Prisons - Jail
used to detain persons who
are in the lawful custody
of the government, either accused persons
awaiting trial or convicted
persons serving a sentence. A facility in which inmates are
locked up or forcibly confined and
denied a variety of freedoms
under the authority of the state as a form of punishment
convicted of crimes
is a secure prison
or jail for minors under the age
of 18, often termed
, to which they have been sentenced and committed
for a period of time, or detained on a short-term basis while awaiting
court hearings and/or placement in such a facility or in other long-term
care facilities and programs. Juveniles go through a separate court
system, the juvenile court, which sentences or commits juveniles to a
certain program or facility.
concentration camp, is the imprisonment or confinement of people
in large groups, without trial
is a place in which individuals are physically confined
or incarcerated by a third party that is contracted by a government
agency. Private prison companies typically enter into contractual
agreements with governments that commit prisoners and then pay a per diem
or monthly rate, either for each prisoner in the facility, or for each
place available, whether occupied or not. Such contracts may be for the
operation only of a facility, or for design, construction and operation.
Private prisons are controversial
, such as
. The main
argument for the contracting of prisons to private operators is that it
can save money. The main argument against contracting prisons is concerns
that the rights and care of inmates will be compromised.
Criminal Justice Reform
in the United States refers to reform aimed at
fixing perceived errors in the criminal justice system. Goals of
organizations spearheading the movement for criminal justice reform
include decreasing the United States' prison population, reducing prison
sentences that are perceived to be too harsh and long, altering drug
sentencing policy, policing reform, reducing
juvenile justice reform. Criminal justice reform also targets reforming
policies for those with criminal convictions that are receiving other
consequences from food assistance programs, outside of serving their time in prison.
in the United States has the largest prison
population in the world
, and the highest per-capita incarceration rate.
December 31, 2013, the United States held an estimated 1,574,700
persons in state and federal prisons
, an increase of
approximately 4,300 prisoners (0.3%) from 2012. This was the
first increase reported since the peak of 1,615,500 prisoners in
2009. Less then 300,000 in 1980.
United States Incarceration Rate
America's Annual Price Tag for Incarceration
is $80 billion, each U.S.
resident is paying about $260 per year on corrections, up from
$77 per person in 1980. Total
Cost of incarceration in the U.S. is more than $1 Trillion
The Human Stories behind Mass Incarceration: Eve Abrams
(video and text)
Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners
International Human Rights Standards Protecting Prisoners
Education for Prisoners
Films and Videos about Prisons
One of the main reasons why we have prisons is to isolate
people who are a threat to the general public
. But if you
look at all the things that are a threat to the general public,
you will find that there are a lot of people who should be in
prison who are not. There are certain people who work in
government and for corporations who actually believe that they
are above the
. A person can murder someone and be in prison
for life. But a government leader or CEO can murder thousands
and never be brought to trial or even charged with a
. This can no longer continue.
When people are not held accountable it creates chaos. Stopping
corruption is absolutely necessary. But we also have to attack
the source of all corruption, which is education. If we never
improve education we will never improve the world.
only live a couple of years after
Foundation for Protection OfficersImprove Training
Nationwide, Law Enforcement
made an estimated 12,408,899
arrests in 2011. An estimated 12,196,959 arrests in 2012.
The highest number of arrests were for drug abuse violations.
Nearly 74 percent (73.8) of the persons arrested in the nation
during 2012 were males. In 2012, 69.3 percent of all persons
arrested were white, 28.1 percent were black, and the remaining
2.6 percent were of other races.
“For too long, we built modern jails
instead of modern schools, and we invested in permanent
punishment instead of smartly investing in permanent
reformation.” - Devon Puglia
According to the Bureau of
Justice Statistics, about 95 percent of inmates in
state prisons eventually get out
. Studies show that inmates who
maintain strong family contact are significantly more likely to land jobs,
find housing, and reintegrate into society after prison. Many inmates
families pay $1.22 per minute to talk on the phone thanks to giant phone
corporations who've signed contracts with many prisons.
Our Justice System has Serious
Just like cops with their ignorant
the justice system
has a conviction quota, and they don't care
if the person is innocent. Bad
is the power to choose whether or how
to punish a person who has violated the law. The
use of enforcement
discretion, such as that based on racial prejudice or
usually considered a legal abuse and a threat to the rule of law.
certain crimes must be punished with at least a minimum number of years in
Criminal Justice System
consists of three main parts: (1)
Legislative (create laws); (2) adjudication (courts); and (3) corrections
(jails, prisons, probation and parole).
represented Texas inmates in a number of suits against the
Texas Department of Corrections and became one of the central figures in
the Texas prison reform movement during the late 1960s and 1970s, leading
to broad changes in the Texas prison system in the 1980s.
is some form of property deposited or pledged to a court to persuade it to
release a suspect from jail, on the understanding that the suspect will
return for trial or forfeit the bail (and possibly be brought up on
charges of the crime of failure to appear).
What if we Ended the Injustice of Bail? Robin Steinberg
text) - On any given night, more than 450,000 people in the United States
are locked up in jail simply because they don't have enough money to pay
helps people get out of jail whose only crime is being poor.
is a crime against
innocent people that is being committed by ignorant criminals with wealth
and power, and these criminals want to punish people even more than they
do already by implementing bails and other unjust laws. "When a human
feels no shame about committing crimes against other people, they are the
worst type of terrorist that money can by. It's not just the law that is
an act of terrorism, it's the people who enforce these laws and the people
who fund and support these laws".
America's For-Profit Bail System
is a prison for people who are unable to pay
Each year about 1,000 Americans die in
810 people have lost their lives in Jail so far in 2016
Activists Are Using
Technology to Help People Make Bail
No more money bail
community groups to pay for bail.
cryptocurrency scheme against bail using your computers spare power to get
people out of jail.Legal
Tonight with John Oliver: Mandatory Minimums (HBO)
Tonight with John Oliver: Public Defenders (HBO)
A prosecutor's vision for a better justice system
(video and Text)
A prisoner dies every 5.5 hours in India
. India's 1,401 jails held
419,623 prisoners as against their total capacity of 366,781. There are
three times more mentally ill and 61 per cent more women prisoners in the
country compared with the figures 15 years ago.
Center on Institutions and Alternatives
On Death Row
(2006) This film takes a look into the personal
lives of women
currently awaiting execution on Death Row. Though
each woman is convicted of committing society’s ultimate crime,
there is often another side of the story.
Aired: 01/08/2006 | 1 hr. 28 min.
The Proven Way to Keep More Innocent Teens From Confessing to
Murder (and Why Police Won't Adopt It)
Standard interrogation, which includes badgering and lying to
suspects until they confess, is psychological torture for the
young and mentally frail. The American style of interrogation is
guilt-presumptive, accusatory, and confrontational.
