Human Brain - Neuroscience - Cognitive Science
The Human Brain
is the most
Our ability to
, is what makes us
us. Know your Processor, understand the
and understand the
Brain and Computer Similarities
- Brain Injury
Learning about the inner workings of your brain will help you understand your abilities and
your vulnerabilities. Especially knowing that the
, which controls
and efficient action
, takes almost
20 years to mature
A baby’s brain cerebral cortex expands by 88 percent in the first year of
life. Its cells are also reorganizing themselves and rapidly forming new
to one another.
is a set of
, judgment, and
memory. The mind is the faculty of a human being's
. It holds
the power of imagination
, recognition, and
appreciation, and is responsible for processing feelings and
resulting in attitudes
is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs,
intents, desires, pretending
, knowledge, etc.—to oneself and others and to
understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives
that are different from one's own.
is a branch of philosophy
that studies the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions,
mental properties, consciousness
and their relationship to the physical body, particularly the brain.
is a philosophy of mind of the Berlin School of
is the question of how the
human mind and body can
. This question arises when mind and body are
considered as distinct, based on the premise that the mind and the body
are fundamentally different in nature
is a neuron
that fires both when an animal
acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another.
is located at the front of the brain, is one of the four major lobes of
the cerebral cortex
in the mammalian brain. The frontal lobe contains most
of the dopamine-sensitive neurons
in the cerebral cortex. The
is associated with
tends to limit and select
information arriving from the thalamus to the forebrain.
Key Features and Functions of your Brain
The human brain is built and designed to learn and built
to be creative
. It's very important to know how you developed, what
influences affected your development
, and that human
development continues throughout your lifetime.
weighs about 3 Pounds, which is 2% of a person's
weight, but consumes as much as 25 percent of our body’s
, burns 20% of our total
each day, with
being the main energy source for the brain that runs
on around 12 watts of power
, which is a fifth of the power
required by a standard 60 watt light bulb. The Brain has 400
86 Billion Microscopic
10 quadrillion calculations every second
Each neuron is like a tiny branching tree, whose limbs reach out
and touch other neurons making between 5,000 and 10,000
connections with other neurons, that’s more than
dazzling array of complex mental processes every second, geared
to generating and regulating our
, how we
and our memory
which is essentially a
between neurons. Protein
What is the synaptic firing rate of the human brain
200 times per second, 17.2 trillion
Resting Metabolic Rate of the Human
kilocalories, or kcal, the kind used in nutrition.
1,300 kcal over 24 hours = 54.16 kcal per hour = 15.04 gram
15.04 gram calories/sec = 62.93 joules/sec = about 63 watts.
20 percent of 63 watts = 12.6 watts.
is a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) a
small molecule used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often referred to as the
"molecular unit of currency" of intracellular
A piece of brain matter the size of a
grain of sand contains approximately 100,000 neurons, 2 million
axons, and 1 billion synapses.
"So your Brain requires a lot of food energy, so don't waste it. You have to
make sure that you keep adding to your knowledge base so that
you are not just feeding yourself to run in circles, to never
progress or amount to anything is a waste of potential."
Left Side - Right Side
is the act of attending to and processing
one item at a time. This is usually contrasted against parallel Memory
processing, which is the act of attending to and processing all items
. Serial processing is
. There is an explicit order in which
operations occur and in general the results of one action are
known before a next action is considered. Serial processing
systems may mimic the action of
, albeit with a
concurrent (and usually serious) loss in efficiency. Compare to
Jill Bolte Taylor TED
is part of the normal brain response to words
and other meaningful (or potentially meaningful) stimuli, including visual
and auditory words, sign language signs, pictures, faces, environmental
sounds, and smells.
A component of time-locked EEG signals known as
event-related potentials (ERP). It is a negative-going deflection that
peaks around 400 milliseconds post-stimulus onset, although it can extend
from 250-500 ms, and is typically maximal over centro-parietal electrode
. The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is
formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the
. The brain can thus be described as being divided
into left and right cerebral hemispheres. Each of these hemispheres has an
outer layer of grey matter
, that is supported by an inner layer
of white matter. In eutherian (placental) mammals, the hemispheres are
linked by the corpus callosum, a very large bundle of
. Smaller commissures, including the anterior commissure,
the posterior commissure and the fornix, also join the hemispheres and
these are also present in other vertebrates. These commissures transfer
information between the two hemispheres to coordinate localized functions.
There are three poles of the hemispheres named as the occcipital pole (at
the back), the frontal pole, and at the front of the temporal lobe the
temporal pole. The central sulcus is a prominent fissure which separates
the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe and the primary motor cortex from
the primary somatosensory cortex. Macroscopically the hemispheres are
roughly mirror images of each other, with only subtle differences, such as
the Yakovlevian torque seen in the human brain, which is a slight warping
of the right side, bringing it just forward of the left side. On a
microscopic level, the cytoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex, shows the
functions of cells, quantities of neurotransmitter levels and receptor
subtypes to be markedly asymmetrical between the hemispheres. However,
while some of these hemispheric distribution differences are consistent
across human beings, or even across some species, many observable
distribution differences vary from individual to individual within a given
Hemispheric Asymmetry Handedness and Cerebral Dominance
They say that it's easier to rehabilitate a
person who has had a stroke on the left side of the brain then it is to
rehabilitate a person who has had a stroke on the right side, why?
The ability to spell is in two areas of the left hemisphere, one
towards the front of the brain and the other at the lower part
of the brain towards the back.Cerebral
is a portion of the central nervous
associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake,
arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
- Parallel Processing
Parallel Processing (psychology)
is the ability of the brain to
incoming stimuli of differing quality. This becomes
most important in vision, as the brain divides what it sees into four
components: color, motion, shape, and depth. These are individually
analyzed and then compared to stored memories, which helps the brain
identify what you are viewing.
