Philosophy is a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as
by some group or school.
The rational investigation
about existence and
knowledge and ethics.
Any personal belief
about how to live or
how to deal
is the study of general and fundamental problems
concerning matters such as existence
was the philosophical study of nature and the physical
universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. It is
considered to be the precursor of
stresses the reflective assessments and
critique of society and culture by applying
from the social
sciences and the humanities.
the branch of philosophy concerned with the
branch of philosophy investigating the fundamental nature of being and the
world that encompasses it. Metaphysics attempts to answer two basic
questions: Ultimately, what is there
? What is it
is either the appearance or increased
specific school of philosophy, or a fairly broad but identifiable
sea-change in philosophical thought on a particular subject. Major
philosophical movements are often characterized with reference to the
nation, language, or historical era in which they arose.
Doctor of Philosophy
is a type of doctorate degree awarded by universities in many countries.
Ph.D.s are awarded for a wide range of programs in the sciences (e.g.,
biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, etc.), engineering, and
humanities (e.g., history, literature, musicology, etc.), among others.
The Ph.D. is a terminal degree in many fields. The completion of a Ph.D.
is often a requirement for employment as a university professor,
researcher, or scientist in many fields.
Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford
University, Stanford, CA
rejects the idea that the function of thought is
to describe, represent, or mirror
. Instead, pragmatists consider thought an instrument or tool
for prediction, problem solving and action. Pragmatists contend that most
philosophical topics—such as the nature of
—are all best viewed in
terms of their practical uses and successes. The philosophy of pragmatism
“emphasizes the practical application of ideas by acting on them to
actually test them in human experiences”. Pragmatism focuses on a
“changing universe rather than an unchanging one as the Idealists,
Realists and Thomists had claimed”.
Internalism and Externalism
are two opposing ways of
explaining various subjects in several areas of philosophy. These include
human motivation, knowledge, justification, meaning, and truth. The
distinction arises in many areas of debate with similar but distinct
meanings. Usually 'internalism' refers to the belief that an explanation
can be given of the given subject by pointing to things which are internal
to the person or their mind which is considering them. Conversely,
externalism holds that it is things about the world which motivate us,
justify our beliefs, determine meaning, etc.
Philosophy in some
ways is a beautiful and unique way of asking a question,
sometimes a question about a question.
Philosophy is a creative insight to
Philosophy offers unique concepts to self analyze oneself and
the world. Philosophy also
makes observations that are rarely ever made. Looking at things
in more then one way helps us to increase our
and also helps us to see the whole picture. The ability to
stand outside yourself
and see yourself as another person is
valuable to anyone who is seeking more awareness.
Have you asked all
Ontological reductionism: a belief that the whole of reality consists of a
minimal number of parts. Methodological reductionism: the scientific
attempt to provide explanation in terms of ever smaller entities. Theory
reductionism: the suggestion that a newer theory does not replace or
absorb the old, but reduces it to more basic terms. Theory reduction
itself is divisible into three: translation, derivation and explanation.
the concept that points of view have no absolute
themselves, but rather only relative, subjective value according to
differences in perception and consideration. As moral relativism, the term
is often used in the context of moral principles, where principles and
ethics are regarded as applicable in only limited context.
Philosophy of Mind
is a branch of philosophy that studies
the nature of the mind
, mental events, mental functions, mental
, and their relationship to the physical body,
particularly the brain. The mind–body problem, i.e. the relationship of
the mind to the body, is commonly seen as one key issue in philosophy of
mind, although there are other issues concerning the nature of the mind
that do not involve its relation to the physical body, such as how
consciousness is possible and the nature of particular mental states.
individual instances of subjective, conscious experience. Examples of
qualia include the pain of a headache, the taste of wine, or the perceived
redness of an evening sky. As qualitative characters of sensation, qualia
stand in contrast to "propositional attitudes"
is a mental state held by an agent toward a
proposition. Propositional attitudes are often
to be the
fundamental units of thought and their contents, being propositions, are
true or false. An agent can have different propositional attitudes toward
the same proposition (e.g., “S believes that her ice-cream is cold,” and
“S fears that her ice-cream is cold”).
