is the activity of
protecting something from loss or danger. An occurrence of improvement by
virtue of preventing loss or injury or other change. A process that saves
organic substances from
. The condition of being preserved for future
use. Kept intact or in a particular condition. Keep or maintain in
unaltered condition; cause to remain or last. Keep constant through
physical or chemical reactions or evolutionary change.
of a guardian or keeper. The act of retaining something.
Supply with necessities and support.
Preserve information for retrieval. Conformity or harmony.
is to shield from danger, injury, destruction, or damage. Shielding (or designed
to shield) against harm or discomfort.
is a copy of a file or directory on a separate
storage device. Memory
- Storage on
a electronic memory device
Data Storage Types
One of our biggest concerns
is..."Will our most important information and
knowledge stand The Test of Time?"
Information Destruction throughout History: Info-Graphic
including the suppression
valuable information) History
is a formal endeavor to ensure that digital information
of continuing value remains accessible and
. It involves planning,
resource allocation, and application of preservation methods and
technologies, and it combines policies, strategies and actions to ensure
access to reformatted and "born-digital" content, regardless of the
challenges of media failure and technological change. The goal of digital
preservation is the accurate rendering of authenticated content over time.
Computer Data Storage
is a technology consisting of computer
components and recording media used to retain digital data. It is a core
function and fundamental component of computers.
History of Hard Disk Drives
(wiki) - In 1956, IBM made a
that was big as a car that cost $160,000. Today in 2017,
Samsung made a 16 Terabyte SSD
that fits in your pocket. (16,000 GB).
is the selection, preservation,
of digital assets. Digital curation establishes, maintains
and adds value to repositories of digital data for present and future use.
This is often accomplished by archivists, librarians, scientists,
historians, and scholars. Enterprises are starting to use digital curation
to improve the quality of information and data within their operational
and strategic processes
. Successful digital curation will mitigate digital
obsolescence, keeping the information accessible to users indefinitely
is the process of gathering information relevant to a particular topic or
area of interest. Services or people that implement content curation are
called curators. Curation services can be used by businesses as well as
is a knowledge base created by Google. As of
2014, it contained 1.6 billion facts which had been collated automatically
from the Internet. Knowledge Vault is a potential successor to Google's
Knowledge Graph. The Knowledge Graph pulled in information from structured
sources like Freebase, Wikidata and Wikipedia
while the Knowledge Vault is an accumulation of facts from across the
entire web, including unstructured sources. "Facts" in Knowledge Vault
also include a confidence value, giving the capability of distinguishing
between knowledge statements that have a high probability of being true
from others that may be less likely to be true (based on the source that
Google obtained the data from and other factors).
The concept behind
the Knowledge Vault was presented in a paper authored by a Google Research
team. Google has indicated that Knowledge Vault is a research paper and
not an active product in development, as of August 2014.
Planning Far into the Future
Long Now Long-Term Thinking
Seven Generation Sustainability
is the great law of the
which holds appropriate to think seven generations ahead (about 140 years
into the future
) and decide whether
make today would benefit their children seven generations into the future.
is acting across multiple
is the study of postulating possible, probable, and
preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them. Seeks
to understand what is likely to continue and what could plausibly change.
Part of the discipline thus seeks a systematic and pattern-based
understanding of past and present, and to determine the likelihood of
future events and trends.(also called futurology),
disicipline related to futures studies, the study of the future. Strategy
is a high level plan to achieve one or more goals under conditions of
uncertainty. Strategic foresight happens when any planner uses scanned
inputs, forecasts, alternative futures exploration, analysis and feedback
to produce or alter plans and actions of the organization.
you look down you can only
see a few
. When you look straight forward you can see miles ahead.
Feet = Days and Miles = Years. Don't just look down, look ahead. Live in
the moment but also live for the future."
loose collective of rogue archivists, programmers, writers and loudmouths
dedicated to saving our digital heritage.
is the physical companion of the Rosetta
Digital Language Archive, and a prototype of one facet of The Long Now
Foundation's 10,000-Year Library.
is a non-profit library of millions of free books, movies,
software, music, websites, and more.
Preservation library and Archival Science
refers to the set
of activities that aims to prolong the life of a record and relevant
metadata, or enhance its value, or improve access to it through non-interventive
means. This includes actions taken to influence records creators prior to
selection and acquisition.
printed 106 of the 7,473 volumes of English
as it existed on April 7, 2015
and also included wallpaper displaying 1,980 additional volumes. A
36-volume index of all of the 7.5 million contributors to English
Wikipedia is also part of the project. The table of contents takes up 91
700-page volumes. The printed volume only includes text of the articles.
