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Spatial intelligence

Awareness of 3 Dimensional Space - Picture Smart 3d Coordinates Diagram

When people fail to see the whole picture they can easily make mistakes, as we can clearly see in the world today with all the problems that we are currently faced with. Senses - Intelligence

It's how you look at something that can make all the difference

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Spatial Intelligence is the ability to draw accurate conclusions from observing a Three-Dimensional (3D) environment. It involves interpreting and making judgments about the shape, size, movement, and relationships between surrounding objects, as well as the ability to envision and manipulate 3D models of things that are not immediately visible. People use this form of reasoning in many everyday activities, ranging from organizing a room to driving a car. This type of intelligence stems from the right side of the brain, and injuries or strokes to this area may diminish it. Spatial Intelligence involves the potential to recognize and use Patterns of wide Space and more confined areas.

Spatial Intelligence (youtube)
Body Language
Body Smart - Body Image
Blind Mathematicians (PDF)
Sight Testing

Proxemics is the study of human use of space and the effects that population density has on behavior, communication, and social interaction. Proxemics is one among several subcategories in the study of nonverbal communication, including haptics (touch), kinesics (body movement), vocalics (paralanguage), and chronemics (structure of time)

Spatial Visualization Ability is the ability to mentally manipulate 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional and 4-dimensional figures. It is
typically measured with simple cognitive tests and is predictive of user performance with some kinds of user interfaces.
Orientation, or angular position, or attitude of an object such as a line, plane or rigid body is part of the description of how it is placed in the space it is in. Namely, it is the imaginary rotation that is needed to move the object from a reference placement to its current placement.

Mental Rotation is the ability to rotate mental representations of two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects as it is
related to the visual representation of such rotation within the human mind.

Spatial Memory is the part of memory responsible for recording information about one's environment and its spatial orientation. For example, a person's spatial memory is required in order to navigate around a familiar city, just as a rat's spatial memory is needed to learn the location of food at the end of a maze.

Spatial Ability or visuo-spatial ability is the capacity to understand, reason and remember the spatial relations among objects or space. Pattern Recognition

Vase or Two Faces Perspective is how you look at something and understand something, which is based on your current level of knowledge and experience, and sometimes depends on your current mood or your unique situation.

Point of View - Subjective

Perspective (graphical) is the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer. The approximate representation, on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye. The two most characteristic features of perspective are that objects are smaller as their distance from the observer increases; and that they are subject to foreshortening, meaning that an object's dimensions along the line of sight are shorter than its dimensions across the line of sight.

Visual Appearance of objects is given by the way in which they reflect and transmit light. The color of objects is determined by the parts of the spectrum of (incident white) light that are reflected or transmitted without being absorbed. Additional appearance attributes are based on the directional distribution of reflected (BRDF) or transmitted light (BTDF) described by attributes like glossy, shiny versus dull, matte, clear, turbid, distinct, etc..

Perspective (visual) in the context of vision and visual perception, is the way that objects appear to the eye based on their spatial attributes or dimensions, and the position of the eye relative to the objects. There are two main meanings of the term: linear perspective and aerial perspective.

Visual Perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment. The resulting perception is also known as visual perception, eyesight, sight, or vision (adjectival form: visual, optical, or ocular). The various physiological components involved in vision are referred to collectively as the visual system, and are the focus of much research in linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and molecular biology, collectively referred to as vision science.


Subitizing is the rapid, accurate, and confident judgements of numbers performed for small numbers of items.

Visual Literacy is the ability to interpret, negotiate, and make meaning from information presented in the form of an image, extending the meaning of literacy, which commonly signifies interpretation of a written or printed text. Visual literacy is based on the idea that pictures can be “read” and that meaning can be through a process of reading.

Mind Maps
Visual Variable Tools (art)

Blind Spot (vision) is an obscuration of the visual field. A particular blind spot known as the physiological blind spot, "blind point", or punctum caecum in medical literature, is the place in the visual field that corresponds to the lack of light-detecting photoreceptor cells on the optic disc of the retina where the optic nerve passes through the optic disc. Because there are no cells to detect light on the optic disc, the corresponding part of the field of vision is invisible. Some process in our brains interpolates the blind spot based on surrounding detail and information from the other eye, so we do not normally perceive the blind spot.