The brain then combines all of these
into the field of view that you see and comprehend. Parallel processing
has been linked, by some experimental psychologists, to the
. This is a
continual and seamless operation.
Parallel Processing (DSP implementation)
is a technique duplicating
function units to operate different tasks (signals) simultaneously.
Accordingly, we can perform the same processing for different signals on
the corresponding duplicated function units. Further, due to the features
of parallel processing, the parallel DSP design often contains multiple
outputs, resulting in higher throughput than not parallel.
is a type of computation in which many
calculations are carried out
, or the execution of processes are carried out
In parallel processing systems
events may be considered and acted upon simultaneously. Since a
variety of actions may be considered
in behavior is an issue for parallel systems. A parallel system
may be synchronous, in which there is an explicit parallel
decision cycle or asynchronous. In asynchronous systems, there
are usually a set of
autonomously to one another; this makes coherence an even more
difficult problem. A parallel architecture does not necessarily
imply parallel processing; for instance, the human cognitive
architecture is inherently serial at the cognitive level even
though the biological band is explicitly parallel. However,
there may tremendous improvements to efficiency for some
parallel processing strategies, compared to serial ones.
Lateralization of Brain Function
refers to how some
neural functions, or cognitive processes tend to be more dominant in one
hemisphere than the other. (Dual Brain Theory
) The medial longitudinal fissure separates the
human brain into two distinct cerebral hemispheres, connected by the
corpus callosum. Although the macrostructure of the two hemispheres
appears to be almost identical, different composition of neuronal networks
allows for specialized function that is different in each hemisphere.
is the absence of, or a violation of,
symmetry (the property of an object being invariant to a transformation,
such as reflection). Symmetry is an important property of both physical
and abstract systems and it may be displayed in precise terms or in more
aesthetic terms. The absence of violation of symmetry that are either
expected or desired can have important consequences for a system.
separating the parietal lobe from
the frontal lobe.
L-directed thinking and
R-directed thinking. The L-directed (left
brain–directed) thinking skills are sequential, literal,
functional, textual, and analytic—typically functions
believed to be performed by the left hemisphere of the
The R-directed (right brain–directed) thinking skills
are characterized as simultaneous, metaphorical,
aesthetic, contextual, and synthetic—typically functions
assigned to the right hemisphere of the brain.
Brain Maintenance 101
All Schools need to Teach Students about proper Brain Maintenance
I think that the
in the adolescent brain declines mostly because
of our inadequate education system rather then it just being the
normal process of
. Synaptic pruning is a little to close to a
. And you can't say that it's a
normal process when the process itself hasn't even been defined.
also tends to lose volume with age, but
age can't be the only factor? This type of
should not be happening, it's not a
Frontal Lobe Disorder
it's more of an
. Education should be about preserving brain
not decreasing it
slow down when
slows down? We're fully aware of the
Brain and it's ability to repair and rewire. So it seems like we
just got here yesterday.
is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including
death of neurons.
is the process of synapse elimination that occurs between early childhood
and the onset of puberty in many mammals, including humans. Pruning starts
near the time of birth and is completed by the time of sexual maturation
in humans. At birth, the human brain consists of approximately 86 (± 8)
billion neurons. The infant brain will increase in size by a factor of up
to 5 by adulthood. Two factors contribute to this growth: the growth of
synaptic connections between neurons, and the myelination of nerve fibers;
the total number of neurons, however, remains the same. Pruning is
influenced by environmental factors and is widely thought to represent
learning. After adolescence, the volume of the synaptic connections
decreases again due to synaptic pruning.
describes a loss of neurons
and the connections between them.
is the partial or complete wasting away of a
part of the body.
It's not so much the
it's more about the long term abuse that accumulates from eating
from lack of sleep
, from lack of
, and from the exposure
in our environment.
is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of
lasting hours or longer following
a long patterned stimulus
Programmed Cell Death
is the death of a
in any form,
mediated by an
is an impairment of the frontal lobe that occurs due to
disease or head trauma.Natural
the process by which neurons are generated
neural stem cells and progenitor cells. Through precise genetic mechanisms
of cell fate determination, many different varieties of excitatory and
inhibitory neurons are generated from different kinds of neural stem
cells. Neurogenesis occurs during embryogenesis in all animals and is
responsible for producing all the neurons of the organism. Prior to the
period of neurogenesis, neural stem cells first multiply until the correct
number of progenitor cells is achieved.
a family of proteins that induce the survival, development, and function
. They belong to a class of growth
factors, secreted proteins
that are capable of
signaling particular cells to survive, differentiate, or grow. Growth
factors such as neurotrophins that promote the survival of neurons are
known as neurotrophic factors. Neurotrophic factors are secreted by target
tissue and act by preventing the associated neuron from initiating
programmed cell death - thus allowing the neurons to survive.
Neurotrophins also induce differentiation of progenitor cells, to form
describes the mind's resistance to damage of the brain. The
mind's resilience is evaluated behaviorally, whereas the neuropathological
damage is evaluated histologically, although damage may be estimated using
blood-based markers and imaging methods.
Cognitive Off-LoadingCognitive Science
(University of Texas at Dallas)
is a persistent strengthening of
based on recent patterns of activity. These are patterns of
synaptic activity that produce a long-lasting increase in signal
transmission between two neurons. The opposite of LTP is long-term
depression, which produces a long-lasting decrease in synaptic strength.
is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more
chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons
This is in contrast to classical synaptic transmission, in which one
presynaptic neuron directly influences a single postsynaptic partner.
