Nano - Nanotechnology - Molecular Machines
. Making small stuff do big things.
(one thousand million) 10^
Ten to the Minus Nine Meters. more generally, very small
is written as 1 × 10 to the minus 9
is 10 to the minus 9 meters. Hair is a hundred
thousand nanometers thick.
One billionth of a meter
is a material particle having at least one dimension smaller than 100
nanometres (a nanoparticle) and composed of atoms in either a single- or
millionth of a millimeter (1.0 × 10-6 millimeters). Size
is the size of the
is an alloy consisting of
of two or more
is manipulation of matter on an atomic,
molecular, and supramolecular scale.
is the medical application of
nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of
nanomaterials and biological devices
even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology such as
biological machines. Current problems for nanomedicine involve
understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of
nanoscale materials (materials whose structure is on the scale of
nanometers, i.e. billionths of a meter).
Frozen organs could be brought back to life safely one day with the aid of
, with Improved tissue cryopreservation using inductive
heating of magnetic nanoparticles.
Light-Activated Nanoparticles can supercharge current Antibiotics
Formation of non-spherical polymersomes driven by hydrophobic directional
aromatic perylene interactions
. UNSW Sydney scientists have developed
a way to control the shape of polymer molecules so they self-assemble into
non-spherical nanoparticles - an advance that could improve the delivery
of toxic drugs to tumours
Drugs in the Water
is the practice of engineering on the
. It derives its name from the
, a unit of measurement
equalling one billionth of a meter.
is a structure of intermediate size between microscopic
and molecular structures. Nanostructural detail is
Nanoengineers 3-D print biomimetic blood vessel networks
the combination of chemistry
nanoscience. Nanochemistry is associated with synthesis of building blocks
which are dependent on size, surface, shape and defect properties.
Nanochemistry is being used in chemical, materials and physical, science
as well as engineering, biological and medical applications. Nanochemistry
and other nanoscience fields have the same core concepts but the usages of
those concepts are different.
are usually heterogeneous
up into metal nanoparticles in order to speed up the catalytic process.
Metal nanoparticles have a higher surface area so there is increased
catalytic activity because more catalytic reactions can occur at the same
time. Nanoparticle catalysts can also be easily separated and recycled
with more retention of catalytic activity than their bulk counterparts.
These catalysts can play two different roles in catalytic processes: they
can be the site of catalysis or they can act as a support for catalytic
processes. They are typically used under mild conditions to prevent
decomposition of the nanoparticles at extreme conditions. Nanocatalyst:
effect of size reduction. Catalytic technologies are critical to present
and future energy, chemical process, and environmental industries.
Researchers will find the structure of the smallest building blocks in
is the process of fabricating miniature structures
of micrometre scales and smaller. Historically, the earliest
microfabrication processes were used for integrated circuit fabrication,
also known as "semiconductor manufacturing" or "semiconductor device
is the branch of nanotechnology concerned with the study and application
of fabricating nanometer-scale structures, meaning patterns with at least
one lateral dimension between 1 and 100 nm.
are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical
nanostructure. These cylindrical carbon molecules have unusual properties,
which are valuable for nanotechnology, electronics, optics and other
fields of materials science and technology. Owing to the material's
exceptional strength and stiffness, nanotubes have been constructed with
length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132,000,000:1, significantly larger than
for any other material. Batteries
were created by accident. 20 times stronger then
. A semi-conductor. The thickness of a Carbon Nanotube is 1/1,000th
of a single strand of hair.
Cheap, Small Carbon Nanotubes
Nanoscale 'Conversations' Create Complex, Multi-Layered Structures
technique leverages controlled interactions across surfaces to create
with unprecedented complexity.