Sight and Eye Problems

Visible Light - Colors

Peripheral Vision Field of View is the extent of the observable world that is seen at any given moment. In case of optical instruments or sensors it is a solid angle through which a detector is sensitive to electromagnetic radiation.

Angle of View describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.

Visual Field is the "spatial array of visual sensations available to observation in introspectionist psychological experiments"

Peripheral Vision is a part of vision that occurs outside the very center of gaze.

Retina is the third and inner coat of the Eye which is a light-sensitive layer of tissue. The optics of the Eye create an image of the visual world on the retina (through the cornea and lens), which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical events that ultimately trigger nerve impulses. These are sent to various visual centres of the brain through the fibres of the optic nerve. Neural retina typically refers to three layers of neural cells (photo receptor cells, bipolar cells, and ganglion cells) within the retina, while the entire retina refers to these three layers plus a layer of pigmented epithelial cells.

Occipital Lobe
Human Brain Processing Power

Foveated Imaging is a digital image processing technique in which the image resolution, or amount of detail, varies across the image according to one or more "fixation points." A fixation point indicates the highest resolution region of the image and corresponds to the center of the eye's retina, the fovea.

Frame of Reference consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements.

Horizon is the apparent line that separates earth from sky, the line that divides all visible directions into two categories: those that intersect the Earth's surface, and those that do not.

Mental Representation is a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that represents external reality, or else a mental process that makes use of such a symbol: "a formal system for making explicit certain entities or types of information, together with a specification of how the system does this."

Visual Perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment by processing information that is contained in visible light

Diffraction refers to various phenomena which occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit. It is defined as the bending of Light around the corners of an obstacle or aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of the obstacle.

Emission Theory is the proposal that visual perception is accomplished by rays of light emitted by the eyes.

Intromission Theory is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.

Visual Thinking is the phenomenon of thinking through visual processing. Visual thinking has been described as seeing words as a series of pictures.

Music Visualization - Art

Spatial Analysis includes any of the formal techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.

Spatial Temporal Reasoning is an area of artificial intelligence which draws from the fields of computer science, cognitive science, and cognitive psychology. The theoretic goal—on the cognitive side—involves representing and reasoning spatial-temporal knowledge in mind. The applied goal—on the computing side—involves developing high-level control systems of robots for navigating and understanding time and space.

Grid Cell is a type of neuron in the brains of many species that allows them to understand their position in space.

Entorhinal Cortex (memory and navigation)

Hippocampus There is two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain, It belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial navigation. 

Visual Acuity commonly refers to the clarity of vision. Visual acuity is dependent on optical and neural factors, i.e., (i) the sharpness of the retinal focus within the Eye, (ii) the health and functioning of the retina, and (iii) the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain.

Behavioral Optometry is used to improve vision skills such as eye movement control and eye coordination. It involves a series of procedures carried out in both home and office settings, usually under professional supervision by an orthoptist.

Visual Integration
is a term referring to the integration occurring in the brain to give us a final percept, presumably in the prefrontal cortex. Information from the dorsal (parietal or medial temporal) stream dealing with localization or movement is integrated with information from the ventral (inferotemporal) stream dealing with colour or form, so that, for example, we can see a red car moving towards us.

Imagining (x-rays)

Reading Dimensions

Visual Space is the perceptual space housing the visual world being experienced by an aware observer; it is the subjective counterpart of the space of physical objects before an observer's eyes.

Geographic Coordinate System
Geometry - Geometric Shapes
Three-Dimensional Space

Think Outside the Box - Ideas

Image Differencing is an image processing technique used to determine changes between images. The difference between two images is calculated by finding the difference between each pixel in each image, and generating an image based on the result. For this technique to work, the two images must first be aligned so that corresponding points coincide, and their photometric values must be made compatible, either by careful calibration, or by post-processing (using color mapping). The complexity of the pre-processing needed before differencing varies with the type of image.


Angular Resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.