Now there's a better way called PEACE (an acronym for the five
steps involved—Planning and Preparation, Engage and Explain,
Account, Closure, Evaluation),
Since 1989, two hundred twenty-eight people in the United States
who made confessions have been exonerated.
Empire Files - Enter the biggest Prison System in History
The Empire holds by far the most prisoners than any other
country on earth, in both absolute numbers and per capita. Abby
Martin explores the dark reality of conditions in America's
prisons, who is warehoused in them, and how things got this way.
Featuring interviews with Eddie Conway, former political
prisoner unjustly incarcerated for 44 years, and Eugene Puryear,
author of "Shackled and Chained, Mass Incarceration in
The Secret US Prisons you've never heard of before
Communication Management Unit
Illinois spending on incarceration is ineffective & costly to
The Private Prison Project
The U.S.'s incarceration rate of 716 prisoners per 100,000
population is the world's highest. Thirty-six of our states also
have higher incarceration rates than any country in the world.
More Than 100 Police Chiefs And Prosecutors Unite To Cut Prison
Because of Rockefeller-style laws, the nation's prison
population exploded from 330,000 in 1973 to a peak of 2.3
That meant building hundreds of new state and federal prisons.
By 2010, more than 490,000 people were working as
that costs between $63 billion and $75 billion
a year. Half a million Americans are serving long sentences for
nonviolent drug offenses. Those inmates make up 48 percent of
the inmate population in federal prisons.
Rehabilitation and Education
Law Enforcement Against Prohibition
people for money and profit, so criminals are locking up people.
Private prisons such as the CCA (Corrections
Corporation of America
) own over 200 facilities in the
nation and makes a profit close to 5 billion dollars per year on
inmates. They rely on anti-immigrant laws like
and copycat laws across the nation for
fresh inmates and continual profit.
Legislative Exchange Council
Approximately 700,000 inmates are released from prison in the United States. Yet 40
percent end up back in prison within just 3 years, according to
the Rand Corp
Life After Prison
- (01/01/2012 | 1 hr. 32 min. video)
Isidore: Creating Jobs 4 the Formerly Incarcerated
Life in and after Prison
Services exclusively for people with Criminal Records
Tonight with John Oliver: Prisoner Re-entry (HBO)
provides a structured and systematic process to
reintegrate ex-offenders into the community and to provide
services to their families.
working with thousands of tech industry
professionals to help 100+ local governments serve their communities
600,000 people are released from prisons annually in the U.S.A.
Money and Crime
is deserving blame or censure as being wrong or evil or
National Institute of
Subversion and Containment
is a concept in literary studies
introduced by Stephen Greenblatt in his 1988 essay "Invisible Bullets". It
has subsequently become a much-used concept in new historicist and
cultural materialist approaches to textual analysis. Literary critic Louis
A. Montrose writes that the terms are often used to refer to the "capacity
of the dominant order to generate subversion so as to use it to its own
Suspect or Perpetrator
is a known person accused or
suspected of committing a crime.
Routine Activity Theory
is a sub-field of
crime opportunity theory
that focuses on situations of crimes .
is a standard example of a game analyzed in
game theory that shows why two completely "rational" individuals
, even if it appears that it is in their best interests to do so.
Punishment Side Effects on the Young
Every year, thousands of children are
suspended from preschool, privately-run preschools and daycares
is the authoritative
imposition of an undesirable
or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, in response to a
particular action or
that is deemed unacceptable or threatening
to some norm.Condemnation
action of condemning someone to a punishment; sentencing.
is to express strong disapproval
of. Declare or judge
unfit for use or habitation. Demonstrate the guilt of (someone). Pronounce
a sentence on (somebody) in a court
is a type of
symbolic punishment given to someone for a fault or an offense or bad
conduct. A quality of being inadequate and having a feature or fact
deserving some type of censure.
is a punishment intended to cause
physical pain on a person. It is usually inflicted in settings with a
substantial disparity of power between the partakers. Corporal punishment
is commonly practiced on minors, especially in home and also school
settings, usually employing more modest forms. Common methods in this
regard often include spanking or paddling.
was a Soviet forced labor
camp systems during the Stalin era, from the 1930s until the 1950s.
of an individual or group by another individual or group.
is a drug rehabilitation strategy which uses
reduce drug use
participants. Sober Companion
Law and Order in politics
refers to demands for a strict criminal
justice system, especially in relation to violent and property crime,
through stricter criminal penalties. These penalties may include longer
terms of imprisonment, mandatory sentencing, three-strikes laws, and in
some countries, capital punishment.
School Discipline Laws & Regulations by Category
Majority of States Ban Corporal Punishment
of School Psychologists
School to Prison Pipeline
is the disciplinary policies and
practices that create an environment for school-to-prison link to occur
disproportionately affect Latino and Black students which is later
reflected in the rates of incarceration. Describes the increasing patterns
of contact students have with the juvenile and adult criminal justice
systems as a result of the recent practices implemented by educational
institutions, specifically zero tolerance policies and the use of police
Help for kids the education system ignores: Victor Rios
Rethinking School Suspensions
: Researchers have found that when
educators and administrators focus on creating a positive school climate,
the likelihood of a student being suspended decreases by approximately 10
is the methods used to prevent future
behavioral problems in children. The word discipline is defined as
imparting knowledge and skill, in other words, to teach. In its most
general sense, discipline refers to systematic instruction given to a
disciple. To discipline means to instruct a person to follow a particular
code of conduct.
is prejudice and accompanying systematic
discrimination against young people.
Mendota Juvenile Treatment Center
School Corporal Punishment
refers to causing deliberate pain or discomfort in response to undesired
behaviour by students in schools. It often involves striking the student
either across the buttocks or on the hands, with an implement such as a
rattan cane, wooden paddle, slipper, leather strap or wooden yardstick.
Less commonly, it could also include spanking or smacking the student with
the open hand, especially at the elementary school level.
Classical Adlerian Psychology
a values-based, fully integrated theory of personality, model of
psychopathology, philosophy of living, strategy for preventative
education, and technique of psychotherapy, involving both depth psychology
and an appreciation of practical, democratic principles in daily life. Its
mission is to encourage the development of psychologically healthy and
cooperative individuals, couples, and families in order to effectively
pursue the ideals of social equality and democratic living.
than 110,000 students, including disproportionate numbers of black and
disabled students, were subjected to
or a similar punishment in the 2013-14 school year.
Civil Rights Data Collection
is widely held to have become a serious
problem in recent decades in many countries, especially where weapons such
as guns or knives are involved. It includes violence between school
students as well as physical attacks by students on school staff.Bullying
is the process when a state or private citizen lawfully holds a person by
removing his or her freedom of liberty at that time.
is a set of actions by a teacher towards a
student (or groups of students) after the student's behaviour disrupts the
ongoing educational activity or breaks a pre-established rule created by
the school system.
is an approach to
developed by Lee and Marlene Canter. It involves a high level of teacher
control in the class. It is also called the "take-control" approach to
teaching, as the teacher controls their classroom in a firm but positive
manner. The approach maintains that teachers must establish rules and
directions that clearly define the limits of acceptable and unacceptable
student behavior, teach these rules and directions, and ask for assistance
from parents and/or administrators when support is needed in handling the
behavior of students.
was punished for his self-aggrandizing craftiness
and deceitfulness by being forced to roll an immense boulder up a hill,
only to watch it come back to hit him, repeating this action for eternity.
