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Obesity - Over Eating - Diabetes - Weight Loss


"Eat to Live, Don't Live to Eat."

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Childhood Obesity now affects 1 in every 3 children in the U.S.. Scientific studies have shown that 80 percent of these obese children will grow up to be obese adults with serious health consequences which will lead to more heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure at a younger age. One study shows that the average three year old is failing to develop properly because of their inactive couch potato lifestyles. About 17 percent of boys and 16 percent of girls now in the United States, more than 9 million total, are overweight. 26 million people in America have Diabetes, 79 million have pre-diabetes and 7 million don't even know that they already have the disease. Another study showed that the easiest way of increasing physical activity may be as simple as providing more active play time and providing relatively inexpensive toys, like balls, jump ropes, bikes and spending time at local playing fields. So encouraging children to run, bike, swim and other fun activities, while teaching them healthy habits such as regular exercise and selecting proper food choices, will not only benefit them, but future generations to come as well for they will certainly pass on this very important information too them. The risk of obesity doubled among students who skipped breakfast or ate breakfast inconsistently. Eat Breakfast Like a King, Lunch Like a Prince, and Dinner Like a Pauper, or eat your biggest meal early in the day, or eat one meal a day.

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess Body Fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 30 kg/m2, with the range 25–30 kg/m2 defined as overweight. Some East Asian countries use lower values. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.

Overweight is having more Body Fat than is optimally healthy. Being overweight is common especially where food supplies are plentiful and lifestyles are sedentary. Excess weight has reached epidemic proportions globally, with more than 1 billion adults being either overweight or obese in 2003. In 2013 this increased to more than 2 billion. Increases have been observed across all age groups. A healthy body requires a minimum amount of fat for proper functioning of the hormonal, reproductive, and immune systems, as thermal insulation, as shock absorption for sensitive areas, and as energy for future use. But the accumulation of too much storage Fat can impair movement, flexibility, and alter appearance of the body.

Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity. The American Heart Association says 78 million adults and 13 million kids (or 28.5 percent of the country’s population) are obese as of 2016, an epidemic that spells some $190 billion per year in weight-related medical bills.

Someone has a Heart Attack every 24 seconds in America.

Sedentary Lifestyle
Metabolism
Sugar
Fats
Cholesterol
Carbohydrates
Over Eating
Inflammation

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is stealthily showing up in the livers of millions of Americans. Marked by the accumulation of an unhealthy amount of fat and scar tissue in the liver, NASH is quietly reaching epidemic proportions across the globe. Up to 80% of obese people have the disease. (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis).

Food for Thought
Is Overeating or Starving a Form of Violence against your Body, a type of Self-Harming?
What are the differences between Appetite, Hunger and Nutrition?
Is Gluttony just an Eating Disorder or just another Addiction?
Decadent Moments or Moments of Decadence? (perceived decay in standards, morals, dignity, religious faith, or skill)
Comfort Food is food which provides a nostalgic or sentimental value to the consumer, and is often characterized by its high caloric nature, high carbohydrate level, and simple preparation. The nostalgia may be specific to either the individual or a specific culture.

Remember, just because something is Natural does not mean that it is Safe.

It's a learned behavior, and when there is also the lack of knowledge, and the lack of awareness, and the lack of control, you end up with an addiction. You are no longer the captain of your own ship, and your ship is slowly sinking.

Smaller Plate Study found that using 10 inch diameter plates instead of the traditional 12 inch diameter plates decreased the amount of food people eat without having an effect on their perceived fullness or satisfaction.

Trim28 Haploinsufficiency Triggers Bi-stable Epigenetic Obesity
Genetics and Epigenetics of Obesity

People who drink moderately, exercise, don't smoke, eat five servings of fruit and vegetables each day live on average 14 years longer than people who don't follow these healthy rules. That leaves more time to do those things that you have on that bucket list. Bucket List Ideas

Way Beyond Weight (youtube)

Obesity Rates have skyrocketed since the 1980's. The countries with the fastest obesity growth rates are the United States, Australia and England. The United States is the fattest nation among 33 countries with advanced economies with two-thirds of people in America are overweight or obese and about a third of adults, more than 72 million, are obese, which is roughly 30 pounds over a healthy weight. Obesity is a growing threat to public health because Obesity causes illnesses, reduces life expectancy, increases health care costs, increases the risk of heart disease, diabetes and several types of cancer and other diseases. Obesity cost the U.S. an estimated $147 billion in weight-related medical bills in 2008, according to a study by scientists. 

Obesity Maps
Processed Food
More than one-third (34.9% or 78.6 million) of U.S. adults are obese. (CDC)
Obesity Among Older Adults (PDF)

The estimated annual medical cost of obesity in the U.S. was $147 billion in 2008. (Fat Storm).