Airy Disk are descriptions of the best focused spot of light that a perfect lens with a circular aperture can make, limited by the diffraction of light. The Airy disk is of importance in physics, optics, and astronomy.

Correspondence Problem refers to the problem of ascertaining which parts of one image correspond to which parts of another image, where differences are due to movement of the camera, the elapse of time, and/or movement of objects in the photos.

Saccade is a quick, simultaneous movement of both eyes between two or more phases of fixation in the same direction. The phenomenon can be associated with a shift in frequency of an emitted signal or a movement of a body part or device.[citation needed] Controlled cortically by the frontal eye fields (FEF), or subcortically by the superior colliculus, saccades serve as a mechanism for fixation, rapid eye movement, and the fast phase of optokinetic nystagmus.

Duck or Rabbit  Duck or Rabbit
I can see the duck, I can see the rabbit, I can see the differences between the duck and the rabbit. I can also determine whether there is any important information or relevance to what I see. So filling in the details will be based on priorities, and not just based on beliefs.

Pareidolia is a psychological phenomenon involving a stimulus (an image or a sound) wherein the mind perceives a familiar pattern of something where none exists. Common examples are perceived images of animals, faces, or objects in cloud formations, the man in the moon, the moon rabbit, and hidden messages within recorded music played in reverse or at higher- or lower-than-normal speeds.

Subliminal Stimuli

Apophenia is the human tendency to perceive meaningful patterns within random data.

Rorschach inkblot Test Photo Rorschach Test is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both. Some psychologists use this test to examine a person's personality characteristics and emotional functioning. It has been employed to detect underlying thought disorder, especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly

Black Dots Test How many dots?

Observation Errors

Tricks that test your Problem Solving Skills (youtube)
Can You Trust Your Eyes? (youtube)

Magic (illusion) are staged tricks or illusions that seem real but are actually highly skilled techniques designed to fool you, similar to media manipulation techniques.

How Magicians Trick Your Brain: The Psychology Of Magic (youtube)
Magic Tricks (slight of hand - body smart)

Psychological Theories of Magic treat magic as a personal phenomenon intended to meet individual needs, as opposed to a social phenomenon serving a collective purpose.

Magical Thinking is a term used in anthropology and psychology, denoting the fallacious attribution of causal relationships between actions and events, with subtle differences in meaning between the two fields. In anthropology, it denotes the attribution of causality between entities grouped with one another (coincidence) or similar to one another. In psychology, the entities between which a causal relation has to be posited are more strictly delineated; here it denotes the belief that one's thoughts by themselves can bring about effects in the world or that thinking something corresponds with doing it. In both cases, the belief can cause a person to experience fear, seemingly not rationally justifiable to an observer outside the belief system, of performing certain acts or having certain thoughts because of an assumed correlation between doing so and threatening calamities.

Optical illusion is an illusion caused by the visual system and characterized by visually perceived images that differ from objective reality. The information gathered by the eye is processed in the brain to give a percept that does not tally with a physical measurement of the stimulus source. There are three main types: literal optical illusions that create images that are different from the objects that make them, physiological illusions that are the effects of excessive stimulation of a specific type (brightness, colour, size, position, tilt, movement), and cognitive illusions, the result of unconscious inferences. Pathological visual illusions arise from a pathological exaggeration in physiological visual perception mechanisms causing the aforementioned types of illusions.

List of Optical illusions (wiki)
Delboeuf illusion
White's illusion
Hidden 3D Images
Visual Tilt Effects
Jastrow illusion
Ambiguous Cylinder Illusion (youtube)
Beau Lotto: Optical illusions show how we see (youtube)
10 BEST Optical Illusions That Will Blow Your Mind (youtube)
Menu for Restaurant Design Tricks (Info-Graph)
Lotto Lab
The Dynamic Ebbinghaus (youtube)

Iridescence is the phenomenon of certain surfaces that appear to gradually change colour as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes.

