Human Reproduction - Child Birth
is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy,
childbirth, and the postpartum period. As a medical specialty, obstetrics
is combined with gynaecology under the discipline known as obstetrics and
is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive
, uterus, and ovaries) and the
is the sexual activity of
conceiving and bearing offspring.
is any form of sexual
reproduction resulting in human fertilization, typically involving sexual
intercourse between a man and a woman. During
interaction between the male and female reproductive systems results in
fertilization of the woman's ovum by the man's sperm.
is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring"
– are produced from their "parents". Reproduction is a fundamental feature
of all known life; each individual organism exists as the result of
reproduction. There are two forms of reproduction: asexual and sexual.
is a system of sex organs within an organism which
work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction. Many non-living
substances such as fluids, hormones
, and pheromones are also important
accessories to the reproductive system. Unlike most organ systems, the
sexes of differentiated species often have significant differences. These
differences allow for a combination of genetic material between two
individuals, which allows for the possibility of greater genetic fitness
of the offspring.
is a form of reproduction where two
morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called
gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum
(or egg) and a
smaller sperm. Each gamete contains half the number of chromosomes
of normal cells. They are created by a specialized type of cell division,
which only occurs in eukaryotic cells, known as meiosis. The two gametes
fuse during fertilization to produce DNA replication and the creation of a
single-celled zygote which includes genetic material from both gametes. In
a process called genetic recombination, genetic material (DNA
) joins up so
that homologous chromosome sequences are aligned with each other, and this
is followed by exchange of genetic information. Two rounds of cell
division then produce four daughter cells with half the number of
chromosomes from each original parent cell, and the same number of
chromosomes as both parents, though self-fertilization can occur. For
instance, in human reproduction each human cell contains 46 chromosomes
23 pairs, except gamete cells, which only contain 23 chromosomes, so the
child will have 23 chromosomes from each parent genetically recombined
into 23 pairs. Cell division initiates the development of a new individual
organism in multicellular organisms, including animals and plants, for the
vast majority of whom this is the primary method of reproduction.
is a state of complete physical, mental
and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity,
reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive
processes, functions and system at all stages of life. Reproductive health
implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safer
sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to
decide if, when and how often to do so. One interpretation of this implies
that men and women ought to be informed of and to have access to safe,
effective, affordable and acceptable methods of birth control; also access
to appropriate health care services of sexual, reproductive medicine and
implementation of health education programs to stress the importance of
women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth could provide couples
with the best chance of having a healthy infant. Individuals do face
inequalities in reproductive health services. Inequalities vary based on
socioeconomic status, education level, age, ethnicity, religion, and
resources available in their environment. It is possible for example, that
low income individuals lack the resources for appropriate health services
and the knowledge to know what is appropriate for maintaining reproductive
is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a
single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not
involve the fusion of gametes and almost never changes the number of
chromosomes. Asexual reproduction is the primary form of reproduction for
single-celled organism as the archaea, bacteria, and protists. Many plants
and fungi reproduce asexually as well.
is the act of producing an offspring. In kinship
terminology, it is a structural term designating the parent-child
relationship. It is also known as biogenesis, reproduction, or procreation
in the biological sciences.
Social InfluencesGiving Birth
is the practice of controlling the number of
children in a family and the intervals between their births, particularly
by means of artificial contraception or voluntary sterilization. Because
"family" is included in the concept's name, consideration of a couple's
desire to bear children, in the context of a family unit, is often
considered primarily. Contemporary notions of family planning, however,
tend to place a woman and her childbearing decisions at the center of the
discussion, as notions of women's empowerment and reproductive autonomy
have gained traction in many parts of the world. Family planning may
involve consideration of the number of children a woman wishes to have,
including the choice to have no children, as well as the age at which she
wishes to have them. These matters are obviously influenced by external
factors such as marital situation, career considerations, financial
position, any disabilities that may affect their ability to have children
and raise them, besides many other considerations. If sexually active,
family planning may involve the use of contraception and other techniques
to control the timing of reproduction. Other techniques commonly used
include sexuality education, prevention and management of
sexually transmitted infections
pre-conception counseling and management, and infertility management.
Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym or euphemism for access to
and the use of contraception. However, it often involves methods and
practices in addition to contraception. Additionally, there are many who
might wish to use contraception but are not, necessarily, planning a
family (e.g., unmarried adolescents, young married couples delaying
childbearing while building a career); family planning has become a
catch-all phrase for much of the work undertaken in this realm. It is most
usually applied to a female-male couple who wish to limit the number of
children they have and/or to control the timing of pregnancy (also known
as spacing children). Family planning may encompass sterilization, as well
as abortion. Family planning services are defined as "educational,
comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals,
including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their
children and to select the means by which this may be achieved".Child
are aspects of prenatal care that focus on detecting anatomic
and physiologic problems with the zygote, embryo, or fetus as early as
possible, either before gestation even starts (as in preimplantation
genetic diagnosis) or as early in gestation as practicable. They use
medical tests to detect problems such as neural tube defects, chromosome
abnormalities, and gene mutations that would lead to genetic disorders and
birth defects, such as spina bifida, cleft palate, Tay–Sachs disease,
sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, and
fragile X syndrome. The screening focuses on finding problems among a
large population with affordable and noninvasive methods, whereas the
diagnosis focuses on pursuing additional detailed information once a
particular problem has been found, and can sometimes be more invasive.
Screening can also be used for prenatal sex discernment. Common testing
procedures include amniocentesis, ultrasonography including nuchal
translucency ultrasound, serum biomarker testing, or genetic screening. In
some cases, the tests are administered to determine if the fetus will be
aborted, though physicians and patients also find it useful to diagnose
high-risk pregnancies early so that delivery can be scheduled in a
tertiary care hospital where the baby can receive appropriate care.
is the time during which one or more offspring
develops inside a woman.
major female hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ of most mammals,
including humans. One end, the cervix, opens into the vagina, while the
other is connected to one or both fallopian tubes, (uterine tubes)
depending on the species. It is within the uterus that the fetus develops
during gestation, usually developing completely in placental mammals such
as humans and partially in marsupials such as kangaroos and opossums.
is the process in which a human embryo and later
fetus (or foetus) develops during pregnancy, from fertilization until
birth. Often, the terms fetal development, or embryology are used in a
is an early
stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism. In
general, in organisms that reproduce sexually, an embryo develops from a
zygote, the single cell resulting from the fertilization of the female egg
cell by the male sperm cell. The zygote possesses half the
of each of
its two parents. In plants, animals, and some protists, the zygote will
begin to divide by mitosis to produce a multicellular organism. The result
of this process is an embryo. In humans, a pregnancy is generally
considered to be in the embryonic stage of development between the fifth
and the eleventh weeks after fertilization, and is expressed as a fetus
from the twelfth week.
or ovum, is
(gamete) in oogamous organisms. The egg cell is typically not capable of
active movement, and it is much larger (visible to the naked eye) than the
motile sperm cells. When egg and sperm
fuse, a diploid cell (the zygote)
is formed, which rapidly grows into a new
a type of preventive healthcare with the goal of providing regular
check-ups that allow doctors or midwives to treat and prevent potential
health problems throughout the course of the pregnancy while promoting
healthy lifestyles that benefit both mother and child, also known as
Pregnancy Exercise Guidelines
Exercise During Pregnancy
Reproductive Health and Rights in U.S. Under Assault
What to Expect
Universal Access to Family Planning Information,
Education, and Services
Poisons that Parents and Children should Avoid - Prenatal Exposures
Environmental Toxicants and Fetal Development
A host of common Chemicals Endanger Child Brain Development
Strategy for Comparing the Contributions of Environmental
Chemicals and Other Risk Factors to Neurodevelopment of Children
Prenatal Environmental Exposures
Prenatal Exposures: A continuum of vulnerability to
Call Action to Protect Children from Toxins
Environmental Neuro-Developmental Risks
is concerned with the study of the adverse
effects of chemicals on living organisms. Toxicology is a branch of
Dioxins and Dioxin-Like Compounds
are compounds that are highly toxic
environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs). They are mostly
by-products of various
- or, in case of dioxin-like PCBs and PBBs, part
of intentionally produced mixtures. They include: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
(PCDDs), or simply dioxins. PCDDs are derivatives of dibenzo-p-dioxin.