Positive Behavior Support
used to understand what maintains an individual's challenging
behavior. People's inappropriate behaviors are difficult to change because
they are functional; they serve a purpose for them. These behaviors are
supported by reinforcement in the environment. In the case of students and
children, often adults in a child’s environment will reinforce his or her
undesired behaviors because the child will receive objects and/or
attention because of his behavior.
Functional behavior assessments
(FBAs) clearly describe behaviors,
identify the contexts (events, times, and situation) that predict when
behavior will and will not occur, and identify consequences that maintain
the behavior. They also summarize and create a hypothesis about the
behavior, directly observe the behavior and take data to get a baseline.
The positive behavior support process involves goal identification,
information gathering, hypothesis development, support plan design,
implementation and monitoring.
is a discipline model used by schools,
and in parenting, that focuses on the positive points of behaviour, based
on the idea that there are no bad children, just good and bad behaviors.
You can teach and reinforce the good behaviors
while weaning the bad
behaviors without hurting the child verbally or physically. People
engaging in positive discipline are not ignoring problems. Rather, they
are actively involved in helping their child learn how to handle
situations more appropriately while remaining calm, friendly and
respectful to the children themselves. Positive discipline includes a
number of different techniques that, used in combination, can lead to a
more effective way for parents to manage their kids behaviour, or for
teachers to manage groups of students. Some of these are listed below.
Positive Behavior Support (PBS) is a structured, open-ended model that
many parents and schools follow. It promotes positive decision making,
teaching expectations to children early, and encouraging positive
behaviors. Positive discipline contrasts with negative discipline.
Negative discipline may involve angry, destructive, or violent responses
to inappropriate behavior. In the terms used by psychology research,
positive discipline uses the full range of reinforcement and punishment
options: Positive reinforcement, such as complimenting a good effort;
such as ignoring requests made in a whining tone
of voice; Positive punishment, such as requiring a child to clean up a
mess s/he made; and Negative punishment, such as removing a privilege in
response to poor behavior.
Youthful Offender System
is a maximum security prison in
Pueblo, Colorado. YOS houses male and female offenders between ages 14–25.
Impact of School Suspensions
is a form of punishment that
people receive for violating rules and regulations.
is not a
America Has A Juvenile Justice Problem — Here's What You Should
16-Year-Old Is Locked Up in a Supermax Prison
| Stickup Kid
| FRONTLINE (youtube)
District Attorney Ed Jagels is an idiot and a moron, why do we
have so many ignorant scumbags in the Justice System?
Education for Everyone
Assembly Line Justice
Right to Counsel for Juvenile Prosecutions
Collective Punishment Hurts Everyone
Schools are overusing restraints and so-called seclusion,
particularly on kids with
emotional or intellectual
Schools Suspensions Cost Society Billions
Nearly 3.5 million public school students were given an
out-of-school suspension at least once. Of that number, 1.55
million students were suspended multiple times. They were sent
home from school for a spectrum of offenses, ranging from minor
misbehaviors, like disrupting class, to more serious ones, like
possession of drugs. Just one suspension makes a student
significantly more likely to drop out of high school, and later,
get involved with the criminal justice system or receive public
assistance. On a national scale, this results in foregone
national income, foregone tax revenues and an increase in crime
and needed social services. Not only will school districts
increase graduation rates and generate billions of dollars in
economic activity if they stop suspending so many students.
More than 160,000 children were disciplined
using corporal punishment
in public schools in the United States in
the 2013-2014 school year. Corporal Punishment is still legal (and used)
in US public schools in 19 states.
The Civil Rights Project - Proyecto Derechos Civiles
Harsh school discipline, suspensions, expulsions, and school
arrests most immediately come to mind. Many believe paddling is
an archaic punishment from a long-gone era. Federal education
data confirms that incidents of
reported by schools have declined
significantly in recent years. But the practice is still widely
in use—and for tens of thousands of public-school students,
discipline that “deliberately inflicts pain upon a child” is not
uncommon. As a result, education groups, activists, and
parents—including those victimized by the practice—are demanding
that corporal punishment be outlawed in schools to protect
children’s physical and emotional health.
Many of America’s largest school districts are hiring more
security officers than hey are counselors
. In four of the
top ten largest public school districts in the country,
including New York City, Chicago, Miami-Dade County, and
officers outnumber school counselors.
Black girls are punished at school at rates that are even more
disproportionate than those experienced by black boys
For example, they are suspended six times more often than white
The Rate of Return to the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program
intervention program targeted toward disadvantaged African-American youth.
Mental Health and African Americans
Black Female Mental
Health within the UKRestraints
National studies have shown that students are more likely to
drop out if they are arrested, and many advocates have long criticized
harsh discipline as part of what they call the “school to prison
was the first recorded legislator of Athens in Ancient
Greece 7th century BC. He replaced the prevailing system of oral law and
blood feud by a written code to be enforced only by a court of law. Draco
was the first democratic legislator, he was requested by the Athenian
citizens to be a lawgiver for the city-state, but the citizens were fully
unaware that Draco would establish harsh laws. Draco's written law was
characterized by its harshness. To this day, the adjective draconian
refers to similarly unforgiving rules or laws, in English and other
Juvenile Justice System
is the primary system used to handle youth who are convicted of
criminal offenses. The juvenile justice system intervenes in delinquent
behavior through police, court, and correctional involvement, with the
goal of rehabilitation. Youth and their guardians can face a variety of
consequences including probation, community service, youth court, youth
incarceration and alternative schooling. The juvenile justice system,
similar to the adult system, operates from a belief that intervening early
in delinquent behavior will deter adolescents from engaging in criminal
behavior as adults.
Expelled from Preschool
Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 2014
Early Childhood Consultation
is not a good
, what other methods can you help someone
aware of danger
Connecticut to open prison for 18-25
year olds. A prison to focus on youth brain development using
behavior-modification curriculum. If we just improve education
then we can avoid using prisons as schools, and
schools as prisons
Impact of Early Intervention on Psychopathology, Crime, and
Well-Being at Age 25
Punishing people is a very ignorant and
ineffective teaching method.
Punishment causes more
problems then it solves
"There is no such thing as moral responsibility for past acts, no such thing as real justice in
punishing them, for the reason that human beings are not
stationary existences, but changing, growing, incessantly
progressive organisms, which in no two moments are the same.
therefore justice, whose only possible mode of proceeding is to
punish in present time for what is done in past time, must
always punish a person more or less similar to, but never
identical with, the one who committed the offense, and therein
must be no justice." Edward Bellamy
(unless of course you're
continually acting like an a**hole).
is the militarization of schools using
School Resource Officers
. Zero tolerance is the same as zero
School to Prison Pipeline
is how politicians get away with murder and abuse
Movie Aired: 03/02/2014 | 1 hr. 19 min.