Neuromodulators secreted by a small group of neurons diffuse through large
areas of the nervous system, affecting multiple neurons. Major
neuromodulators in the central nervous system include dopamine, serotonin,
acetylcholine, histamine, and norepinephrine.
are specialized extracellular
for synaptic stabilization in the adult brain.
is a collection of extracellular
molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical
support to the surrounding cells.
is a very rare surgical procedure in which
one cerebral hemisphere
(half of the brain) is
removed, disconnected, or disabled.
the modularity of mind and the closely
related society of mind theory, a specialized tool or sub-unit that can be
used by other parts to resolve cognitive tasks.
is the notion that a mind may, at least in part, be composed of
innate neural structures or modules which have distinct established
evolutionarily developed functions.
is a brain function syndrome involving
the onset and evolution of cognitive impairments
beyond those expected
based on the age and education of the individual, but which are not
significant enough to interfere with their daily activities.
is inflammation of the nervous tissue.
Inflammatory Response System
is to further develop our understanding of
the pathology of certain neurological diseases.
category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are
important in cell signaling. Their release has an effect on the behaviour
of cells around them.
is a heterotrimeric protein expressed on the
surface of certain immune cells, such as lymphocytes, that binds and
responds to a cytokine called IL-2.
is an organic chemical that functions in the
brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a
neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to
agent is a substance that blocks the
acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous
is similar to a computer when a person
deletes old computer files
. Brain cells are
programed to die
if not used, which makes room for more cell
growth. Brilliant!Changing Old Habits
Pruning Decision Trees
Modular Segregation of Structural Brain Networks Supports the Development
of Executive Function in Youth
. A study of nearly 900 young people
ages 8 to 22 found that the ability to control impulses, stay on task and
make good decisions increased steadily over that span as the brain
remodeled its information pathways to become more efficient. The finding
helps explain why these abilities, known collectively as executive
function, take so long to develop fully. This is
mostly because people don't get a high quality education in order for this
natural process to be effective
. The human brain is organized into
large-scale functional modules that have been shown to evolve in childhood
and adolescence. However, it remains unknown whether the underlying white
matter architecture is similarly refined during development, potentially
allowing for improvements in
Structural network modules become more segregated by
learning valuable knowledge
, with weaker
connections between modules and stronger connections within modules.
Evolving modular topology facilitates global network efficiency and is
driven by Learning
that helps strengthen
the hub edges present both within and between modules. Critically, both
modular segregation and network efficiency are associated with enhanced
executive performance and mediate the improvement of executive functioning
with age. Together, results delineate a process of structural network
maturation that supports executive function in youth.
is involved in the acquisition of nutrients for
some cells. The process is homologous to eating at the level of
single-celled organisms; in multicellular animals, the process has been
adapted to eliminate debris and pathogens, as opposed to taking in fuel
for cellular processes, except in the case of the animal Trichoplax.
are a type of glial cell located throughout the
brain and spinal cord. Account for 10–15% of all cells found within the
brain. As the resident macrophage cells, they act as the first and main
form of active immune defense
the central nervous system
Neuronal Hyperactivity Disturbs ATP Microgradients
Microglial Motility, and Reduces Phagocytic Receptor Expression
Triggering Apoptosis/Microglial Phagocytosis Uncoupling.
We are born with 100 billion neurons in our brain
. During the early years following birth, humans
manufacture an estimated 250,000 neurons per minute, and then
spend the next few years wiring them together. We also lose
thousands of neurons everyday, but we have the ability to make
the remaining neurons form connections with beneficial
counterparts. It seems that some neurons never die, giving us
the ability to hold on to memories that are important to us.
Even as we grow old into adulthood,
the human brain makes hundreds of new neurons everyday
through life, mostly in the
, a key region for
not deleted even when they are not recalled for years.
not mean memories are deleted, just the files have been
Canadian man missing for 30 years remembers real identity
Billions of neuronal connections are made in the human brain in
early childhood; some can only be made during this period, and
others require much more training to achieve the same result
later in life, although the brain’s plasticity
ensures that it never stops learning.
Brain Connector density is at its highest level in the first
three years of lifeEarly
starts with an
that ends with
people not knowing what to do, or where to go.
Maintaining our physical and mental wellbeing is one of our most
. But like all things, we have to
learn how this responsibility is performed.
If you're not using it, you're losing it.
The Brain is a machine that needs maintenance. Maintaining
at a proficient level needs exercise. Just
like all muscles, muscles become weak when you stop using them.
And neuron connections in the brain become weaker when you stop
So what would be the perfect brain exercises that you can do to
maximize your cognitive ability and stay sharp?
What are the most effective and efficient ways to maintain
optimum physical and mental wellbeing?
What are the
people must do in order to maintain
physical and mental strength?
plays important roles in various other nonmotor functions as well,
including procedural learning
learning, and executive functions (e.g., inhibitory control), among other
functions. The caudate is also one of the brain structures which compose
the reward system and functions as part of the cortico–basal
is extremely important, but just don't read anything.
People who tell others to read anything are ignorant, and they
are misleading you
. Don't just read anything.
Consume the most valuable knowledge and information
can find. Learn the right things at the right time
. In order to
become more knowledgeable about yourself and the world around
you, you need to carefully choose what to read, and know how to
apply new knowledge and information to the knowledge and
information you have gained in previous years of your life. And
you also must understand that
most of what
you read and hear is not relevant
is extremely valuable skill, but that skill is
wasted if you never read valuable knowledge and information.
Humans only use
10% of their Brains
is just a metaphor that resembles our
failing education system. People don't have enough knowledge and
information that would give them the ability to use the full
power of the human brain.
show that only certain
areas of the brain show activity during certain actions.
The adult brain makes new neurons, but only in very restricted
areas. For example, the hippocampus of an adult rat makes
between 5,000-10,000 new neurons each day. Joe Herbert’s lab in
Cambridge has showed that
dramatically decreases the
rate new brain cells are made. So perhaps some of the adverse
are related to fewer brain cells being created in the
hippocampus. Did you know that people with
O Blood Type
have more gray matter in their brain?