29 million people, 9 percent of the U.S. population, have diabetes  

Over Weight People can have Lower Cognitive Abilities
Over weight people have a tendency to suffer more with depression and can also have a lower IQ.
Hippocampal lesions impair retention of discriminative responding based on energy state cues.
Central Adiposity Is Negatively Associated with Hippocampal-Dependent Relational Memory among Overweight
and Obese Children.
Higher body mass index is associated with episodic memory deficits in young adults
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Scientists detect gray matter changes in brains of teenagers with type 2 diabetes

Not Enough Exercise Lowers Cognitive Abilities
Not Enough Healthy Food also Impairs Cognitive Abilities

Unhealthy Foods - (processed food)

Diabetes

Yale Rudd Center For Food Policy & Obesity

Lifestyle Medicine is a branch of medicine dealing with research, prevention and treatment of disorders caused by lifestyle factors such as nutrition, physical inactivity, and chronic stress. In the clinic, major barriers to lifestyle counseling are that physicians feel ill prepared and are skeptical about their patients' receptivity.

Weight Loss
Weight Loss Counseling
Weight Loss Specialists
Weight Loss Management
Weight Loss (wiki)
Garcinia Gummi-Gutta (wiki)
Inflammation

Weightless is more about the food you eat and not how much you exercise.
You should at least produce electricity when you exercise.

Body Mass Index
Vitals

Eat pasta Al dente to lower the glycemic index for better blood sugar control - and eat smaller portions of pasta to avoid creating a carbohydrate overload and a spike in high blood sugar. Buy pasta with a low glycemic index. Soaking your pasta in a bowl of water for an hour before dinner will reduce boiling pasta time to almost 1 minute. Cooking Tips

Hypothyroidism is a common disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. It can cause a number of symptoms, such as poor ability to tolerate cold, a feeling of tiredness, and weight gain.

Dehydration Tricks you into Feeling Hungry
"Drinking a glass of water when hunger cravings hit, and then waiting 5 - 10 minutes, can help diminish your hungry feeling."

Drink 16 oz's of water before every single meal
, which makes you feel full. Previous studies have suggested that drinking water 20 to 30 minutes before a meal causes people to eat fewer calories later on, perhaps because they are not confusing hunger with thirst. Staying hydrated also means your body is not holding onto liquids since the water is constantly being replenished. 

"Enjoy eating at least one good meal per day."   

Avoid Processed Foods
Metabolism 

Eating too much food or just eating the wrong foods is like slowly poisoning yourself. That's why it's so hard to imagine something that you need to live can actually be the reason you're dying, or the reason you're suffering from some diet related health issue, and you wonder why Nutrition Education is so extremely important. 

Flavor
Sensory-Specific Satiety
Calorie Density
Carbs

Eating behaviors are perpetuated by highly-processed, tasty food, especially those with a High Glycaemic Index.

Addictions - Sugar

Foods that Curb Hunger 
Energy Density and Low Calorie Foods
Energy Density & Weight Loss: Feel Full on Fewer Calories

Everyone should be provided with the highest quality food that supplies them with all the nutritional needs for a person to have a strong mind and body. If someone wants to supplement their diet or eat more, then they can, but just let them know that eating more then what the body and mind needs is not necessary, and eating more will actually do you more harm then good.
Over eating, or eating low nutrient food once in a while can be fun, but just once in a while. The body is not made to consume more food then the body needs. So either you are forcing your body to store fat, or your forcing your body to be unnatural.


Inflammation


Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators. The function of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, and to initiate tissue repair.

Swelling is a transient abnormal enlargement of a body part or area not caused by proliferation of cells. It is caused by accumulation of fluid in tissues It can occur throughout the body (generalized), or a specific part or organ can be affected (localized). Swelling is usually not dangerous and is a common reaction to a inflammation or a bruise. inflammation

Hypertrophy is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component Cells. It is distinguished from hyperplasia, in which the cells remain approximately the same size but increase in number.

Neuroinflammation is inflammation of the nervous tissue. It may be initiated in response to a variety of cues, including infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites, or autoimmunity. Nervous Systems

Anti-inflammatory is a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection injures its own tissues and organs. Kills 300,000 a year in the U.S..
Infections 
Anti-inflammatory Diet refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
Webmd - Inflammatory Diet
Diets
Inflammation and the immune system
Immune System
Hormones
Anti-Inflammatory Pyramid Info-Graph
Vagus Nerve
Brain Inflammation and Depression
Reconceptualizing major depressive disorder as an infectious disease
Lipedema is a chronic disorder of adipose tissue and lymphatic vessel dysfunction "described as a bilateral, symmetrical,
flabby swelling of the legs that arises from deposition of adipose tissue starting at the hips and ending at the ankles, like riding breeches". In some cases, the upper arms can also accumulate distinct patterns of fatty tissue.