In an attempt to avoid another Columbine, 'zero tolerance'
states have brought in armed police to patrol hallways and
enforce classroom discipline in public schools. The results are
Crime and Punishment
is a novel by the Russian author Fyodor
Dostoyevsky. It was first published in the literary journal The Russian
Messenger in twelve monthly installments during 1866. It was later
published in a single volume. It is the second of Dostoyevsky's
full-length novels following his return from 10 years of exile in Siberia.
Crime and Punishment is considered the first great novel of his "mature"
period of writing.
Punishment does not solve problems, it usually makes problems
. Wasting time, money and resources.
How many juveniles are held in residential placement on a given
day in the U.S
.? Nationally, 54,148 juvenile offenders were
held in residential placement facilities on October 23, 2013.
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
Making people pay for a mistake does not necessarily mean that
that person will learn from that mistake. So why are we still making
people pay for their mistakes?
United Nations Convention Against Torture
Teachers need more Training and all Students also need Training and Education on how to Resolve Conflicts.
are methods and processes involved in
facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution. Committed
group members attempt to resolve group conflicts by actively communicating
information about their conflicting motives or ideologies to the rest of
the group (e.g., intentions; reasons for holding certain beliefs), and by
engaging in collective negotiation.
follows this model work through the
following stages in order. Active Listening:
Understand the psychology of the perpetrator and let them know they are
being listened to. Empathy:
their issues and how they feel. Rapport:
When they begin to see how the negotiator feels, they are building trust.
Only once trust has been gained
can solutions to their problem be recommended.
They act, and maybe surrender.
considered to be important to work through these steps in order, and not
to try to effect behavioral change before rapport has been established.
Active Listening Techniques for Hostage Crisis Negotiators
Improve Police Training
National Data Confirm Cases Of Restraint
And Seclusion In Public Schools
Restraint and seclusion were used at least 267,000 times
nationwide. That includes 163,000 instances in which students were
restrained. Mechanical restraints were used 7,600 of those times. Schools
reported they placed children in seclusion rooms about 104,000 times. In
75 percent of the cases, it was kids with disabilities who were restrained or secluded.
reduce crime, violence and bullying, improve human behavior,
strengthen civil society, provide effective leadership, restore
relationships, repair harm.
is an approach to
on the needs of the victims and the offenders, as well as the involved
community. This contrasts to more punitive approaches where the main aim
is to punish the offender, or satisfy abstract legal principles.
Behavioral Interventions and Support
Positive Behavior Support
The National Dissemination Center
Developmental Disability News
Resolve a Conflict at Work
Crime is a violation of people and relationships. (As opposed
to a crime against the laws of the state.)
Violations create obligations. (Such as restitution, repair
of harm, perhaps apology)
Restorative justice engages victims, offenders and community
members — all those affected by the crime — in an effort to put
Paying youth to stay out of trouble
Comprehensive Homicide Initiative
Youth Have Rights
. They have a right to a high quality
education so that they can choose any job they wish, and not
have someone else choose a job for them. When you are dependent
on others finding you work, or dependent on others to provide
you with a job, that means you have very little options, and
what you end up with may be doing more harm then good.
You can't have
from an education that is dysfunctional and
inadequate. No more prisons, just better schools. So that you
are free to learn any where that you want for the rest of your
life. If we improve the education curriculum in every school in
America, we will fix every problem that this world is currently
faced with. And that's a guarantee. That's the power of
knowledge, and the potential that comes from people having
access to a high quality education. Everyone benefits, everyone.
Of course this will not happen overnight, the transition will
take many years. But most people will see the benefits within
Superintendent shows the ignorance of Americas Prisons
Only 20% of
end up back in jail within 2 years
compared to 50%–60% in the UK and US
Many students in the juvenile justice education system have
emotional or health problems that affect their ability to learn
According to 2010 data, 37 percent of incarcerated youth had visual,
hearing, or dental problems, 30 percent had experienced physical or sexual
abuse, 72 percent had issues with drugs and alcohol, and 45 percent had
problems paying attention at school or work. However, in an education
system that is decentralized, disorganized and rarely prioritized, the
needs of these students often were failed. Education in
Juvenile Justice Educational Enhancement Program (JJEEP)
The U.S. Sends 2 Million Kids to Prison
. Incarcerating more
youths than in any other nation by a 5-to-1 ratio.
That's the average, and 95 percent of the children never
even committed a violent crime.
Films by Youth Inside - FYI Films Program
is an action that is prohibited only to a
certain class of people, and most often applied only to offenses committed
by minors. Refers to an offense such as a traffic violation where motive
is not a consideration in determining guilt.
refers to "a court's right to punish for
actions or omissions as if they were criminal.
The average juvenile facility costs society
$88,000 a year
which is not even effective as educating prisoners to reduce
Person In Need of Supervision
is a person in need of
support, guidance and education.
A prison does not say that you're a bad person
, being in prison
just says that you were caught doing something bad, or caught
doing something illegal, which does not always mean that you
were doing something bad or that you're bad person, because
some laws can be unjust
unfair under certain circumstances. This is something we need to improve.
If kids do things that resemble anything that can be misconstrued as
violent, or something that can be considered to be a precursor
for bad behavior, they are most of the time punished, that is
what ignorant teachers and parents do, they punish kids instead
of learning from kids. In order to understand why kids do what
they do, you need to talk with them and find out why. If you
punish someone instead of trying to understand them, then you
are then actually influencing bad behavior, and at the same
time, hurting and confusing the child or person. This is why
prisons don't work, it is simply an ignorant reaction by
ignorant people who believe that punishing people is somehow
related to learning. And mostly the only thing that kids learn
when they are punished, is that too many adults are ignorant a**holes.
Japan's 99% Conviction Rate
Published on Dec 12, 2015 (youtube)
In Japan, crime rates are low and the state incarcerates far
fewer people than in other rich countries. But when people are accused of
a crime they are almost always convicted.
with the goal of
useful information. Interrogation may involve a diverse
, ranging from developing a rapport
with the subject, to
. Police interrogation is sometimes like a
because they are not always there to help you, it seems they're just there
to swindle you using Trick
in order to force you or
you into doing and saying things that are not true or
which they can then use to exploit
All because they believe that it will make it look like that they're doing
their job, when in fact, there's nothing in their
says that they have a right to
a persons Human Rights
and Due Process
- Plea Deals
Compelling Police Interrogations - Port, Huguely, Wozniak
- Police Abuses
California Proposition 47
Recategorized some nonviolent
offenses as misdemeanors, rather than felonies, as they had previously been categorized.