There are 75 PCDD congeners, differing in the number and location of
chlorine atoms, and seven of them are especially toxic, the most dangerous
being 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD). Polychlorinated
dibenzofurans (PCDFs), or furans. PCDFs are derivatives of dibenzofuran.
There are 135 isomers, ten have dioxin-like properties. Polychlorinated/polybrominated
biphenyls (PCBs/PBBs), derived from biphenyl, of which twelve are
"dioxin-like". Under certain conditions PCBs may form dibenzofurans/dioxins
through partial oxidation. Finally, dioxin may refer to 1,4-Dioxin proper,
the basic chemical unit of the more complex dioxins. This simple compound
is not persistent and has no PCDD-like toxicity.
substances that cause disturbances in organisms, particularly corrosive
, mutagens, teratogens and harmful pollutants.
Usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale,
when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity and increases the
dangers of chemicals. Cancer
is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or
is any toxic substances made by humans or introduced
into the environment by human activity
. Toxicants are poisonous.
is the degree to which a substance can
an organism. Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole
organism, such as an animal, bacterium, or plant, as well as the effect on
a substructure of the organism, such as a cell (cytotoxicity) or an organ
such as the liver (hepatotoxicity). By extension, the word may be
metaphorically used to describe toxic effects on larger and more complex
groups, such as the family unit or society at large. Sometimes the word is
more or less synonymous with poisoning in everyday usage.
where the residents are allergic to multiple chemical sensitivities and
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
is studying the interactions between
environment and human health, and the role of the environment in causing
or mediating disease.
is aspects of the natural and built environment that may affect
is the study of an organism's (usually human) contact
with chemical, physical, or biological agents occurring in their
environments, and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of
events either causing or preventing adverse health outcomes.
is the branch of
concerned with the discovery of the environmental
that contribute to or protect against injuries, illnesses,
developmental conditions, disabilities, and deaths; and identification of
public health and health care actions to manage the risks associated with
(sometimes called offgassing, particularly when in
reference to indoor air
) is the release of a gas that was dissolved, trapped, frozen
or absorbed in some material. Outgassing can include sublimation and
evaporation which are phase transitions of a substance into a gas, as well
as desorption, seepage from cracks or internal volumes and gaseous
products of slow chemical reactions. Boiling is generally thought of as a
separate phenomenon from outgassing because it consists of a phase
transition of a liquid into a vapor made of the same substance.
, or VOC's
, are organic
chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
Their high vapor pressure results from a low boiling point, which causes
large numbers of molecules to evaporate or sublimate from the liquid or
solid form of the compound and enter the surrounding air, a trait known as
volatility. For example, formaldehyde, which evaporates from paint, has a
boiling point of only –19 °C (–2 °F).
NYC Toddlers Exposed to Potentially Harmful Flame-Retardants
Flame Retardant Chemicals may affect Social Behavior in young Children
Environmental Research and Children's Health
Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Tyrone Hayes Penelope Jagessar Chaffer: The Toxic Baby
is an herbicide of the triazine class.
is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead
in the body. The brain is the most sensitive. Symptoms may include
abdominal pain, constipation, headaches, irritability, memory problems,
inability to have children, and tingling in the hands and feet. It causes
almost 10% of intellectual disability of otherwise unknown cause and can
result in behavioral problems. Some of the effects are permanent. In
severe cases anemia, seizures, coma, or death may occur.
Things Matter: The Impact of Toxins on the Developing Brain
studies stable heritable traits (or "phenotypes
that cannot be explained by changes in
Toxic Chemicals in
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
Persistent Organic Pollutant
are organic compounds that are
resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and
photolytic processes. Because of their persistence, POPs bioaccumulate
with potential significant impacts on human health and the environment.
The effect of POPs on human and environmental health was discussed, with
intention to eliminate or severely restrict their production, by the
international community at the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic
Pollutants in 2001.
