octamer-binding transcription factor 4) also known as POU5F1 (POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU5F1 gene. Oct-4 is a homeodomain transcription factor of the POU family. This protein is critically involved in the self-renewal of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells. As such, it is frequently used as a marker for undifferentiated cells. Oct-4 expression must be closely regulated; too much or too little will cause differentiation of the cells. The octamer (made of eight units) in this family of transcription factors is the DNA nucleotide sequence "ATTTGCAT", the etymology for the naming of the octamer transcription factor.
FGF21 Protein is a protein that in mammals is encoded by the FGF21 gene.[3][3][4] The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family and specifically a member of the "endocrine" subfamily which includes FGF23 and FGF15/19.
Telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes. Its name is derived from the Greek nouns telos (τέλος) "end" and merοs (μέρος, root: μερ-) "part". For vertebrates, the sequence of nucleotides in telomeres is TTAGGG, with the complementary DNA strand being AATCCC, with a single-stranded TTAGGG overhang. This sequence of TTAGGG is repeated approximately 2,500 times in humans. In humans, average telomere length declines from about 11 kilobases at birth to less than 4 kilobases in old age, with average rate of decline being greater in men than in women.
Mitochondrion is a double membrane-bound organelle found in all eukaryotic organisms, although some cells in some organisms may lack them (e.g. red blood cells). A number of organisms have reduced or transformed their mitochondria into other structures. To date, only one eukaryote, Monocercomonoides, is known to have completely lost its mitochondria.
Bacterial Rhodopsins are a family of bacterial opsins. They are retinal-binding proteins that provide light-dependent ion transport and sensory functions to a family of halophilic and other bacteria. They are integral membrane proteins with seven transmembrane helices, the last of which contains the attachment point for retinal (a conserved lysine). The proteins from halobacteria include bacteriorhodopsin and archaerhodopsin, which are light-driven proton pumps; halorhodopsin, a light-driven chloride pump; and sensory rhodopsin, which mediates both photoattractant (in the red) and photophobic (in the ultra-violet) responses. Proteins from other bacteria include proteorhodopsin.

Turritopsis Dohrnii is a species of small, biologically immortal jellyfish found in the Mediterranean Sea and in the waters of Japan. It is one of the known cases of animals capable of reverting completely to a sexually immature, colonial stage after having reached sexual maturity as a solitary individual.

Eating Healthier Increases Life Span

Live Long, Die Young (youtube)

How Eating Less can Slow the Aging Process. When Ribosomes, the cell’s protein makers slow down, the aging process slows too. The decreased speed lowers production but gives ribosomes extra time to repair themselves.
Scientifically Designed Fasting Diet Lowers Risks for Major Diseases, three cycles of a low-calorie, “fasting-mimicking” diet for five days each month. Cancer and Nutrition
Fasting-Mimicking Diet may Reverse Diabetes Periodic cycles of fasting reprogram pancreatic cells and restore insulin production, USC researchers find.
A Fasting-Mimicking diet may Reduce Disease risk factors and Reverse Diabetes (youtube)
ProLon is a 5-day Fasting Mimicking Diet program for people seeking healthy aging, managing body weight, and maintaining healthy levels of cholesterol, blood pressure, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)
Valter Longo is an Italian-American biogerontologist and cell biologist known for his studies on the role of starvation and nutrient response genes on cellular protection aging and diseases and for proposing that longevity is regulated by similar genes and mechanisms in many eukaryotes. He is currently a professor at the USC Davis School of Gerontology with a joint appointment in the department of Biological Sciences as well as serving as the director of the USC Longevity Institute.
Calorie Restricted Diet

Autophagy is the natural, regulated, destructive mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components. Allows the orderly degradation and recycling of cellular components. In macroautophagy, targeted cytoplasmic constituents are isolated from the rest of the cell within a double-membraned vesicle known as an autophagosome. The autophagosome eventually fuses with lysosomes and the contents are degraded and recycled. Two additional forms of autophagy are also commonly described: microautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). In disease, autophagy has been seen as an adaptive response to stress, which promotes survival, whereas in other cases it appears to promote cell death and morbidity. In the extreme case of starvation, the breakdown of cellular components promotes cellular survival by maintaining cellular energy levels. Immune System Cells