Autoantibodies and the Immune Hypothesis in Psychotic Brain Diseases: Challenges and Perspectives

Anti-Inflammatory Foods: Enzyme-rich foods, including wheatgrass, other grasses, banana and raw honey, Pineapple and Papaya, Cherries, Berries, including blueberries, blackberries, strawberries, raspberries, and cranberries, Green tea, Cacao, Walnuts, Seeds, including flax and chia, Avocados, Rhizomes, including turmeric, curcumin, and ginger root. The GAPS diet was derived from the Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD)
Microbes and Gut Bacteria

Every meal triggers inflammation. When we eat, we do not just take in nutrients – we also consume a significant quantity of bacteria. The body is faced with the challenge of simultaneously distributing the ingested glucose and fighting these bacteria. This triggers an inflammatory response that activates the immune systems of healthy individuals and has a protective effect, as doctors have proven for the first time. In overweight individuals, however, this inflammatory response fails so dramatically that it can lead to diabetes


Fats


A typical young male adult stores about 60,000 to 100,000 calories of energy in body fat cells. Fat is stored inside the fat cell in the form of triaglycerol. Fat cells can increase both in size (hypertrophy) and in number (hyperplasia). The average size (weight) of an adult fat cell is about 0.6 micrograms, but they can vary in size from 0.2 micograms to 0.9 micrograms. An overweight person’s fat cells can be up to three times larger than a person with ideal body composition. When your body needs energy because you’re consuming fewer calories than you are burning (an energy deficit), then your body releases hormones and enzymes that signal your fat cells to release your fat reserves instead of keeping them in storage. When we lose fat the fat cell releases its contents (triaglycerol) into the bloodstream as free fatty acids (FFA’s), and they are transported through the blood to the tissues where the energy is needed. An important enzyme called lipoprotein lipase (LPL), then helps the FFA’s get inside the mitochondria of the muscle cell, where the FFA’s can be burned for Energy.

Different Types of Fat Saturated Fat is a type of fat, in which the fatty acids all have single bonds. A fat is made of two kinds of smaller molecules: monoglyceride and fatty acids. Fats are made of long chains of carbon (C) atoms. Some carbon atoms are linked by single bonds (-C-C-) and others are linked by double bonds (-C=C-). Double bonds can react with hydrogen to form single bonds. They are called saturated, because the second bond is broken up and each half of the bond is attached to (saturated with) a hydrogen atom. Most animal fats are saturated. The fats of plants and fish are generally unsaturated. Saturated fats tend to have higher melting points than their corresponding unsaturated fats, leading to the popular understanding that saturated fats tend to be solids at body temperatures, while unsaturated fats tend to be liquid oils.

Triglyceride is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (tri- + glyceride). Triglycerides are the main constituents of body fat in humans and other animals, as well as vegetable fat. They are also present in the blood to enable the bidirectional transference of adipose fat and blood glucose from the liver, and are a major component of human skin oils.

Visceral Fat is body fat that is stored within the abdominal cavity and is therefore stored around a number of important internal organs such as the liver, pancreas, heart and intestines. 80% of visceral fat in the body can be traced back to a single cell in the embryo called WT1 Fat Around The Heart May Increase Risk Of Heart Attacks

Adipose Tissue body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes. In addition to adipocytes, adipose tissue contains the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells including preadipocytes, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and a variety of immune cells such as adipose tissue macrophage.

Brown Fat  makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat). BAT is found in almost all mammals. Classification of brown fat refers to two distinct cell populations with similar functions. The first shares a common embryological origin with muscle cells, found in larger "classic" deposits. The second develops from white adipocytes that are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. These adipocytes are found interspersed in white adipose tissue and are also named 'beige' or 'brite'.

Subcutaneous Tissue is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates. The types of cells found in the hypodermis are fibroblasts, adipose cells, and macrophages. The hypodermis is derived from the mesoderm, but unlike the dermis, it is not derived from the dermatome region of the mesoderm. In arthropods, the hypodermis is an epidermal layer of cells that secretes the chitinous cuticle. The term also refers to a layer of cells lying immediately below the epidermis of plants.

Abdominal Obesity is when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health. There is a strong correlation between central obesity and cardiovascular disease. Abdominal obesity is not confined only to the elderly and obese subjects. Abdominal obesity has been linked to Alzheimer's disease as well as other metabolic and vascular diseases.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular Energy Transfer.

Adiponectin is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene.[3] It is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.

Adipocyte are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.

Cryolipolysis is a medical treatment used to destroy fat cells.

Mesothelium Membrane is a membrane composed of simple squamous epithelium that forms the lining of several body cavities.

Smen is salted fermented butter.

Body Mass Index
Brain Food
Metabolism



Over Eating


There are many things that humans eat that have healing properties. But they need to be taken in the correct amounts, and they cannot be consumed everyday. You have to know your own personal limits and sensitivities for certain foods and herbs. Because things that can benefit you can also hurt you if you misuse them or eat too much. And Over Eating is not always about feeding hunger. Sometimes our body and our mind can give off signals that are not always accurate.

Did you know that it can take up to 20 minutes for the brain to recognize that your stomach is full?
If you drink a full glass of water 10 minutes before each meal; your brain will realize you are full within 10 minutes instead of the usual 20 minutes.