Persistent Organic Pollutants Global Response
List of Extremely Hazardous Substances
Hazardous 100 List
Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)
is the compound with the chemical formula PH3. It is a
colorless, flammable, toxic gas and pnictogen hydride. Pure phosphine is
odorless, but technical grade samples have a highly unpleasant odor like
garlic or rotting fish, due to the presence of substituted phosphine and
diphosphane (P2H4). With traces of P2H4 present, PH3 is spontaneously
flammable in air, burning with a luminous flame. Phosphines are also a
group of organophosphorus compounds with the formula R3P (R = organic
derivative). Organophosphines are important in catalysts where they
complex to various metal ions; complexes derived from a chiral phosphine
can catalyze reactions to give chiral, enantioenriched products.
is a highly toxic inorganic compound with the
chemical formula AlP used as a wide band gap semiconductor and a fumigant.
This colorless solid is generally sold as a grey-green-yellow powder due
to the presence of
impurities arising from hydrolysis and oxidation.
What is Natural
More than 80,000 Chemicals available in the U.S. have never been
fully tested for their toxic effects on our health and
Risk of autism with intellectual disability linked with maternal
immune dysfunction during pregnancy
Use of Medication in Pregnancy A 2011 study
using U.S. data from
1976-2008 reported that most women (about
90%) take at least one
medication during pregnancy and 70% take at least one prescription
Medications during Pregnancy
Mother to Baby
evidence-based information to mothers, health care professionals, and the
general public about medications
and other exposures during pregnancy
and while breastfeeding.
Database contains information on drugs and other chemicals to which
breastfeeding mothers may be exposed.
women’s reproduction and HIV prevention, treatment, and management.
(DiBP) are found in a wide range of
products including vinyl upholstery, shower curtains, plastic
food containers, raincoats, dryer sheets, lipstick, hairspray,
nail polish, certain soaps and chemical air fresheners. The
chemicals provide flexibility and durability to products. But
they can be absorbed into a person's body, and exposure in-utero
was linked in the study to lower IQs later in a child's life.
$72 million of damages to the family of a woman whose
death from ovarian cancer was linked to her use of the
company's talc-based Baby Powder and Shower to Shower
for several decades.
Chemicals and Pollutants Detected
in Human Umbilical Cord Blood
Body Burden Test Analysis
Do Babies Need Detox? Alarming Levels of Chemicals Found in
Hazardous PFCs in Remote Locations around the Globe
This synthetic hormone has been linked to various forms of
cancer, as well as reproductive problems and heart disease.
How to Avoid It:
goods use BPA in their lining, but the chemical is also found in
up to 40% of store receipts, and some hard plastic containers.
Forgo taking sales receipts whenever possible and avoid plastics
that are marked with "PC" or recycling label #7.
This carcinogen can build up in the body and the food chain, and
can adversely affect the immune and reproductive systems of
those who are exposed to it. How to Avoid It:
processes release dioxin, meaning that the American food supply
is already widely contaminated. But it helps to cut down on
exposure by eating fewer animal products, especially meat, fish,
milk, eggs and butter.
An herbicide frequently used on corn crops, Atrazine is also a
common drinking water contaminant that's been linked to breast
tumors and prostate cancer. How to Avoid It:
produce and purchase a drinking water filter that's certified to
remove Atrazine. You can find a list of EWG-approved filters on
Phthalates can encourage the death of testicular cells in men
and are linked to hormonal changes, birth defects related to the
male reproductive system and thyroid abnormalities.
How to Avoid It:
food containers, children's toys and plastic wrap that's made
from PVC. Phthalates are also found in some personal care items,
sometimes listed generically as "fragrance", so check your
This rocket fuel component can severely disrupt the proper
thyroid function. How to Avoid It:
already widely found in produce and milk, so avoiding it
altogether isn't necessarily possible. But using a reverse
osmosis water filter can help reduce your intake.
6. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers
PBDEs are flame retardants, and while some of them have been
phased out of industrial use, their long chemical lives mean
that people and wildlife across the world have already been
exposed to them. How to Avoid Them:
impossible to avoid PBDE's entirely, but it helps to use a
vacuum cleaner with a HEPA filter, which can cut down on
toxic-laden house dust. Taking extra safety precautions when
removing carpet is also recommended, as old padding underneath
may contain PBDEs.
It's common to write off lead as something that's avoidable as
long as you're not eating paint chips, but exposure to it can
also come by way of breathing in the dust from old paint that's
crumbling off your walls. This hormone disruptor has been linked
to brain and kidney damage, nervous system problems and a host
of other physical and psychological impairments.