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells. The compound is a dinucleotide, because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups. One nucleotide contains an adenine base and the other nicotinamide. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two forms, an oxidized and reduced form abbreviated as NAD+ and NADH respectively. In metabolism, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is involved in redox reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. The coenzyme is, therefore, found in two forms in cells: NAD+ is an oxidizing agent – it accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced. This reaction forms NADH, which can then be used as a reducing agent to donate electrons. These electron transfer reactions are the main function of NAD. However, it is also used in other cellular processes, the most notable one being a substrate of enzymes that add or remove chemical groups from proteins, in posttranslational modifications. Because of the importance of these functions, the enzymes involved in NAD metabolism are targets for drug discovery. In organisms, NAD can be synthesized from simple building-blocks (de novo) from the amino acids tryptophan or aspartic acid. In an alternative fashion, more complex components of the coenzymes are taken up from food as the vitamin called niacin. Similar compounds are released by reactions that break down the structure of NAD. These preformed components then pass through a salvage pathway that recycles them back into the active form. Some NAD is also converted into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP); the chemistry of this related coenzyme is similar to that of NAD, but it has different roles in metabolism. Although NAD+ is written with a superscript plus sign because of the formal charge on a particular nitrogen atom, at physiological pH for the most part it is actually a singly charged anion (charge of minus 1), while NADH is a doubly charged anion.
Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) is a derivative of vitamin B3, also known as niacin. Found in peanuts, mushrooms (portobello, grilled), avocados, green peas (fresh), and certain fish and animal meats.
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate abbreviated NADP+ or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
NADPH is the reduced form of NADP+. NADP+ differs from NAD+ in the presence of an additional phosphate group on the 2' position of the ribose ring that carries the adenine moiety.
Nicotinamide Riboside is a pyridine-nucleoside form of vitamin B3 that functions as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD+.

Metformin marketed under the tradename Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This is particularly true in people who are overweight. It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. Limited evidence suggests metformin may prevent the cardiovascular disease and cancer complications of diabetes. It is not associated with weight gain. It is taken by mouth.

Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene. IGF-1 has also been referred to as a "sulfation factor" and its effects were termed "nonsuppressible insulin-like activity" (NSILA) in the 1970s. IGF-1 is a hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. It plays an important role in childhood growth and continues to have anabolic effects in adults. A synthetic analog of IGF-1, mecasermin, is used for the treatment of growth failure. IGF-1 consists of 70 amino acids in a single chain with three intramolecular disulfide bridges. IGF-1 has a molecular weight of 7,649 Dalton.

Anti-Aging Strategies Based on Cellular Reprogramming

Reprogramming refers to erasure and remodeling of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, during mammalian development. After fertilization some cells of the newly formed embryo migrate to the germinal ridge and will eventually become the germ cells (sperm and oocytes). Due to the phenomenon of genomic imprinting, maternal and paternal genomes are differentially marked and must be properly reprogrammed every time they pass through the germline. Therefore, during the process of gametogenesis the primordial germ cells must have their original biparental DNA methylation patterns erased and re-established based on the sex of the transmitting parent. After fertilization the paternal and maternal genomes are once again demethylated and remethylated (except for differentially methylated regions associated with imprinted genes). This reprogramming is likely required for totipotency of the newly formed embryo and erasure of acquired epigenetic changes. In
vitro manipulation of pre-implantation embryos has been shown to disrupt methylation patterns at imprinted loci and plays a crucial role in cloned animals. Reprogramming can also be induced artificially through the introduction of exogenous factors, usually transcription factors. In this context, it often refers to the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells from mature cells such as adult fibroblasts. This allows the production of stem cells for biomedical research, such as research into stem cell therapies, without the use of embryos. It is carried out by the transfection of stem-cell associated genes into mature cells using viral vectors such as retroviruses.