Ingestive Behaviors and Satiety Signals are influenced by physiological regulatory mechanisms; these mechanisms exist to control and establish homeostasis within the human body. Disruptions in these ingestive regulatory mechanisms can result in eating disorders such as obesity, anorexia, and bulimia. Livia
Vagus Nerve is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs and digestive tract. The vagus nerves are paired; however, they are normally referred to in the singular. It is the longest nerve of the autonomic nervous system in the human body. The Vagus nerve also has a sympathetic function via the peripheral chemoreceptors. Peripheral chemoreceptors are activated primarily due to hypoxemia. When stimulated, these chemoreceptors relay impulses throughout the vagus nerves in order to enable a vasoconstrictor response and increase blood pressure.
Enteric Nervous System

Satiety is the state of being satisfactorily full and unable to take on more. Satisfy (a desire or an appetite) to the full. Supply (someone) with as much as or more of something than is desired or can be managed.

Microbes in your gut produce 50% of dopamine and 90% of serotonin hormones. Your Gut can control your behavior.
You Have A Second Brain (youtube)

Your stomach can hold up to 4 liters of volume, about 17 cups. If you know how much food you have eaten, then you will know when to stop. That is one of the reasons to count calories. And that is what awareness and mindful eating is important, because you can't always rely on your body to give you accurate information, but you can count on your brain if you learn enough. Eating attentively: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of food intake memory and awareness
on eating.

Eating beyond our daily energy needs.
Overeating is the excess food in relation to the energy that an organism expends (or expels via excretion), leading to weight gaining and often obesity. It may be regarded as an eating disorder.
Compulsive Overeating is a behavioral addiction that is characterized by the compulsive consumption of palatable (e.g., high fat and high sugar) foods – the types of food which markedly activate the reward system in humans and other animals – despite adverse consequences.
Gluttony to gulp down or swallow, means over-indulgence and over-consumption of food, drink, or wealth items to the point of extravagance or waste.
Binge Eating is a pattern of disordered eating which consists of episodes of uncontrollable eating. It is sometimes a symptom of binge eating disorder or compulsive overeating disorder. During such binges, a person rapidly consumes an excessive quantity of food. A diagnosis of binge eating is associated with feelings of loss of control.
Binge Eating Disorder (wiki)
Eating Disorders
Physiological Reaction
Indulging is being excessive beyond normal limits.

Eating bad food or eating too much food is like having Congenital Insensitivity. When children don't feel pain they injure themselves more often because they don't have pain to remind them that they are hurting themselves. So these people have to train themselves to avoid injury. This is the same for all ignorant behavior. You can't rely on pain or punishment to teach you the difference between right and wrong and good and bad. You have to learn, or you will damage yourself beyond repair.

Food Addiction Summit
Food Addiction
Addictions
Control

Eat your biggest meal early in the day
"Eat Breakfast Like a King, Lunch Like a Prince, and Dinner Like a Pauper”.

Over eating might just be about feeding your Anxiety.

"I have just eaten so why do I still feel hungry?"

You have to ask yourself, is the food have already eaten providing me with the necessary nutrition? How much nutrition do I need to perform the physical and mental activities that I will be doing in the near future? Once you know the answers to these questions, and have a good understanding of your mind and body, and you know what foods and liquids are the best choices for you, then when your body or mind is given you signals that cause you to overeat or eat the wrong foods for no reason, then you will know that you have to take control of your mind and body. This is one of the most important things you need to learn. When you are the captain of a ship you have a choice, sail into a storm or sail away from the storm. And there is a storm everyday. You have learn how to be aware of yourself and the world around you. Search for Techniques that work best for you and seek out the best information and knowledge that the world has to offer. Sometimes just Eating Slower and remembering to breath will help you to be more aware of how much food you are eating. Did you know that Fat Cells can sometimes absorb more calories then they need instead of serving the energy needs of the body? So you will be tricked into thinking that you need to eat more. This might be fine if you're going into hibernation, but humans don't hibernate. So you have to learn why your fat cells are doing this and also verify that your Insulin levels are where they should be?  Insulin makes Fat

It's knowing when to eat, what to eat, and how much to eat.

The Ete Plate can help you with measuring how much food you need.
Postingestive Feedback (PDF)

Leptin is a hormone made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. Leptin is opposed by the actions of the hormone ghrelin, the "hunger hormone". Both hormones act on receptors in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus to regulate appetite to achieve energy homeostasis. In obesity, a decreased sensitivity to leptin occurs, resulting in an inability to detect satiety despite high energy stores.
Ghrelin the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal tract which functions as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system. Besides regulating appetite, ghrelin also plays a significant role in regulating the distribution and rate of use of energy. When the stomach is empty, ghrelin is secreted. When the stomach is stretched, secretion stops.a It acts on hypothalamic brain cells both to increase hunger, and to increase gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motility to prepare the body for food intake.
Orexin also called hypocretin, is a Neuropeptide that regulates Arousal, Wakefulness, and Appetite.