Artificial Neural Network
Default Mode Network
Maybe this type of brain damage is from
or maybe even
you never know, better safe then sorry. Either way it's still an
and Child Development
are chemicals that, at certain doses, can interfere with endocrine (or
) systems. These
disruptions can cause cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other
developmental disorders. Any system in the body controlled by hormones can
be derailed by hormone disruptors. Specifically, endocrine disruptors may
be associated with the development of learning disabilities, severe
attention deficit disorder
cognitive and brain development problems; deformations of the body
(including limbs); breast cancer, prostate cancer, thyroid and other
cancers; sexual development problems such as feminizing of males or
masculinizing effects on females, etc.
Processed Food Dangers
Drug Use Dangers
refers to the constant bombardment of synaptic
activity in neurons
. This occurs in the background of a cell when
potentials are produced without the nerve stimulation of an
, and are due to the inherently random nature of
random potentials have similar time courses as excitatory postsynaptic
potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), yet
they lead to variable neuronal responses. The variability is due to
differences in the discharge times of action potentials.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor
are chemicals that inhibit the
activity of the
monoamine oxidase enzyme
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential
is a kind of synaptic
potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an
is a tract of axons in the brainstem that
carries information about sound from the cochlear nucleus to various
brainstem nuclei and ultimately the contralateral inferior colliculus of
Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5
is a G protein-coupled
receptor that in humans is encoded by the GRM5 gene.
is a medication used in the palliative treatment
of Alzheimer's disease
is a chemical substance which is naturally created from the chemical
arginine. Agmatine has been shown to exert modulatory action at multiple
molecular targets, notably: neurotransmitter systems, ion channels, nitric
oxide (NO) synthesis and polyamine metabolism and this provides bases for
further research into potential applications.
Exercise training increases size of
hippocampus and improves memory
45 minutes of exercise
three days a week
can actually increase the volume of the brain
. Even for
people who have been very
, exercise improves cognition
and helps people perform better on things like planning,
scheduling, multitasking and working
hippocampal volume is associated with greater serum levels of
BDNF, a mediator of neurogenesis in the
Brain Function Examination
Basic Brain Maintenance for Adults
Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor
Growth Differentiation Factor
is the process of renewal, restoration,
and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient
to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage.
Socially-induced brain ‘fertilization’: play promotes brain
derived neurotrophic factor transcription in the amygdala and
dorsolateral frontal cortex in juvenile rats
Prosocial foundations of children's academic achievement
Learning Toys and Games
is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the KL
gene. This gene encodes a type-I membrane protein that is related to β-glucuronidases.
Reduced production of this protein has been observed in patients with
chronic renal failure (CRF), and this may be one of the factors underlying
the degenerative processes.
is a protein that in humans is encoded by
the GRIN2B gene.
is a glutamate receptor and ion channel
protein found in nerve cells. It is activated when glutamate and glycine
(or D-serine) bind to it, and when activated it allows positively charged
ions to flow through the cell membrane. The NMDA receptor is very
important for controlling synaptic plasticity and memory function.
is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a
trait in an organism. Most eukaryotes have two matching sets of
chromosomes; that is, they are diploid. Diploid organisms have the same
loci on each of their two sets of homologous chromosomes, except that the
sequences at these loci may differ between the two chromosomes in a
matching pair and that a few chromosomes may be mismatched as part of a
. If both alleles of a diploid organism are the same, the
organism is homozygous at that locus. If they are different, the organism
is heterozygous at that locus. If one allele is missing, it is hemizygous,
and, if both alleles are missing, it is nullizygous.Plasticity
Secret For Instant Genius
Think of your brain as being like a car
. A well maintained
car is reliable and hardly ever breaks down. If you put in
, it runs better and goes faster. If you constantly
make improvements to your car by learning about all the new
that are available, then your brain, or car,
will be a high performance machine with more capabilities.
Brain Memory Capacity
"If your brain becomes Hard Wired and Cemented in Place,
that means you have stopped learning, which is very dangerous in
todays world, physically and mentally. " (Keep Learning my
Jennifer Aniston Neuron
- Funny Joke
"When I here about research that has not included people
with disabilities, the research raises more questions then it
There is a lot we can learn from blind people, deaf people and
anyone with a disability."
I see a day when we will be able to communicate with the cells
in our own bodies without having to use drugs. We already know
how to manipulate
manually, but one day soon we will be able to tell the
stem cells in our bodies to repair things that are causing us
problems. We can already
atoms into a language
, so it's just a matter of time that we
will discover the language of our cells, and be able to
communicate with them and give them special instructions when
The Human Brain makes up only 2% mass in the body but uses
20% of the bodies oxygen and calories
, but this time
Feed me information and knowledge
The brain processes 400 Billion bits of information a second.
BUT, we are ONLY aware of 2,000 of those?"
-Dr. Joseph Dispenza, D.C. The average "clock speed"
of neurons in the brain is a mere 200 firings per second.
10 Mbits of information are transmitted along each optic nerve
PER SECOND. But is transmission speed the same thing as
processing speed? Brain processes data no faster than 60 bits
per second? The brain processes around 0.1 quadrillion
information bytes per second? The human body sends 11 million
bits per second to the brain for processing, yet the conscious
mind seems to be able to process only 50 bits per second? It
appears that a tremendous amount of compression is taking place
if 11 million bits are being reduced to less than 50. Note that
the discrepancy between the amount of information being
transmitted and the amount of information being processed is so
large that any inaccuracy in the measurements is insignificant.
eyes - 10,000,000 bits per second
skin - 1,000,000 bits per second
ears - 100,000 bits per second
smell - 100,000 bits per second
taste - 1,000 bits per second
Smart Brain Tech
Mind and Life
Identify and foster human
intelligence for the benefit of humanity, to encourage
in the nature, characteristics and uses of intelligence,
and to promote stimulating intellectual and social
for its members.
task is a continuous performance task that is
commonly used as an assessment in cognitive neuroscience to measure a part
of working memory and working memory capacity
The Mental Fitness Center
Your Amazing Brain
can be designed to improve certain parts of
the body. Brain exercises should also be designed in the
same way. So the brain exercise will also be a test as
well as a quick way to run a systems check. So what
Brain Functions do you think you need to exercise
The Mind Institute
Center for Brain Health
Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences
Parents, Teachers & Children Training
, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long
chains of amino acid
residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions
within organisms, including catalysing
replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one
location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their
sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of
their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific
three-dimensional structure that determines its activity.