How we're harnessing nature's hidden superpowers: Oded Shoseyov
and interactive text)
. This may be either cellulose nanofibers (CNF) also called microfibrillated cellulose (MFC),
nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), or bacterial nanocellulose, which refers
to nano-structured cellulose produced by bacteria. CNF is a material
composed of nanosized cellulose fibrils with a high aspect ratio (length
to width ratio). Typical lateral dimensions are 5–20 nanometers and
longitudinal dimension is in a wide range, typically several micrometers.
is an elastomeric protein found in many insects. It is part of what
enables insects of many species to jump or pivot their wings
efficiently. It was first discovered by Torkel Weis-Fogh in locust
wing-hinges. Nanocellulose with Resilin can make incredible
durable touch screens
is creating machines or robots whose
components are at or close to the scale of a nanometre.
mobile robots with characteristic dimensions
less than 1 mm.
or nano-machine, is any discrete number of molecular components that
produce quasi-mechanical movements (output) in response to specific
stimuli (input). The expression is often more generally applied to
molecules that simply mimic functions that occur at the macroscopic level.
The term is also common in nanotechnology where a number of highly complex
molecular machines have been proposed that are aimed at the goal of
constructing a molecular assembler. Molecular machines can be divided into
two broad categories; synthetic and biological.
World's first 'Molecular Robot' capable of Building Molecules
is the design and testing of molecular
properties, behavior and interactions in order to assemble better
materials, systems, and processes for specific functions. This approach,
in which observable properties of a macroscopic system are influenced by
direct alteration of a molecular structure, falls into the broader
category of “bottom-up” design.
refers to the use of nanotechnology in
. The term
covers a diverse set of devices and materials, with the common
characteristic that they are so small that inter-atomic interactions and
quantum mechanical properties need to be studied extensively. Some of
these candidates include: hybrid molecular/semiconductor electronics
one-dimensional nanotubes/nanowires (e.g. Silicon nanowires or
) or advanced molecular electronics. Recent silicon CMOS
technology generations, such as the 22 nanometer node, are already within
this regime. Nanoelectronics are sometimes considered as disruptive
technology because present candidates are significantly different from
Molecular Lego for Nanoelectronics
Supersonic phenomena, the key to extremely low heat loss nano-electronics
‘Incomprehensible’ birth of Supercrystal formation explained
ultra-fast electronics using tiny nanocrystals.
Using Nanocrystal Networks for Artificial Intelligence applications in a
Machine Learning device
Nanowire “Inks” Enable Paper-Based Printable Electronics
conductive films make functional circuits without adding high heat. Silver
nanowire films conduct electricity well enough to form functioning
circuits without applying high heat, enabling printable electronics on
heat-sensitive materials like paper or plastic.
Captured on video: DNA nanotubes build a bridge between two molecular
Johns Hopkins researchers have coaxed DNA nanotubes to assemble
themselves into bridge-like structures arched between two molecular
landmarks on the surface of a lab dish.
is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low
concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the
substance. In the case of crystalline substances, the atoms of the dopant
very commonly take the place of elements that were in the crystal lattice
of the base material. The crystalline materials are frequently either
crystals of a semiconductor such as silicon and germanium for use in
solid-state electronics, or transparent crystals for use in the production
of various laser types; however, in some cases of the latter,
noncrystalline substances such as glass can also be doped with impurities.
is a submicrometric system that presents spontaneous
(magnetization) at zero applied magnetic field (remanence).
Scientists Discover a 2-D Magnet
. Magnetism in the 2-D world of
monolayers materials that are formed by a single atomic layer.
takes a materials science
approach to nanotechnology, leveraging advances in materials
and synthesis which
have been developed in support of
microfabrication research. Materials with structure at the nanoscale
often have unique optical, electronic, or mechanical properties.
are a class of smart materials that have the structurally incorporated
ability to repair damage caused by mechanical usage over time.
designed a new nano material that can reflect or transmit light on demand
with temperature control
Terminator’-style material heals itself
Materials may lead to self-healing smartphones
. The key to self-repair
is in the chemical bonding. Two types of bonds exist in materials. There
are covalent bonds
which are strong and don’t readily reform once broken; and noncovalent
bonds, which are weaker and more dynamic. For example, the hydrogen bonds
that connect water molecules to one another are non-covalent, breaking and
reforming constantly to give rise to the fluid properties of water. “Most
self-healing polymers form hydrogen bonds or metal-ligand coordination,
but these aren’t suitable for ionic conductors,” Wang says.
allotrope of carbon in the form of a two-dimensional, atomic-scale,
in which one atom forms each
. It is the basic
structural element of other allotropes, including graphite, charcoal,
and fullerenes. It can also be considered as an
indefinitely large aromatic molecule, the ultimate case of the family of
flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Graphene has many unusual
properties. It is about 200 times stronger than the strongest
conducts heat and electricity
very efficiently and is nearly transparent.