Metabolism - Visceral Fat

Mitochondrial Disease is a group of disorders caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.
Vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing part of the vagus nerve.
Agouti-Related Peptide is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by the AgRP/NPY neuron. Acts to increase appetite and decrease metabolism and energy expenditure.
Gut Feelings
Anxiety

Moderation

Starvation Response Famine Reaction in animals is a set of adaptive biochemical and physiological changes that reduce metabolism in response to a lack of food.
Hypothalamus

Nucleus Accumbens is the cognitive processing of motivation, pleasure, and reward and reinforcement learning, and hence has significant role in addiction. It plays a lesser role in fear, impulsivity, and the placebo effect. It is involved in the encoding of new motor programs as well.

Human Homeostasis is the property of a system in which a variable (for example, the concentration of a substance in solution, or its temperature) is actively regulated to remain very nearly constant. This regulation occurs inside a defined environment (mostly within a living organism's body).

Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of animals, including humans. It is popularly thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness.

Gastrointestinal Tract

Palatability is the hedonic reward (i.e., pleasure) provided by foods or fluids that are agreeable to the "palate", which often varies relative to the homeostatic satisfaction of nutritional, water, or energy needs. The palatability of a food or fluid, unlike its flavor or taste, varies with the state of an individual: it is lower after consumption and higher when deprived. Palatability of foods, however, can be learned. It has increasingly been appreciated that this can create a hedonic hunger that is independent of homeostatic needs.
Taste and Flavor

Live within your Means

Is the lack of a certain nutrient causing your Anxiety?

"You need to learn to understand the difference between feeling hungry and starving, because it could save your life."

Eating Less Is Far More Important Than Exercising More

"What if you had a way to know if you had enough to eat today, and that you don't need to eat again until tomorrow?"

How much should my baby be eating
Intuitive Eating
Mindful Eating

"Don't lose the peace of years by seeking the rapture of moments."

Understand Food Cravings
Routines
Weight loss: Gain Control of Emotional Eating
Mood, Food, and Obesity

"You don't need a Mandometer or a Hapi Fork, you need knowledge, information, training and awareness."

Take a pause before each bite, take a short breath, release all the tension in your body and then ask, do I need more? Every pause is a reminder that you are aware, you are in control, and you are not a victim of automatic behaviors that provide no useful benefit to you. You have better things to do then be a slave to impulse.

If you feel a little hungry, then that's OK, as long as you know that you have eaten enough, then you know it's a False Alarm. It's a misinterpretation of your bodies information, which you can easily ignore like a bad habit. And over time you will strengthen your control over your body and never be vulnerable to these false alarms. But you still need to be aware of any changes in your body that may be a sign that something is not right. Understanding early warning signs could save your life. 

Endocrine System

Sleep Restriction enhances the daily rhythm of circulating levels of endocannabinoid 2-Arachidonoylglycerol. The daily rhythm of a particular endocannabinoid, known as 2-AG, is altered by a lack of sleep. Lack of sleep can also alter hunger and satiety hormones. Leptin satiety hormone, is a hormone made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. Leptin is opposed by the actions of the hormone ghrelin, the "hunger hormone". Ghrelin the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal tract. Besides regulating appetite, ghrelin also plays a significant role in regulating the distribution and rate of use of energy.

Don't eat when it's time for a meal; eat when you feel hungry.
In a 2012 study that mice consuming all of their calories within an eight-hour window were less likely to develop metabolic diseases like diabetes than those who ate whenever they pleased. Mice who skip feedings are leaner and live longer than their non-skipping counterparts. The fasting mice also have more robust brain cells than those who consume regular meals. Mattson, who skips breakfast and lunch most days, theorizes that caloric deprivation acts as a mild stress that helps cells build up their defenses—warding off damage from aging, environmental toxins, and other threats. Other research has shown that periodic fasting may also prevent heart disease.

How much food do you need to eat each day?
Depends on many factors, including your height, age, sex, general state of health, job, leisure time activities, genetics, body
size, body composition, and what medications you may be on. How much food relates to your daily calorie intake requirement - consume more each day than you use up and you will usually put on weight, consume less and the opposite will happen.
If your food contains a lot of fiber you can usually eat more calories than if you eat food with a very low fiber content.
How much food you eat is also very closely linked to the types of foods you eat and your lifestyle. Some people claim that people who severely limit their daily calorie intake will live much longer. Previous studies found that half-starved roundworms live much longer than well-fed ones. Other animal studies have come up with similar findings.

A Serving Size is the amount of food listed on a product’s food label and it varies from product to product.

A Portion is how much food you choose to eat at one time.

Health Documentaries

Food Label Meanings

On the average men and women need about 56 and 46 grams of Protein a day? 
Health Calculators   

Leftovers and taking food home is enjoying a good meal twice, plus it’s a lot healthier then over eating and it saves money and time too.  It's Healthier to Under Eat then it is to over eat. Eating a Little Less Food then you need and not eating till your full, is a lot healthier for you then eating too much food or eating more food then your body and mind needs. 

