Facebook Twiter Goole Plus Linked In YouTube Blogger

Human Reproduction - Child Birth

Pre-Natal Care
Child Development
Toxins

Previous SubjectNext Subject

Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. As a medical specialty, obstetrics is combined with gynaecology under the discipline known as obstetrics and gynaecology (OB/GYN).

Gynaecology is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts.

Procreation is the sexual activity of conceiving and bearing offspring.

Human Reproduction is any form of sexual reproduction resulting in human fertilization, typically involving sexual intercourse between a man and a woman. During sexual intercourse, the interaction between the male and female reproductive systems results in fertilization of the woman's ovum by the man's sperm.

Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents". Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. There are two forms of reproduction: asexual and sexual.

Reproductive System is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction. Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormones, and pheromones are also important accessories to the reproductive system. Unlike most organ systems, the sexes of differentiated species often have significant differences. These differences allow for a combination of genetic material between two individuals, which allows for the possibility of greater genetic fitness of the offspring.

Sexual Reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm. Each gamete contains half the number of chromosomes of normal cells. They are created by a specialized type of cell division, which only occurs in eukaryotic cells, known as meiosis. The two gametes fuse during fertilization to produce DNA replication and the creation of a single-celled zygote which includes genetic material from both gametes. In a process called genetic recombination, genetic material (DNA) joins up so that homologous chromosome sequences are aligned with each other, and this is followed by exchange of genetic information. Two rounds of cell division then produce four daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes from each original parent cell, and the same number of chromosomes as both parents, though self-fertilization can occur. For instance, in human reproduction each human cell contains 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs, except gamete cells, which only contain 23 chromosomes, so the child will have 23 chromosomes from each parent genetically recombined into 23 pairs. Cell division initiates the development of a new individual organism in multicellular organisms, including animals and plants, for the vast majority of whom this is the primary method of reproduction.

Chromosome (DNA)

Reproductive Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life. Reproductive health implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safer sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. One interpretation of this implies that men and women ought to be informed of and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of birth control; also access to appropriate health care services of sexual, reproductive medicine and implementation of health education programs to stress the importance of women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth could provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant. Individuals do face inequalities in reproductive health services. Inequalities vary based on socioeconomic status, education level, age, ethnicity, religion, and resources available in their environment. It is possible for example, that low income individuals lack the resources for appropriate health services and the knowledge to know what is appropriate for maintaining reproductive health.

Asexual Reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes and almost never changes the number of chromosomes. Asexual reproduction is the primary form of reproduction for single-celled organism as the archaea, bacteria, and protists. Many plants and fungi reproduce asexually as well.

Generation is the act of producing an offspring. In kinship terminology, it is a structural term designating the parent-child relationship. It is also known as biogenesis, reproduction, or procreation in the biological sciences.

Biological Imperative

Social Influences

Giving Birth

Family Planning is the practice of controlling the number of children in a family and the intervals between their births, particularly by means of artificial contraception or voluntary sterilization. Because "family" is included in the concept's name, consideration of a couple's desire to bear children, in the context of a family unit, is often considered primarily. Contemporary notions of family planning, however, tend to place a woman and her childbearing decisions at the center of the discussion, as notions of women's empowerment and reproductive autonomy have gained traction in many parts of the world. Family planning may involve consideration of the number of children a woman wishes to have, including the choice to have no children, as well as the age at which she wishes to have them. These matters are obviously influenced by external factors such as marital situation, career considerations, financial position, any disabilities that may affect their ability to have children and raise them, besides many other considerations. If sexually active, family planning may involve the use of contraception and other techniques to control the timing of reproduction. Other techniques commonly used include sexuality education, prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections, pre-conception counseling and management, and infertility management. Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym or euphemism for access to and the use of contraception. However, it often involves methods and practices in addition to contraception. Additionally, there are many who might wish to use contraception but are not, necessarily, planning a family (e.g., unmarried adolescents, young married couples delaying childbearing while building a career); family planning has become a catch-all phrase for much of the work undertaken in this realm. It is most usually applied to a female-male couple who wish to limit the number of children they have and/or to control the timing of pregnancy (also known as spacing children). Family planning may encompass sterilization, as well as abortion. Family planning services are defined as "educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved".

