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Waste to Energy


Waste-to-Energy is the process of generating energy in the form of electricity and/or heat from the primary treatment of waste or garbage.

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waste to fuelWaste to Energy
Sweden's Waste to Energy (video)
Waste 2 Tricity
Waste Gasification FastOx Gasifier

Syngas

Plasma Enhanced Melter System

Land Fills - Garbage

Bio-Fuels - Synthetic
Bio-Energy
Bio-Mass

Cellulosic Ethanol
Mega Flora Trees

Recovered Energy
Renewable Energy
Renewable Energy
Renewable Energy Efficiency
Energy Recovery Council
Kudzunol
New Energy and Fuel

2.8 Billion Gallons of Human Urine is produced and wasted each day. Urine consists of approximately 98% water, and 2% urea, which is made up of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen atoms.

Pee Powered House
Pee Powered Cellphone
Pee Powered Energy Generator
The taboo secret to healthier plants and people: Molly Winter (video and Text)
Burning Poop as Fuel

Urea is the main nitrogen-containing substance in the urine of mammals. An organic compound with the chemical formula CO(NH2)2. The molecule has two —NH2 groups joined by a carbonyl (C=O) functional group.

Technology which makes Electricity from Urine also kills Pathogens. Microbial Fuel Cell installed in homes to treat waste, generate electricity and stop harmful organisms making it through to the municipal sewerage network, reducing the burden
on water companies to treat effluent.

Urine Power (youtube)

Biggest Pee Power urinal to date located near Pyramid Stage at Glastonbury.

J. Craig Venter Institute
Living Machines
Toilets
Waste = Food (video)

Fuel from Sewage - Americans generate 34 billion gallons of sewage each day.

Hydrothermal Liquefaction is a thermal depolymerization process used to convert wet biomass into crude-like oil -sometimes referred to as bio-oil or biocrude- under moderate temperature and high pressure.

Manure for Fuel
Manure Manager
Manure for Fuel
Composting

Syngas


Wood Gas is a syngas fuel which can be used as a fuel for furnaces, stoves and vehicles in place of gasoline, diesel or other fuels. During the production process biomass or other carbon-containing materials are gasified within the oxygen-limited environment of a wood gas generator to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases can then be burnt as a fuel within an oxygen rich environment to produce carbon dioxide, water and heat. In some gasifiers this process is preceded by pyrolysis, where the biomass or coal is first converted to char, releasing methane and tar rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

Syngas is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.

Wood Gas Generator is a gasification unit which converts timber or charcoal into wood gas, a syngas consisting of atmospheric nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, traces of methane, and other gases, which - after cooling and filtering - can then be used to power an internal combustion engine or for other purposes. Historically wood gas generators were often mounted on vehicles, but present studies and developments concentrate mostly on stationary plants.

Gasification is a process that converts organic or fossil fuel based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

My Wood Stove runs a generator (youtube)
Wood Power Generators
Wood Stove runs a Generator (youtube)

SYNPOL - Biopolymers from Syngas Fermentationan. EU-funded project, has recently developed a technique that could pave the way for such a revolution. Their new technique is based upon pyrolysis, which is a process where organic waste from households and industry is heated until it breaks down and forms hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, collectively known as syngas. This process normally requires expensive high temperatures, but SYNPOL scientists have shown that if they blast the waste with microwaves at the same time they need less heat. This produces a cheaper syngas that is also richer in carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and lower in carbon dioxide, making it even more valuable. These gases are then fed to genetically engineered bacteria which turn them into the building blocks of biodegradable plastics. At the end of the supply chain, SYNPOL also demonstrated that when their bioplastics finally end up on a compost heap, they will completely biodegrade into harmless substances. This would allow municipalities to transform all of their organic waste into syngas, which could then be used to produce cleaner fuel or bioplastics.

Co-Generation combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time. Trigeneration or combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) refers to the simultaneous generation of electricity and useful heating and cooling from the combustion of a fuel or a solar heat collector.

Thermoelectric


Bio-Gas Plant


household biogas septic tank Biogas refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste or food waste. Biogas is a renewable energy source and in many cases exerts a very small carbon footprint.