Graphene also shows a large and nonlinear
, even greater
than graphite, and can be levitated by Nd-Fe-B
. Graphene, a
lightweight, thin, flexible material, can be used to enhance the strength
and speed of computer display screens
, electric/photonics circuits, solar
cells and various medical,
chemical and industrial processes
, among other things. It is comprised
of a single layer of carbon atoms bonded together in a repeating pattern
of hexagons. Isolated for the first time 15 years ago, it is so thin that
it is considered
and thought to be the strongest material on the
planet. Vikas Berry, associate professor and department head of chemical
engineering, and colleagues used a chemical process to attach
on graphene without changing the properties and the
arrangement of the carbon atoms
in graphene. By doing so, the UIC
scientists retained graphene's electron-mobility, which is essential in
high-speed electronics. The addition of the plasmonic silver nanoparticles
to graphene also increased the material's ability to boost the efficiency
of graphene-based solar cells by 11 fold (11 times the original amount),
Berry said. The research, funded by the National Science Foundation (CMMI-1030963),
has been published in the
. Instead of adding molecules to the individual carbon atoms of
graphene, Berry's new method adds
, such as chromium or
molybdenum, to the six atoms of a benzoid ring. Unlike carbon-centered
bonds, this bond is delocalized, which keeps the carbon atoms' arrangement
undistorted and planar, so that the graphene retains its unique properties
of electrical conduction
. The new chemical method of annexing nanomaterials on
Graphene will revolutionize graphene technology by
expanding the scope of its applications.
Taming "Wild" Electrons in Graphene
. Scientists at Rutgers
University-New Brunswick have learned how to tame the unruly electrons in
graphene, paving the way for the ultra-fast transport of electrons with
low loss of energy in novel systems.
Graphene enables High-Speed Electronics on Flexible Detector Materials for
Graphene enables clock rates in the terahertz range
. Researchers pave
the way for graphene-based nanoelectronics of the future.
Team makes High-Quality Graphene with Soybeans
Engineers create Artificial Graphene in a Nanofabricated Semiconductor
Researchers control the properties of graphene transistors using pressure
Researchers have developed a technique to manipulate the electrical
conductivity of graphene with compression, bringing the material one step
closer to being a viable semiconductor for use in today's electronic
Reinforcing graphene with embedded carbon nanotubes
'rebar' makes the
2D nanomaterial more than twice as tough as pristine graphene.
are strips of
width (<50 nm). Graphene ribbons were introduced as a theoretical model by
Mitsutaka Fujita and coauthors to examine the edge and nanoscale size
effect in graphene.
potential applications include sophisticated sensors,
information and energy storage, solar cells and high-tech LEDs.
Measuring the Temperature of Two-Dimensional Materials at the Atomic Level
Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayers
are atomically thin
semiconductors of the type MX2, with M a transition metal atom (Mo, W,
etc.) and X a chalcogen atom (S, Se, or Te). One layer of M atoms is
sandwiched between two layers of X atoms. They are part of the large and
new family of the so-called 2D materials, name used to emphasize their
extraordinary thinness. For example a MoS2 monolayer is only 6.5 Å thick.