Child Development

Prenatal Diagnosis are aspects of prenatal care that focus on detecting anatomic and physiologic problems with the zygote, embryo, or fetus as early as possible, either before gestation even starts (as in preimplantation genetic diagnosis) or as early in gestation as practicable. They use medical tests to detect problems such as neural tube defects, chromosome abnormalities, and gene mutations that would lead to genetic disorders and birth defects, such as spina bifida, cleft palate, Tay–Sachs disease, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, and fragile X syndrome. The screening focuses on finding problems among a large population with affordable and noninvasive methods, whereas the diagnosis focuses on pursuing additional detailed information once a particular problem has been found, and can sometimes be more invasive. Screening can also be used for prenatal sex discernment. Common testing procedures include amniocentesis, ultrasonography including nuchal translucency ultrasound, serum biomarker testing, or genetic screening. In some cases, the tests are administered to determine if the fetus will be aborted, though physicians and patients also find it useful to diagnose high-risk pregnancies early so that delivery can be scheduled in a tertiary care hospital where the baby can receive appropriate care.

Pregnancy is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

Womb is a major female hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ of most mammals, including humans. One end, the cervix, opens into the vagina, while the other is connected to one or both fallopian tubes, (uterine tubes) depending on the species. It is within the uterus that the fetus develops during gestation, usually developing completely in placental mammals such as humans and partially in marsupials such as kangaroos and opossums.

Female Body

Fetal Development is the process in which a human embryo and later fetus (or foetus) develops during pregnancy, from fertilization until birth. Often, the terms fetal development, or embryology are used in a similar sense.

Embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism. In general, in organisms that reproduce sexually, an embryo develops from a zygote, the single cell resulting from the fertilization of the female egg cell by the male sperm cell. The zygote possesses half the DNA of each of its two parents. In plants, animals, and some protists, the zygote will begin to divide by mitosis to produce a multicellular organism. The result of this process is an embryo. In humans, a pregnancy is generally considered to be in the embryonic stage of development between the fifth and the eleventh weeks after fertilization, and is expressed as a fetus from the twelfth week.

Egg Cell or ovum, is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms. The egg cell is typically not capable of active movement, and it is much larger (visible to the naked eye) than the motile sperm cells. When egg and sperm fuse, a diploid cell (the zygote) is formed, which rapidly grows into a new organism.

Pre-Natal Development - Prenatal Development 

Prenatal Care is a type of preventive healthcare with the goal of providing regular check-ups that allow doctors or midwives to treat and prevent potential health problems throughout the course of the pregnancy while promoting healthy lifestyles that benefit both mother and child, also known as antenatal care.

Pregnancy Exercise Guidelines
Pregnancy Exercises
Exercise During Pregnancy
Pregnancy Exercise
Exercise Tips

Reproductive Health and Rights in U.S. Under Assault
What to Expect

Universal Access to Family Planning Information, Education, and Services

Premature Births
Populations


Toxins


Poisons that Parents and Children should Avoid - Prenatal Exposures


Chemicals that Endanger Child Brain Development Environmental Toxicants and Fetal Development (wiki)
A host of common Chemicals Endanger Child Brain Development
A Strategy for Comparing the Contributions of Environmental Chemicals and Other Risk Factors to Neurodevelopment of Children
Prenatal Environmental Exposures
Prenatal Exposures: A continuum of vulnerability to environmental toxicants
Toxic Matters
Call Action to Protect Children from Toxins
Targeting Environmental Neuro-Developmental Risks - TENDR

Toxicology is concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. Toxicology is a branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine (homeopathic or pharmacology)

Dioxins and Dioxin-Like Compounds are compounds that are highly toxic environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs). They are mostly by-products of various industrial processes - or, in case of dioxin-like PCBs and PBBs, part of intentionally produced mixtures. They include: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), or simply dioxins. PCDDs are derivatives of dibenzo-p-dioxin. There are 75 PCDD congeners, differing in the number and location of chlorine atoms, and seven of them are especially toxic, the most dangerous being 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD). Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), or furans. PCDFs are derivatives of dibenzofuran. There are 135 isomers, ten have dioxin-like properties. Polychlorinated/polybrominated biphenyls (PCBs/PBBs), derived from biphenyl, of which twelve are "dioxin-like". Under certain conditions PCBs may form dibenzofurans/dioxins through partial oxidation. Finally, dioxin may refer to 1,4-Dioxin proper, the basic chemical unit of the more complex dioxins. This simple compound is not persistent and has no PCDD-like toxicity.

Poison are harmful substances that cause disturbances in organisms, particularly corrosive substances, carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens and harmful pollutants. Usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity and increases  the dangers of chemicals.