Realignment, Incarceration, and Crime Trends in California
Public Policy Institute of California 2016. -
Let us not confuse
. Justice is finding the cause of the problem and
then trying to keep the problem from happening again by
informing the public
. Justice should have nothing to do with
. Punishment and revenge are ignorant acts of
desperate people who feel they have no choice. But that feeling
of having no options comes directly from a persons
lack of knowledge
. An educated person pursues choices. An
undereducated person acts more with their emotions because that
is mostly what they know. If people knew more they would see better
choices and better alternatives.
to increase your
Knowledge increases hope and potential. Not learning and
reducing one's knowledge decreases potential and hope leaving
only despair. Keep learning my
is a concept of fair and
between the individual and society. This is measured by
and tacit terms for the
, opportunities for personal activity, and social privileges.
The concept of social justice has often referred to the process of
ensuring that individuals fulfill their
what was their due from society.
to be a Judge
is used especially of what is legally or
y right or proper
or fitting. Fair to all parties as dictated by
Free from favoritism or self-interest
conforming with established standards or rules.
Of moral excellence
Indicating exactness or preciseness. Absolutely. Exactly at this
moment or the moment described.
Justice Under Law
is being free from
or self-interest or
conforming with established standards
or rules. Not excessive or extreme.
Very pleasing to the eye. Gained or earned without cheating or
In conformity with the rules or laws and without fraud or cheating.
Department of Justice
(DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is
a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the
enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States,
equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The
department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration.
The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement
agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug
Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for
investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States
government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court),
and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible
for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the
Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is
headed by the United States
, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by
the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet.
Federal Law Enforcement in the United States
empowers a wide range of
law enforcement agencies to maintain law and public order related to
matters affecting the country as a whole.
"If you judge, investigate"
"Be just, and fear not." (Shakespeare's King Henry the VIII
Every Law can be Debated, this is why we have Courts
To be a Judge
is to be an investigator, not just knowing the
facts of the law, but understanding the facts of society. Our
understanding of the world has increased. And our abilities to
communicate and learn has also increased. That gives us more
options and more choices.
should be just that,
fair. Not to judge, just confirm the facts. Don't misrepresent
the facts, and don't leave out any facts. But when people ignore
to respect each other then you have people
being victimize by a system of justice, a system that people
helped create by allowing the abuse to continue. If you act like
criminals and then try to pretend that you're providing a service
that the public pays for, you're not convincing anyone, so you
see, you are on trial as well, the law applies to you too, and so do
the laws of nature, and good nature as well. When you can't
justify your behavior, then who judges thee.
Society must have
the power to hold officials accountable to the responsibilities
of their position
, and their responsibility to respect the
freedom and the rights of all people.
is a procedure to allow a nonparty, called
intervenor (also spelled
) to join ongoing litigation, either as
a matter of right or at the discretion of the court, without the
permission of the original litigants. The basic rationale for intervention
is that a judgment in a particular case may affect the rights of
nonparties, who ideally should have the right to be heard.
Truth can be
Sacrificial altars of the 21st century are the
were punishments and death sentences are
given on a daily basis, but not to ward off evil spirits, but to
victimize and control citizens using fear and punishment, just
like the sick practitioners and leaders have done before for
hundreds of years. This isn't justice, this is just another
horrible side effect of an ignorant society, a society that is
ruled by money instead of being ruled by logic, morals and
We make laws and rules to make each other aware of things that
may be dangerous to life. Rules are more or less a guide. But
laws and rules were never meant to be this complicated, or used
as weapons, or used as a method of control. This is what happens
when people are not educated enough to understand the problems
that have been created, so people are unable to solve these
problems, or stop more problems from being created. So the
problem is not laws, the problem is how laws and rules are
interpreted, and how they are used. Just like everything else in
our world, there are some people who abuse things, which is our
fault, because we are not educating people enough.
victimizes and discriminates the poor
. Every year, thousands
of innocent people are sent to jail only because they can’t
afford to post bail, putting them at risk of losing their jobs,
custody of their children — even their lives.
"I did not break the law
, the law
was already broken before I got here, so one cannot break what is already
been broken. When Laws are use as weapons, we no longer communicate as
humans, a law is to give reasons and not supposed to deny people their
reasons. Laws are supposed to provide guidance in society, laws should not
be used to attack people. How can a law deny reason?"
"Every Law Not Based on WISDOM is a Menace to the State"
"Our justice system
is sometimes out
of control, and too many people are abused, unless you pay the
extortion fees, or what they refer to as fines, which is another problem."
"Every Supreme Court Decision must
Supreme Court Justices
are just as criminal and corrupt as
the people they owe favors to."
starts with improving education and making
sure everyone has access.
in order to
them is just showing how ignorant people are in our
is a movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal.
You can't punish people for having problems
, all you can do is
try to help people by using all the resources and all the skilled people
that we have available. Making peoples problems worse will not help
people. You're not a wild animal and people are not dogs.
Problem-Solving Courts in the United States
addresss the underlying problems that contribute to criminal
behavior and are a current trend in the legal system of the United States.
In 1989, a judge in Miami began to take a hands-on approach to drug
addicts, ordering them into treatment, rather than perpetuating the
revolving door of court and prison. The result was creation of drug court,
a diversion program. That same concept began to be applied to difficult
situations where legal, social and human problems mesh. There were over
2,800 problem-solving courts in 2008, intended to provide a method of
resolving the problem in order to reduce recidivism.
65 Million Americans have an arrest record
, which makes it
extremely difficult to get a job. - (PDF)
is the process of looking up and compiling
criminal records, commercial records and financial records of an
individual or an organization.
Alice Goffman: College or Prison, two destinies one blatant injustice
Prisons across America have more people with
serious mental illnesses then state hospitals do. We need to
remove people with serious mental illness out of jail and into
Mental Health Problems of Prison and Jail Inmates
Treatment Advocacy Center
Adult Forensic Mental Health
We need to Train every Police Officer about Mental Health
At midyear 2005 more than half of all prison
and jail inmates had a mental health problem
, including 705,600
inmates in State prisons, 78,800 in Federal prisons, and 479,900
in local jails. Roughly 350
Mental Health Courts
nationwide. Correctional institutions
are generally not set up to provide treatment for mentally ill prisoners.
America's 3 Largest Psychiatric Facilities Are
Nearly half of the people confined in U.S. jails and prisons
have a mental
. Child Abuse
is a form of imprisonment in which an inmate is isolated
from any human contact, often with the exception of members of prison
staff. It is mostly employed as a form of punishment beyond incarceration
for a prisoner, usually for violations of prison regulations. However, it
is also used as an additional measure of protection for vulnerable
inmates. In the case of prisoners at high risk of suicide, it can be used
to prevent access to items that could allow the prisoner to self-harm.
