Solar Energy - Power from the Sun
is the conversion
using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a
phenomenon studied in physics
, photochemistry, and
. Solar Panel
is designed to absorb the sun's rays as a source
of energy for generating electricity or heating
Resources and Suppliers of Solar EnergySolar Calculator
Portable Solar Organic
- Full Spectrum
Photosynthesis Solar Heat
(Radiant and Thermal Energy)
Series or Parallel
I use about 9 kwh's of energy a day just for myself, that's around 275 kwh's a
on average. I use energy for an electric stove for 2 meals a
day, toaster 2 times a day, Single Cup Coffee maker 3 times a day, 2 monitors with 2
computers on 12 hours a day, router and telephone, refrigerator, hot water
heater, microwave oven 2 times day, radio, clock, and having 2
on for about 14 hours
a day. (1,000 square foot apartment) I'm paying around 7 cents per
kilowatt-hour. $1.68 a day, with taxes and fees, around $65.00 a month.
Most of my appliances are not
energy efficient appliances
So I could be using even less energy
A 4 kilowatts Solar Panel
System produces 4,000 watts of DC direct current power. That's
300 to 750
(kWh) of alternating current (AC) power per month,
which could be plenty of energy for 2 people. A
4-kW Solar Kit
requires up to 300 square feet of space and at least 5
sun hours per day for 16 panels of high performance 60-cell
polycrystalline PV modules. One solar panel is
65 inches by 39 inches
. You have an average
12 year lifespan for the inverter, and about a 50 year lifespan for the
Solar Panels, which will still be 75 % effective after 50 years. The Solar
Kit system whole system is almost 100% recyclable, and easily upgradable.
The average price for a
4kW Solar Kit is around $7,000.00 without installation. A 14 kWh
cost $6,500 with installation and supporting hardware. So
a complete system is around $14,000.00, which is like buying all your
energy needs for the next 25 years, for less then half the price. For a Free Quote contact
And if I can sell my extra energy back to the grid, then it would take me around 12 years
to pay off a $14,000.00 complete system. Eversource in Ct. will pay you
once a year at 3.4 cents per kwh for energy given back to the grid, which
could make the whole system pratically free, especially when you're not
producing any more
or creating more
or wasting valuable time, energy, resources and people. And you will not
have to be dependent
anymore. And you're also creating
jobs in America
. The main goal is to give
everyone 0% interest loans
, because this is an investment in our future.
Governments need to secure
zero interest loans
and stop trying to profit from good decisions, like they did with
. This way the cost of a
solar panel system will not exceeded someone's current energy bill. Thus
would be uninterrupted power,
. No cost upfront
. And in about 15
years after the loan has been paid, people will never have another energy
bill again. The Future looks bright, very bright.
I would have a
have total control over energy use
monitor everything in the
16 W bulb (on 10 hours) – 4.8 kWh/month (57.6 kWh/year)
LED's would use less energy
100 W bulb (on 10 hours) – 30 kWh/month (360 kWh/year)
LED's would use less energy
Refrigerator – 36.7 kWh/month (440 kWh/year)
There are more efficient ones
Dishwasher – 41 kWh/month (492 kWh/year)
There are more efficient ones
Clothes Washer – 24.9 kWh/month (299 kWh/year)
There are more efficient ones
Electric Clothes Dryer – 74.7 kWh/month (896 kWh/year)
There are more efficient ones
Stove & Oven (self-cleaning) – 61.25 kWh/month (735 kWh/year)
There are more efficient ones
is a unit of energy
equivalent to one kilowatt (1 kW) of power sustained for one hour.
(kWh) is a derived unit of energy equal to
. If the energy is
being transmitted or used at a constant rate (power) over a period of
time, the total energy in kilowatt-hours is the power in kilowatts
multiplied by the time in hours. The kilowatt-hour is commonly used as a
billing unit for energy delivered to consumers by electric utilities.
is a measure of electrical
energy equivalent to a power consumption of one watt for one hour.
watt hour = 0.001 Kilowatt Hour
A 300-Watt item used for 5 minutes per
day will consume 25-Watt Hours per day.
Plasma TV uses 330 watts /
LCD TV uses 213 watts - LCD Monitor 80-150 watts
Laptop 60-250 watts -
Laptop Computer 40-120 / Microwave 500-1500 watts / Toaster 1,100 watts
15 cu. ft. Chest freezer uses 1080 watt-hours /day
20 cu. ft.
Refrigerator (AC) uses 1411 watt-hours/day
In 2006, the average install cost for a Solar Panel was about $14 a watt. As of 2012 it's about $4 a watt.