The key feature of these materials is the interaction of large atoms in
the 2D structure as compared with first-row transition metal
dichalcogenides, e.g., WTe2 exhibits anomalous giant magnetoresistance and
Paper-based Supercapacitor uses metal nanoparticles to boost energy
. Using a simple layer-by-layer coating technique, researchers
have developed a paper-based flexible supercapacitor that could be used to
help power wearable devices. The device uses metallic nanoparticles to
coat cellulose fibers in the paper, creating
electrodes with high
energy and power densities -- and the best performance so far in a
The observation of an abnormal state of matter in a 2-D magnetic material
is the latest development in the race to harness novel electronic
properties for more robust and efficient next-generation devices. Neutron
scattering has helped researchers investigate a graphene-like
strontium-manganese-antimony material that hosts what they suspect is a
Weyl semimetal phase. The properties of Weyl semimetals include both
semimetal behavior, in which electrons -- or charge carriers -- are nearly
massless and immune to conduction defects. Neutron scattering at the
Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) helped
investigate a graphene-like strontium-manganese-antimony material (Sr1-yMn1-zSb2)
that hosts what researchers suspect is a Weyl semimetal phase. Examining a
small, high-quality crystal grown at Tulane University, the team was able
to determine the magnetic structure of Sr1-yMn1-zSb2, using neutrons at
the Four-Circle Diffractometer instrument at the High Flux Isotope
Reactor. Neutrons are ideal tools for identifying and characterizing
magnetism in almost any material, because they, like electrons, exhibit a
flow of magnetism called "spin. We discovered two types of
found the experimental proof of the time-reversal symmetry breaking,
likely creating a Weyl state in Sr1-yMn1-zSb2. This makes this system a
wonderful candidate to study the effect of the time-reversal symmetry
breaking on the electronic band structure.
used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat)
with a ring of
resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other
arrangements with the same set of atoms. Aromatic molecules are very
stable, and do not break apart easily to react with other substances.
Organic compounds that are not aromatic are classified as aliphatic
compounds—they might be cyclic, but only aromatic rings have special
stability (low reactivity).
3D Graphene material
can be molded into any shape and supports 3,000
times its own weight before springing back to its original height.
or rather a
nanoshell plasmon, is a type of spherical nanoparticle consisting of a
dielectric core which is covered by a thin metallic shell (usually gold).
These nanoshells involve a quasiparticle called plasmon which is a
collective excitation or quantum plasma oscillation where the electrons
simultaneously oscillate with respect to all the ions.
refers to several technologies which use nanometer-scale localized
structures. Nanodots generally exploit properties of quantum dots to
localize magnetic or electrical fields at very small scales. Applications
for nanodots could include high-density information storage, energy
storage, and light-emitting devices.
Braiding a Molecular Knot with Eight Crossings
. Knots may ultimately
prove just as versatile and useful at the nanoscale as at the macroscale.
However, the lack of synthetic routes to all but the simplest molecular
currently prevents systematic investigation of the influence of knotting
at the molecular level. We found that it is possible to assemble four
building blocks into three braided ligand strands. Octahedral iron(II)
ions control the relative positions of the three strands at each crossing
point in a circular triple helicate, while structural constraints on the
ligands determine the braiding connections. This approach enables two-step
assembly of a molecular 819 knot featuring eight nonalternating crossings
in a 192-atom closed loop ~20 nanometers in length. The resolved
metal-free 819 knot enantiomers have pronounced features in their circular
dichroism spectra resulting solely from topological chirality.