the belief that free will and
are compatible ideas, and that it is possible to believe in both without
being logically inconsistent. Compatibilists believe freedom can be
present or absent in situations for reasons that have nothing to do with
metaphysics. They define free will as freedom to act according to one's
motives without arbitrary hindrance from other individuals or
Primacy of Consciousness
and the Matrix: Return to the Source
Philosophy and the Matrix
(youtube) "It's the question that
of the Last 10 Minutes of 2001: A Space Odyssey
Blue Pill or Red Pill
What if Life was a Simulation
Allegory of the Cave
is one of the six orthodox (astika) schools of Indian philosophy. It
represents the divergent philosophical views of more than 10 schools—all
developed on the basis of a common textual connection called the
Prasthanatrayi. The Prasthanatrayi is a collective term for the Principal
Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita. Vedanta does not
stand for one comprehensive or unifying doctrine. All Vedanta schools, in
their deliberations, concern themselves with the following three
categories but differ in their views regarding the conception of the
categories and the relations between them: Brahman –
metaphysical reality, Atman / Jivatman – the individual soul or self, and
Prakriti – the empirical world, ever-changing physical universe, body and
matter. Over time, Vedanta adopted ideas from other orthodox (astika)
schools like Yoga and Nyaya, and, through this syncretism, became the most
prominent school of Hinduism. Many extant forms of Vaishnavism, Shaivism
and Shaktism have been significantly shaped and influenced by the
doctrines of different schools of Vedanta. Advaita Vedanta (IAST Advaita
Vedanta; Sanskrit:) espouses non-dualism and monism. Brahman is held to be
the sole unchanging metaphysical reality and identical to Atman. The
physical world, on the other hand, is always-changing empirical Maya. The
absolute and infinite Atman-Brahman is realized by a process of negating
everything relative, finite, empirical and changing. The school accepts no
duality, no limited individual souls (Atman / Jivatman), and no separate
unlimited cosmic soul. All souls and existence across space and time is
considered as the same oneness (i.e. monism). Spiritual liberation in
Advaita is the full comprehension and realization of oneness, that one's
unchanging Atman (soul) is the same as the Atman in everyone else, as well
as being identical to the nirguna Brahman.
collection of texts that contain some of the central philosophical
concepts of Hinduism, some of which are shared with Buddhism, Jainism and
Sikhism. The Upanishads are considered by Hindus to contain utterances (sruti)
concerning the nature of ultimate reality (brahman) and describing the
character of and path to human salvation (mok?a or mukti). The Upanishads
are commonly referred to as Vedanta, variously interpreted to mean either
the "last chapters, parts of the Veda" or "the object, the highest purpose
of the Veda". The concepts of Brahman (Ultimate Reality) and Atman (Soul,
Self) are central ideas in all the Upanishads, and "Know your Atman" their
thematic focus. The Upanishads are the foundation of Hindu philosophical
thought and its diverse traditions. Of the Vedic corpus, they alone are
widely known, and the central ideas of the Upanishads are at the spiritual
core of Hindus.
is a thought experiment put forward by philosopher Robert
Nozick in his 1974 book Anarchy, State, and
Utopia. It is one of the
best known attempts to refute ethical
and does so by imagining a choice between everyday reality and an
apparently preferable simulated reality
If the primary thesis of hedonism is that "pleasure is the good", then any
component of life that is not pleasurable does nothing directly to
increase one's well-being. This is a view held by many value theorists,
but most famously by some classical utilitarians. Nozick attacks the
thesis by means of a thought experiment. If he can show that there is
something other than pleasure that has value and thereby increases our
well-being, then hedonism is defeated.