How to Avoid It:
home free from crumbling paint helps to avoid exposure, as does
using a filter that prevents lead contaminants from making it
into your drinking water
This poison can cause skin, bladder and lung cancer, but it can
also result in osteoporosis, high blood pressure, and
suppression of the immune system. How to Avoid It:
Use a water
. (Are you sensing a trend yet?).
This toxic metal gets into the air and oceans primarily through
the burning of coal. Mercury can damage pancreatic cells as well
as women's reproductive processes, and poses significant
problems for pregnant women in particular.
How to Avoid It:
Some people are
weary of eating seafood at all because of its association with
mercury, but the EWG recommends that if you still want to eat
sustainably-sourced varieties, your best bets are wild salmon
and farmed trout.
10. Perfluorinated Chemicals
PFCs are so pervasive and resistant to biodegration, 99 percent
of Americans carry traces of them in their bodies. The chemicals
have been linked to health issues like kidney disease, thyroid
disease and low birth weight in infants. How to Avoid Them:
nonstick cookware, and forgo furniture, clothing and carpet that
comes with water-resistant coatings.
11. Organophosphate Pesticides
These pesticides were originally developed by Nazi Germany
during World War II for use in chemical warfare. Using the same
chemistry, we now spray them on our crops. Organophosphates are
linked to impaired brain development, fertility and thyroid
function. How to Avoid Them:
produce whenever possible and use the EWG guide to find out
which nonorganic produce contains the least amount of pesticide
12. Glycol Ethers
Glycol ethers are solvents found in paint, brake fluid and some
cleaning products, and exposure to them has been linked to blood
abnormalities, fertility impairments and increased asthma in
children. How to Avoid Them:
Keep away from
cleaning products that carry ingredients like 2-butoxyethanol (EGBE)
and methoxydiglycol (DEGME).
. The ability of small intestine cells to absorb
nutrients and act as a barrier to
"significantly decreased" after chronic
to nanoparticles of titanium dioxide
, a common food additive found in
everything from chewing gum to bread, according to research from
Binghamton University, State University of New York.
(PFOA) are used to make
moisture-wicking and water-repellent equipment including
jackets, pants, sleeping bags, boots, and tents.
Drug Addicted Mothers to be
Children Exposed to Drugs in the Womb
Drugs during Pregnancy
(Acetaminophen) used for mild to moderate pain During
Pregnancy linked to
abnormal fetal neurodevelopment and Behavioral Problems in Childhood.
Medications and Pregnancy
Taking Medicine during Pregnancy
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
More than 21,000 infants born in the U.S. in 2012
experienced symptoms of opioid withdrawal. The care for
each baby costs roughly $50,000 to treat.
Interactive: Explore what’s driving surging overdose
Congenital Disorder (Birth Defects)
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth
offspring, also known as parturition.
also known as labour and delivery, is the
ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus.
is a health science and health profession that
deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (including
care of the newborn), besides sexual and reproductive health of women
throughout their lives. In many countries, midwifery is a medical
profession (special for its independent and direct specialized education;
should not be confused with a medical specialty, which depends on a
previous general training). Midwifery is also known as obstetrics. A
professional in midwifery is known as a midwife.
also known as a
birth companion and post-birth supporter, is a nonmedical person who
assists a person before, during, and/or after childbirth, as well as her
spouse and/or family, by providing physical assistance and emotional
support. The provision of continuous support during labour is associated
with improved maternal and fetal health and a variety of other benefits,
including lower risk of induction and interventions and less need for pain
relief. These benefits are particularly significant when continuous
support is provided by someone who is not there as family/friend or as
medical staff (i.e. a doula). Additionally, a doula is sometimes hired to
work with families beyond the postpartum stages, providing continued
physical and emotional support, for as long as needed (sometimes, this
support can be ongoing for several years)
How Racism Harms Pregnant Women — and what can help: Miriam Zoila Pérez
(video and interactive text)
Child Birth - Jennie Joseph
- Midwifery Team
Parental Leave by Country
Maternity Leave in the U.S.