Researchers Sew Atomic Lattices Seamlessly Together
. In electronics,
joining different materials produces “heterojunctions”—the most
fundamental components in solar cells, LEDs or computer chips. The
smoother the seam between two materials, the more easily electrons flow
across it; essential for how well the electronic devices function. But
they’re made up of crystals—rigid
which may have very different spacing—and they don’t take kindly to being
Robot developed for Automated Assembly of designer Nano-Materials
Engineers have developed a robot that can identify, collect, and
manipulate two-dimensional nanocrystals. The robot stacked nanocrystals to
form the most complex van der Waals heterostructure produced to date, with
much less human intervention than the manual operations previously used to
produce van der Waals heterostructures. This robot allows unprecedented
access to van der Waals
, which are attractive for use in advanced
nanoparticle superstructures made from tetrahedral pyramid-shaped building
Scientists Develop Proteins that Self-Assemble into supramolecular
. Novel Artificial Protein Complexes Constructed from Protein
Cannibalistic Materials Feed on Themselves to Grow New Nanostructures
Scientists have induced a two-dimensional material to cannibalize itself
for atomic 'building blocks' from which stable structures formed. The
findings provide insights that may improve design of 2-D materials for
electronic devices. After a monolayer MXene is heated, functional groups
are removed from both surfaces. Titanium and
one area to both surfaces, creating a pore and forming new
is the interface that occurs between two layers or
regions of dissimilar crystalline semiconductors. These semiconducting
materials have unequal band gaps as opposed to a homojunction. It is often
advantageous to engineer the electronic energy bands in many solid-state
device applications, including semiconductor lasers,
to name a few. The combination of multiple heterojunctions together in a
device is called a heterostructure, although the two terms are commonly
used interchangeably. The requirement that each material be a
semiconductor with unequal band gaps is somewhat loose, especially on
small length scales, where electronic properties depend on spatial
properties. A more modern definition of heterojunction is the interface
between any two solid-state materials, including crystalline and amorphous
structures of metallic, insulating, fast ion conductor and semiconducting
Films about Nano Technologies
Nano, the Next Dimension
Dr. Wade Adams: Nanotechnology and the Future of Energy
(youtube, 30:41 )
FORA.tv Technology Season 2 Episode 16 | Aired: 10/25/2012
Smallest Electric Motor: Sykes Group Tufts
The Nano Revolution: More than Human
Scanning Tunneling Microscope
microlattice 'lightest structure ever'
(youtube, 1 minute).
NanoCar Race, the first-ever race of Molecule-Cars
Gary Greenberg: The Beautiful Nano
Details of our World
Rice introduces Teslaphoresis
Carbon nanotubes in a dish assemble
themselves into a nanowire in seconds under the influence of a
custom-built Tesla coil
created by scientists at Rice University. Self Assembly phenomenon called
Buckminster Fullerene (C60) 1985
is a description of the ordered
arrangement of atoms
, ions or
in a crystalline material. Ordered
the intrinsic nature of the constituent particles to form symmetric
patterns that repeat along the principal directions of
is any material with the same type of crystal
calcium titanium oxide
Nanoscale Heat Engine Beyond the Carnot Limit (Nano Engine made
from a Single Atom)
Institute for Integrative Nanosciences
Oxygen Gas-Filled Micro-Particles Provide Intravenous Oxygen
Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistor
Gene Chip Analysis
Microarray technology is a powerful tool for
genomic analysis. It gives a global view of the genome in a single
, also commonly known as DNA
biochip, is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid
surface. Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels
of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions
of a genome
in molecular biology, biochips are essentially miniaturized laboratories
that can perform hundreds or thousands of simultaneous biochemical
reactions. Biochips enable researchers to quickly screen large numbers of
biological analytes for a variety of purposes, from disease diagnosis to
detection of bioterrorism agents.
concerns the molecular basis of
biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions
between DNA, RNA and proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the
regulation of these interactions. Writing in Nature in 1961, William
Astbury described molecular biology as:
Tiny machines are already living in Humans, Naturally
Humans also consist of
trillions of electrochemical machines
coordinate their intricate activities in ways that allow our
bodies and minds to function with the required reliability and
precision. 400 million
could fit in a single period at the end of a sentence.
the "molecular unit of currency" of
Drew Berry: Animations of Unseeable Biology
Amazing Molecular Machines
Engineers develop first method for Controlling Nano-Motors with simple
Visible Light as the Stimulus
is a 1966 American science fiction film about a
submarine crew who shrink to microscopic size and venture into the body of
an injured scientist to repair the damage to his brain.
are a component of the
, found throughout the
. These tubular polymers of
can grow as long as 50 micrometres and are highly dynamic. The outer
diameter of a microtubule is about 24 nm while the inner diameter is about
12 nm. They are found in eukaryotic cells, as well as some bacteria, and
are formed by the polymerization of a dimer of two globular proteins,
alpha and beta tubulin.