In 2006, about 30,000 U.S. households had solar panels. This number jumped to 400,000 in 2013.
Solar Energy is only .05 percent of the country's total energy.
Average Solar Panel Size is 18 Square Feet, or a little less than 3-1/2 x 5-1/2 Feet.
A Gigawatt of power provides enough energy for about 700,000 homes.
The average annual electricity consumption for a U.S. residential
utility customer was 11,496 kWh a year, an average of
(kWh) per month. A 100-Watt bulb burning for 10 hours uses 1 kilowatt hour. People in the U.S. pay about 12
cents per kilowatt-hour on average.
Renewable Energy Statistics
Info-Graph below provided by
Land Art Generator
Using only solar panels, the world needs approximately 191,817
square miles of land
, or about the area of Spain, to power the
planet. (The Sahara Desert is 3.5 million square miles
List of Deserts by Area
) The Average household uses
approximately 18,000 kWh per year, which doesn't mean that's how
much electricity people need, or, how much more energy efficient
appliances can be. So the average household might need around 42
solar panels, but that all depends on the quality and the size
of the solar panel, because they are getting smaller and they
are getting more efficient as more advancements are made.Many people wonder if solar panels are worth the
, of course they are. They actually start paying for
themselves immediately. Once you correctly calculate the current
cost for your energy, whether it's oil, natural gas or coal. And
once you correctly calculate all the side effects from your current
energy supplier, like pollution, poison,
, waste, time, people, resources and so on, you
can easily see in a side by side comparison that Solar panels
are the best investment for you and the planet. Think about all
the mining of coal, then the processing, then building of power
stations, then building power lines, and then the millions of
people who have to manage and maintain the infrastructure, which
creates even more waste, more pollution, more wasted time and so
on. So you can easily see that solar energy is the least
expensive energy provider that we have so far, and also has the
least amount of
, and you don't need all that wasted
infrastructure that you are currently dependent on. Freedom.
Solar Power by Country
List of largest Power Stations in the World
Renewable Energy Milestones
In 2013 there was a 47 percent jump in the number of home solar
installations in the U.S., and by the end of the year more than
400,000 American homes had solar power.
Solar Market Report 2014
How to Calculate How Many Solar Panels you need
Take your 1,000 kWh/mo and divide that by 30 to get your kWh/day.
1,000 / 30 = 33.3 kWh/day
Then you divide this by the number of solar hours per day your
area gets. Let's say 5.
33.3 / 5 = 6.67 kW
Last you need to adjust for real world inefficiencies. A good
rule of thumb is to suppose approximately 75% - 80%
inefficiencies. So increase your system a little.
6.67 kW / 0.75 = 8.9 kW.
s a calculation of the passage of time based on the Sun's
position in the sky. The fundamental unit of solar time is the day. Two
types of solar time are apparent solar time (sundial time) and mean solar
time (clock time).
allows consumers who generate some or all of
their own electricity to use that electricity anytime, instead of when it
is generated. This is particularly important with wind and solar, which
are non-dispatchable. Monthly net metering allows consumers to use solar
power generated during the day at night, or wind from a windy day later in
the month. Annual net metering rolls over a net kilowatt credit to the
following month, allowing solar power that was generated in July to be
used in December, or wind power from March in August.
Average Solar Panel Size is 18 Square
, or a little less than 3-1/2 x 5-1/2 Feet.
Depending on the quality of the solar panel, A 20kW Solar
Kit requires up to 1,400 square feet of space, assuming at
least 5 sun hours per day, and knowing that only 78% of the
solar system’s rated power is actually delivered to the
First you find out how many sun hours you have on the average
where you live, and then you have measured how much energy you
need to run the necessary
energy efficient appliances
have, like a refrigerator, water heater, stove, computers, and
lights. Then you can calculate how many solar panels you need to
install based on your energy needs and the average sunlight you
receive in a day, the size and efficiency of the solar panels
will vary depending on the manufacturer.
Net Metering State
A megawatt (MW, one million watts) is a unit of electric
capacity or electric load. A MW is equal to 1,000 kilowatts.
A megawatt of solar capacity is typically enough to power 200
average U.S. homes. One kilowatt-hour is 3.6
, the average annual
electricity consumption for a U.S. residential utility customer
was 11,496 kWh a year, an average of 958
(kWh) per month.
Tennessee had the highest
annual consumption - 16,716 kWh. New Jersey
Maine the lowest at 6,252 kWh.