Op Art
Maya illusion
Multisensory Integration

McGurk Effect is a perceptual phenomenon that demonstrates an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception. The illusion occurs when the auditory component of one sound is paired with the visual component of another sound, leading to the perception of a third sound. The visual information a person gets from seeing a person speak changes the way they hear the sound. If a person is getting poor quality auditory information but good quality visual information, they may be more likely to experience the McGurk effect. Integration abilities for audio and visual information may also influence whether a person will experience the effect. People who are better at sensory integration have been shown to be more susceptible to the effect. Many people are affected differently by the McGurk effect based on many factors, including brain damage and other disorders.

Flicker Rate of Video Frames
How many frames can humans see?

Phi Phenomenon is the optical illusion of perceiving a series of still images, when viewed in rapid succession, as continuous motion.

Continuous Flash Suppression
Flicker Fusion Threshold
Flicker Screen
TV effects on the Mind
"You Won't Believe Your Eyes!" - Smarter Every Day 142 (youtube)

You blink about 15 to 20 times every single minute, 21,000 times (or more) a day. When you blink your eye actually rolls back in its socket and then returns to normal when you open your eye.

Bird Vision
The Mechanics Of The Film Projector
Clock Rate
Frame Rate
Time Dilation (time)
Chronometer Watch
Flash Lag illusion
Time-lapse is a technique whereby the frequency at which film frames are captured (the frame rate) is much lower than that used to view the sequence. When played at normal speed, time appears to be moving faster and thus lapsing. For example, an image of a scene may be captured once every second, then played back at 30 frames per second; the result is an apparent 30 times speed increase. Time-lapse photography can be considered the opposite of high speed photography or slow motion.

Motion Induced Blindness (youtube)
Motion-induced Blindness (wiki)
Spinning Head Spins

Spatiotemporal Database
Action Physics
Hermann von Helmholtz
Hermann Ebbinghaus
Ewald Hering

Computer Visual Performance Assessment
Xtreme Sight
Retinal Ganglion Cell
Sports Vision Training
Natural Eye Vitamins

Nutraceutical products that range from isolated nutrients, dietary supplements and herbal products.

Certain foods do effect eyesight.
If your blood sugar levels change quickly, it can affect the shape of your eye's lens, causing blurry vision, which goes back to normal after your blood sugar stabilizes. Hyperopia

Certain activities like reading also effect eyesight
. Our eyes have focusing muscles which work to change the power of the lenses in your eyes. Your eye muscles work hardest when you focus on things close to you. Since this isn't the muscles' natural position, they spasm and fatigue after a time. When this happens, you may notice that your distance vision is blurry. This is because the muscles have failed to relax and are still focusing close, even though you are looking far away. Although the symptom is blurry distance vision, the problem is too much close work. (Factory Blindness Astigmatism) Tunnel Vision
Try to keep things at a slightly greater distance from your eyes to keep your eyes as relaxed as possible. 

3D Exercise
Body Smart
Eyes - Blindness

I Can't Believe what I See

Brain Eye Tricks Hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception. Hallucinations are vivid, substantial, and are perceived to be located in external objective space. They are distinguishable from these related phenomena: dreaming, which does not involve wakefulness; illusion, which involves distorted or misinterpreted real perception; imagery, which does not mimic real perception and is under voluntary control; and pseudohallucination, which does not mimic real perception, but is not under voluntary control. Hallucinations also differ from "delusional perceptions", in which a correctly sensed and interpreted stimulus (i.e., a real perception) is given some additional (and typically absurd) significance. Hallucinations can occur in any sensory modality—visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, proprioceptive, equilibrioceptive, nociceptive, thermoceptive and chronoceptive. A mild form of hallucination is known as a disturbance, and can occur in most of the senses above. These may be things like seeing movement in peripheral vision, or hearing faint noises and/or voices. Auditory hallucinations are very common in schizophrenia. They may be benevolent (telling the subject good things about themselves) or malicious, cursing the subject etc. Auditory hallucinations of the malicious type are frequently heard, for example people talking about the subject behind his/her back. Like auditory hallucinations, the source of the visual counterpart can also be behind the subject's back. Their visual counterpart is the feeling of being looked or stared at, usually with malicious intent. Frequently, auditory hallucinations and their visual counterpart are experienced by the subject together. Hypnagogic hallucinations and hypnopompic hallucinations are considered normal phenomena. Hypnagogic hallucinations can occur as one is falling asleep and hypnopompic hallucinations occur when one is waking up. Hallucinations can be associated with drug use (particularly deliriants), sleep deprivation, psychosis, neurological disorders, and delirium tremens. The word "hallucination" itself was introduced into the English language by the 17th century physician Sir Thomas Browne in 1646 from the derivation of the Latin word alucinari meaning to wander in the mind.