The US needs Paid Family Leave — for the sake of its future
(video and text)
Maternal and Child Survival Program
Seed Global Health Education
Global Health Service Partnership
sleep on their back
with no items like toys or
entangle or suffocate the baby.
Sudden infant death syndrome
(SIDS), is the sudden unexplained death
of a child less than one year of age. Also known as cot death or crib
NeoNatalie is an inflatable simulator designed to teach
basic neonatal resuscitation skills
A Women Dies every 90 seconds from Complications of Pregnancy
300.000 Mothers die from complications from pregnancy and
childbirth every year
The Business of Being Born
1:27 min. 2008 Abby Epstein)
Months That Made You
2011 BBC Horizon (youtube)
the World - Why Poverty?
A Simple Birth Kit for Mothers in the Developing World: Zubaida Bai
(video and interactive text)
Maternal Mortality has Doubled in the U.S.
In 2013, 6.3 million children under the age of 5 died from preventable and treatable conditions
New diagnostic tools for dehydration severity in children
from diarrhea, either viral or from cholera, kills 700,000 children a year
Maternal, Newborn; Child Health Data - Countdown to 2015
Countdown to 2015 tracks key global health data by country for
the 75 highest-burden countries, compiling and analyzing global
health statistics including coverage levels for interventions
proven to reduce maternal mortality, newborn mortality, and
child mortality. It fosters accountability, identifies knowledge
gaps, and proposes actions to reach Millennium Development Goals
4 and 5 and improve maternal health and child health.
Infant mortality rate rises in Gaza for first time in fifty
More than half of infants in the United States are still
sleeping in unsafe conditions in cribs containing blankets,
pillows and other loose bedding that has been shown to
dramatically raise the risk of
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
, a new government study finds.
More educated moms were less likely to use hazardous bedding
materials, but use was still at 50 percent among those with a
Sudden Unexplained Death in Childhood
Every year about 100,000 women around the world
die of blood loss soon after a baby is born
. It's the biggest cause
of maternal death worldwide.
is often defined as the loss of more than 500 ml
or 1,000 ml of blood within the first 24 hours following
Signs and symptoms may initially include: an increased heart rate, feeling
faint upon standing, and an increased breath rate. As more blood is lost
the women may feel cold, their blood pressure may drop, and they may
become restless or unconscious. The condition can occur up to six weeks
is a medication used to treat or prevent excessive
blood loss from major trauma, surgery, tooth removal, nose bleeds, and
heavy menstruation. It is also used for hereditary angioedema. It is taken
either by mouth or injection into a vein. Side effects are rare. Some
include changes in color vision, blood clots and allergic reactions.
Greater caution is recommended in people with kidney disease
Tranexamic appears to be safe for use during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Tranexamic acid is in the antifibrinolytic family of medications.
50,000 mothers die each year in India as a result of birth
complications, versus 1,200 in the United States
. In India
nearly 300,000 babies die the day they are born — more than any
other country in the world, accounting for nearly a third of all
newborn deaths worldwide.
There's new evidence that delaying
clamping and sniping by a minute can benefit
babies, like having higher hemoglobin levels 24 to 48 hours
after birth, having higher birth weights, and it also sends more
iron from the placenta to your baby, which could avoid babies
being iron-deficient three to six months after birth.
is the practice of leaving the umbilical cord
uncut after childbirth so that the baby is left attached to the placenta
until the cord naturally separates at the umbilicus, usually a few days
is a technique of newborn care where
babies are kept skin-to-skin with a parent, typically their mother. It is
most commonly used for low birth-weight preterm babies, who are more
likely to suffer from hypothermia, while admitted to a neonatal unit to
keep the baby warm and support early breastfeeding. Also called
also known as perineotomy, is a surgical incision of the
perineum and the posterior vaginal wall generally done by a midwife or
obstetrician during second stage of labor to quickly enlarge the opening
for the baby to pass through.
is the birth of a baby at less than 37 weeks of pregnancy. These babies
are known as preemies or premmies.
linked to 2.7 million preterm births per year.
Infants Born Before 32 weeks Each Year Worldwide
The number of preterm births in the
United States rose in 2015
for the first time in eight years.