Confinement is not the same as Solitude
the unlawful act of capturing and carrying away a person to
an undisclosed location against their will and holding them in false
imprisonment. This is a composite crime. It can also be defined as false
imprisonment by means of abduction, both of which are separate crimes that
when committed simultaneously upon the same person merge as the single
crime of kidnapping. The asportation/abduction element is typically but
not necessarily conducted by means of force or fear. That is, the
perpetrator may use a weapon to force the victim into a vehicle, but it is
still kidnapping if the victim is enticed to enter the vehicle willingly,
e.g., in the belief it is a taxicab. Kidnapping may be done to demand for
ransom in exchange for releasing the victim, or for other illegal
purposes. Kidnapping can be accompanied by bodily injury which elevates
the crime to aggravated kidnapping.
is a person who is held by one of two belligerent parties to the other or
seized as security for the carrying out of an agreement, or as a
preventive measure against war. In contemporary usage, it means someone
who is seized by a criminal abductor in order to compel another party such
as a relative, employer, law enforcement, or government to act, or refrain
from acting, in a particular way, often under threat of serious physical
harm to the hostage(s) after expiration of an ultimatum. A person who
seizes one or more hostages is known as a hostage-taker; if the hostages
are present voluntarily, then the receiver is known as a host.
is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced
labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the
trafficker or others. This may encompass providing a spouse in the context
of forced marriage, or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for
surrogacy and ova removal. Human trafficking can occur within a country or
trans-nationally. Human trafficking is a crime against the person because
of the violation of the victim's rights of movement through coercion and
because of their commercial exploitation. Human trafficking is the trade
in people, especially women and children, and does not necessarily involve
the movement of the person from one place to another.
is a condition that causes hostages to develop a
psychological alliance with their captors as a survival strategy during
captivity. These alliances, resulting from a bond formed between captor
and captives during intimate time spent together, are generally considered
irrational in light of the danger or risk endured by the victims. The
FBI's Hostage Barricade Database System and Law Enforcement Bulletin shows
that roughly 8% of victims show evidence of Stockholm syndrome.
is the unauthorized removal of a minor (a child under
the age of legal adulthood) from the custody of the child's natural
parents or legally appointed guardians. The term child abduction conflates
two legal and social categories which differ by their perpetrating
contexts: abduction by members of the child's family or abduction by
is the slavery of children. The enslavement of children
can be traced back through history. Even after the abolition of slavery,
children continue to be enslaved and trafficked in modern times, which is
a particular problem in developing countries where it is obvious, but not
so obvious in developed countries where
slavery comes in many
is overt, often harmful, social interaction with
the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another
individual. It may occur either in retaliation or without provocation. In
humans, frustration due to blocked goals can cause aggression.
Risks of Solitary Confinement
the forcible confinement with a variety of denied freedoms under the
authority of the state.
American Friends Service Committee
are physical restraints used during certain
medical procedures. Medical restraints are designed to restrain patients
with the minimum of discomfort and pain and to prevent patients injuring themselves or others.
refers to means of purposefully limiting
or obstructing the freedom of a person's bodily movement. Usually, binding
objects such as handcuffs, legcuffs, ropes, chains, straps or
straitjackets are used for this purpose.
Schools Restraints Seclusions
Restraint and Seclusion in Hospitals
How Extreme Isolation Warps the Mind
6x9 a virtual experience of solitary confinement
Are Rarely Heard, anguish and monotony of solitary confinement
What we know: On double-celling, double-bunking, and prison downsizing
Doubling Up Prisoners In 'Solitary' Creates Deadly Consequences
About 1,000 people die in American jails
every year, and about a third of those are
Suicide Rates Higher In Jails Than In Prisons In 2012
Rapes in Prison
Prison Rape Elimination Act
Eliminating Prison Rape Would
Save Society $50 Billion Per Year.
The Invisible War (2012)
Avoid Rape In Prison - Men's
What's the point of a
? We all have a
, so why is
speeding it up so important?
is just a waste of time, people and resources. It
just perpetuates our ignorance and encourages our social
diseases to continue. The death penalty does not make anyone
safer or does it stop murder. It creates ignorance, it creates
and it makes murder seem justified in a society that is
already plagued by too many
. Enough is enough.
It's time we educate our citizens and put an end to our social
diseases. Stop the confusion and stop the torment. Let prisoners
provide the work that the world desperately needs. If a prisoner
then make sure that they are given a chance to
to someone who needs them, and then give them an
Environmentally Friendly Burial
so they can die with some respect.
about the Death Penalty
TROM - 2.9
TROM - 2.8
Death Penalty Info
David R Dow: Lessons from Death Row Inmates
is a government sanctioned practice whereby a person is put
to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that
someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence,
whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution.
Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital
offences, and they commonly include offences such as murder, treason,
espionage, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide.
Etymologically, the term capital (lit. "of the head", derived via the
Latin capitalis from caput, "head") in this context alluded to execution
by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, 103 countries
have completely abolished it de jure for all crimes, six have abolished it
for ordinary crimes (while maintaining it for special circumstances such
as war crimes), and 30 are abolitionist in practice.
relates to the Athenian lawmaker
Draco whose code of laws prescribed death for almost every offense (circa
7th century BC).
The Final Words Spoken Directly Before Execution
Positive Emotional Language in the Final Words Spoken Directly
is a room or chamber in which a legal
execution is carried out. Execution chambers are almost always inside the
walls of a maximum-security prison, although not always at the same prison
where the death row population is housed. Inside the chamber is the device
used to carry out the death sentence.
Michelle Lyons was a Prison Reporter, she
watched 278 executions by lethal injection over 10 years. Though
some people do watch Decapitation Videos and the Beheading of
People, most people do not watch, mostly out of respect for the
the victim, family and friends. Just because some idiots watch
these crimes, this does not make them relevant or important.
Facebook Likes and Youtube Views don't justify these acts of
is not a measurement of
, or is it an accurate judgment of our
. Some humans have problems and they lack
morality and understanding, which we now know is the result of
. Murder provides no benefit at all,
Executions Create More Victims
. And besides that, we have to talk about all
the other negative influences that society is plagued with, like
Violence on TV
Violence in the News
in Video Games
Violence in Sports
, ineffective education, we can no longer ignore
the importance of learning the most valuable knowledge at the
right times in our lives.
Malicious Encouragement of Suicide
The baiting crowd in episodes of threatened suicide
is a person who plans to fall or jump (or
already has fallen or jumped) from a potentially deadly height, sometimes
with the intention to commit suicide
at other times to escape conditions inside (e.g. a burning building).
