Pee - Poo - Bowel Movements
Number One or Number Two?
process by which metabolic wastes and other non-useful materials are
eliminated from an organism.
is a liquid by-product of metabolism
in the bodies of many animals, including humans. It is expelled from the
kidneys and flows through the ureters to the urinary bladder, from which
it is soon excreted from the body through the urethra during urination.
are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes. The
most common is a urinalysis
(UA), one of
the most common methods of
The word is a portmanteau of the words urine and analysis. Other tests are
urine culture (a microbiological culture of urine) and urine electrolyte
levels. The target parameters that can be measured or quantified in
urinalysis include naked-eye (gross) examination for color and smell plus
analysis for many substances and cells, as well as other properties, such
as specific gravity. A part of a urinalysis can be performed by using
urine test strips, in which the test results can be read as color changes.
Another method is light microscopy of urine samples.
refers to various
applications of human urine for medicinal or cosmetic purposes, including
drinking of one's own urine and massaging one's skin, or gums, with one's
own urine. There is no scientific evidence to support its use.
measures the body's
is any substance that promotes
, that is, the increased
production of urine. This includes forced diuresis.
is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the
urethra to the outside of the body. It is the urinary system's form of
consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the
urethra. Each kidney consists of millions of functional units called
nephrons. The purpose of the Renal System
is to eliminate wastes from the body, regulate blood volume and blood
pressure, control levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulate
. The kidneys have an
extensive blood supply via the renal arteries which leave the kidneys via
the renal vein. Following filtration of blood and further processing,
wastes (in the form of urine) exit the kidney via the ureters, tubes made
of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine towards the urinary bladder,
where it is stored and subsequently expelled from the body by urination
(voiding). The female and male urinary system are very similar, differing
only in the length of the urethra. Urine is formed in the kidneys through
a filtration of blood. The urine is then passed through the ureters to the
bladder, where it is stored. During urination, the urine is passed from
the bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.
800–2,000 milliliters (mL) of urine are normally
produced every day in a healthy human
. This amount varies according
to fluid intake and kidney function.
Human Body Systems
bean-shaped organs found on the left and right sides of the body in
vertebrates. They filter the blood in order to make urine, to release and
, and to remove
waste. They also control the ion concentrations and
of the blood. Each
kidney feeds urine into the bladder by means of a tube known as the
ureter. The kidneys regulate the balance of ions known as electrolytes in
the blood, along with maintaining acid base homeostasis. They also move
waste products out of the blood and into the urine, such as
nitrogen-containing urea and ammonium. Kidneys also regulate fluid balance
and blood pressure. They are also responsible for the reabsorption of
water, glucose, and amino acids. The kidneys also produce hormones
including calcitriol and erythropoietin. The kidneys also make an
important enzyme, renin, which affects blood pressure through negative
feedback. Located at the rear of the abdominal cavity in the
retroperitoneal space, the kidneys receive blood from the paired renal
arteries, and drain into the paired renal veins.
is a condition in which urine flows retrograde,
or backward, from the bladder into the ureters/kidneys. Urine normally
travels in one direction (forward, or anterograde) from the kidneys to the
bladder via the ureters, with a 1-way valve at the vesicoureteral
(ureteral-bladder) junction preventing backflow. The valve is formed by
oblique tunneling of the distal ureter through the wall of the bladder,
creating a short length of ureter (1–2 cm) that can be compressed as the
bladder fills. Reflux occurs if the ureter enters the bladder without
sufficient tunneling, i.e., too "end-on".
condition usually defined as excessive or abnormally large production or
passage of urine (greater than 2.5 or 3 L over 24 hours in adults).
is the need to urinate more often than usual. It is often,
though not necessarily, associated with urinary incontinence and polyuria
(large total volume of urine). However, in other cases, urinary frequency
involves only normal volumes of urine overall. A frequent need to urinate
at night is called
Frequent urination is strongly associated with frequent
is a condition where there is a frequent feeling of needing to
urinate to a degree that it negatively affects a person's life. The
frequent need to urinate may occur during the day, at night, or both. If
there is loss of bladder control then it is known as urge incontinence.
is a sudden, compelling urge to urinate. It is often, though
not necessarily, associated with urinary incontinence, polyuria, nocturia,
and interstitial cystitis. It tends to increase with age. When
uncontrollable, it causes urge incontinence.
is any leakage of urine. It is a common and distressing
problem, which may have a large impact on quality of life. It is twice as
common in women as in men. Pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause are major
located in the
upper right quadrant of the abdomen, has a wide range of functions,
including detoxification of various metabolites, protein synthesis, and
the production of biochemicals necessary for
dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most
vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.Men
- Lab Tests
Poop and Pee Chart
is visually examining a
patient's urine for pus, blood, or other symptoms of disease.
is the branch of medicine that
focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary
tract system and the male reproductive organs.
Maple Syrup Urine Disease
is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder
affecting branched-chain amino acids. It is one type of organic acidemia.
The condition gets its name from the distinctive sweet odor of affected
infants' urine, particularly prior to diagnosis, and during times of acute
Bubbles in urine
that disappear within
seconds are not usually significant but if the bubbles last that is almost
always a sign of protein being inappropriately allowed to leak through the
kidney filtering mechanism and end up in your urine. That can be either
from kidney disease or an infection which can generate protein from
damaged tissue like the urinary tract and bladder. Your medications may
also indicate an increased risk for production of bubbly or foamy urine.