Cancer

Chemicals and pollutants detected in human umbilical cord blood Toxin is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms.

Toxicant is any toxic substances made by humans or introduced into the environment by human activity. Toxicants are poisonous. Toxic

Toxicity is the degree to which a substance can damage an organism. Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as an animal, bacterium, or plant, as well as the effect on a substructure of the organism, such as a cell (cytotoxicity) or an organ such as the liver (hepatotoxicity). By extension, the word may be metaphorically used to describe toxic effects on larger and more complex groups, such as the family unit or society at large. Sometimes the word is more or less synonymous with poisoning in everyday usage.

Pesticides - Pollution

Allergies - Additives - Food Safety

Snowflake, Arizona: where the residents are allergic to multiple chemical sensitivities and environmental illness. (youtube)
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS)

Environmental illness

Environmental Medicine is studying the interactions between environment and human health, and the role of the environment in causing or mediating disease.

Environmental Health is aspects of the natural and built environment that may affect human health.

Exposure Science is the study of an organism's (usually human) contact with chemical, physical, or biological agents occurring in their environments, and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events either causing or preventing adverse health outcomes.

Environmental Epidemiology is the branch of epidemiology concerned with the discovery of the environmental exposures
that contribute to or protect against injuries, illnesses, developmental conditions, disabilities, and deaths; and identification of public health and health care actions to manage the risks associated with harmful exposures.

Outgassing (sometimes called offgassing, particularly when in reference to indoor air quality) is the release of a gas that was dissolved, trapped, frozen or absorbed in some material. Outgassing can include sublimation and evaporation which are phase transitions of a substance into a gas, as well as desorption, seepage from cracks or internal volumes and gaseous products of slow chemical reactions. Boiling is generally thought of as a separate phenomenon from outgassing because it consists of a phase transition of a liquid into a vapor made of the same substance.

Volatile Organic Compound, or VOC's, are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature. Their high vapor pressure results from a low boiling point, which causes large numbers of molecules to evaporate or sublimate from the liquid or solid form of the compound and enter the surrounding air, a trait known as volatility. For example, formaldehyde, which evaporates from paint, has a boiling point of only –19 °C (–2 °F).

Fire Retardants
NYC Toddlers Exposed to Potentially Harmful Flame-Retardants
Flame Retardant Chemicals may affect Social Behavior in young Children

Center for Environmental Research and Children's Health 
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Tyrone Hayes Penelope Jagessar Chaffer: The Toxic Baby (video)
Atrazine Dangers
Atrazine is an herbicide of the triazine class.

Food Safety

Lead Poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body. The brain is the most sensitive. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, constipation, headaches, irritability, memory problems, inability to have children, and tingling in the hands and feet. It causes almost 10% of intellectual disability of otherwise unknown cause and can result in behavioral problems. Some of the effects are permanent. In severe cases anemia, seizures, coma, or death may occur.

Little Things Matter: The Impact of Toxins on the Developing Brain (youtube)

Epigenetics studies stable heritable traits (or "phenotypes") that cannot be explained by changes in DNA sequence.
Vaccines

Toxic Chemicals in Products

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (wiki)

Persistent Organic Pollutant are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. Because of their persistence, POPs bioaccumulate with potential significant impacts on human health and the environment. The effect of POPs on human and environmental health was discussed, with intention to eliminate or severely restrict their production, by the international community at the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001.

Persistent Organic Pollutants Global Response

Safe Markets
Makeup and Cosmetics
Eco-Friendly Products
List of Extremely Hazardous Substances (wiki)
Hazardous 100 List (PDF) 
Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)
Poisoned Legacy
Perfluorooctanoic Acid

Phosphine is the compound with the chemical formula PH3. It is a colorless, flammable, toxic gas and pnictogen hydride. Pure phosphine is odorless, but technical grade samples have a highly unpleasant odor like garlic or rotting fish, due to the presence of substituted phosphine and diphosphane (P2H4). With traces of P2H4 present, PH3 is spontaneously flammable in air, burning with a luminous flame. Phosphines are also a group of organophosphorus compounds with the formula R3P (R = organic derivative). Organophosphines are important in catalysts where they complex to various metal ions; complexes derived from a chiral phosphine can catalyze reactions to give chiral, enantioenriched products.

Aluminium Phosphide is a highly toxic inorganic compound with the chemical formula AlP used as a wide band gap semiconductor and a fumigant. This colorless solid is generally sold as a grey-green-yellow powder due to the presence of
impurities arising from hydrolysis and oxidation.