"Eat food, not too much, mostly plants."

Hara Hachi Bu eat until you are 80 percent full.


Don't Eat too Fast, Eat Slower

Slow Down you Eat too Fast
People who eat slower and chew their food more, end up eating less.
Chewing your Food
Benefits of Chewing your Food
Chew Tips
Mastication

Moderation is being within reasonable or average limits; not excessive or extreme. Avoiding excesses. Avoiding extremes. The action of lessening in severity or intensity. Lessen the intensity of; temper; hold in restraint; hold or keep within limits.

You'll Miss Flavor If You Scarf Your Food.  

Optimal directional volatile transport in Retronasal Olfaction

Eating too fast may spell trouble in the form of indigestion, acid reflux, and more serious health issues like insulin resistance and diabetes. Speed eating also leads to weight gain, because we continue eating long before our stomachs realize they're full

Tips:
Don't multitask or do things when you are eating. Pay attention to the taste, temperature, and texture of food. Synching up your mind with your mouth will help you get more pleasure from the food you're eating, giving you the chance to notice the unique flavor bursting from every bite. Take the time to sit down and eat your meal. Chew wisely and try and take at least 20 seconds to process each mouthful.



Diabetes


Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, nonketotic hyperosmolar coma, or death. Serious long-term complications include heart disease, stroke, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown.
Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The primary cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise.
Gestational diabetes is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood-sugar levels.

Diabetes and Diet (youtube)
Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)
Diabetes (org)

Hyperglycemia is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.

Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. The reverse of the photosynthesis reaction, which releases this energy, is an important source of power for cellular respiration. Glucose is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen, for times when the organism will need it. Blood Sugar is the amount of glucose (sugar) present in the blood of a human or animal. The body naturally tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis.

Cholesterol - Metabolic Syndrome

Pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. In humans, it is located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach. It is an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide which circulate in the blood. The pancreas is also a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. These enzymes help to further break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the chyme.

Hyperinsulinemia is a condition in which there are excess levels of insulin circulating in the blood relative to the level of glucose. While it is often mistaken for diabetes or hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinemia can result from a variety of metabolic diseases and conditions. While hyperinsulinemia is often seen in people with early stage type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is not the cause of the condition and is only one symptom of the disease. Type 1 diabetes only occurs when pancreatic beta-cell function is impaired. Hyperinsulinemia can be seen in a variety of conditions including diabetes mellitus type 2, in neonates and in drug induced hyperinsulinemia. It can also occur in congenital hyperinsulism, including nesidioblastosis.

Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells. In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both. Glucose production (and excretion into the blood) by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood. Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism.

Insulin Resistance is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin. The body produces insulin when glucose starts to be released into the bloodstream from the digestion of carbohydrates in the diet. Normally this insulin response triggers glucose being taken into body cells, to be used for energy, and inhibits the body from using fat for energy. The level of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. This reflects the healthy amount of insulin sensitivity. In contrast, when the body produces insulin under conditions of insulin resistance, the cells are resistant to the insulin and are unable to use it as effectively, leading to high blood sugar. Beta cells in the pancreas subsequently increase their production of insulin, further contributing to a high blood insulin level. This often remains undetected and can contribute to a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults.

Insulin makes Fat

Glycemic Load of food is a number that estimates how much the food will raise a person's blood glucose level after eating it. One unit of glycemic load approximates the effect of consuming one gram of glucose. Glycemic load accounts for how much carbohydrate is in the food and how much each gram of carbohydrate in the food raises blood glucose levels. Glycemic load is based on the glycemic index (GI), and is calculated by multiplying the grams of available carbohydrate in the food times the food's GI and then dividing by 100.

Glycemic Index is a number associated with a particular type of food that indicates the food's effect on a person's blood glucose (also called blood sugar) level. A value of 100 represents the standard, an equivalent amount of pure glucose. The GI represents the total rise in a person's blood sugar level following consumption of the food; it may or may not represent the rapidity of the rise in blood sugar. The steepness of the rise can be influenced by a number of other factors, such as the quantity of fat eaten with the food. The GI is useful for understanding how the body breaks down carbohydrates and only takes into account the available carbohydrate (total carbohydrate minus fiber) in a food. Although the food may contain fats and other components that contribute to the total rise in blood sugar, these effects are not reflected in the GI. The glycemic index is usually applied in the context of the quantity of the food and the amount of carbohydrate in the food that is actually consumed. A related measure, the glycemic load (GL), factors this in by multiplying the glycemic index of the food in question by the carbohydrate content of the actual serving. Watermelon has a high glycemic index, but a low glycemic load for the quantity typically consumed. Fructose, by contrast, has a low glycemic index, but can have a high glycemic load if a large quantity is consumed. GI tables are available that list many types of foods and their GIs. Some tables also include the serving size and the glycemic load of the food per serving. A practical limitation of the glycemic index is that it does not measure insulin production due to rises in blood sugar. As a result, two foods could have the same glycemic index, but produce different amounts of insulin. Likewise, two foods could have the same glycemic load, but cause different insulin responses. Furthermore, both the glycemic index and glycemic load measurements are defined by the carbohydrate content of food. For example, when eating steak, which has no carbohydrate content but provides a high protein intake, up to 50% of that protein can be converted to glucose when there is little to no carbohydrate consumed with it. But because it contains no carbohydrate itself, steak cannot have a glycemic index. For some food comparisons, the "insulin index" may be more useful.