Foamy urine may occur due to dehydration or a fast flow of urine. Foamy
urine may be a sign of kidney damage. Urine can foam up briefly every once
in a while. This is usually due to the speed of urine flow. Foamy urine is
more likely to be a sign of disease if it happens often or it gets worse
Best Toilet Positions
Bum Wiping Techniques
is the hygienic practice
that a person performs on the anal area of himself or herself after
defecation. The anus and buttocks may be either washed with liquids or
wiped with toilet paper or other solid materials. In many Muslim, Hindu
and Sikh cultures, as well as Southeast Asia, water is usually used for
anal cleansing using a jet, as with a bidet, or splashed and washed with
the hand. Some people follow this up with toilet paper afterwards for
Clean Anus Bowel Movement
What Poo Says About You
are the feces (solid or
semisolid metabolic waste) of the human digestive system
bacteria. They vary significantly in appearance (i.e. size, color,
texture), according to the state of the digestive system, diet and general
health. Normally human feces are semisolid, with a mucus coating. Small
pieces of harder, less moist feces can sometimes be seen impacted on the
distal (leading) end. This is a normal occurrence when a prior bowel
movement is incomplete, and feces are returned from the rectum to the
intestine, where water is absorbed. In the medical literature, the term
"stool" is more commonly used than "feces". Human feces together with
human urine are collectively referred to as human waste or human excreta.
Containing human feces, and preventing spreading of pathogens from human
feces via the fecal–oral route, are the main goals of sanitation.
is the final
act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, and/or
liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus. (Defecation)
are substances that loosen
stools and increase bowel movements. They are used to treat and prevent
, which refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or
hard to pass.
is the condition of having at
least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day. It often lasts for a
few days and can result in dehydration due to fluid loss. Signs of
often begin with loss of the normal stretchiness of the skin
and irritable behaviour. This can progress to decreased urination, loss of
skin color, a fast heart rate, and a decrease in responsiveness as it
becomes more severe. Loose but non-watery stools in babies who are
breastfed, however, may be normal.
is an infection caused by any of the amoebas of the
Entamoeba group. Symptoms are most common during infection by Entamoeba
histolytica. Amoebiasis can be present with no, mild, or severe symptoms.
Symptoms may include abdominal pain, diarrhoea, or bloody diarrhea.
Complications can include inflammation of the colon with tissue death or
perforation, which may result in peritonitis. People affected may develop
anemia due to loss of blood.
is a type of gastroenteritis that results in
diarrhea with blood. Other symptoms may include fever, abdominal pain, and
a feeling of incomplete defecation. It is caused by a number of types of
infection such as bacteria, viruses
, parasitic worms, or protozoa. The
mechanism is an inflammatory disorder of the intestine, especially of the
Kills 700,000 children a year.
Some people who have a strong
bowel movement the minute you feed them, and
it's a normal response from them. Others
have a bowel movement every day or every
other day or so, it varies.
is a lack of control over defecation, leading to
involuntary loss of bowel contents—including flatus (gas), liquid stool
elements and mucus, or solid feces.
is any disturbance of muscular coordination, resulting in
uncoordinated and abrupt movements.
Bladder and Bowel Foundation
microbiota transplant (FMT), also known as a stool transplant.
Personalized donor selection
. Durable coexistence of donor and
recipient strains after fecal
involves the collection and analysis of fecal matter to diagnose
the presence or absence of a medical condition.
Cleansing the inside
also called piles, are
vascular structures in the anal canal. In their normal state, they are
cushions that help with stool control. They become a disease when swollen
or inflamed; the unqualified term "hemorrhoid" is often used to mean the
disease. The signs and symptoms of hemorrhoids depend on the type present.
Internal hemorrhoids usually present with painless, bright red rectal
bleeding when defecating. External hemorrhoids often result in pain and
swelling in the area of the anus. If bleeding occurs it is usually darker.
Symptoms frequently get better after a few days. A skin tag may remain
after the healing of an external hemorrhoid.
is the irritation of the
skin at the exit of the rectum, known as the anus, causing the desire to
scratch. The intensity of anal itching increases from moisture, pressure,
and rubbing caused by clothing and sitting. At worst, anal itching causes
intolerable discomfort that often is accompanied by burning and soreness.
It is estimated that up to 5% of the population of the United States
experiences this type of discomfort daily.
is an opening at the opposite end
of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth. Its function is to control
the expulsion of feces, unwanted semi-solid matter produced during
digestion, which, depending on the type of animal, may include: matter
which the animal cannot digest, such as bones; food material after all the
nutrients have been extracted, for example cellulose or lignin; ingested
matter which would be toxic if it remained in the digestive tract; and
dead or excess gut bacteria and other endosymbionts.
is the branch of medicine
dealing with the pathology of and surgery upon the colon, rectum and anus.
is the endoscopic
examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with
a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the
anus. It can provide a visual diagnosis (e.g. ulceration, polyps) and
grants the opportunity for biopsy or removal of suspected colorectal
cancer lesions. Colonoscopy can remove polyps as small as one millimetre
or less. Once polyps are removed, they can be studied with the aid of a
microscope to determine if they are precancerous or not. It can take up to
15 years for a polyp to turn cancerous.
is a field in
medicine, dealing with disorders of the rectum, anus, and colon. The field
is also known as proctology, but the latter term is now used infrequently
within medicine, and is most often employed to identify practices relating
to the anus and rectum in particular.
Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder
include a number of separate idiopathic disorders which affect different
parts of the gastrointestinal tract
and involve visceral hypersensitivity and impaired gastrointestinal
motility. Heightened mast cell activation is a common factor among all
FGIDs that contributes to visceral hypersensitivity as well as epithelial,
neuromuscular, and motility dysfunction. Digestive Tract
Meta-genomic analysis of toilet waste
from long distance flights; a step towards global surveillance of
infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance.
The Surprisingly Charming Science of your Gut
(video and text)Electrical Power of Poo
- Waste Energy