Cost of electricity by source
Solar panels on a rooftop in cool, foggy San Francisco produce
only one percent less electricity than one in nearby Sacramento,
where it’s sunny and hot.
2,500 square-foot home
with 32 solar panels installed on the roof will generate around 11.5
kilowatts of electricity.
Community Energy Inc
tell your electrical power supplier
that you want your electricity from renewable sources.
Despite strong support for renewable-energy development at the
state and local levels, many consumers still face local
ordinances or homeowner association rules that prohibit,
restrict or drastically increase the cost of installing a
solar-energy system. Meanwhile, owners of existing systems face
potential challenges when trees or new structures on neighboring
properties shade their systems. Solar access laws, which may be
implemented at both the state and local levels, are designed to
consumer’s right to install and operate a solar-energy system on
a home or business, and to maintain access to sunlight.
Solar Policy Guide
Rules prevent solar panels in many states with abundant sunlight
Solar Access Law in the United States
is a right, expressed as an easement, restriction,
covenant, or condition contained in any deed, contract, or other written
instrument executed by or on behalf of any landowner for the purpose of
assuring adequate access to direct sunlight for solar energy systems.
is the ability of one property to continue to receive sunlight across
property lines without obstruction from another’s property (buildings,
foliage or other impediment). Solar access is calculated using a sun path
diagram. Sun is the source of our vision and energy. Its movements inform
our perception of time and space. Access to sun is essential to energy
conservation and to the quality of our lives. Solar access is
differentiated from solar rights or solar easement, which is specifically
meant for direct sunlight for solar energy systems, whereas solar access
is a right to sunlight upon certain building façades regardless of the
presence of active or passive solar energy systems.
occurs when an alternative energy source can generate power at a levelized
cost of electricity (LCOE) that is less than or equal to the price of
purchasing power from the electricity grid. The term is most commonly used
when discussing renewable energy sources, notably solar power and wind
power. Grid parity depends upon whether you are calculating from the point
of view of a utility or of a retail consumer.
But of course we have to use energy wisely without waste and abuse. When they say that a
will produce enough energy for 250,00 homes, that is an
incomplete sentence of little meaning. What kind of homes are
you talking about? Do the people living in these homes
understand energy usage? How much energy does a home really need
without being wasteful?
How much corruption, waste and abuse was used in making this
is the power per unit area received from the Sun
in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the
measuring instrument. Irradiance may be measured in space or at the
Earth's surface after atmospheric absorption and scattering. It is
measured perpendicular to the incoming sunlight. Total solar irradiance (TSI),
is a measure of the solar power over all wavelengths per unit area
incident on the Earth's upper atmosphere. The solar constant is a
conventional measure of mean TSI at a distance of one astronomical Unit
(AU). Irradiance is a function of distance from the Sun, the solar cycle,
and cross-cycle changes.Irradiance on Earth is also measured perpendicular
to the incoming sunlight. Insolation is the power received on Earth per
unit area on a horizontal surface. It depends on the height of the Sun
above the horizon.
is a climatological indicator,
measuring duration of sunshine in given period (usually, a day or a year)
for a given location on Earth, typically expressed as an averaged value
over several years. It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a location,
and thus differs from insolation, which measures the total energy
delivered by sunlight over a given period. Sunshine duration is usually
expressed in hours per year, or in (average) hours per day. The first
measure indicates the general sunniness of a location compared with other
places, while the latter allows for comparison of sunshine in various
seasons in the same location. Another often-used measure is percentage
ratio of recorded bright sunshine duration and daylight duration in the
observed period. An important use of sunshine duration data is to
characterize the climate of sites, especially of health resorts. This also
takes into account the psychological effect of strong solar light on human
well-being. It is often used to promote tourist destinations.
Sun Hours Per Day
Solar Power Generator
Using parts easily available from your local stores
, you can
make a small solar power generator for $250 to $300. Great for
power failures and life outside the power grid. Power your
computer, modem, vcr, tv, cameras, lights, or DC appliances
anywhere you go. Use in cabins, boats, tents, archaeological
digs, or while travelling throughout the third world. Have one
in the office store room in case of power failures in your
high-rise. I keep mine in my bedroom where it powers my CD
player, turntable, lights, modem, laptop, and (ahem) a back
massager. I run a line out the window to an 8" x 24" panel on
1. Buy yourself a small solar panel. For about $100 you should
be able to get one rated at 12 volts or better (look for 16
volts) at an RV or marine supplies store.