DNA Methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to DNA segments. Methylation changes the activity of a DNA segment without changing the sequence. This is known as an epigenetic modification. When located in a gene promoter, DNA methylation typically acts to repress gene transcription. DNA methylation is essential for normal development and is associated with a number of key processes including genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, repression of repetitive elements, aging and carcinogenesis.

Gametogenesis is a biological process by which diploid or haploid precursor cells undergo cell division and differentiation to form mature haploid gametes. Depending on the biological life cycle of the organism, gametogenesis occurs by meiotic division of diploid gametocytes into various gametes, or by mitotic division of haploid gametogenous cells. For example, plants produce gametes through mitosis in gametophytes. The gametophytes grow from haploid spores after sporic meiosis. The existence of a multicellular, haploid phase in the life cycle between meiosis and gametogenesis is also referred to as alternation of generations.

Germ Cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually. In many animals, the germ cells originate in the primitive streak and migrate via the gut of an embryo to the developing gonads. There, they undergo meiosis, followed by cellular differentiation into mature gametes, either eggs or sperm. Unlike animals, plants do not have germ cells designated in early development. Instead, germ cells can arise from somatic cells in the adult (such as the floral meristem of flowering plants).

Genomic Imprinting is the epigenetic phenomenon by which certain genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. If the allele inherited from the father is imprinted, it is thereby silenced, and only the allele from the mother is expressed. If the allele from the mother is imprinted, then only the allele from the father is expressed. Forms of genomic imprinting have been demonstrated in fungi, plants and animals. As of 2014, there are about 150 imprinted genes known in the mouse and about half that in humans. Genomic imprinting is an inheritance process independent of the classical Mendelian inheritance. It is an epigenetic process that involves DNA methylation and histone methylation without altering the genetic sequence. These epigenetic marks are established ("imprinted") in the germline (sperm or egg cells) of the parents and are maintained through mitotic cell divisions in the somatic cells of an organism. Appropriate imprinting of certain genes is important for normal development. Human diseases involving genomic imprinting include Angelman syndrome and Prader–Willi syndrome.

Transcription Factor is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence. In turn, this helps to regulate the expression of genes near that sequence. This is essential in embryogenesis. Transcription factors work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator), or blocking (as a repressor) the recruitment of RNA polymerase (the enzyme that performs the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA) to specific genes. A defining feature of transcription factors is that they contain at least one DNA-binding domain (DBD), which attaches to a specific sequence of DNA adjacent to the genes that they regulate. Other proteins such as coactivators, chromatin remodelers, histone acetyltransferases, histone deacetylases, kinases, and methylases, while also essential to gene regulation, lack DNA-binding domains, and, therefore, are not transcription factors.

Methuselah Foundation is a non-profit organization dedicated to extending the healthy human lifespan by advancing tissue engineering and regenerative medicine therapies. It was co-founded in 2003 by Aubrey de Grey and David Gobel, and is based in Springfield, Virginia, United States. According to its website, Methuselah has given more than $4 million to support research and development in regenerative medicine.
Methuselah Foundation
Gerontology Research Group
Alcor Life Extension Foundation

Institute for Aging Research
National Institute on Aging: Healthy Aging: Lessons from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.
National Institutes of Health

The Albert Einstein College of Medicine ("Einstein")
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.

Parabiosis meaning "living beside", is a technical term in various contexts in fields of study related to ecology and physiology. It accordingly has been defined independently in at least three disciplines, namely experimental or medical physiology, the ecology of inactive physiological states, and the ecology of certain classes of social species that share nests.

Longevity Meme

Ageing (caregiving)
Growing Old
Senior Citizen Stories
Population Growth

Brain Food

"Book readers reading around 3.5 hours a week Live an average of two years longer than people who don't read at all. But only if you read the right books at the right times in your life."

The Thinker Man