. That there is no transcendent meaning to a
discipline other than the
literal content created by a practitioner. The philosophical
theory that formal (logical or
mathematical) statements have no meaning but that its symbols
(regarded as physical entities)
exhibit a form that has useful applications. The practice of scrupulous adherence to prescribed or external
forms. The doctrine that formal structure rather than content is
what should be represented. Religious formalism, an emphasis on
the ritual and observance of religion, rather than its meaning.
Can thoughts exist
If so, what words would you use to describe them?
"Philosophy has no distinctive subject matter, and furnishes no novel facts but
only offers insights into relationships; it strives after that
systematic integration of knowledge that the sciences initially
promised but never managed to deliver"
is the philosophical study of the
nature of being
, becoming, existence or
as well as the basic
categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of
the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology often deals
with questions concerning what entities exist or may be said to exist and
how such entities may be grouped, related within a
and subdivided according to similarities and differences. Although
ontology as a philosophical enterprise is highly theoretical, it also has
practical application in
and technology, such as ontology engineering.
is a scholarly term for a wide range of loosely related
unconventional ideas and movements which have developed within Western
is a school of Hellenistic philosophy that
flourished throughout the Roman and Greek world until the 3rd century AD.
ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira,
Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece. (384–322 BC, 62
years). At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato's Academy
in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BC).
His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology,
metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric,
linguistics, politics and government – and constitute the first
comprehensive system of Western philosophy.
was a philosopher
in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first
institution of higher learning in the Western world. He is widely
considered the most pivotal figure in the development of philosophy,
especially the Western tradition. Unlike nearly all of his philosophical
contemporaries, Plato's entire work is believed to have survived intact
for over 2,400 years. (423-348 BCE, 75 years).
Dialogues of Plato
was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher
credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy. He is an enigmatic
figure known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers, especially
the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon and the plays of his
contemporary Aristophanes. Plato's dialogues are among the most
comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity, though it is
unclear the degree to which Socrates himself is "hidden behind his 'best
disciple', Plato". (470/469 – 399 BC).
was a semi-legendary author of the Iliad and the
Odyssey, two epic poems which are the central works of Greek literature.
Many accounts of Homer's life circulated in classical antiquity, the most
widespread being that he was a blind bard from Ionia, a region of central
coastal Anatolia in present-day Turkey. The modern scholarly consensus is
that these traditions do not have any historical value.
is the only book-length
philosophical work published by the Austrian philosopher Ludwig
Wittgenstein in his lifetime.
is a work by the philosopher
Ludwig Wittgenstein, first published, posthumously, in 1953, in which
Wittgenstein discusses numerous problems and puzzles in the fields of
semantics, logic, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of psychology,
philosophy of action, and philosophy of mind. He puts forth the view that
conceptual confusions surrounding language use are at the root of most
philosophical problems, contradicting or discarding much of what he argued
in his earlier work, the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.
Encyclopedia of Philosophy and its Authors
The World (Descartes)
is a book by
(1596–1650). Written between 1629 and 1633,
it contains a nearly complete version of his philosophy, from method, to
metaphysics, to physics and biology.
held that passion rather than reason governs human behaviour and
argued against the existence of innate ideas, positing that all human
knowledge is ultimately founded solely in Experience; Hume thus held that
genuine knowledge must either be directly traceable to objects perceived
in experience, or result from abstract reasoning about relations between
ideas which are derived from experience, calling the rest "nothing but
sophistry and illusion", a dichotomy later given the name Hume's fork. In
what is sometimes referred to as Hume's problem of induction, he argued
that inductive reasoning, and belief in causality, cannot, ultimately, be
justified rationally; our trust in causality and induction instead results
from custom and mental habit, and are attributable to only the experience
of "constant conjunction" rather than logic: for we can never, in
experience, perceive that one event causes another, but only that the two
are always conjoined, and to draw any inductive causal inferences from
past experience first requires the presupposition that the future will be
like the past, a presupposition which cannot be grounded in prior
experience without already being presupposed. Hume's anti-teleological
opposition to the argument for God's existence from design is generally
regarded as the most intellectually significant such attempt to rebut the
Teleological Argument prior to Darwin.
What I Am -