2. Buy yourself a battery. Get any size deep cycle 12 volt
lead/acid battery. You need the deep cycle battery for
continuous use. The kind in your car is a cranking battery--just
for starting an engine. Look for bargains, it should cost about
3. Get a battery box to put it in for $10. (This is good for
covering up the exposed terminals in case there are children
about If you going to install the system in a pump shed, cabin,
or boat, skip this.)
3. Buy a 12 volt DC meter. Radio Shack has them for about $25.
4. Buy a DC input. I like the triple inlet model which you can
find at a car parts store in the cigarette lighter parts section
for about $10. This is enough to power DC appliances, and there
are many commercially available, like fans, one-pint water
boilers, lights, hair dryers, baby bottle warmers, and vacuum
cleaners. Many cassette players, answering machines, and other
electrical appliances are DC already and with the right cable
will run straight off the box.
5. But if you want to run AC appliances, you will have to invest
in an inverter. This will convert the stored DC power in the
battery into AC power for most of your household appliances. I
bought a 115 volt 140 watt inverter made by Power-to-Go at Pep
Boys for $50. More powerful inverters are available by mail.
Count up the number of watts you'll be using (e.g., a small
color television(=60 watts) with a VCR(=22 watts), you'll need
6. Use a drill to attach the meter and DC input to the top of
7. Use insulated wire to attach the meter to the wingnut
terminals on the battery. Connect the negative (-) pole first.
Only handle one wire at a time. Connect the DC inlet to the
battery in the same way. Connect the solar panel to the battery
in the same way.
8. Close the lid (I use a bungee cord to keep it tight). Put the
solar panel in the sun. It takes 5-8 hours to charge a dead
battery; 1-3 hours to top off a weak one. It will run radios,
fans, and small wattage lights all night, or give you about 5
hours of continuous use at 115 volt AC, or about an hour boiling
water. This system may be added on to with larger panels,
inverters, and batteries.
Resources for Solar Energy
also called photovoltaic shingles, are solar panels or solar modules
designed to look like and function as conventional roofing materials, such
as asphalt shingle or slate, while also producing electricity. Solar
shingles are a type of solar energy solution known as building-integrated
5 million new roofs are
installed in the U.S. every year
Monocrystalline 24v System
Clean Energy Campaign
The photo on below is 112,780 solar modules covering an area around
500 acres, or 0.78 square miles of land
, receiving horizontal
solar irradiation that supplies 1,556 kWh/m² a year that
produces 100 megawatts of clean power, which could power 36,000
homes, depending on how much energy those homes consume?
Tax Credits for Clean Energy
Federal Tax Credits
Renewable Energy Certificate
Cities Producing Clean
Solar Power Cooperative
Community Solar Farm
is a solar power installation
that accepts capital from and provides output credit and tax benefits to
individual and other investors. In some systems you buy individual solar
panels which are installed in the farm after your purchase. In others you
purchase kW capacity or kWh of production. The farm's power output is
credited to investors in proportion to their investment, with adjustments
to reflect ongoing changes in capacity, technology, costs and electricity
rates. Companies, cooperatives, governments or non-profits operate the
farms. Centralizing the location of solar systems has advantages over
residential installations that include: Trees, roof size and/or
configuration, adjacent buildings, the immediate microclimate and/or other
factors which may reduce power output. Building codes, zoning
restrictions, homeowner association rules and aesthetic concerns. Lack of
skills and commitment to install and maintain solar systems. Expanding
participation to include renters and others who are not residential
My Sun Share
Multijunction Photovoltaic Cell
Sharp Solar Panels
is a 550-megawatt (MW) photovoltaic power station
in San Luis Obispo County, California. Construction on the project began
in November 2011 and ended in November 2014. It is one of the world's
largest solar farms. The $2.5 billion project includes 9 million CdTe
photovoltaic modules based on thin-film technology, manufactured by U.S.
company First Solar.
is an American photovoltaic (PV) manufacturer of rigid thin film modules,
or solar panels, and a provider of utility-scale PV power plants and
supporting services that include finance, construction, maintenance and
end-of-life panel recycling. First Solar uses cadmium telluride (CdTe) as
a semiconductor to produce CdTe-panels, that are competing successfully
with conventional crystalline silicon technology. In 2009, First Solar
became the first solar panel manufacturing company to lower its
manufacturing cost to $1 per watt and produced CdTe-panels with an
efficiency of about 14 percent at a reported cost of 59 cents per watt in
Solar Power in France is the 7th biggest producer of PV
electricity in the world
Roads made of Solar Panels
Organic Solar Cell
is a type of photovoltaic that uses
organic electronics, a branch of electronics that deals with conductive
organic polymers or small organic molecules, for light absorption and
charge transport to produce electricity from sunlight by the photovoltaic
effect. An example of an organic photovoltaic is the polymer solar cell.