Preterm births cost us more than
billion a year or $51,600 per infant born preterm
Preterm births linked to
in the United States totals over $4
billion a year. Exposures to high levels of air pollution increases toxic
chemicals in the blood and can weaken the immune system, causing stress to
the placenta and leading to preterm birth.
Premature Baby Development Concerns
A unique womb-like environment
designed by pediatric researchers could
transform care for extremely premature babies, by mimicking the prenatal
fluid-filled environment to give the tiniest newborns a precious few weeks
to develop their lungs and other organs.
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Kangaroo Mother Care
We have to keep softly talking to a baby when they are born,
especially when they are born premature.
Listening to Language Boosts Infant Cognition
Mother's Milk May Help Prevent Blindness In Preemies
Retinopathy of Prematurity
cost-effective solutions for newborns in need
of intensive medical care.
Child Birth Connection
Women, Infants and Children’s Program
Assisted Reproductive Technology
Third Party Reproduction
or stone baby
, is a rare
phenomenon which occurs most commonly when a fetus dies during an
abdominal pregnancy, is too large to be reabsorbed by the body, and
calcifies on the outside as part of a maternal foreign body reaction,
shielding the mother's body from the dead tissue of the fetus and
can be regarded as a form of an ectopic pregnancy
where the embryo or fetus is growing and developing outside the womb in
the abdomen, but not in the Fallopian tube, ovary or broad ligament.
The 46 Year
Pregnancy - My Shocking Story
State Health Facts
Teen Birth Facts
Though the teen birth rate has decreased, in 2010, teens in the
US between the ages of 15 and 19, had a birth rate of 37.9 per
1,000 women. Russia was 30.2 per 1,000, Britain has 25 per 1,000
and Switzerland has 4.3 births per 1,000 teen women.
Birth Rates for Teens
The United States Department of
Agriculture today that if you had a child in 2012, it'll cost
you $241,080 to raise him or her for next 17 years, and If you
adjust it for
that number soars to $301,970. (why is this an ignorant
Everyone should understand the
requirements that a person needs in order to
Adopt a Child
or to be a
These requirements will give you a little insight on what it
takes to be a parent and to start a family. It doesn't cover
everything but it makes you aware of how much you should know.
Even if you were a women wanting to donate
, you would still need to have certain requirements
in order to be a donor. The same goes for a man, if a man wants
donate his sperm
he would have to have
before he is even excepted. So it makes
you wonder, what requirements do you need to start life, and
what requirements do you need to be responsible for a child's
care? Should you get a
single greatest killer of pregnant women is
Private Sleeping Area
What is the
Freedom of Choice Act
What is a
Family and Medical Leave Act
Why are Blood
mandatory before you get married?
What is a
Of the 27 industrialized countries studied by the
Economic Cooperation and Development
, the U.S. had 25.8
percent of children being raised by a
, compared with an average of 14.9 percent
across the other countries.
101 East :
China: Unnatural Selection
are the needs of living organisms required to
perpetuate their existence to survive. What's the difference between
Biological Imperative and the urge to have a baby?
We have all been given these sexual urges and animal instincts
because that is something that animals need to do
in order for the species to survive by reproduction. Other
animal species on our planet also share these same types of
instincts, so it's not unusual. If these instincts were not
given to us we would not reproduce as much and we would most
likely go extinct.
But luckily humans also have another very
influential drive called pleasure, which also helps to encourage
reproduction. But even if we control our instincts, Humans can
also be more aware of their surroundings so they don't even need
instincts or pleasure in order to reproduce because they feel it
is simply a need. So now that some humans are becoming more
educated and more aware of of their choices and options, some
people are now making better choices and also have a much better
understanding of self-control. So does this mean that our
species will go extinct because people are now making better
choices and better decisions? No. Because fully educated people
will be totally aware that their species needs to reproduce in
order to survive, so people will always be having babies, maybe
just not as much, or at the least, not more then the planet can
Too many women believe that if they have a
child their world will be better
. It's not the child that
will make a mothers life better, it's the mother who has to make her own
life better. Don't put the responsibility on the child to make your life
better, it's not fair, and it's also not a very good plan. It's the
Mothers who are responsible for making their own lives better, not their
children. Learn how to make life better, then share that knowledge with
your children. Then you will all share a good life together.