Enzyme Substrate (wiki)
Anaerobic Digestion (wiki)
Newtown Wastewater Treatment Plant
Pyrolysis (wiki)
Roger Ruan
How does a Biogas Plant Work? (youtube)
Biodigesters
Biochar
Liquefied biogas
Bio Gas Technology
American Biogas Council
Swedish Biogas International
Bio-Construct

3 million Biogas Plants in India and 35 million in China.

Household Biogas System - Photo
Home Biogas
Home Biogas - Turn Waste into Energy
Composting
biogas plants

Fukuoka City Central Water Processing Plant, sewage is separated into liquid and solid waste. The solid waste, called sewage sludge, is exactly what it sounds like: a foul-smelling, brown lump. Most sewage sludge is thrown in landfills microorganisms are added to the mix. These microorganisms break down the solid waste, creating biogas, about 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide. Then, workers filter out the CO2 and add water vapor, which creates hydrogen and more CO2. They extract the CO2 again, and voila: pure hydrogen. The Fukuoka plant produces 300 kilograms of hydrogen per day, enough to fuel 65 Mirai vehicles, If all the biogas produced by the plant were converted to hydrogen, that number would jump to 600 cars per day.

Microbial Fuel Cell is a bio-electrochemical system that drives a current by using bacteria and mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature.
Microbial Fuel-cell

Electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
Ostara
Fuel Cells

Plantas Autofotosintéticas

Symbiotic Microbial Fuel Cells (youtube)

Citric Acid Cycle is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate. (also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle).

Electron Transport Chain is a series of compounds that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.

WSU researchers discover unique microbial photosynthesis a new type of cooperative photosynthesis that could be used in engineering microbial communities for waste treatment and bioenergy production.

Sugar Alcohol-Based Energy Storage Systems abundant waste product of the food industry mixed with carbon nanotubes.
 

Bio Energy


Biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter. Biofuels can be derived directly from plants, or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes.

Bioenergy is renewable energy made available from materials derived from biological sources. Biomass is any organic material which has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy. As a fuel it may include wood, wood waste, straw, manure, sugarcane, and many other by products from a variety of agricultural processes. By 2010, there was 35 GW (47,000,000 hp) of globally installed bioenergy capacity for electricity generation, of which 7 GW (9,400,000 hp) was in the United States

Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. Biochar is under investigation as an approach to carbon sequestration to produce negative carbon dioxide emissions. Biochar thus has the potential to help mitigate climate change via carbon sequestration. Independently, biochar can increase soil fertility of acidic soils (low pH soils), increase agricultural productivity, and provide protection against some foliar and soil-borne diseases. Furthermore, biochar reduces pressure on forests. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years.

Biomass is organic matter derived from living, or recently living organisms. Biomass can be used as a source of energy and it most often refers to plants or plant-based materials which are not used for food or feed, and are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass. As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods.

Grass - Hemp - Bamboo
Biomass
Bio-Mass Fuel Plant
Bio Electricity
Bio-Digesters
Bioneers

Stanford discovery could lead to sustainable source of the fuel additive ethanol. A recent discovery could lead to a new, more sustainable way to make ethanol without corn or other crops. This promising technology has three basic components: water, carbon dioxide and electricity delivered through a copper catalyst.

Biomimicry
Biology


Algae


Algae is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms which are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic. Included organisms range from unicellular genera, such as Chlorella and the diatoms, to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelp, a large brown alga which may grow up to 50 m in length. Most are aquatic and autotrophic and lack many of the distinct cell and tissue types, such as stomata, xylem, and phloem, which are found in land plants. The largest and most complex marine algae are called seaweeds, while the most complex freshwater forms are the Charophyta, a division of green algae which includes, for example, Spirogyra and the stoneworts. Diatom are a major group of algae, and are among the most common types of phytoplankton. Diatoms are unicellular, although they can form colonies in the shape of filaments or ribbons. Phytoplankton are photosynthesizing microscopic organisms that inhabit the upper sunlit layer of almost all oceans and bodies of fresh water on Earth. Chlorophyll is any of several closely related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants. Chlorophyll is essential in photosynthesis, allowing plants to absorb energy from light. Chlorophyll absorbs light most strongly in the blue portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, followed by the red portion. Conversely, it is a poor absorber of green and near-green portions of the spectrum, which it reflects, producing the green color of chlorophyll-containing tissues. Chlorophyll molecules are specifically arranged in and around photosystems that are embedded in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. Two types of chlorophyll exist in the photosystems of green plants: chlorophyll a and b.

