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Philosophy


Philosophy is a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school. The rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics. Any personal belief about how to live or how to deal with a situation.
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Philosophers

Natural Philosophy was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. It is considered to be the precursor of natural science.
Critical Theory stresses the reflective assessments and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.
Epistemology the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of Knowledge.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy investigating the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it. Metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions: Ultimately, what is there? What is it like?

Philosophical Position is either the appearance or increased popularity of a specific school of philosophy, or a fairly broad but identifiable sea-change in philosophical thought on a particular subject. Major philosophical movements are often characterized with reference to the nation, language, or historical era in which they arose.

Doctor of Philosophy is a type of doctorate degree awarded by universities in many countries. Ph.D.s are awarded for a wide range of programs in the sciences (e.g., biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, etc.), engineering, and humanities (e.g., history, literature, musicology, etc.), among others. The Ph.D. is a terminal degree in many fields. The completion of a Ph.D. is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields.
Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University, Stanford, CA

Pragmatism rejects the idea that the function of thought is to describe, represent, or mirror Reality. Instead, pragmatists consider thought an instrument or tool for prediction, problem solving and action. Pragmatists contend that most philosophical topics—such as the nature of knowledge, language, concepts, meaning, belief, and science—are all best viewed in terms of their practical uses and successes. The philosophy of pragmatism “emphasizes the practical application of ideas by acting on them to actually test them in human experiences”. Pragmatism focuses on a “changing universe rather than an unchanging one as the Idealists, Realists and Thomists had claimed”.
Thinking Levels

Internalism and Externalism are two opposing ways of explaining various subjects in several areas of philosophy. These include human motivation, knowledge, justification, meaning, and truth. The distinction arises in many areas of debate with similar but distinct meanings. Usually 'internalism' refers to the belief that an explanation can be given of the given subject by pointing to things which are internal to the person or their mind which is considering them. Conversely, externalism holds that it is things about the world which motivate us, justify our beliefs, determine meaning, etc. Bias

Philosophy in some ways is a beautiful and unique way of asking a question, sometimes a question about a question.
Philosophy is a creative insight to analyze information. Deconstruction  Philosophy offers unique concepts to self analyze oneself and the world. Philosophy also makes observations that are rarely ever made. Looking at things in more then one way helps us to increase our Awareness and also helps us to see the whole picture. The ability to stand outside yourself and see yourself as another person is valuable to anyone who is seeking more awareness. Have you asked all the right Questions?

Reductionism Ontological reductionism: a belief that the whole of reality consists of a minimal number of parts. Methodological reductionism: the scientific attempt to provide explanation in terms of ever smaller entities. Theory reductionism: the suggestion that a newer theory does not replace or absorb the old, but reduces it to more basic terms. Theory reduction itself is divisible into three: translation, derivation and explanation.

Relativism is the concept that points of view have no absolute truth or validity within themselves, but rather only relative, subjective value according to differences in perception and consideration. As moral relativism, the term is often used in the context of moral principles, where principles and ethics are regarded as applicable in only limited context.

Philosophy of Mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, consciousness, and their relationship to the physical body, particularly the brain. The mind–body problem, i.e. the relationship of the mind to the body, is commonly seen as one key issue in philosophy of mind, although there are other issues concerning the nature of the mind that do not involve its relation to the physical body, such as how consciousness is possible and the nature of particular mental states.

Qualia are individual instances of subjective, conscious experience. Examples of qualia include the pain of a headache, the taste of wine, or the perceived redness of an evening sky. As qualitative characters of sensation, qualia stand in contrast to "propositional attitudes"
Propositional Attitude is a mental state held by an agent toward a proposition. Propositional attitudes are often assumed to be the fundamental units of thought and their contents, being propositions, are true or false. An agent can have different propositional attitudes toward the same proposition (e.g., “S believes that her ice-cream is cold,” and “S fears that her ice-cream is cold”).

Compatibilism is the belief that free will and determinism are compatible ideas, and that it is possible to believe in both without being logically inconsistent. Compatibilists believe freedom can be present or absent in situations for reasons that have nothing to do with metaphysics. They define free will as freedom to act according to one's motives without arbitrary hindrance from other individuals or institutions.