, the components of our body that execute, control
and organize basically all functions in our cells, are made out
of strings of amino acids
, which -- like an origami -- are
folded into specific and complex three-dimensional structures
according to their desired functions. However, since folding and
maintaining of such structures is highly sensitive to
cellular or environmental
, proteins can potentially
clumps (aggregates). Such undesired
protein waste can be toxic for cells
and may even lead to
cell death. Because several human
are known to be linked to an
abnormal protein aggregates
, basic science aimed to
understand how cells remove cellular garbage is elementary for
designing strategies for a potential prevention or cure of such
disorders. Proteins are the workhorse molecules of life. Among
their many jobs, they carry oxygen, build tissue, copy
for the next generation, and
coordinate events within and between
for the human body. They are one of the building blocks of body tissue,
and can also serve as a fuel source. As a fuel, proteins provide as much
energy density as carbohydrates: 4 kcal (17 kJ) per gram; in contrast,
lipids provide 9 kcal (37 kJ) per gram. The most important aspect and
defining characteristic of protein from a nutritional standpoint is its
amino acid composition. Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids
linked together by peptide bonds. During human digestion, proteins are
broken down in the stomach to smaller polypeptide chains via hydrochloric
acid and protease actions. This is crucial for the synthesis of the
essential amino acids that cannot be biosynthesized by the body. There
are nine essential amino acids
which humans must obtain from their diet in
order to prevent protein-energy malnutrition and resulting death. They are
phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine,
isoleucine, lysine, and histidine. There are five dispensable amino acids
which humans are able to synthesize in the body. These five are alanine,
aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid and serine. There are six
conditionally essential amino acids whose synthesis can be limited under
special pathophysiological conditions, such as prematurity in the infant
or individuals in severe catabolic distress. These six are arginine,
cysteine, glycine, glutamine, proline and tyrosine. Humans need the
essential amino acids in certain ratios. Some protein sources contain
amino acids in a more or less 'complete' sense. This has given rise to
various ranking systems for protein sources, as described in the article.
Dietary sources of protein include both animals and plants:
products, fish and eggs as well as grains, legumes and nuts.
and vegans can get enough essential amino acids by eating a variety of
plant proteins. It is commonly believed that athletes should consume a
higher-than-normal protein intake to maintain optimal physical
Too much protein can
be bad for your health, especially protein from certain foods.
is an ambiguous term describing either several different forms of protein
coded from the same gene, or proteins with amino acid sequence and
functional similarities, even when they are products of different genes.
are proteins that bind
(oil-soluble substances such as
form lipoproteins. They transport the lipids through the lymphatic and
circulatory systems. The lipid components of lipoproteins are insoluble in
water. However, because of their detergent-like (amphipathic) properties,
apolipoproteins and other amphipathic molecules (such as phospholipids)
can surround the lipids, creating the lipoprotein particle that is itself
water-soluble, and can thus be carried through water-based circulation
(i.e., blood, lymph). Apolipoproteins also serve as enzyme cofactors,
receptor ligands, and lipid transfer carriers that regulate the metabolism
of lipoproteins and their uptake in tissues.
is a nucleoprotein that contains RNA, i.e. it is an
association that combines a ribonucleic
and an RNA-binding protein together. Such a combination can also
be referred to as a protein-RNA complex. These complexes play an integral
part in a number of important biological functions that include DNA
replication, regulating gene expression and regulating the metabolism of
RNA. A few examples of RNPs include the ribosome, the enzyme telomerase,
vault ribonucleoproteins, RNase P, hnRNP and small nuclear RNPs (snRNPs),
which have been implicated in pre-mRNA splicing (spliceosome) and are
among the main components of the nucleolus.
Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
is a protein
that, in humans, is encoded by the GDNF gene. GDNF is a small protein that
potently promotes the survival of many types of neurons. It signals
through GFRα receptors, particularly GFRα1.
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
is a protein that, in humans, is
encoded by the BDNF gene. BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of
growth factors, which are related to the canonical Nerve Growth Factor.
Neurotrophic factors are found in the brain and the periphery.
FOXP2 Protein Speech & Language Gene
is a protein that,
in humans, is encoded by the FOXP2 gene, also known as CAGH44, SPCH1 or
TNRC10, and is required for proper development of speech and language.
Initially identified as the genetic factor of speech disorder in KE
family, its gene is the first gene discovered associated with speech and
language. The gene is located on chromosome 7 (7q31, at the SPCH1 locus),
and is expressed in fetal and adult brain, heart, lung and gut.
are proteins that stabilize
. They are
abundant in neurons
central nervous system
and are less common elsewhere, but are also
expressed at very low levels in CNS astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.
to Fold it !!
Proteins turned into a Game
Build Blocks of Life
. Proteins are assembled from
using information encoded in genes
. Each protein has its own unique
amino acid sequence that is specified by the nucleotide sequence of the
gene encoding this protein. The genetic code is a set of three-nucleotide
sets called codons and each three-nucleotide combination designates an
amino acid, for example AUG (adenine-uracil-guanine) is the code for
methionine. Because DNA contains four nucleotides, the total number of
possible codons is 64; hence, there is some redundancy in the genetic
code, with some amino acids specified by more than one codon.
is the process whereby biological cells generate
new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via
degradation or export. Translation, the assembly of amino acids by
ribosomes, is an essential part of the biosynthetic pathway, along with
generation of messenger RNA (mRNA), aminoacylation of transfer RNA (tRNA),
co-translational transport, and post-translational modification. Protein
biosynthesis is strictly regulated at multiple steps. They are principally
during transcription (phenomena of RNA synthesis from
template) and translation
(phenomena of amino acid assembly from RNA).