High glycaemic index foods include refined starches, which are starches that have had the bran, hull and fiber removed from the grain during processing, and concentrated sugar, which cause a rapid rise and fall in blood sugar after consumption. Typically, blood sugar falls below fasting level within a few hours of a high glycaemic index meal, causing hunger and leading to overeating. Foods with a low glycaemic index, such as whole fruit, vegetables, legumes and minimally-processed grain, produce relatively little blood sugar fluctuation, and longer satiation. Food Addiction creates an intense activation of the Nucleus Accumbens, a critical brain area in the Dopaminergic, Mesolimbic system that mediates pleasure eating, reward and craving. 

Glycemic Index

C-Peptide Test
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute
Vitals

Diets - Salt - Sugar - Carbs

Diabetes Now Kills More Than HIV, Tuberculosis And Malaria Combined. Every day 3,835 people are diagnosed with diabetes. That means they're much more likely to go blind. To die of a heart attack. To lose a limb.

One Drop Premium: A New Approach to Diabetes Glucose Meter
Insulog - The Smart Snap-on Insulin Tracker

Infusion of Islet Cells for 1 diabetes instead of insulin shots

Toward beta cell replacement for diabetes.
Normoglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy.

Annual Number (in Thousands) of New Cases of Diagnosed Diabetes
Among Adults Aged 18-79 Years, United States, 1980-2014

Diabetes by Country


Diabetes is the No. 1 Killer In Mexico.
The disease claims nearly 80,000 lives each year, and forecasters say the health problem is expected to get worse in the decades to come. Diabetes costs the Mexican health care system billions of dollars
each year. Pan American Health Organization


Obesity Rates by State U.S. Map



Metabolism


Be conscience of what you eat and how much you eat. Your body needs only a certain amount of nutrition. Over eating will hurt you in the long run, and so will starving. You have to know your exact requirements of nutrition and calories. And that depends on your Metabolism, the amount of physical activity that you have to do, and your personal needs for vitamins and minerals. Calorie Restrictive Diet or Calorie Restriction has benefits for some people but I would not recommend it until you talk to a Nutritionist and have a Doctor to a complete Blood Test and Physical Examination. Overeating or Diets both have risks so please educate yourself.  

Basal Metabolic Rate is the minimal rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/(h·kg)). Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met. These criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state (i.e., not actively digesting food). In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mammals. Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy expressed in calories that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest. Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth, brain and nerve function, and contraction of muscles. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) affects the rate that a person burns calories and ultimately whether that individual maintains, gains, or loses weight. The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by several factors. BMR typically declines by 1–2% per decade after age 20, mostly due to loss of fat-free mass, although the variability between individuals is high.

The liver and muscles burn 26% of calories consumed, the brain uses 22 %, the heart uses 8%, and other body organs use the rest. Though exercise is extremely important, it's what you eat that will mostly determine your weight.

Metabolism is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes.

Metabolic Syndrome is a clustering of at least three of the five (unfold into nine combination) following medical conditions:
abdominal (central) obesity (cf. TOFI), elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.

Metabolite are the intermediates and products of metabolism with various functions, including fuel, structure, signaling, stimulatory and inhibitory effects on enzymes, catalytic activity of their own (usually as a cofactor to an enzyme), defense, and interactions with other organisms (e.g. pigments, odorants, and pheromones). A primary metabolite is directly involved in normal "growth", development, and reproduction.

Metallome us a comprehensive analysis of the entirety of metal and metalloid species within a cell or tissue type.

Ketosis is a metabolic state in which most of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in
contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides most of the energy.

Food Energy

Catabolism is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy, or used in other anabolic reactions.

Glucocorticoid regulation of glucose metabolism, synthesis in the adrenal cortex, and its steroidal structure.
Body Temperature