Organic Solar Cell Consortium
Luminescent Solar Concentrator
Wysips Clear Solar Cell Display
Additive Key to Environmentally Friendly, Efficient, Plastic Solar Cells
Plastic solar cells, or organic photovoltaics are popular because they are
lightweight, flexible, transparent and inexpensive to manufacture, making
them useful in multiple applications. o-methylanisole (o-MA) as the
solvent. O-MA is a commonly used flavoring agent in foods, and is nontoxic
to humans. Researchers from North Carolina State University and the
Chinese Academy of Sciences have created an efficient, semi-printed
plastic solar cell without the use of environmentally hazardous halogen
solvents. These solar cells can be manufactured at room temperature, which
has implications for large-scale commercial production.
Perovskite Solar Cell
is a type of solar cell which includes a
perovskite structured compound, most commonly a hybrid organic-inorganic
lead or tin halide-based material, as the light-harvesting active layer.
Perovskite materials such as methylammonium lead halides are cheap to
produce and simple to manufacture. Solar cell efficiencies of devices
using these materials have increased from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in early
2016, making this the fastest-advancing solar technology to date. With the
potential of achieving even higher efficiencies and the very low
production costs, perovskite solar cells have become commercially
attractive, with start-up companies already promising modules on the
market by 2017.
Perovskite solar cell design could outperform existing commercial
is a calcium titanium oxide mineral composed of calcium
titanate, with the chemical formula CaTiO3.
Printable solar cells just got a little closer
Major advance in solar cells made from cheap, easy-to-use perovskite
Polaron Perovskite Solar Cell
infrared radiation is converted into
Materials International Space Station Experiment
is a series of
experiments mounted externally on the
International Space Station
that investigates the effects of long-term exposure of materials to the
harsh space environment.
Third-Generation Photovoltaic Cell
are solar cells that are potentially able to overcome the Shockley–Queisser
limit of 31–41% power efficiency for single bandgap solar cells. This
includes a range of alternatives to cells made of semiconducting p-n
junctions ("first generation") and thin film cells ("second generation").
Common third-generation systems include multi-layer ("tandem") cells made
of amorphous silicon or gallium arsenide, while more theoretical
developments include frequency conversion, (IE changing the frequencies of
light that the cell cannot use to light frequencies that the cell can use
- thus producing more power), hot-carrier effects and other
multiple-carrier ejection techniques. Emerging photovoltaics include:
Copper zinc tin sulfide solar cell (CZTS), and derivates CZTSe and CZTSSe. Dye-sensitized
solar cell, also known as "Grätzel cell". Organic solar cell. Perovskite
solar cell. Polymer solar cell. Quantum dot solar cell. Especially the
achievements in the research of perovskite cells have received tremendous
attention in the public, as their research efficiencies recently soared
above 20 percent. They also offer a wide spectrum of low-cost
applications. In addition, another emerging technology, concentrator
photovoltaics (CPV), uses high-efficient, multi-junction solar cells in
combination with optical lenses and a tracking system.
Low-Cost Solar Power
Carbon Nanotubes in Photovoltaics
Organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) are fabricated from thin films of
organic semiconductors, such as polymers and small-molecule compounds, and
are typically on the order of 100 nm thick. Because polymer based OPVs can
be made using a coating process such as spin coating or inkjet printing,
they are an attractive option for inexpensively covering large areas as
well as flexible plastic surfaces. A promising low cost alternative to
conventional solar cells made of crystalline silicon, there is a large
amount of research being dedicated throughout industry and academia
towards developing OPVs and increasing their power conversion efficiency
Nanocrystal Solar Cell
are solar cells based on a substrate
with a coating of nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are typically based on
silicon, CdTe or CIGS and the substrates are generally silicon or various
organic conductors. Quantum dot solar cells are a variant of this
approach, but take advantage of quantum mechanical effects to extract
further performance. Dye-sensitized solar cells are another related
approach, but in this case the nano-structuring is part of the substrate.
is a periodic optical nanostructure
that affects the motion of photons in much the same way that ionic
lattices affect electrons in solids. Photonic crystals occur in nature in
the form of structural coloration—and, in different forms, promise to be
useful in a range of applications.