Coralline Algae are red algae in the order Corallinales. They are characterized by a thallus that is hard because of calcareous deposits contained within the cell walls. The colors of these algae are most typically pink, or some other shade of red, but other species can be purple, yellow, blue, white or gray-green. Coralline algae play an important role in the ecology of coral reefs.

Green Algae are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyte and Charophyte algae, which are now placed in separate divisions.

Volvox is a polyphyletic genus of chlorophyte green algae in the family Volvocaceae. It forms spherical colonies of up to 50,000 cells. They live in a variety of freshwater habitats, and were first reported by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1700. Volvox diverged from unicellular ancestors approximately 200 million years ago.

Cyanobacteria is a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen. The name "cyanobacteria" comes from the color of the bacteria (Greek: κυανός (kyanós) = blue). Sometimes, they are called blue-green algae, and incorrectly so, because cyanobacteria are prokaryotes and the term "algae" is reserved for eukaryotes.

Microphyte are microscopic algae, typically found in freshwater and marine systems living in both the water column and sediment. They are unicellular species which exist individually, or in chains or groups. Depending on the species, their sizes can range from a few micrometers (µm) to a few hundred micrometers. Unlike higher plants, microalgae do not have roots, stems, or leaves. They are specially adapted to an environment dominated by viscous forces. Microalgae, capable of performing photosynthesis, are important for life on earth; they produce approximately half of the atmospheric oxygen and use simultaneously the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide to grow photoautotrophically. Microalgae, together with bacteria, form the base of the food web and provide energy for all the trophic levels above them. Microalgae biomass is often measured with chlorophyll a concentrations and can provide a useful index of potential production. The standing stock of microphytes is closely related to that of its predators. Without grazing pressures the standing stock of microphytes dramatically decreases.

Halophyte is a plant that grows in waters of high salinity, coming into contact with saline water through its roots or by salt spray, such as in saline semi-deserts, mangrove swamps, marshes and sloughs and seashores. An example of a halophyte is the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass). Relatively few plant species are halophytes—perhaps only 2% of all plant species. The large majority of plant species are glycophytes, which are not salt-tolerant and are damaged fairly easily by high salinity.

Salicornia is a genus of succulent, halophyte (salt tolerant) flowering plants in the family Amaranthaceae that grow in salt marshes, on beaches, and among mangroves. Salicornia species are native to North America, Europe, South Africa, and South Asia. Common names for the genus include glasswort, pickleweed, and marsh samphire; these common names are also used for some species not in Salicornia. The main European species is often eaten, called marsh samphire in Britain, and the main North American species is occasionally sold in grocery stores or appears on restaurant menus, usually as 'sea beans' or samphire greens or sea asparagus .

Bacteria - Viruses

Algae Bioreactor or photobioreactor is used for cultivating algae on purpose to fix CO2 or produce biomass.

Algae Bio Fuels Solix
Algal Bio Refinery
Petro Algae
Vertigro Algae (youtube)
Algae Industry Magazine

Algae cultivation technique could advance biofuels. Researchers have developed a way to grow algae more efficiently — in days instead of weeks. Oil from the algae can be used as a petroleum alternative and algae also can be used as food, feed, fiber, fertilizer, pigments and pharmaceuticals. Growing and harvesting it in wastewater streams could also reduce the
environmental footprint of many manufacturing processes.

Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor is a type of wastewater treatment process system that consists of an aeration tank (similar to a activated sludge tank) with special plastic carriers that provide a surface where a biofilm can grow.

Researchers have used a nanosecond pulsed electric field to extract hydrocarbons from microalgae. By using the shorter duration pulse, they were able to extract a large amount of hydrocarbons from the microalgae in a shorter amount of time, using less energy, and in a more efficient manner than current methods.

Jonathan Trent: Floating Algae Pods
Nasa Research OMEGA
Live Fuels
NASA Greenlab
Bilal Bomani: GreenLab Research (video)

Originoil Model Algae Appliance
Bacteria Petrol-Like Biofuel
Living Machine
Bio Resource Management
Bio Energy International
Quadrogen
Biofuel matchmaker: Finding the perfect algae for renewable energy

Vanadium Nitrogenase

The way plants produce cellulose research identified several proteins that are essential in the assembly of the protein machinery that makes cellulose.

Biodiesel Fuels



The Thinker Man