Images and references are not included.
Wikipedia Terminal Event Management Policy
is an official policy of
detailing the procedures to be
followed to safeguard the content of the encyclopedia in the event of a
non-localized event that would render the continuation of Wikipedia in its
current form untenable. The policy is designed to facilitate the
preservation of the encyclopedia by a transition to non-electronic media
in an orderly, time-sensitive manner or, if events dictate otherwise, the
preservation of the encyclopedia by other means. Editors are asked to
familiarize themselves with the procedures and in the unlikely event that
the implementation of these procedures proves necessary, act in accordance
with the procedural guidelines, inasmuch as circumstances allow.
is a fictional or hypothetical
encyclopedia containing all the knowledge accumulated by a galaxy-spanning
civilization. The name evokes the exhaustive aspects of the real-life
Cryptosteel Cold Storage Wallet
is the production of new living
Amnesia (Bregtje van der Haak, VPRO)
The End of Memory:
Film Directed by Vincent Amouroux and Produced by ARTE
France - ZED / Diff : ARTE
Documentary, France, 2014, 52 min.. This film is a scientific
investigation about the challenges of memory storage and the
short lifespan of current storage formats.
is a standard way that information is encoded for storage
in a computer
file. It specifies
how bits are used to encode information in a
is the ability to encode, store and recall
information. Memories give an organism the capability to learn and adapt
from previous experiences as well as build relationships. Encoding allows
the perceived item of use or interest to be converted into a construct
that can be stored within the brain and recalled later
from short-term or long-term memory.
information for immediate use or manipulation which is aided through
hooking onto previously archived items already present in the long-term
memory of an individual.
is a collection of knowledge preserved in such
a way that future generations would have access to said knowledge if
current means of access were lost. Scenarios where availability to
information (such as the Internet) would be lost could be described as
Existential Risks or Extinction Level Events. A knowledge ark could take
the form of a traditional Library or a modern computer database. It could
also include images only (such as photographs of important information, or
diagrams of critical processes). A knowledge ark would have to be
resistant to the effects of natural or man-made disasters to be viable.
Such an ark should include, but would not be limited to, information or
material relevant to the survival and prosperity of human civilization.
Current examples include the Svalbard Global Seed Vault
is intended to preserve a wide variety of plant
(such as important
crops) in case of their
is built in “Mine 3,” an abandoned coal mine close to
the Global Seed Vault. Countries are being
encouraged to submit data
that is particularly significant to their culture. Grønland 56, 3045
Drammen, NORWAY, +47 905 33 432,
firstname.lastname@example.orgA Lunar Ark
proposed which would store and transmit valuable information to
stations on Earth
. The success of this would also depend on the
availability of compatible receiver equipment on Earth, and adequate
knowledge of that equipment's operation. Other types of knowledge arks
might include genetic material
. With the potential for widespread personal
DNA sequencing becoming a reality, an individual might agree to store
their genetic code in a digital or analog storage format which would
enable later retrieval of that code. If a species was sequenced before
extinction, its genome would remain available for study even in the case
Knowledge Storage Types
Writing on Stone
Writing on Paper
using acrylic ink)
Writing on a
Millions of years
Laser-etched quartz glass will store data for millions of years
(Hitachi and Kyoto University's Kiyotaka Miura)
is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin,
magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film. (15-30
is the storage of data on a magnetised medium. Magnetic storage uses
different patterns of
magnetisation in a magnetisable material to
store data and is a form of non-volatile memory. The information is
accessed using one or more read/write heads.
is a type of computer memory that can retrieve stored
information even after having been power cycled (turned off and back on).
The opposite of non-volatile memory is volatile memory which needs
constant power in order to prevent data from being erased. Examples of
non-volatile memory include read-only memory, flash memory, ferroelectric
RAM, most types of magnetic computer storage devices (e.g. hard disk
drives, floppy disks, and magnetic tape), optical discs, and early
computer storage methods such as paper tape and punched cards.
was the first early magnetic recording technology, an
analog type of audio storage in which a magnetic recording is made on thin
steel or stainless steel wire. The first crude magnetic recorder was
invented in 1898 by Valdemar Poulsen. Nearline Magnetic Tape
Magnetic hard drives go atomic
. Physicists demonstrate the first
single-atom magnetic storage. Existing hard drives use magnets made of
about 1 million atoms to store a single bit of data. Chop a magnet in two,
and it becomes two smaller magnets. Slice again to make four. But the
smaller magnets get, the more unstable they become; their magnetic fields
tend to flip polarity from one moment to the next. Now, however,
physicists have managed to create a stable magnet from a single atom.