Reasoning
Rationalism



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Vedanta is one of the six orthodox (astika) schools of Indian philosophy. It represents the divergent philosophical views of more than 10 schools—all developed on the basis of a common textual connection called the Prasthanatrayi. The Prasthanatrayi is a collective term for the Principal Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita. Vedanta does not stand for one comprehensive or unifying doctrine. All Vedanta schools, in their deliberations, concern themselves with the following three categories but differ in their views regarding the conception of the categories and the relations between them: Brahman –
the ultimate metaphysical reality, Atman / Jivatman – the individual soul or self, and Prakriti – the empirical world, ever-changing physical universe, body and matter. Over time, Vedanta adopted ideas from other orthodox (astika) schools like Yoga and Nyaya, and, through this syncretism, became the most prominent school of Hinduism. Many extant forms of Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Shaktism have been significantly shaped and influenced by the doctrines of different schools of Vedanta. Advaita Vedanta (IAST Advaita Vedanta; Sanskrit:) espouses non-dualism and monism. Brahman is held to be the sole unchanging metaphysical reality and identical to Atman. The physical world, on the other hand, is always-changing empirical Maya. The absolute and infinite Atman-Brahman is realized by a process of negating everything relative, finite, empirical and changing. The school accepts no duality, no limited individual souls (Atman / Jivatman), and no separate unlimited cosmic soul. All souls and existence across space and time is considered as the same oneness (i.e. monism). Spiritual liberation in Advaita is the full comprehension and realization of oneness, that one's unchanging Atman (soul) is the same as the Atman in everyone else, as well as being identical to the nirguna Brahman.

Upanishads are a collection of texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts of Hinduism, some of which are shared with Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. The Upanishads are considered by Hindus to contain utterances (sruti) concerning the nature of ultimate reality (brahman) and describing the character of and path to human salvation (mok?a or mukti). The Upanishads are commonly referred to as Vedanta, variously interpreted to mean either the "last chapters, parts of the Veda" or "the object, the highest purpose of the Veda". The concepts of Brahman (Ultimate Reality) and Atman (Soul, Self) are central ideas in all the Upanishads, and "Know your Atman" their thematic focus. The Upanishads are the foundation of Hindu philosophical thought and its diverse traditions. Of the Vedic corpus, they alone are widely known, and the central ideas of the Upanishads are at the spiritual core of Hindus.

Experience Machine is a thought experiment put forward by philosopher Robert Nozick in his 1974 book Anarchy, State, and
Utopia. It is one of the best known attempts to refute ethical hedonism, and does so by imagining a choice between everyday reality and an apparently preferable simulated reality. If the primary thesis of hedonism is that "pleasure is the good", then any component of life that is not pleasurable does nothing directly to increase one's well-being. This is a view held by many value theorists, but most famously by some classical utilitarians. Nozick attacks the thesis by means of a thought experiment. If he can show that there is something other than pleasure that has value and thereby increases our well-being, then hedonism is defeated.

Formalism (philosophy)
. That there is no transcendent meaning to a discipline other than the literal content created by a practitioner. The philosophical theory that formal (logical or mathematical) statements have no meaning but that its symbols (regarded as physical entities) exhibit a form that has useful applications. The practice of scrupulous adherence to prescribed or external forms. The doctrine that formal structure rather than content is what should be represented. Religious formalism, an emphasis on the ritual and observance of religion, rather than its meaning.

Can thoughts exist without words? If so, what words would you use to describe them?

"Philosophy has no distinctive subject matter, and furnishes no novel facts but only offers insights into relationships; it strives after that systematic integration of knowledge that the sciences initially promised but never managed to deliver"

Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence or Reality as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology often deals with questions concerning what entities exist or may be said to exist and how such entities may be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences. Although ontology as a philosophical enterprise is highly theoretical, it also has practical application in information science and technology, such as ontology engineering.


Philosophers


Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is the only book-length philosophical work published by the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime.
Philosophical Investigations is a work by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, first published, posthumously, in 1953, in which Wittgenstein discusses numerous problems and puzzles in the fields of semantics, logic, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of psychology, philosophy of action, and philosophy of mind. He puts forth the view that conceptual confusions surrounding language use are at the root of most philosophical problems, contradicting or discarding much of what he argued in his earlier work, the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy and its Authors

The World (Descartes) is a book by Rene' Descartes (1596–1650). Written between 1629 and 1633, it contains a nearly complete version of his philosophy, from method, to metaphysics, to physics and biology.

David Hume held that passion rather than reason governs human behaviour and argued against the existence of innate ideas, positing that all human knowledge is ultimately founded solely in Experience; Hume thus held that genuine knowledge must either be directly traceable to objects perceived in experience, or result from abstract reasoning about relations between ideas which are derived from experience, calling the rest "nothing but sophistry and illusion", a dichotomy later given the name Hume's fork. In what is sometimes referred to as Hume's problem of induction, he argued that inductive reasoning, and belief in causality, cannot, ultimately, be justified rationally; our trust in causality and induction instead results from custom and mental habit, and are attributable to only the experience of "constant conjunction" rather than logic: for we can never, in experience, perceive that one event causes another, but only that the two are always conjoined, and to draw any inductive causal inferences from past experience first requires the presupposition that the future will be like the past, a presupposition which cannot be grounded in prior experience without already being presupposed. Hume's anti-teleological opposition to the argument for God's existence from design is generally regarded as the most intellectually significant such attempt to rebut the Teleological Argument prior to Darwin.


What I Am - Edie Brickell (youtube)




The Thinker Man