"A person can serve his country
better above ground then under it
Education in Prisons
encompasses any number of
occurring inside a prison. These educational activities include
both vocational training
and academic education. The goal of such
activities is to prepare the prisoner for success outside of prison and to
enhance the rehabilitative aspects of prison. Educational programs offered
inside prisons are typically provided and managed by the prison systems in
which they reside. Funding for the programs are provided through official
correctional department budgets, private organizations (e.g. colleges,
nonprofits, etc.), and the prisoners or their families, if the prisoner is
pursuing education through a correspondence program
opportunities can be divided into two general categories: academic
education and vocational training. (also known as Inmate Education and
Correctional Education). What if the prison
was your mind
? What type of high quality education would you need that
would release you from the prison in your mind?
is to help to
, as to a former
state of health
To restore someone to a state of good condition, good operation, good
health and a normal life by using education, training and
rehabilitate a person that was never fully
to begin with. So most people have to start over from the
beginning. If you don't make a
repair the right way
you will have to keep making
again and agian. If you didn't
do it right the first time
then you better do it right the second time.
Life after Prison
Rehabilitation in penology
is to restore to
and education, or to restore to good condition,
operation, or capacity. Restore
is to return something to its original or usable and
is to educate or to teach
someone again, especially in order to correct bad practices that were
never learned or understood the first time.
is a practice in which
adults engage in
systematic and sustained self-educating activities
in order to gain
new forms of knowledge, skills, attitudes, or values. It can mean any form
of learning adults engage in beyond traditional schooling, encompassing
basic literacy to personal fulfillment as a
particular, adult education reflects a specific philosophy about learning
and teaching based on the assumption that adults can and want to learn,
that they are able and willing to take
that learning, and that the learning itself should respond to their needs.
Driven by what one needs or wants to learn, the available opportunities,
and the manner in which one learns, adult learning is affected by
demographics, globalization and technology. The learning happens in many
ways and in many contexts just as all adults' lives differ. Adult learning
can be in any of the three contexts, i.e.: Formal
– Structured learning that typically takes place in an education or
training institution, usually with a set curriculum and carries
– Learning that is
organized by educational institutions but non credential. Non-formal
learning opportunities may be provided in the workplace and through the
activities of civil society organizations and groups;
– Learning that goes on
all the time, resulting from daily life activities related to work,
family, community or leisure (e.g. community baking class.)
Get Paid to Learn
emphasizes and supports a person's potential for recovery.
Recovery is generally seen in this approach as a personal journey rather
than a set outcome, and one that may involve developing hope, a secure
base and sense of self, supportive relationships, empowerment, social
inclusion, coping skills, and meaning. Restorative
is a range of public health policies designed to
reduce the harmful consequences associated with various human behaviors,
both legal and illegal.Treatment Court
unique program to keep individuals out of jail and on the road to a
healthy, law-abiding lifestyle. Each participant in Treatment Court is
assessed for a wide variety of supportive services, primarily drug and
alcohol and/or mental health treatment.
is a participative, group-based approach to long-term mental
illness, personality disorders and drug addiction. The approach was
usually residential, with the clients and therapists living together, but
increasingly residential units have been superseded by day units. It is
based on milieu therapy principles, and includes group psychotherapy as
well as practical activities. Therapeutic communities (TCs) are a common
form of long-term residential treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs).
Residential treatment for SUDs emerged in the late 1950s out of the
self-help recovery movement, which included groups such as
"If and when I know, will I still follow the rules? Of course,
the path of least resistance
is always more pleasurable."
Education Programs Study
Academic Programs Serving Incarcerated Adults
Assessing Correctional Education Programs
Pell Grant eligibility for the incarcerated
Educating Prisoners Reduces
and also Saves Tax Payer Money.
Prison to College Pipeline (P2CP)
RAND Correctional Education Project
Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program
Quality Education in Juvenile Justice Secure Care Settings
Why open a school? To close a prison: Nadia Lopez
From Death Row to Law Graduate: Peter Ouko
Educational success curbs effects of child abuse, neglect
, but only if
they learn the right things at the right time.
Learn your Lesson
is to acquire a greater
understanding of the world through a particular unpleasant or stressful
. But you need
more than just experience to learn, you need knowledge and information.
Prisoner Community Reentry
is the process by which prisoners who have
been released return to the community. Many types of programs have
been implemented with the goal of reducing
; from 2001 to 2004,
the United States' federal government allocated over $100 million for
reentry programs. Many such programs have been found to be effective for
this purpose. Other reentry programs focus on improving health among
ex-prisoners, which tends to be significantly worse than that of people
who have never been imprisoned. A 2001 study found that these programs
were generally inadequate, with a few exceptions. The "Returning Home
Study" conducted by the Urban Institute from 2001 to 2006 found that
ex-prisoners who worked before imprisonment, and those who find employment
soon after release, are less likely to be reincarcerated within a year
of release. The same study found that releasing prisoners to parole
supervision both reduces the likelihood that they will engage in substance
use and makes it easier for them to find employment after release. A 2015
article from the New York Times Magazine commented, "It wasn’t until the
mid-2000s that this looming 'prisoner re-entry crisis' became a fixation
of sociologists and policy makers, generating a torrent of research,
government programs, task forces, nonprofit initiatives and conferences
now known as the 're-entry movement'
"Prisoners should not leave
prison with the same mind they entered with." After
should not be about
, prison should be a place for
, which supports a person's potential for recovery.
Recovery is generally seen in this approach as a personal journey rather
than a set outcome, and one that may involve developing hope, a secure
base and sense of self, supportive relationships, empowerment, social
inclusion, coping skills, and meaning. Fairness
It's what people
don't know that's killing them
, and hurting them, and hurting
Most people are unaware of the mistakes that they make. A lot of
times people have no idea how much damage they do to themselves,
or how much damage they do to others. If people are not given
better choices, or if people are not aware about other choices
that are available, then making the right decision becomes
almost impossible. The good news, is that this problem can be
solved through the dissemination of knowledge. People need
access to knowledge and information that would benefit them.
It's the lack of knowledge and information that is causing all
the problems. So if we make knowledge and information more
available, knowledge that people need, then we will solve all
our problems, not over night, but gradually.
Learning takes time.
is the quality of mercy or forgiveness, especially
in the assignment of punishment as in a court case.
(stop the hate)
refers to benevolence, forgiveness and kindness in a
variety of ethical, religious, social and legal contexts.
is leniency and compassion shown
toward offenders by a person or agency charged with administering justice.
occurs when the conviction for a crime is reversed, either through
demonstration of innocence, a flaw in the conviction, or otherwise.
Exonerations By State Map
Exonerations in 2016
is a government decision to allow a person who has
been convicted of a crime, to be free and absolved of that conviction, as
if never convicted.Retraction
taking back of a previous
act of pulling or holding or drawing a part back.Commute
is to reduce
a judicial sentence to one less severe, specially a sentence of death.
Exchange a penalty for a less severe one.