Awareness
Self-Control

Metabolic Adaptation
Body adapts to survive.
The human body is an amazing adaptive machine that will always strive for homeostasis. Whatever conditions the body is put in, it will strive to survive within that new norm. Once the body senses that fat loss is occurring it will begin to lower thyroid
levels
and diminish nervous system output in an effort to stop the weight loss. Once further calorie cuts are made and cardio is increased fat loss will resume again, but the body will further lower thyroid levels and nervous system output. It will also lower testosterone levels and raise cortisol levels, which will eventually lead to muscle loss. Since muscle is metabolically active tissue, meaning it requires calories simply to exist, the metabolism will drop even further.
Fat Loss should not be Rushed
When the body senses an extremely low intake of fat it will naturally try to hold on to body fat stores and fats are now at a premium. Taking in moderate amounts of fat will ensure that calories are low enough for fat loss, but the body does
not perceive it as starvation.
Metabolism slows while losing fat.
After a few more weeks, fat loss has pretty much stalled.
Specific Dynamic Action (SDA), also known as Thermic effect of food (TEF) or dietary induced thermogenesis (DIT), is the amount of energy expenditure above the resting metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for use and storage.
Carbs increase cellular osmotic pressure (cellular hydration) and therefore cell volume.
Osmotic Pressure
Mean Corpuscular Volume
When muscle cells are hydrated and have greater volume this sends signals to the body that it is in a fed state. The body, sensing it is in a fed state, then keeps the metabolic rate raised. Obviously if carbs are too high then fat loss cannot occur, but for continued fat loss carbs must remain in the diet.

Prevent Slowing Metabolism
Persistent metabolic adaptation 6 years after “The Biggest Loser” competition

Bright Light Alters Metabolism
Scientists found bright light exposure increased insulin resistance compared to dim light exposure in both the morning and the evening. In the evening, bright light also caused higher peak glucose (blood sugar) levels. Over time, excess blood glucose can result in increased body fat, weight gain and a higher risk for diabetes. Technology Addiction

Your Metabolism is like a camp fire. You need to start off with a nice meal and just add a little food throughout the day every 3 to 4 hours to keep the metabolism burning. If you throw to much wood on the fire (over eat) you will suffocate the fire and thus slow down your metabolism. Also if you throw the wrong kind of wood on the fire, like Junk Food, you will also experience a slow metabolism. If you eat too little you may also risk having the fire burn out and most likely experience Fatigue. You may have to modify the amount of calories that you intake (wood) in order to match the amount of activity or no activity in that day. 150 pound person’s Basal Metabolic Rate would be 1500 Calories a day. Of course calorie intake varies from person to person so you must learn from experience and testing what is the best diet for you in order to maintain a healthy body that is full of energy. 

Calorie is the approximate amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius at a pressure of one atmosphere.

A Metabolic Switch to Turn Off Obesity
Alpha/beta Hydrolase Fold (wiki)

Carbohydrates are essential to keeping an elevated metabolism and leptin is a primary reason for this. Leptin is a fat burning hormone that is directly related to carbohydrate intake and body fat levels (Romon et al, 1999). Leptin is a fat burning hormone that serves many functions, including the control of energy expenditure.

Carbohydrate Metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms.
A high carb day once every 4-8 days can boost leptin levels since leptin is highly responsive to glucose metabolism.
Higher carb days can lead to higher levels of the thyroid hormone t3 as well as even keep testosterone levels elevated, which will further fat loss efforts.
Fatty acids are substrate for cholesterol, meaning that fatty acids must be available to create cholesterol which is eventually converted to testosterone. If fat intake is too low there will not be enough fatty acids available for optimal testosterone production. This will lead to lower testosterone levels. Low testosterone leads to greater muscle loss during prep, meaning a lower metabolic rate.
A reverse diet is where you essentially add calories back into your diet slowly much the same way you cut them slowly in order to get lean. This will prevent copious amounts of adipose tissue from collecting within the first month or two
after a show.

Simple Carbohydrates are broken down quickly by the body to be used as energy. Simple carbohydrates are found naturally in foods such as fruits, milk, and milk products. They are also found in processed and refined sugars such as candy, table sugar, syrups, and soft drinks, and white flour, so it best to avoid these types of simple carbs.

Carbohydrates is any food that is particularly rich in the complex carbohydrate starch (such as cereals, bread and pasta) or simple carbohydrates, such as sugar (found in candy, jams, and desserts). A biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water). A group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose.

Starch is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as an energy store. It is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and is contained in large amounts in staple foods such as potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), rice, and cassava. Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odorless powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol. It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin. Depending on the plant, starch generally contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin by weight. Glycogen, the glucose store of animals, is a more branched version of amylopectin. In industry, starch is converted into sugars, for example by malting, and fermented to produce ethanol in the manufacture of beer, whisky and biofuel. It is processed to produce many of the sugars used in processed foods. Dissolving starch in warm water gives wheatpaste, which can be used as a thickening, stiffening or gluing agent. The biggest industrial non-food use of starch is as an adhesive in the papermaking process. Starch can be applied to parts of some garments before ironing, to stiffen them.

Complex Carbohydrates

Carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m could be different from n). Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA, has the empirical formula C5H10O4. Carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon; structurally it is more accurate to view them as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones.

Protein
Water
Exercise

Fasting
Over Eating

Can changing your mealtimes make you healthier?
Altering the time at which you eat can affect your weight and metabolism. People who waited 12 hours without eating remained healthier and slimmer than those who ate the same number of calories, but spread out.

A few other things that help boost Metabolism: Staying active and not sitting for long periods, drinking green tea, drinking water, adding fresh lemon juice to your tea or water, and laughter.





The Thinker Man