Rewritable Atomic-Scale Memory Storage Device:
Little patterns of
atoms can be arranged to represent English characters, fitting the content
of more than a billion books onto the surface of a stamp.
A kilobyte rewritable atomic memory
Data shrunk to a microscopic size is encapsulated between two
. Can preserve 10,000 letter pages at 150 dpi
or or 2,700 650×850 pictures can be stored preserve personal
data for 1000 years
magnifying device (200x) is sufficient to access the data saved
could last over
(maybe someone has already done this millions of years ago?)
ETH Zurich is writing digital information on DNA
encapsulating it in a protective layer of glass.
DNA Digital Data Storage
(wiki) (Instead of Zero's and
Ones we use 4 letters CTAG, SeeTag
Researchers Store Computer Operating System and Short Movie on DNA
DNA is an ideal storage medium because it's ultra-compact and can last
hundreds of thousands of years if kept in a cool, dry place, as
demonstrated by the recent recovery of DNA from the bones of a
430,000-year-old human ancestor found in a cave in Spain. They compressed
the files into a master file, and then split the data into short strings
of binary code made up of ones and zeros. Using an erasure-correcting
, they randomly packaged the strings into so-called
droplets, and mapped the ones and zeros in each droplet to the four
nucleotide bases in DNA: A, G, C and T. The algorithm deleted letter
combinations known to create errors, and added a barcode to each droplet
to help reassemble the files later. They generated a digital list of
72,000 DNA strands, each 200 bases long. To retrieve their files, they
used modern sequencing technology to read the DNA strands, followed by
software to translate the genetic code back into binary. They recovered
their files with zero errors, the study reports. They also demonstrated
that a virtually unlimited number of copies of the files could be created
with their coding technique by multiplying their DNA sample through
polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and that those copies, and even copies of
their copies, and so on, could be recovered error-free. Finally, the
researchers show that their coding strategy packs 215 petabytes of data on
a single gram of DNA. The capacity of DNA data-storage is theoretically
limited to two binary digits for each nucleotide, but the biological
constraints of DNA itself and the need to include redundant information to
reassemble and read the fragments later reduces its capacity to 1.8 binary
digits per nucleotide base. The team's insight was to apply fountain
codes, a technique Erlich remembered from graduate school, to make the
reading and writing process more efficient. With their DNA Fountain
technique, Erlich and Zielinski pack an average of 1.6 bits into each base
nucleotide. That's at least 60 percent more data than previously published
methods, and close to the 1.8-bit limit. The researchers spent $7,000 to
synthesize the DNA they used to archive their 2 megabytes of data, and
another $2,000 to read it.
For 3 billion years, one of the major carriers of information needed for
life, RNA, has had a glitch that creates errors when making copies of
. Researchers at The University of Texas at Austin
have developed a fix that allows RNA to accurately proofread for the first
time. Certain viruses called retroviruses can cause RNA to make copies of
DNA, a process called
. This process is notoriously prone to errors
because an evolutionary ancestor of all viruses never had the ability to
accurately copy genetic material. The new innovation engineered at UT
Austin is an enzyme that performs reverse transcription but can also
"proofread," or check its work while copying genetic code. The enzyme
allows, for the first time, for large amounts of RNA information to be
copied with near perfect accuracy.
Molecular recordings by directed CRISPR spacer acquisition
The ability to write a stable record of identified
molecular events into a specific genomic locus would enable the
examination of long cellular histories and have many
applications, ranging from developmental biology to synthetic
devices. We show that the type I-E CRISPR-Cas system of E.
coli can mediate acquisition of defined pieces of synthetic DNA.
We harnessed this feature to generate records of specific DNA
sequences into a population of bacterial genomes. We then
applied directed evolution to alter the recognition of a
protospacer adjacent motif by the Cas1-Cas2 complex, which
enabled recording in two modes simultaneously. We used this
system to reveal aspects of spacer acquisition, fundamental to
the CRISPR-Cas adaptation process. These results lay the
foundations of a multimodal intracellular recording device.