On the role of anionic lipids in charged protein interactions
Scientists have found a way to ‘unboil’ eggs – and it could be a
Designer Proteins fold DNA
Biophysicists construct complex hybrid
structures using DNA and proteins.
is a post-translational modification of proteins in
which an amino acid residue is phosphorylated by a protein kinase by the
addition of a covalently bound phosphate group. Phosphorylation alters the
structural conformation of a protein, causing it to become activated,
deactivated, or modifying its function. The reverse reaction of
phosphorylation is called dephosphorylation, and is catalyzed by protein
phosphatases. Protein kinases and phosphatases work independently and in a
balance to regulate the function of proteins. The amino acids most
commonly phosphorylated are
in eukaryotes, and histidine in prokaryotes, which play important and
well-characterized roles in signaling pathways and metabolism. However,
many other amino acids can also be phosphorylated, including
is an essential nutrient which helps form the structural
component of body tissues
and is used within many biological
processes, for example protein is used to make enzymes,
antibodies to help us fight infection as well as
building blocks to life. It’s also needed to make up muscle
tissue which in turn helps to keep our bodies active, strong,
and healthy. Most protein is stored in the body as muscle,
generally accounting for around 40-45% of our body’s total pool,
so it makes sense that if you increase activity, perhaps to
improve health and fitness
or body composition, you also need to
consider protein as an important food group in your diet.
Neuroscience - Human Brain Resources
is the scientific study of the nervous
is the study of cells
of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional
information and mediate behavior
enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons
the long and slender projections of neurons
) in the
peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the
impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral
organs. In the central nervous system, the analogous structures are known
. Neurons are sometimes called nerve cells, though this term is
potentially misleading since many neurons do not form nerves, and nerves
also include non-neuronal Schwann cells that coat the axons in myelin.
Each nerve is a cordlike structure containing bundles of axons. Within a
nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the
. The axons are bundled together into groups called
, and each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective
tissue called the
. Finally, the entire nerve is wrapped in a layer of
connective tissue called the epineurium. Nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers
running to various organs and tissues of the body.
is the study of brain function in terms of
the information processing properties of the structures that make up the
nervous system. It is an interdisciplinary science that links the diverse
fields of neuroscience, cognitive science, and psychology with electrical
engineering, computer science, mathematics, and physics.
the study of neural mechanisms of
Contemplative neuroscience looks into neurological, physiological,
epigenetic, behavioral, social and cognitive manifestations or
consequences of a state of mind which is at the same time
meditative/mindful and compassionate/calm and selfless/altruistic although
bodily-aware.Central Nervous System
(CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the
and spinal cord. The central nervous system is so named because
it integrates information it receives from, and coordinates and influences
the activity of, all parts of the bodies of
is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support
cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the
lumbar region of the vertebral column. The brain and spinal cord together
make up the central nervous system (CNS).
Autonomic Nervous System
is a division of the peripheral
nervous system that influences the function of internal organs. The
autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely
and regulates bodily functions such as the heart rate,
digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and
. This system is the primary mechanism in control of the
and the freeze-and-dissociate response.
Peripheral Nervous System
is the part of the nervous system that
consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord.
The main function of the PNS is to connect the central nervous system
(CNS) to the limbs and organs, essentially serving as a communication
relay going back and forth between the brain and spinal cord with the rest
of the body.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
is one of the two divisions
of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the sympathetic nervous
Sympathetic Nervous System
is one of the two main divisions of the
autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous
Enteric Nervous System
is one of the main divisions of the nervous
system and consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the
function of the
. It is now usually referred to as separate
from the autonomic nervous system since it has its own independent reflex
is the study of the anatomy and
stereotyped organization of nervous systems.
is the study of the
biological cells and tissues. It involves measurements of voltage change
or electric current on a wide variety of scales from single ion channel
proteins to whole organs like the heart.
that are poisonous or
destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity). Neurotoxins are an
extensive class of exogenous chemical neurological insults that can
adversely affect function in both developing and mature nervous tissue.
Brain and Body
Blood Brain Barrier
is a highly selective permeability barrier that
separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid in the
central nervous system (CNS). The blood–brain barrier is formed by brain
endothelial cells, which are connected by tight junctions with an
extremely high electrical resistivity of at least 0.1 Ω⋅m. The blood–brain
barrier allows the passage of water, some gases, and lipid-soluble
molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of
molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural
function. On the other hand, the blood–brain barrier may prevent the entry
of lipophilic, potential neurotoxins by way of an active transport
mechanism mediated by P-glycoprotein. Astrocytes are necessary to create
the blood–brain barrier. A small number of regions in the brain, including
the circumventricular organs (CVOs), do not have a blood–brain barrier.
Blood-Brain Barrier on a Chip
are structures in the brain
that are characterized by their extensive vasculature and lack of a normal
blood brain barrier (BBB). The CVOs allow for the linkage between the
central nervous system and peripheral blood flow; additionally they are an
integral part of neuroendocrine function. The lack of a blood brain
barrier allows the CVOs to act as an alternative route for peptides and
hormones in the neural tissue to the peripheral blood stream, while still
protecting it from toxic substances.
is a type of epithelium that lines the
interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an
interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of
the vessel wall. It is a thin layer of simple squamous cells called
endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are
called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with
lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells.
describes the cellular and molecular mechanisms by
which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and
studies the structure and function of the
brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviors. It
is an experimental field of psychology that aims to understand how
behavior and cognition are influenced by brain functioning and is
concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral and cognitive
effects of neurological disorders.
is a branch of medicine dealing with
disorders of the nervous system.
is a branch of medicine dealing with
disorders of the nervous system. Neurology deals with the diagnosis and
treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the
central and peripheral nervous system (and its subdivisions, the autonomic
nervous system and the somatic nervous system); including their coverings,
blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle. Neurological
practice relies heavily on the field of neuroscience, which is the
scientific study of the nervous system. A neurologist is a physician
specializing in neurology and trained to investigate, or diagnose and
treat neurological disorders. Neurologists may also be involved in
clinical research, clinical trials, and basic or translational research.