Janet Iwasa: How Animations can help Scientists Test a
is a process by which cells
absorb metabolites, hormones, other proteins - and in some cases viruses -
(endocytosis) by the inward budding of plasma membrane vesicles containing
proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being absorbed.
The Human Robot - vpro backlight
(youtube timeline 33 min.
Siddhartha Mukherjee: Soon we'll cure diseases with a cell, not
This tiny particle could roam your body to find tumors - Sangeeta Bhatia
and Interactive Text)
Programming of Life - Intelligent Design or Evolution
Drug-Delivering Micro-Motors treat their first Bacterial Infection in the
Meet the Tiny Cellular Machines in Cells that Massacre Viruses by chopping
their genetic material into bits
Section 18.3Myosin: The Actin Motor Protein
are class of molecular motors that are able to move
along the surface of a suitable substrate. They convert chemical energy
into mechanical work by the hydrolysis of ATP. Flagellar rotation,
however, is powered by proton pump.
protein walking on microtubule
is synthesized by
, modified in the
and packaged into
A fresh look inside the Protein Nano-Machines
. Proteins perform vital
functions of life, they digest food and fight infections and cancer. They
are in fact nano-machines, each one of them designed to perform a specific
task. A protein is a chain made of twenty different kinds of amino acids
with elaborate interactions, and, unlike standard physical matter, The
blueprint for protein synthesis is written in long DNA genes, but we show
that only a small fraction of this huge information space is used to make
the functional protein”.
is one of the fastest growing cells in the plant.
Machines that you swallow and then poop
minimally invasive tool that gives your doctor a
direct view of the inside of your colon.
Building Blocks of Life
Living computers: RNA circuits transform cells into Nano-Devices
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is used to create logic circuits capable of
performing various computations. In new experiments, Green and his
colleagues have incorporated RNA logic gates into living bacterial cells,
which act like tiny computers. Logic gates known as AND, OR and NOT were
designed. An AND gate produces an output in the cell only when two
A AND B are present. An OR gate
responds to either A OR B, while a NOT gate will block output if a given
RNA input is present. Combining these gates can produce complex logic
capable of responding to multiple inputs. Using RNA toehold switches, the
researchers produced the first ribocomputing devices capable of four-input
AND, six-input OR and a 12-input device able to carry out a complex
combination of AND, OR and NOT logic known as disjunctive normal form
expression. When the logic gate encounters the correct RNA binding
sequences leading to activation, a
toehold switch opens and the
process of translation to protein takes place. All of these
circuit-sensing and output functions can be integrated in the same
molecule, making the systems compact and easier to implement in a cell.
Mechanism of the
Enzymes are like those giant robots
. They grab one or two
pieces, do something to them, and then release them. Once their
job is done, they move to the next piece and do the same thing
again. They are little protein robots inside your cells. The
robot that was designed to move a car door can't put brakes on
the car. The specialized robot arms just can't do the job.
Enzymes are the same. They can only work with specific molecules
and only do specific tasks. Because they are so specific, their
structure is very important. If only one amino acid of the
enzyme is messed up, the enzyme might not work. It would be as
if someone unplugged one of the cords in a
pictured below is a virus that infects and replicates
within a bacterium. Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that
encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome, and may have relatively simple or
elaborate structures. Their genomes may encode as few as four genes, and
as many as hundreds of genes. Phages replicate within the bacterium
following the injection of their genome into its cytoplasm. Bacteriophages
are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.
The Scale of the Universe from Big to Small
The Scale of the Universe from Small to Big
is the physical magnitude of something (how big it is).
the magnitude or dimensions
of a thing, or how big something is. Size can be
as length, width,
height, diameter, perimeter, area, volume, or mass.
are things so small that there is no way to measure
them. Imaging Machines
a unit of length, equal to 1.616229(38)×10−35 metres.
is a linear transformation that enlarges (increases) or shrinks
(diminishes) objects by a scale factor
that is the same in all directions.