Data Storage Device
is a device for recording (storing) information
(data). Recording can be done using virtually any form of energy, spanning
from manual muscle power in handwriting, to acoustic vibrations in
phonographic recording, to electromagnetic energy modulating magnetic tape
and optical discs. A storage device may hold information, process
information, or both. A device that only holds information is a recording
medium. Devices that process information (data storage equipment) may
either access a separate portable (removable) recording medium or a
permanent component to store and retrieve data. Electronic data storage
requires electrical power to store and retrieve that data. Most storage
devices that do not require vision and a brain to read data fall into this
category. Electromagnetic data may be stored in either an analog data or
digital data format on a variety of media. This type of data is considered
to be electronically encoded data, whether it is electronically stored in
a semiconductor device, for it is certain that a semiconductor device was
used to record it on its medium. Most electronically processed data
storage media (including some forms of computer data storage) are
considered permanent (non-volatile) storage, that is, the data will remain
stored when power is removed from the device. In contrast, most
electronically stored information within most types of semiconductor
(computer chips) microcircuits are volatile memory, for it vanishes if
power is removed. Except for barcodes, optical character recognition
(OCR), and magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) data, electronic data
storage is easier to revise and may be more cost effective than
alternative methods due to smaller physical space requirements and the
ease of replacing (rewriting) data on the same medium.
is a technique or process
used in anatomy to preserve bodies or body parts. The water and fat are
replaced by certain plastics, yielding specimens that can be touched, do
not smell or decay, and even retain most properties of the original
has a theoretically infinite resolution. In practice an
analog signal is subject to
and distortion introduced by
communication channels and signal processing operations, which can
progressively degrade the
(SNR), which is a measure used in science and
engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of
background noise. It is defined as the ratio of signal power to the noise
power, often expressed in decibels. A ratio higher than 1:1 (greater than
0 dB) indicates more signal than noise. While SNR is commonly quoted for
electrical signals, it can be applied to any form of signal (such as
isotope levels in an ice core or biochemical signaling between cells).
is a system that converts an analog
signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a
digital camera, into a digital signal. An ADC may also provide an isolated
measurement such as an electronic device that converts an input analog
voltage or current to a digital number proportional to the magnitude of
the voltage or current. Typically the digital output is a two's complement
binary number that is proportional to the input, but there are other
possibilities. There are several ADC architectures. Due to the complexity
and the need for precisely matched components, all but the most
specialized ADCs are implemented as integrated circuits (ICs). A
digital-to-analog converter (DAC) performs the reverse function; it
converts a digital signal into an analog signal.
is a random fluctuation in an electrical signal, a
characteristic of all electronic circuits. Noise generated by electronic
devices varies greatly as it is produced by several different effects.
Thermal noise is unavoidable at non-zero temperature (see
fluctuation-dissipation theorem), while other types depend mostly on
device type (such as shot noise, which needs a steep potential barrier) or
manufacturing quality and semiconductor defects, such as conductance
fluctuations, including 1/f noise.
judged to be
unpleasant, loud or disruptive to hearing. From a physics standpoint,
noise is indistinguishable from sound, as both are vibrations through a
medium, such as air or water. The difference arises when the brain
receives and perceives a sound.
is the alteration of the original shape (or other
characteristic) of something, such as an object, image, sound or waveform.
Distortion is usually unwanted, and so engineers strive to eliminate
distortion, or minimize it. In some situations, however, distortion may be
desirable. The important signal processing operation of heterodyning is
based on nonlinear mixing of signals to cause intermodulation. Distortion
is also used as a musical effect, particularly with electric guitars.
refers either to a physical transmission
medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed
medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer
networking. A channel is used to convey an information signal, for example
a digital bit stream, from one or several senders (or transmitters) to one
or several receivers. A channel has a certain capacity for transmitting
information, often measured by its bandwidth in Hz or its data rate in
bits per second.
is an enabling technology that encompasses the
fundamental theory, applications, algorithms, and implementations of
processing or transferring information contained in many different
physical, symbolic, or abstract formats broadly designated as signals. It
uses mathematical, statistical, computational, heuristic, and linguistic
representations, formalisms, and techniques for representation, modelling,
analysis, synthesis, discovery, recovery, sensing, acquisition,
extraction, learning, security, or forensics.
refers to errors in computer data that occur during
writing, reading, storage, transmission, or processing, which introduce
unintended changes to the original data.
Entropy (information theory)
In information theory, systems are
modeled by a transmitter, channel, and receiver. The transmitter produces
messages that are sent through the channel. The channel modifies the
message in some way. The receiver attempts to infer which message was
sent. In this context, entropy (more specifically, Shannon entropy) is the
expected value (average) of the information contained in each message.