What is Natural?
More than 80,000 Chemicals available in the U.S. have never been fully tested for their toxic effects on our health and environment
Risk of autism with intellectual disability linked with maternal immune dysfunction during pregnancy

Medication Dangers

Use of Medication in Pregnancy A 2011 study using U.S. data from 1976-2008 reported that most women (about
90%) take at least one medication during pregnancy and 70% take at least one prescription medication.

Medications during Pregnancy

Mother to Baby evidence-based information to mothers, health care professionals, and the general public about medications
and other exposures during pregnancy and while breastfeeding.

Database contains information on drugs and other chemicals to which breastfeeding mothers may be exposed.

HIV Pregnancy Ethics women’s reproduction and HIV prevention, treatment, and management.

Dibutyl Phthalate (DnBP) and Diisobutyl Phthalate (DiBP) are found in a wide range of products including vinyl upholstery, shower curtains, plastic food containers, raincoats, dryer sheets, lipstick, hairspray, nail polish, certain soaps and chemical air fresheners. The chemicals provide flexibility and durability to products. But they can be absorbed into a person's body, and exposure in-utero was linked in the study to lower IQs later in a child's life.

Brain Development
Hormones

$72 million of damages to the family of a woman whose death from ovarian cancer was linked to her use of the company's talc-based Baby Powder and Shower to Shower for several decades.

Chemicals and Pollutants Detected in Human Umbilical Cord Blood  

Body Burden Test Analysis and Biomonitoring

Do Babies Need Detox? Alarming Levels of Chemicals Found in Infant Brains

Hazardous PFCs in Remote Locations around the Globe (PDF)


1. BPA
This synthetic hormone has been linked to various forms of cancer, as well as reproductive problems and heart disease. How to Avoid It: Many canned goods use BPA in their lining, but the chemical is also found in up to 40% of store receipts, and some hard plastic containers. Forgo taking sales receipts whenever possible and avoid plastics that are marked with "PC" or recycling label #7.  Learn Chemistry

2. Dioxin
This carcinogen can build up in the body and the food chain, and can adversely affect the immune and reproductive systems of those who are exposed to it. How to Avoid It: Industrial processes release dioxin, meaning that the American food supply is already widely contaminated. But it helps to cut down on exposure by eating fewer animal products, especially meat, fish, milk, eggs and butter.

3. Atrazine
An herbicide frequently used on corn crops, Atrazine is also a common drinking water contaminant that's been linked to breast tumors and prostate cancer. How to Avoid It: Buy organic produce and purchase a drinking water filter that's certified to remove Atrazine. You can find a list of EWG-approved filters on their website.

4. Phthalates
Phthalates can encourage the death of testicular cells in men and are linked to hormonal changes, birth defects related to the male reproductive system and thyroid abnormalities. How to Avoid It: Avoid plastic food containers, children's toys and plastic wrap that's made from PVC. Phthalates are also found in some personal care items, sometimes listed generically as "fragrance", so check your labels.

5. Perchlorate
This rocket fuel component can severely disrupt the proper thyroid function. How to Avoid It: Perchlorate is already widely found in produce and milk, so avoiding it altogether isn't necessarily possible. But using a reverse osmosis water filter can help reduce your intake.

6. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers
PBDEs are flame retardants, and while some of them have been phased out of industrial use, their long chemical lives mean that people and wildlife across the world have already been exposed to them. How to Avoid Them: It's virtually impossible to avoid PBDE's entirely, but it helps to use a vacuum cleaner with a HEPA filter, which can cut down on toxic-laden house dust. Taking extra safety precautions when removing carpet is also recommended, as old padding underneath may contain PBDEs.

7. Lead
It's common to write off lead as something that's avoidable as long as you're not eating paint chips, but exposure to it can also come by way of breathing in the dust from old paint that's crumbling off your walls. This hormone disruptor has been linked to brain and kidney damage, nervous system problems and a host of other physical and psychological impairments. How to Avoid It: Keeping your home free from crumbling paint helps to avoid exposure, as does using a filter that prevents lead contaminants from making it into your drinking water.

8. Arsenic
This poison can cause skin, bladder and lung cancer, but it can also result in osteoporosis, high blood pressure, and suppression of the immune system. How to Avoid It: Use a water filter. (Are you sensing a trend yet?).  Barium (wiki)

9. Mercury
This toxic metal gets into the air and oceans primarily through the burning of coal. Mercury can damage pancreatic cells as well as women's reproductive processes, and poses significant problems for pregnant women in particular. How to Avoid It: Some people are weary of eating seafood at all because of its association with mercury, but the EWG recommends that if you still want to eat sustainably-sourced varieties, your best bets are wild salmon and farmed trout.