Ultra-broadband light trapping using nanotextured decoupled
optoelectronics, and spectroscopy
Ultrasensitive optical absorption in graphene based on bound
states in the continuum
that traps electromagnetic waves,
produce energy from not just sunlight, but any device that emits
microwave or radio waves. Convert electromagnetism into usable
Solar Cell Efficiency by UNSW
is a process used by
and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical
energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities
(energy transformation). This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate
molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from
water in most cases,
is also released as a waste product.
, most Algae
perform photosynthesis; such
organisms are called photoautotrophs. Photosynthesis is largely
responsible for producing and maintaining the oxygen content of the
Earth's atmosphere, and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of
the energy necessary for life on Earth. (Splits a
Photosynthetic Water Splitting
- In photosynthesis,
electrons to the electron transport chain in
, which is the first protein complex in the
light-dependent reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis. It is located in the
thylakoid membrane of plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Within the
photosystem, enzymes capture photons of light to energize electrons that
are then transferred through a variety of coenzymes and cofactors to
reduce plastoquinone to plastoquinol. The energized electrons are replaced
by oxidizing water to form hydrogen ions and molecular oxygen. By
replenishing lost electrons with electrons from the splitting of water,
photosystem II provides the electrons for all of photosynthesis to occur.
The hydrogen ions (protons) generated by the oxidation of water help to
create a proton gradient that is used by ATP synthase to generate ATP. The
energized electrons transferred to plastoquinone are ultimately used to
reduce NADP+ to NADPH or are used in
X-Rays Captures Images of Photosynthesis in Action
Chlorophylls A and B
are two pigments were soaking up most of the sunlight -- the violets,
indigos, blues, green, yellows and oranges.
Advance in artificial photosynthesis
combining biocompatible light-capturing nanowire arrays with select
Enhanced energy transport in genetically engineered excitonic
is a chemical process that
replicates the natural process of photosynthesis, a process that converts
sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and
. The term,
, is commonly used to refer to any scheme for
capturing and storing the energy from sunlight in the chemical bonds of a
fuel (a solar fuel). Photocatalytic water splitting converts water into
hydrogen ions and oxygen, and is a main research area in artificial
photosynthesis. Light-driven carbon dioxide reduction is another studied
process, that replicates natural
Perovskite Solar Cell
From Leaf to Tree: Large-Scale Artificial Photosynthesis
of some begonias, their chloroplasts have evolved a
to help them survive in the darkness of the
main role is to conduct photosynthesis, where the
photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll captures the energy from sunlight and
converts it and stores it in the energy-storage molecules ATP and NADPH
oxygen from water. They then use the ATP and NADPH to
make organic molecules from carbon dioxide in a process known as the
Calvin cycle. Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions,
including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune
response in plants. The number of chloroplasts per cell varies from 1 in
algae up to 100 in plants like Arabidopsis and wheat.
Hybrid Solar Collector
are systems that convert solar
radiation into thermal and electrical energy. These systems combine a
solar cell, which converts sunlight into electricity, with a solar thermal
collector, which captures the remaining energy and removes waste heat from
the PV module.
Luminescent Solar Concentrator
is a device for concentrating
radiation, solar radiation in particular, to produce electricity.
Luminescent solar concentrators operate on the principle of collecting
radiation over a large area, converting it by
specifically by fluorescence) and directing the generated radiation into a
relatively small output target.
Full Spectrum Photovoltaics
Full Spectrum Solar Cell
New solar cell is more efficient, costs less than its counterparts
Layers of new photovoltaic cell harvest more of sun’s energy for
efficiencies above 40 percent.
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell
titanium oxide, graphite, iodine.
3-D Nano Cone-Based Solar
Full Spectrum Solar
Solar Cells Get Boost with Integration of Water-Splitting Catalyst onto
Maximum Power Point Tracking
is a technique used commonly
with wind turbines and photovoltaic (PV) solar systems to maximize power
extraction under all conditions.
New Fabrication Technique Leads to Broader Sunlight Absorption in Plastic
is the process of changing one form of
energy to another form of energy. In physics, the term energy describes
the capacity to produce certain changes within any system, without regard
to limitations in transformation imposed.
, the particle of
, the quantum of light captured by a
, is delivered to what's called
the reaction center
, where it can be
turned into chemical energy
. And it doesn't just follow one
route; it follows multiple pathways at once, to optimize the
most efficient way of reaching the reaction center without
dissipating as waste heat.
: Ultrafast Energy Transfer in
Polystyrene-Based Arrays of p-Conjugated
Microscopic FLUENCE rake doubles efficiency of low-cost solar
Nanowire–Bacteria Hybrids for Unassisted Solar Carbon Dioxide
Fixation to Value-Added Chemicals
"Bionic leaf" uses bacteria to convert solar energy into liquid
Harvard scientists have created a system that could
speed adoption of solar-generated fuels as a power source.