More than 200 million women worldwide want
but don't have access to them, according to an editorial
published in the British medical journal, Lancet. That results
in 76 million unintended pregnancies every year.
Abortions Kill 70,000 Annually
How Many People Can Live on Earth Sustainably
AAn 18th-century Russian woman holds the world record for having
birthed the most children: 69
, which she had over the course of
27 pregnancies that included sixteen pairs of twins, seven sets
of triplets, and four sets of quadruplets.
But she's outdone by the male record-holder for most kids, a
Moroccan emperor who, according to the Guinness Book of World
Records, sired "at least 342 daughters and 525 sons, and by
1721, he was reputed to have 700 male descendants."
also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and
young children with milk from a woman's breast. Health professionals
recommend that breastfeeding begin within the first hour of a baby's life
and continue as often and as much as the baby wants. During the first few
weeks of life babies may nurse roughly every two to three hours. The
duration of a feeding is usually ten to fifteen minutes on each breast.
Older children feed less often. Mothers may pump milk so that it can be
used later when breastfeeding is not possible. Breastfeeding has a number
of benefits to both mother and baby, which infant formula lacks.
The Milky Way
2014 Documentary about Breast feeding
(04/01/2014 | 1 hr. 33 min.)
What we don't know about mother's milk: Katie Hinde
Baby Friendly Hospital
Milk Sharing Bank
Golchi holds 2 beverages of different temperatures at once
Breast Feeding Consultant or Lactation Consultant
Only 15% of Babies in the U.S
New Born Nutrition
Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children
is a manufactured food designed and marketed
for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, usually prepared
for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder (mixed with water) or liquid
(with or without additional water). The U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and
Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) defines infant formula as "a food which purports to
be or is represented for special dietary use solely as a food for infants
by reason of its simulation of human milk or its suitability as a complete
or partial substitute for human milk".
W.H.O International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk
Dangers of Baby Formula
14 Risks of
Benefits of Skin to Skin Contact between Mother and her
is the continued activity of the
enzyme lactase in adulthood. Since lactase's only function is the
digestion of lactose in milk, in most mammal species, the activity of the
enzyme is dramatically reduced after weaning. In some human populations,
though, lactase persistence has recently evolved as an adaptation to the
consumption of nonhuman
milk and dairy products
beyond infancy. The majority of people around
the world remain lactase nonpersistent, and consequently are affected by
varying degrees of lactose intolerance as adults. However, not all
genetically lactase nonpersistent individuals are noticeably lactose
intolerant, and not all lactose-intolerant individuals have the lactase
is a protein that in humans is best known
for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to
produce milk; Prolactin is secreted from the pituitary
gland in response to eating, mating, estrogen treatment,
ovulation, and nursing. Prolactin is secreted in a
pulsatile fashion in between these events. Prolactin
also plays an essential role in metabolism, regulation
of the immune system, and pancreatic development.
Breast-Feeding Could Save 800,000 Lives a year
Researchers analyzed data
from 28 studies, and their
findings suggest that the lives of 823,000 children
worldwide under the age of five could be saved annually,
and about 20,000 breast cancer deaths could be
prevented, if universal breastfeeding occurred. Research
indicates that in high-income countries breastfeeding
reduces the risk of sudden infant deaths by more than
In low and middle-income countries breastfeeding can
reduce about half of all diarrhea illnesses and a third
of respiratory infections. The authors said it may also
increase intelligence, and might protect against obesity
and diabetes in later life.
For nursing women, breastfeeding provided protection
against breast cancer and it improved birth spacing, the
authors wrote. It might also protect against ovarian
cancer and type 2 diabetes.
Saving Lives at Birth
NIFT Infant Feeding Cup
NIFT Infant Feeding Cup
milk has varied flavors
whereas formula milk has a
What mothers eat, even before we're born, affect the way
we'll respond to those flavors when we later encounter
them because they seem familiar. Babies are most open to
trying new flavors between the ages of 4 and 7 months.
The Engineering of a Disposable Diaper
Infant Antibiotic use linked to Adult Diseases
Excessive pregnancy weight gain may be associated with obesity
in the offspring
Neonatal Insulin Action Impairs Hypothalamic Neurocircuit
Formation in Response to Maternal High-Fat Feeding