10. Perfluorinated Chemicals
PFCs are so pervasive and resistant to biodegration, 99 percent of Americans carry traces of them in their bodies. The chemicals have been linked to health issues like kidney disease, thyroid disease and low birth weight in infants. How to Avoid Them: Avoid using nonstick cookware, and forgo furniture, clothing and carpet that comes with water-resistant coatings.

11. Organophosphate Pesticides
These pesticides were originally developed by Nazi Germany during World War II for use in chemical warfare. Using the same chemistry, we now spray them on our crops. Organophosphates are linked to impaired brain development, fertility and thyroid function. How to Avoid Them: Buy organic produce whenever possible and use the EWG guide to find out which nonorganic produce contains the least amount of pesticide residue.

12. Glycol Ethers
Glycol ethers are solvents found in paint, brake fluid and some cleaning products, and exposure to them has been linked to blood abnormalities, fertility impairments and increased asthma in children. How to Avoid Them: Keep away from cleaning products that carry ingredients like 2-butoxyethanol (EGBE) and methoxydiglycol (DEGME).

Titanium Dioxide. The ability of small intestine cells to absorb nutrients and act as a barrier to pathogens is "significantly decreased" after chronic exposure to nanoparticles of titanium dioxide, a common food additive found in everything from chewing gum to bread, according to research from Binghamton University, State University of New York.

Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS) and  Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) are used to make moisture-wicking and water-repellent equipment including jackets, pants, sleeping bags, boots, and tents.


Birth Defects  -  Drug Addicted Mothers to be

Children Exposed to Drugs in the Womb
Drugs during Pregnancy

Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) used for mild to moderate pain During Pregnancy linked to abnormal fetal neurodevelopment and Behavioral Problems in Childhood.

Addictions

Medications and Pregnancy
Taking Medicine during Pregnancy

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (wiki)

More than 21,000 infants born in the U.S. in 2012 experienced symptoms of opioid withdrawal. The care for each baby costs roughly $50,000 to treat.

Interactive: Explore what’s driving surging overdose deaths

Congenital Disorder (Birth Defects) (wiki)
Gastroschisis

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome


Birth


Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring, also known as parturition.

Childbirth also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus.

Midwifery is a health science and health profession that deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (including care of the newborn), besides sexual and reproductive health of women throughout their lives. In many countries, midwifery is a medical profession (special for its independent and direct specialized education; should not be confused with a medical specialty, which depends on a previous general training). Midwifery is also known as obstetrics. A professional in midwifery is known as a midwife.

Doula also known as a birth companion and post-birth supporter, is a nonmedical person who assists a person before, during, and/or after childbirth, as well as her spouse and/or family, by providing physical assistance and emotional support. The provision of continuous support during labour is associated with improved maternal and fetal health and a variety of other benefits, including lower risk of induction and interventions and less need for pain relief. These benefits are particularly significant when continuous support is provided by someone who is not there as family/friend or as medical staff (i.e. a doula). Additionally, a doula is sometimes hired to work with families beyond the postpartum stages, providing continued physical and emotional support, for as long as needed (sometimes, this support can be ongoing for several years)
Doula Education Program
How Racism Harms Pregnant Women — and what can help: Miriam Zoila Pérez (video and interactive text)
Common Sense Child Birth - Jennie Joseph - Midwifery Team

Parental Leave by Country (Info-Graph)
Parental Leave
Maternity Leave in the U.S.
The US needs Paid Family Leave — for the sake of its future (video and text)

BD Odon Device

Maternal and Child Survival Program
Seed Global Health Education
Global Health Service Partnership (GHSP)

Babies should sleep on their back with no items like toys or pillows that could entangle or suffocate the baby.
Babies should Sleep on their Back
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), is the sudden unexplained death of a child less than one year of age. Also known as cot death or crib death.

NeoNatalie is an inflatable simulator designed to teach basic neonatal resuscitation skills

A Women Dies every 90 seconds from Complications of Pregnancy
300.000 Mothers die from complications from pregnancy and childbirth every year
Safe Motherhood

Birth in Nepal (youtube) 
The Business of Being Born (youtube 1:27 min. 2008  Abby Epstein) Website
The Nine Months That Made You 2011 BBC Horizon (youtube)
Welcome to the World - Why Poverty?