Delusional Disorder are delusions with no accompanying prominent hallucinations, thought disorder, mood disorder, or significant flattening of affect, which is a condition of reduced emotional reactivity in an individual. It manifests as a failure to express feelings (affect display) either verbally or non-verbally, especially when talking about issues that would normally be expected to engage the emotions. Expressive gestures are rare and there is little animation in facial expression or vocal inflection.

Phenomenon is any thing which manifests itself. Phenomena are often, but not always, understood as "things that appear" or "experiences" for a sentient being, or in principle may be so.

Optical Phenomena are any observable events that result from the interaction of light and matter. See also list of optical topics and optics. A mirage is an example of an optical phenomenon.

Mirage is a naturally occurring optical phenomenon in which light rays are bent to produce a displaced image of distant objects or the sky. The word comes to English via the French mirage, from the Latin mirari, meaning "to look at, to wonder at". This is the same root as for "mirror" and "to admire". In contrast to a hallucination, a mirage is a real optical phenomenon that can be captured on camera, since light rays are actually refracted to form the false image at the observer's location. What the image appears to represent, however, is determined by the interpretive faculties of the human mind. For example, inferior images on land are very easily mistaken for the reflections from a small body of water. Mirages can be categorized as "inferior" (meaning lower), "superior" (meaning higher) and "Fata Morgana", one kind of superior mirage consisting of a series of unusually elaborate, vertically stacked images, which form one rapidly changing mirage.

Beyond the Senses

Afterimage is a non-specific term that refers to an image continuing to appear in one's vision after the exposure to the original image has ceased. An afterimage may be a normal phenomenon (physiological afterimage) or may be pathological (palinopsia). Illusory palinopsia may be a pathological exaggeration of physiological afterimages. The remainder of this article refers to physiological afterimages. A common physiological afterimage is the dim area that seems to float before one's eyes after briefly looking into a light source, such as a camera flash. Afterimages are a common symptom of visual snow.

Chronostasis is a type of temporal illusion in which the first impression following the introduction of a new event or task demand to the brain appears to be extended in time. For example, chronostasis temporarily occurs when fixating on a target stimulus, immediately following a saccade (i.e., quick eye movement). This elicits an overestimation in the temporal duration for which that target stimulus (i.e., postsaccadic stimulus) was perceived. This effect can extend apparent durations by up to 500 ms and is consistent with the idea that the visual system models events prior to perception

People cognize and interpret information to fit what they already believe, but what if you interpret information by what you know and learned, and by what you have experienced? Everyone should have the ability to see things in at least two different ways. Seeing things from the top-down, and the bottom-up. We know that our minds can run on automatic, so we don't have to instruct our brains to think, because the brain is always thinking, whether will tell it to or not, we think even when we're sleeping. But we have the ability to control our thinking, but we have to exercise this ability everyday, if not, then Reality could get blurred and undefined. We also have our own Personal Perception, so what you see might not be what others see, so what do you see? Delusions

It's not what you want to see. This is what I know from previous experiences. You also have to see as if it were the first time seeing, and this is how you would explain what you see is if you were seeing for the first time. You can only see what your mind allows you to see, that is why you must use the mind in a way that you're controlling what you see by looking at details and asking questions to explain those details.

Mercator Projection is a cylindrical map projection. The Size of Things

Ideologically motivated cognition is not a complete sentence. Having information does not say anything until you specify the exact information that you are referring too, and, have also confirmed that everyone has understood this information accurately in the same way in order to influence the correct actions that would help solve this particular problem.

"You can have logic and beliefs, as long as you have two logics and two beliefs, one confirming the other."

Focus - Attention
Problem Solving
Media Literacy
Thinking Styles

The Thinker Man