Portable Solar Power
Solar Paper, thin, light solar charger
The Kodiak - Solar System In A Box
Omnicharge: Portable Power Bank
Kalipak Portable Solar Power System
solar charger fits in your pocket.Yolk Station
efficient small solar panel can charge your smartphone in about 2.5 hours
on a sunny day. That’s about the same as a wall charger.
Kogalla Solar Storage Bank
is the first portable solar array with
integrated storage. Powerful, lightweight and compact.
- The World's Quickest Solar Charger with the most
versatile and efficient solar charger ever, USB-C or USB.
Your Mobile Power Station & Solar Generator. Smartest Portable
Power for All Devices. Holds Charge 1 Year. (2) AC, (4) USB Fast-Charge, &
6 Watt flexible solar system with less than 200 grams +
6000mAh power bank. Generators
Solar Backup Generator Plug N Play Kit
Solman Solar Products
Starter Solar Panel Kit
Solar e Cube 1500
mPower Solar Generator
LightSaver Max: Powerfilm
uses real solar
energy from certified solar farms.
Smartflower' Petals-Shaped Solar Panel Array Follows The Sun
Austrian Company GmbH
Solar Power Windows
Fully Transparent Solar Cell
is the naturally occurring oxide of
titanium, chemical formula TiO2. When used as a pigment, it is called
titanium white, Pigment White 6 (PW6), or CI 77891. Generally it is
sourced from ilmenite, rutile and anatase. It has a wide range of
applications, from paint to sunscreen to food coloring. When used as a
food coloring, it has E number E171. World production in 2014 exceeded 9
million metric tons.
Reactive Oxygen Species
are chemically reactive chemical
species containing oxygen. Examples include peroxides, superoxide,
hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen
Flexible Thin Film Solar Panels
is a process that uses electric current to
reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal
coating on an electrode. The term is also used for electrical oxidation of
anions onto a solid substrate, as in the formation silver chloride on
silver wire to make silver/silver-chloride electrodes. Electroplating is
primarily used to change the surface properties of an object (e.g.
abrasion and wear resistance, corrosion protection, lubricity, aesthetic
qualities, etc.), but may also be used to build up thickness on undersized
parts or to form objects by electroforming.
Co-Solvents in Polymer Solar Cell
IBM Solar Collector Magnifier
Spherical Solar Concentrating System
Here Comes the Sun
American Solar Energy
Make a Solar Cell
Find Solar Professional
Subterranean Solar Panel
The Solar Guide
Build it Solar
Follow the Sun
Solar Daily News
Solar Energy Industries Assoc
Space-Based Solar Power
Radiant and Thermal Energy
is radiant light
and heat from the
that is harnessed using a
range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics,
solar thermal energy, solar architecture and artificial photosynthesis.
Solar Thermal Energy
is a form of energy
and a technology for harnessing solar energy to
generate thermal energy or electrical energy for use in industry, and in
the residential and commercial sectors.
Solar Thermal Collector
collects heat by absorbing sunlight.
A collector is a device for capturing solar radiation. Solar radiation is
energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation
from the infrared (long)
to the ultraviolet (short) wavelengths. The quantity of solar energy
striking the Earth's surface (solar constant) averages about 1,000 watts
per square meter under clear skies, depending upon weather conditions,
location and orientation.
is a structure that uses concentrated solar
power to produce high temperatures, usually for industry. Parabolic
mirrors or heliostats concentrate light (Insolation) onto a focal point.
The temperature at the focal point may reach 3,500 °C (6,330 °F), and this
heat can be used to generate electricity
, melt steel, make hydrogen fuel
Solar Thermal Power Stations
list of the largest facilities
generating electricity through the use of solar thermal power,
specifically concentrated solar power, ranging from 392 MW to 0.25 MW.
Thermal Energy Storage
is that amount of
flowing from one body to
another spontaneously due to their temperature difference, or by any means
other than through work or the transfer of matter. The transfer can be by
contact between the source and the destination body, as in conduction; or
by radiation between remote bodies; or by conduction and radiation through
a thick solid wall; or by way of an intermediate fluid body, as in
convective circulation; or by a combination of these.
Solar Hot Water for Home
Solar Hot Water
is a system
which uses excess electricity from a Solar PV array to heat hot water
without the need for an immersion heater tank.