A Simple Birth Kit for Mothers in the Developing World: Zubaida Bai (video and interactive text)

Maternal Mortality has Doubled in the U.S.


Maternal Mortality has Doubled in the U.S. In 2013, 6.3 million children under the age of 5 died from preventable and treatable conditions.

Child Mortality
Mortality Rates

New diagnostic tools for dehydration severity in children Dehydration from diarrhea, either viral or from cholera, kills 700,000 children a year worldwide.

Maternal, Newborn; Child Health Data - Countdown to 2015 Countdown to 2015 tracks key global health data by country for the 75 highest-burden countries, compiling and analyzing global health statistics including coverage levels for interventions proven to reduce maternal mortality, newborn mortality, and child mortality. It fosters accountability, identifies knowledge gaps, and proposes actions to reach Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 and improve maternal health and child health.  Global MNH

Infant mortality rate rises in Gaza for first time in fifty years
Stillbirth (wiki)

More than half of infants in the United States are still sleeping in unsafe conditions in cribs containing blankets, pillows and other loose bedding that has been shown to dramatically raise the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, a new government study finds. More educated moms were less likely to use hazardous bedding materials, but use was still at 50 percent among those with a college education.

Education Reform
Sudden Unexplained Death in Childhood (wiki)
sudc

Every year about 100,000 women around the world die of blood loss soon after a baby is born. It's the biggest cause of maternal death worldwide.

Postpartum Bleeding is often defined as the loss of more than 500 ml or 1,000 ml of blood within the first 24 hours following
childbirth. Signs and symptoms may initially include: an increased heart rate, feeling faint upon standing, and an increased breath rate. As more blood is lost the women may feel cold, their blood pressure may drop, and they may become restless or unconscious. The condition can occur up to six weeks following delivery.

Tranexamic Acid is a medication used to treat or prevent excessive blood loss from major trauma, surgery, tooth removal, nose bleeds, and heavy menstruation. It is also used for hereditary angioedema. It is taken either by mouth or injection into a vein. Side effects are rare. Some include changes in color vision, blood clots and allergic reactions. Greater caution is recommended in people with kidney disease. Tranexamic appears to be safe for use during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Tranexamic acid is in the antifibrinolytic family of medications.

50,000 mothers die each year in India as a result of birth complications, versus 1,200 in the United States. In India nearly 300,000 babies die the day they are born — more than any other country in the world, accounting for nearly a third of all newborn deaths worldwide.

There's new evidence that delaying Umbilical Cord clamping and sniping by a minute can benefit babies, like having higher hemoglobin levels 24 to 48 hours after birth, having higher birth weights, and it also sends more iron from the placenta to your baby, which could avoid babies being iron-deficient three to six months after birth.

Lotus Birth is the practice of leaving the umbilical cord uncut after childbirth so that the baby is left attached to the placenta until the cord naturally separates at the umbilicus, usually a few days after birth.
Lotus Birth

Kangaroo Care is a technique of newborn care where babies are kept skin-to-skin with a parent, typically their mother. It is most commonly used for low birth-weight preterm babies, who are more likely to suffer from hypothermia, while admitted to a neonatal unit to keep the baby warm and support early breastfeeding. Also called skin-to-skin care.

Episiotomy also known as perineotomy, is a surgical incision of the perineum and the posterior vaginal wall generally done by a midwife or obstetrician during second stage of labor to quickly enlarge the opening for the baby to pass through.

Premature Births


Preterm Birth is the birth of a baby at less than 37 weeks of pregnancy. These babies are known as preemies or premmies.
Outdoor air pollution has been linked to 2.7 million preterm births per year.

2 Million Infants Born Before 32 weeks Each Year Worldwide
. W.H.O.

The number of preterm births in the United States rose in 2015 for the first time in eight years.
Preterm births cost us more than $26 billion a year or $51,600 per infant born preterm.
Preterm births linked to air pollution in the United States totals over $4 billion a year. Exposures to high levels of air pollution increases toxic chemicals in the blood and can weaken the immune system, causing stress to the placenta and leading to preterm birth.

Premature Baby Development Concerns

Pneumonia

Low Cost Incubator

A unique womb-like environment designed by pediatric researchers could transform care for extremely premature babies, by mimicking the prenatal fluid-filled environment to give the tiniest newborns a precious few weeks to develop their lungs and other organs.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Kangaroo Care
Kangaroo Mother Care

Sproutling Baby Monitor
Neonatal Nursing 

We have to keep softly talking to a baby when they are born, especially when they are born premature.