'Messages' can be modeled by any flow of information. The amount of
information of every event forms a random variable whose expected value,
or average, is the Shannon entropy. Units of entropy are the shannon, nat,
or hartley, depending on the base of the logarithm used to define it,
is commonly referred to as a bit.
refers to influences on effective
conversations. While often looked over, communication noise can have a
profound impact both on our perception of interactions with others and our
analysis of our own communication proficiency. Forms of communication
noise include psychological noise, physical noise, physiological and
semantic noise. All these forms of noise subtly, yet greatly influence our
communication with others and are vitally important to anyone’s skills as
a competent communicator.
is anything which modifies, or disrupts a signal as it travels along a
channel between a source and a receiver. The term typically refers to the
addition of unwanted signals to a useful signal. Common examples are:
Electromagnetic interference (EMI). Co-channel interference (CCI), also
known as crosstalk. Adjacent-channel interference (ACI). Intersymbol
interference (ISI). Inter-carrier interference (ICI). caused by doppler
shift in OFDM modulation (multitone modulation). Common-mode interference
(CMI). Conducted interference. Interference is typically but not always
distinguished from noise, for example white thermal noise. Radio resource
management aims at reducing and controlling the co-channel and
adjacent-channel interference. See also: Distortion,
Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR), Signal to noise plus interference (SNIR),
Inter-flow interference and Intra-flow interference.
Error Detection and Correction
are techniques that enable
reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels.
Many communication channels are subject to channel noise, and thus errors
may be introduced during transmission from the source to a receiver. Error
detection techniques allow detecting such errors, while error correction
enables reconstruction of the original data in many cases.
involves encoding information using fewer bits than the
original representation. Compression can be either lossy or lossless.
reduces bits by identifying and eliminating statistical
redundancy. No information is lost in lossless compression.
reduces bits by removing unnecessary or less
important information. The process of reducing the size of a data file is
referred to as data compression. In the context of data transmission, it
is called source coding (encoding done at the source of the data before it
is stored or transmitted) in opposition to channel coding.
The Test of Time
Even if our
is saved in digital format, on paper or some how saved
in bacteria or in our
, there is still no guarantee that the
information and knowledge will not be
lost or destroyed
idea would be is to launch multiple unmanned
, like the
space that's programmed to stay within the solar system and
programmed to return to earth at 500-year intervals.
If we are
still here and if the earth is still inhabitable, then the
would land in a populate area so that it’s information and
knowledge can be retrieved.
Then people would update the space
pod and then send it back out into
. And if the space pod
returns to earths orbit and sees no life because earth has became
uninhabitable for whatever reason, then the space pod would leave earths
orbit and check other planets in the solar system for signs of life. The
space pod would keep doing this as long as it survives. I kind of get this
feeling like this has happened already before, besides what we have seen
portrayed in some of our sci-fi movies with Extra Terrestrial's
of course. Colonization
of the Moon
Maybe we could build a
that could store our most valuable information and
knowledge. We could make it out of the same material that could
survive deep space and also survive entering a
, and maybe even survive a
. So I'm thinking, maybe that's the reason our
universe is here, because someone has already thought of a way
to preserve information in the previous universe.
is a free and unrestricted society which holds knowledge,
intelligence and science at its core, will launch a satellite later this
year to test the concept of long-term data storage in orbit around the
Humans embryos and sperm would have to be
and raised during space flight by
would be trained to raise children.
Humans can also adapt to space travel. And when they find a new
planet, then they will use our original DNA to raise the original human
species to adapt to a new planet environment.
extremophile deinocolus radioduans
bacterium, one of the most
In order to travel in space for hundreds of years to reach a new
habitable planet, humans would need to evolve into a different
kind of human more suitable for
Eventually humans would look like space aliens with big heads
with little bodies. But as long as humans preserve their
original DNA in eggs and sperm, they could raise original humans
again to adapt in their new world. Again this sounds like it has
already happened. Déjà vu
Mammal embryos can develop fully in space
"If life already evolved on another planet
before the earth was born
, then maybe life on that planet
launched a pod into space, like a seed from tree, hoping to land
somewhere to grow again, and keep life moving forward."
"When I think about how to preserve our information and knowledge, I can't help but
think that someone millions of years ago already solved that
problem because we would not be here if they didn't."
"If we ever did lose all our knowledge, and we had to
start all over again
, we would
most likely do the same things and make the same mistakes, all
because we did not learn enough, or teach enough."
For 20 years, beginning in the 1950s, states
documents to try to protect them. But it caused a chemical
reaction. The natural acids from the paper mixed with the degrading
laminate to create a noxious vinegar. Each passing year will further
degrade the document until it's gone. There are as many as 6 million
laminated historical documents.