While neurology is a non-surgical specialty, its corresponding surgical
specialty is neurosurgery. There is significant overlap between the fields
of neurology and psychiatry, with the boundary between the two disciplines
and the conditions they treat being somewhat nebulous.
Child Neurology Society
Child Neurology Foundation
Neurological Diagnostic Tests
Journal of Neurology
International Neuropsychological Society
Neuroscience and Development Laboratory
is a branch of physiology and
neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the
is a medical specialty that studies the central and peripheral nervous
systems through the recording of bioelectrical activity, whether
spontaneous or stimulated.
is a branch of cognitive psychology
that aims to understand how the
structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological
processes. Cognitive psychology is the science that looks at how the
brain's mental processes are responsible for our
store and produce new memories, produce language, recognize people and
objects, as well as our ability to reason and problem solve.
is a growing
multidisciplinary field arising out of cognitive psychology and
neuropsychiatry that aims to understand mental illness and psychopathology
in terms of models of normal psychological function.
functions are cognitive functions
closely linked to the function of particular areas, neural pathways, or
cortical networks in the brain substrate layers of neurological
the cellular molecular level. Therefore, their understanding is closely
linked to the practice of neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience, two
disciplines that broadly seek to understand how the structure and function
of the brain relates to perception defragmentation of concepts, memory
embed, association and recall both in the thought process and behaviour.
is an International Journal in Behavioural and
is any technology that has a
fundamental influence on how people understand the brain and various
aspects of consciousness, thought, and higher order activities in the
brain. It also includes technologies that are designed to improve and
repair brain function and allow researchers and clinicians to visualize
is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair
sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health,
depending on the type of nerve affected. Common causes include systemic
diseases (such as diabetes or leprosy), vitamin deficiency, medication
(e.g., chemotherapy, or commonly prescribed antibiotics including
Metronidazole and the Fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin,
Levaquin, Avelox etc.), traumatic injury, radiation therapy, excessive
alcohol consumption, immune system disease, Coeliac disease, or viral
is the interdisciplinary,
scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines the nature,
the tasks, and the functions of cognition. Cognitive scientists study
, with a focus on how
process, and transform information. Mental faculties of concern to
cognitive scientists include language
; to understand these faculties, cognitive
scientists borrow from fields such as linguistics, psychology, artificial
intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, and anthropology. The typical
analysis of cognitive science span many levels of organization, from
to logic and planning; from neural circuitry to
modular brain organization. The fundamental concept of cognitive science
is that "thinking can best be understood in terms of representational
structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those
the scientific study of the biological processes
and aspects that underlie
cognition, with a specific focus on the neural connections in the brain
which are involved in mental processes. It addresses the questions of how
psychological/cognitive activities are affected or controlled by
in the brain. Cognitive neuroscience is a branch of both
psychology and neuroscience, overlapping with disciplines such as
physiological psychology, cognitive psychology, and neuropsychology.
Cognitive neuroscience relies upon theories in cognitive science coupled
with evidence from neuropsychology, and computational modeling.
is a theoretical framework for
understanding the mind
Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences
cell, is an electrically
excitable cell that processes and
through electrical and chemical
signals. These signals between neurons
occur via synapses, specialized connections with other cells. Neurons can
connect to each other to form neural networks. Neurons are the core
components of the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system
(CNS), and of the ganglia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
Cell Diagram Image
refers to the processes that generate,
shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages
of embryogenesis to adulthood.
is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other
molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence
the function of neurons.
an organic molecule, such as serotonin,
, or nerve growth
factor, that participates in neural activity. The science of
neurochemistry studies the functions of neurochemicals.
When neurons die, their debris needs to be quickly removed in
order for the surrounding brain tissue to continue to function
is a structure that permits a neuron (or
nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron.
Communication from a
neuron to any other cell type, such as to a
, although such
non-neuronal contacts may be referred to as junctions (a historically
is a synapse in which an action potential
in a presynaptic neuron increases the probability of an action potential
occurring in a postsynaptic cell. Neurons form networks through which
nerve impulses travel, each neuron often making numerous connections with
other cells. These electrical signals may be excitatory or inhibitory,
and, if the total of excitatory
exceeds that of the
, the neuron will generate a new action potential
at its axon hillock, thus transmitting the information to yet another
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential
is a postsynaptic potential that makes the post synaptic neuron more
likely to fire an action potential. This temporary depolarization of
postsynaptic membrane potential, caused by the flow of positively charged
ions into the postsynaptic cell, is a result of opening ligand-gated ion
is the process that determines whether or not an action potential will be
triggered by the combined effects of excitatory and inhibitory signals,
both from multiple simultaneous inputs (spatial summation), and from
repeated inputs (temporal summation). Depending on the sum total of many
individual inputs, summation may or may not reach the threshold voltage to
trigger an action
are biological junctions through which neurons signal can be exchanged to
each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Chemical synapses allow neurons to form circuits within the
central nervous system
. They are crucial to the
biological computations that underlie perception and thought. They allow
the nervous system to connect to and control other systems of the body.
is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically
conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body. Myelinated
axons are known as nerve fibers
. The function of the axon is to transmit
information to different neurons, muscles and glands.