The result of uniform scaling is similar (in the
) to the
original. A scale factor of 1 is normally allowed, so that congruent
shapes are also classed as similar. Uniform scaling happens, for example,
when enlarging or reducing a photograph, or when creating a scale model of
a building, car, airplane, etc.
is a nonlinear scale used when there is a large range of
quantities. Common uses include earthquake strength,
, light intensity,
and pH of solutions. It is based on orders of magnitude, rather than a
, so the value represented by each equidistant mark on the
scale is the value at the previous mark multiplied by a constant.
Logarithmic scales are also used in slide rules for multiplying or
dividing numbers by adding or subtracting lengths on the scales.
The True Size
helps visualize the size of countries.
is the length scale on which objects or phenomena
are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye,
without magnifying optical
. When applied to physical phenomena and bodies, the
macroscopic scale describes things as a person can directly perceive them,
without the aid of magnifying devices. This is in contrast to observations
(microscopy) or theories (microphysics, statistical physics) of objects of
geometric lengths smaller than perhaps some hundreds of micrometers. A
macroscopic view of a ball is just that: a ball. A microscopic view could
reveal a thick round skin seemingly composed entirely of puckered cracks
and fissures (as viewed through a microscope) or, further down in scale, a
collection of molecules in a roughly spherical shape. An example of a
physical theory that takes a deliberately macroscopic viewpoint is
thermodynamics. An example of a topic that extends from macroscopic to
microscopic viewpoints is histology.
Magnitude in mathematics
is the size of a mathematical object, a
property by which the object can be compared as larger or smaller than
other objects of the same kind. More formally, an object's magnitude is an
ordering (or ranking) of the class of objects to which it belongs.
Power of 10
of the integer powers of the number ten; in other words, ten multiplied by
itself a certain number of times (when the power is a positive integer).
By definition, the number one is a power (the zeroth power) of ten.
Order of Magnitude
are written in powers of 10. For example,
the order of magnitude of 1500 is 3, since 1500 may be written as 1.5 ×
Orders of Magnitude (numbers)
Orders of Magnitude (data)
is a factor of ten. A quantity growing by
four orders of magnitude implies it has grown by a
factor of 10,000 or
104. list of multiples, sorted by orders of magnitude, for digital
information storage measured in bits.Atoms
is a unit of length equal to 10−10 m (one ten-billionth of a
metre) or 0.1 nanometre. Its symbol is Å, a letter in the Swedish
Nanowires as Sensors in New Type of Atomic Force Microscope
. A new type
of atomic force microscope (AFM) uses nanowires as tiny sensors. Unlike
standard AFM, the device with a nanowire sensor enables measurements of
both the size and direction of forces.
is a very-high-resolution type of scanning
probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of
fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical
diffraction limit. Imaging Machines
is the resolution of an optical imaging
system – a microscope
telescope, or camera – can be limited by factors such as imperfections in
the lenses or misalignment.
World's Smallest Magnifying Glass, which focuses light a billion times
more tightly, down to the scale of single atom
, which makes it
possible to see individual chemical bonds between atoms.
World’s smallest Radio Receiver has building blocks the size of 2 Atoms
is made from
atomic-scale defects in diamond. Made from atomic scale imperfections in a
single piece of diamond crystal. The imperfections are the size of two
atoms. Electrons inside the imperfections are powered by green light. When
the electrons receive radio waves they convert them into red light. A
simple photodiode converts the light into current. Speakers convert the
current into sound just like a radio because of diamonds it can
withstand extreme temperatures and pressures.
A Diamond Radio
is a secondary and visually evident superimposed pattern
created, for example, when two identical (usually transparent) patterns on
a flat or curved surface (such as closely spaced straight lines drawn
radiating from a point or taking the form of a grid) are overlaid while
displaced or rotated a small amount from one another.
What will be the next big scientific breakthrough? Eric Haseltine:
(video and interactive text)