Solar Panels Plus
Solar Ovens for Cooking Food
is a heat-transfer device that combines the
principles of both thermal conductivity and phase transition to
efficiently manage the transfer of heat between two solid interfaces. At
the hot interface of a heat pipe a liquid in contact with a thermally
conductive solid surface turns into a vapor by absorbing heat from that
surface. The vapor then travels along the heat pipe to the cold interface
and condenses back into a liquid – releasing the latent heat. The liquid
then returns to the hot interface through either capillary action,
centrifugal force, or gravity, and the cycle repeats. Due to the very high
heat transfer coefficients for boiling and condensation, heat pipes are
highly effective thermal conductors. The effective thermal conductivity
varies with heat pipe length, and can approach 100 kW/(m⋅K) for long heat
pipes, in comparison with approximately 0.4 kW/(m⋅K) for copper.
Solar-Powered Generator of both Heat Energy and Electrical Energy.
Masdar and MIT Researchers develop device that makes Steam from Sunlight
Energy from Heat
Heat can be
into energy, so why are we wasting Heat?
is an electrical device consisting of two
different conductors forming electrical junctions at differing
temperatures. A thermocouple produces a temperature-dependent voltage as a
result of the thermoelectric effect, and this voltage can be interpreted
to measure temperature. Thermocouples are a widely used type of
refers to the internal energy present in a system due to its temperature.
Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator
is an electrical
generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released
by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the
Seebeck effect. This generator has no moving parts.
Solar Lighting and Heating
Lightweight, Wearable Tech Efficiently Converts Body Heat to Electricity
is a solid state device that converts heat
) directly into electrical energy through a
phenomenon called the Seebeck effect (a form of thermoelectric effect).
is the conversion of heat directly into electricity at
the junction of different types of wire.
Fire Activated Battery Charger
Thermal Energy Storage
excess thermal energy to be collected for later use, hours, days
or many months
gathered in rooftop solar collectors could be stored in soil or
rocks and used for heating homes in winter.
is a model that is used to predict the
performance of steam turbine systems. The Rankine cycle is an idealized
thermodynamic cycle of a heat engine that converts heat into mechanical
is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to
mechanical energy, which can then be used to do
consists of a linked sequence of thermodynamic
processes that involve transfer of heat and work into and out of the
system, while varying pressure, temperature, and other state variables
within the system, and that eventually returns the system to its initial
75,000 Nevada homes
Solar Power Tower
also known as 'central tower' power plants
or 'heliostat' power plants or power towers, is a type of solar furnace
using a tower to receive the focused sunlight. It uses an array of flat,
movable mirrors (called heliostats) to focus the sun's rays upon a
collector tower (the target). Concentrated solar thermal is seen as one
viable solution for renewable, pollution-free energy.
Concentrated Solar Power
systems generate solar power by
using mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar
thermal energy, onto a small area. Electricity is generated when the
concentrated light is converted to heat, which drives a heat engine
(usually a steam turbine) connected to an electrical power generator
or powers a thermochemical reaction (experimental as of 2013).[Heat
storage in molten salts allows some solar thermal plants to continue to
generate after sunset and adds value to such systems when compared to
Solar Power Plants Mojave Desert
Stirling Energy Systems
High Efficient Solar Water Heating
transition metal nitrides and carbides absorb sunlight
very efficiently, Solar Heat Utilization Based on Plasmon
Create Fuel using the Sun
refers to a number of possible processes that
harness solar energy by absorbing sunlight in a chemical reaction. The
idea is conceptually similar to photosynthesis in plants, which converts
solar energy into the chemical bonds of glucose molecules, but without
using living organisms, which is why it is also called artificial
is a fuel produced from sunlight through artificial photosynthesis or
(experimental as of 2013) a thermochemical reaction.
Solar Synthesis Gas
Bionic Leaf turns Sunlight into Liquid Fuel
is the experimental science of determining
the arrangement of atoms in the crystalline solids.
(7 April 1825 – 4 October 1911) was a
19th-century French inventor of the earliest solar-powered engine,
converting solar energy into mechanical steam power.
Step: How I Built A Solar Generator For Less Than $300
Natural Lighting using the Sun
or light pipes are physical structures used for transporting or
distributing natural or artificial light for the purpose of illumination,
and are examples of optical waveguides. In their application to
daylighting, they are also often called tubular daylighting devices, sun
pipes, sun scopes, or daylight pipes
Solar Light Tubes
for Home Lighting
Lucy: Light Indoor Spaces With Real Sunshine
, reflects sunlight into
your home. Solar powered and portable.
Rawlemon Solar Devices
Outdoor Solar Lights
AC Window Blinds