Commutation of Sentence
is the substitution of a lesser
penalty for that given after a conviction for a crime. The penalty can be
lessened in severity, in duration, or both.
is a pardon extended by the government to a group or
class of persons, usually for a political offense; the act of a sovereign
power officially forgiving certain classes of persons who are subject to
trial but have not yet been convicted.
is a process by which inmates in criminal justice
systems may be eligible for immediate early release on grounds of
“particularly extraordinary or compelling circumstances which could not
reasonably have been foreseen by the court at the time of sentencing.
or happenings which do not excuse or justify criminal conduct,
considered out of mercy or fairness in deciding the degree of the offense
the prosecutor charges or influencing reduction of the penalty upon
is any information or evidence presented to
the court regarding the defendant or the circumstances of the crime that
might result in reduced charges or a lesser sentence. Unlike a legal
defense, it cannot lead to the acquittal of the defendant. The opposite of
, which is any circumstance attending the commission
of a crime or tort which increases its guilt or enormity or adds to its
injurious consequences, but which is above and beyond the essential
constituents of the crime or tort itself. Aggravated assault, for example,
is usually differentiated from simple assault by the offender's intent
(e.g., to murder or to rape), the extent of injury to the victim, or the
use of a deadly weapon. An aggravating circumstance is a kind of attendant
circumstance and the opposite of an extenuating or mitigating
circumstance, which decreases guilt.
is arguing that the defendant is not responsible for his or her actions
due to an episodic or persistent
at the time of the criminal act. The insanity
defense Should Not be
confused with Incompetency
. And this is not saying that someone is
Above the Law or has Immunity
is a defense by excuse, in this case some sort of
insanity, in which the defendant argues that they should not be held
their actions that broke the law, because they could not control those
actions, even if they
knew them to be wrong.
is a related concept which reduces or extinguishes a person's culpability
and therefore a person's liability to pay compensation to the victim of a
tort in the civil law. Exculpate
is similar in meaning to exonerate.
When you exonerate someone, you clear a person of an accusation and any
suspicion that goes along with it.
is a measure of the degree to which an agent, such as a
person, can be held morally or legally responsible for action and
inaction. Culpability marks the dividing line between moral evil, like
murder, for which someone may be held legally responsible and a randomly
occurring event, like earthquakes, for which no human can be held
responsible. One formulation of the concept is as follows: A person is
culpable if they cause a negative event and (1) the act was intentional;
(2) the act and its consequences could have been controlled (i.e., the
agent knew the likely consequences, the agent was not coerced, and the
agent overcame hurdles to make the event happen); and (3) the person
provided no excuse or justification for the actions. Culpability descends
from the Latin concept of fault (culpa). The concept of culpability is
intimately tied up with notions of agency, freedom, and free will. All are
commonly held to be necessary, but not sufficient, conditions for
Reduce My Sentence
Right of Asylum
which a person persecuted by their own
country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign
country, or church sanctuaries which is a shelter from danger or hardship.
is the state of being saved or
preserved from harm.
Redemption in theology
means to repurchase or buy back. Refers to the deliverance of Christians from
is the action of saving or being
saved from sin, error, or evil. The action of regaining or gaining
possession of something in exchange for payment, or
clearing a debt
is to forgive someone of a
is the Catholic belief that human
suffering, when accepted and offered up in union with the Passion of
Jesus, can remit the just punishment for one's sins or for the sins of
another, or for the other physical or spiritual needs of oneself or
another. Like an indulgence, redemptive suffering does not gain the
individual forgiveness for their sin; forgiveness results from God’s
grace, freely given through Christ, which cannot be earned. After one's
sins are forgiven, the individual's suffering can reduce the penalty due
John Legend: "Redemption Song"
(video and interactive text)
Bad people are not bad
, most people are
just in bad situations, which causes bad decisions, sometimes out of
desperation, and other times just from the lack of knowledge and
information. A bad person is actually a good person who hasn't yet
realized that they are in fact a good person. So there are no bad people,
just good people who forgot what good is, or good people who never learned
and fully understood what Being
the process in which cases are reviewed, where parties request a formal
change to an official decision. Function both as a process for
as well as a process of clarifying and interpreting law. Appeals
is simply an answer to a claim made by someone in a
criminal case under common law using the adversarial system.
- Plea Bargain
is mostly for the
wealthy and powerful.
is the acknowledgment of having done something
wrong, whether on purpose or not.
is a potential defense by excuse
by which defendants argue that although they broke the law, they should
not be held fully criminally liable for doing so, as their mental
functions were "diminished" or impaired.
is the voluntary relinquishment or surrender of some known right or
privilege. Regulatory agencies
or governments may issue waivers to exempt companies from certain
regulations. A written waiver is a disclaimer, which becomes a waiver when
accepted. When the right to hold a person liable through a lawsuit is
waived, the waiver may be called an exculpatory clause, liability waiver,
legal release, or hold harmless clause.
is a legal document that a person who participates in
an activity may sign to acknowledge the
in his or
her participation. By doing so, the company attempts to remove legal
liability from the business or person responsible for the activity. The
enforceability of such a waiver depends on state law, a jury, and the
language of the waiver.
is a defense in criminal law which claims
the actual innocence of the criminal defendant, and attempts to undermine
evidence of guilt by asserting that any eyewitness to the crime
incorrectly thought that they saw the defendant, when in fact the person
seen by the witness was someone else. The defendant may question both the
memory of the witness (suggesting, for example, that the identification is
the result of a false memory), and the perception of the witness
(suggesting, for example, that the witness had poor eyesight, or that the
crime occurred in a poorly lit place).
Ex post facto law
is a law that retroactively changes the legal
consequences (or status) of actions that were committed, or relationships
that existed, before the enactment of the law. In criminal law, it may
criminalize actions that were legal when committed; it may aggravate a
crime by bringing it into a more severe category than it was in when it
was committed; it may change the punishment prescribed for a crime, as by
adding new penalties or extending sentences; or it may alter the rules of
evidence in order to make conviction for a crime likelier than it would
have been when the deed was committed. Conversely, a form of ex post facto
law commonly called an amnesty law may decriminalize certain acts. A
pardon has a similar effect, in a specific case instead of a class of
cases. Other legal changes may alleviate possible punishments (for example
by replacing the death sentence with lifelong imprisonment) retroactively.
Such legal changes are also known by the Latin term in mitius.
is any law that retroactively exempts a select group of
people, usually military leaders and government leaders, from criminal
liability for crimes committed. Most allegations involve human rights
abuses and crimes against humanity.
Above the Law
Films about Prisons
Punishment: A Failed Social Experiment
Patton: A father-daughter dance ... in prison
Tonight with John Oliver: Prison (HBO)
Smith: Lessons in business ... from prison
Bryan Stevenson: We need to talk about an Injustice
The Lady Lifers: A moving song from women in Prison for Life
Garden Program's Vegetable Garden at San Quentin State Prison
Dan Pacholke: How Prisons can help inmates live meaningful lives
Insight Garden Program
The Bet (short story)
about a banker and a young lawyer who make a bet
with each other about whether the death penalty is better or worse than
life in prison.
Social Impact Bond
Toby Eccles: Invest in Social Change