Listening to Language Boosts Infant Cognition
Child Development Mother's Milk May Help Prevent Blindness In Preemies (npr)
Retinopathy of Prematurity (wiki)
Eyes

Mtts Asia cost-effective solutions for newborns in need of intensive medical care.

American Pregnancy Association
Healthy Child
Cesarean Awareness
Child Birth Connection

What is Postpartum Depression?

Women, Infants and Children’s Program
Human Development
Children's Health
Child Development
Parenting

What is Reproductive Medicine?

ASRM
Fertility
Assisted Reproductive Technology (wiki)
Embryo Donation
Artificial insemination
Third Party Reproduction

Lithopedion or stone baby, is a rare phenomenon which occurs most commonly when a fetus dies during an abdominal pregnancy, is too large to be reabsorbed by the body, and calcifies on the outside as part of a maternal foreign body reaction, shielding the mother's body from the dead tissue of the fetus and preventing infection.

Abdominal Pregnancy can be regarded as a form of an ectopic pregnancy where the embryo or fetus is growing and developing outside the womb in the abdomen, but not in the Fallopian tube, ovary or broad ligament.
The 46 Year Pregnancy - My Shocking Story (youtube)

Teenage Pregnancy
State Health Facts
Teen Birth Facts
Child Abandonment 
Infanticide

Abortion

Adoption
Surrogacy

Population Growth

Though the teen birth rate has decreased, in 2010, teens in the US between the ages of 15 and 19, had a birth rate of 37.9 per 1,000 women. Russia was 30.2 per 1,000, Britain has 25 per 1,000 and Switzerland has 4.3 births per 1,000 teen women.
Birth Rates for Teens (PDF)

The United States Department of Agriculture today that if you had a child in 2012, it'll cost you $241,080 to raise him or her for next 17 years, and If you adjust it for inflation, that number soars to $301,970. (why is this an ignorant statement?)

Everyone should understand the requirements that a person needs in order to Adopt a Child or to be a Foster Parent or Surrogate. These requirements will give you a little insight on what it takes to be a parent and to start a family. It doesn't cover everything but it makes you aware of how much you should know. Even if you were a women wanting to donate her eggs, you would still need to have certain requirements in order to be a donor. The same goes for a man, if a man wants to donate his sperm to a sperm bank he would have to have certain requirements before he is even excepted. So it makes you wonder, what requirements do you need to start life, and what requirements do you need to be responsible for a child's care?  Should you get a DNA Test?

The world's single greatest killer of pregnant women is Malaria.
Mosquito Net (wiki)
Private Sleeping Area

What is the Freedom of Choice Act?
What is Parental Testing?
What is a Marriage License?
Family and Medical Leave Act
Why are Blood Tests mandatory before you get married?
What is a Dowry?
Wedding Info

Of the 27 industrialized countries studied by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the U.S. had 25.8 percent of children being raised by a Single Parent, compared with an average of 14.9 percent across the other countries.

Child Info
Legitimacy
Single Parent
101 East : China: Unnatural Selection (youtube)


Biological Imperative are the needs of living organisms required to perpetuate their existence to survive. What's the difference between Biological Imperative and the urge to have a baby?

We have all been given these sexual urges and animal instincts to procreate, because that is something that animals need to do in order for the species to survive by reproduction. Other animal species on our planet also share these same types of instincts, so it's not unusual. If these instincts were not given to us we would not reproduce as much and we would most likely go extinct.
But luckily humans also have another very influential drive called pleasure, which also helps to encourage reproduction. But even if we control our instincts, Humans can also be more aware of their surroundings so they don't even need instincts or pleasure in order to reproduce because they feel it is simply a need. So now that some humans are becoming more educated and more aware of of their choices and options, some people are now making better choices and also have a much better understanding of self-control. So does this mean that our species will go extinct because people are now making better choices and better decisions? No. Because fully educated people will be totally aware that their species needs to reproduce in order to survive, so people will always be having babies, maybe just not as much, or at the least, not more then the planet can sustain.

Too many women believe that if they have a child their world will be better. It's not the child that will make a mothers life better, it's the mother who has to make her own life better. Don't put the responsibility on the child to make your life better, it's not fair, and it's also not a very good plan. It's the Mothers who are responsible for making their own lives better, not their children. Learn how to make life better, then share that knowledge with your children. Then you will all share a good life together.

More than 200 million women worldwide want contraceptives, but don't have access to them, according to an editorial published in the British medical journal, Lancet. That results in 76 million unintended pregnancies every year.

Unsafe Abortions Kill 70,000 Annually.

How Many People Can Live on Earth Sustainably?

AAn 18th-century Russian woman holds the world record for having birthed the most children: 69, which she had over the course of 27 pregnancies that included sixteen pairs of twins, seven sets of triplets, and four sets of quadruplets. But she's outdone by the male record-holder for most kids, a Moroccan emperor who, according to the Guinness Book of World Records, sired "at least 342 daughters and 525 sons, and by 1721, he was reputed to have 700 male descendants."


Breast Feeding


Woman Breastfeeding a Baby Wrapped in a Blanket Breastfeeding also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast. Health professionals recommend that breastfeeding begin within the first hour of a baby's life and continue as often and as much as the baby wants. During the first few weeks of life babies may nurse roughly every two to three hours. The duration of a feeding is usually ten to fifteen minutes on each breast. Older children feed less often. Mothers may pump milk so that it can be used later when breastfeeding is not possible. Breastfeeding has a number of benefits to both mother and baby, which infant formula lacks. 

The Milky Way 2014 Documentary about Breast feeding (04/01/2014  | 1 hr. 33 min.)

What we don't know about mother's milk: Katie Hinde (video and interactive text)

Baby Friendly Hospital

Breast Milk Sharing Bank

Golchi holds 2 beverages of different temperatures at once

Breast Feeding Consultant or Lactation Consultant

Only 15% of Babies in the U.S. are Breast Feed

Feeding Baby (youtube)

New Born Nutrition
Pregnancy and Nutrition
Infant Nutrition
Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children - WIC
Nutrition (food smart)

Formula is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, usually prepared for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder (mixed with water) or liquid (with or without additional water). The U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) defines infant formula as "a food which purports to be or is represented for special dietary use solely as a food for infants by reason of its simulation of human milk or its suitability as a complete or partial substitute for human milk".

W.H.O International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes
Dangers of Baby Formula
14 Risks of Formula (PDF)

Benefits of Skin to Skin Contact between Mother and her Baby

Lactase Persistence is the continued activity of the enzyme lactase in adulthood. Since lactase's only function is the digestion of lactose in milk, in most mammal species, the activity of the enzyme is dramatically reduced after weaning. In some human populations, though, lactase persistence has recently evolved as an adaptation to the consumption of nonhuman milk and dairy products beyond infancy. The majority of people around the world remain lactase nonpersistent, and consequently are affected by varying degrees of lactose intolerance as adults. However, not all genetically lactase nonpersistent individuals are noticeably lactose intolerant, and not all lactose-intolerant individuals have the lactase nonpersistence genotype.

Prolactin is a protein that in humans is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk; Prolactin is secreted from the pituitary gland in response to eating, mating, estrogen treatment, ovulation, and nursing. Prolactin is secreted in a pulsatile fashion in between these events. Prolactin also plays an essential role in metabolism, regulation of the immune system, and pancreatic development.

Breast-Feeding Could Save 800,000 Lives a year
Researchers analyzed data from 28 studies, and their findings suggest that the lives of 823,000 children worldwide under the age of five could be saved annually, and about 20,000 breast cancer deaths could be prevented, if universal breastfeeding occurred. Research indicates that in high-income countries breastfeeding reduces the risk of sudden infant deaths by more than one-third.  In low and middle-income countries breastfeeding can reduce about half of all diarrhea illnesses and a third of respiratory infections. The authors said it may also increase intelligence, and might protect against obesity and diabetes in later life. For nursing women, breastfeeding provided protection against breast cancer and it improved birth spacing, the authors wrote. It might also protect against ovarian cancer and type 2 diabetes.

Saving Lives at Birth
NIFT Infant Feeding Cup
NIFT Infant Feeding Cup

Breast milk has varied flavors whereas formula milk has a single flavor.

What mothers eat, even before we're born, affect the way we'll respond to those flavors when we later encounter them because they seem familiar. Babies are most open to trying new flavors between the ages of 4 and 7 months.

Smart Diapers
The Engineering of a Disposable Diaper (youtube)

Baby Colic
Pregnancy and Nutrition
Infant Antibiotic use linked to Adult Diseases

Excessive pregnancy weight gain may be associated with obesity in the offspring
Amniocentesis

Neonatal Insulin Action Impairs Hypothalamic Neurocircuit Formation in Response to Maternal High-Fat Feeding



The Thinker Man