are the branched projections of a neuron that act to propagate the
electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the
cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
Electrical stimulation is transmitted onto dendrites by upstream neurons
(usually their axons) via synapses which are located at various points
throughout the dendritic tree. Dendrites play a critical role in
integrating these synaptic inputs and in determining the extent to which
action potentials are produced by the neuron.
is the bulbous end of a neuron, containing the cell nucleus.
function to conduct potassium ions down their
electrochemical gradient, doing so both rapidly (up to the diffusion
rate of K+ ions in bulk water) and selectively (excluding, most notably,
sodium despite the sub-angstrom difference in ionic radius). Biologically,
these channels act to set or reset the resting potential in many cells. In
excitable cells, such as neurons, the delayed counterflow of potassium
ions shapes the action potential.
in which the total number
of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom
or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge. Ions can be
created, by either chemical or physical means, via ionization.
a neuroscience related field concerned with characterizing the
relationship between the stimulus and the individual or ensemble neuronal
responses and the relationship among the electrical activity of the
neurons in the ensemble. Based on the theory that
information is represented in the brain by
of neurons, it is thought that neurons can encode both digital and analog
is one of the three classifications of neurons found in
the human body. Interneurons create neural circuits, enabling
communication between sensory or motor neurons and the central nervous
system (CNS). They have been found to function in reflexes, neuronal
oscillations, and neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain. Interneurons
can be further broken down into two groups: local interneurons, and relay
interneurons. Local interneurons have short axons and form circuits with
nearby neurons to analyze small pieces of information. Relay interneurons
have long axons and connect circuits of neurons in one region of the brain
with those in other regions. The interaction between interneurons allow
the brain to perform complex functions such as learning, and
decision-making. (also called relay neuron, association neuron, connector
neuron, intermediate neuron or local circuit neuron).
is an interneuron found in the spinal cord that
relays signals between afferent neurons and efferent neurons.
Different classes of spinal interneurons are involved in the process of
sensory-motor integration. Most interneurons are found in the grey column,
a region of grey matter in the spinal cord.
is a fatty white substance that surrounds the axon of
some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer. It is
essential for the proper functioning of the nervous
. It is an outgrowth of a type of
, which are non-neuronal cells that maintain
myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the central and
peripheral nervous systems.
are a type of neuroglia. Their main
functions are to provide support and insulation to axons in the central
Myelin Sheath Gap
are periodic gaps in the
insulating myelin sheaths of myelinated axons where the axonal membrane is
exposed to the extracellular space.
is generally the proliferation of myelin sheaths
throughout the nervous system, and specifically the progressive
myelination of nerve axon fibers in the central nervous system. This is a
non-simultaneous process that occurs primarily postnatally in mammalian
species, beginning in the embryo during the midst of early development and
finishing after birth.
Myelin Basic Protein
is a protein
be important in the process of myelination of nerves in the
. The myelin sheath is a multi-layered membrane, unique to the
nervous system, that functions as an insulator to greatly increase the
velocity of axonal impulse conduction. MBP maintains the correct structure
of myelin, interacting with the lipids in the myelin membrane.
are a type of neuroglia. Their main functions are to
provide support and insulation to axons in the central nervous system of
some vertebrates, equivalent to the function performed by Schwann cells in
the peripheral nervous system. Oligodendrocytes do this by creating the
myelin sheath, which is 80% lipid and 20% protein. A single
oligodendrocyte can extend its processes to 50 axons, wrapping
approximately 1 μm of myelin sheath around each axon; Schwann cells, on
the other hand, can wrap around only one axon. Each oligodendrocyte forms
one segment of myelin for several adjacent axons.
are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
function to support neurons and in the PNS, also include satellite cells,
olfactory ensheathing cells, enteric glia and glia that reside at sensory
nerve endings, such as the Pacinian corpuscle. There are two types of
Schwann cell, myelinating and nonmyelinating. Myelinating Schwann cells
wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath.
The Schwann cell promoter is present in the Downstream region of the Human
Dystrophin Gene that gives shortened transcript that are again synthesized
in a tissue specific manner.
is a sheet of neurons that is attached to the
underside of the neocortex
in the center of the
brain. Contains a great deal of longitudinal connections between its
neurons that could serve to synchronize the entire anterior-posterior
extent of the claustrum.
is the physiological process by which a given neuron
uses one or more chemicals
to regulate diverse populations of neurons.
This is in contrast to classical synaptic transmission, in which one
presynaptic neuron directly influences a single postsynaptic partner.
Neuromodulators secreted by a small group of neurons diffuse through large
areas of the nervous system, affecting multiple neurons. Major
neuromodulators in the central nervous system
acetylcholine, histamine, and norepinephrine.
also called synaptic transmission, is the process by
which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by a
neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors of
another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron). Neurotransmission is essential
for the process of communication between two neurons. Synaptic
transmission relies on: the availability of the neurotransmitter; the
release of the neurotransmitter by exocytosis; the binding of the
postsynaptic receptor by the neurotransmitter; the functional response of
the postsynaptic cell; and the subsequent removal or deactivation of the
neurotransmitter. Information is carried from one cell to the other by
neurotransmitters such as glutamate, dopamine, and serotonin, which
activate receptors on the receiving neuron to convey excitatory or
are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by
neurons to communicate with each other.
also known as chemical messengers, are endogenous chemicals that enable
neurotransmission. They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such
as a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another
"target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. Neurotransmitters are
released from synaptic vesicles in synapses into the synaptic cleft, where
they are received by receptors on the target cells. Many neurotransmitters
are synthesized from simple and plentiful precursors such as amino acids,
which are readily available from the diet and only require a small number
of biosynthetic steps for conversion. Neurotransmitters play a major role
in shaping everyday life and functions. Their exact numbers are unknown,
but more than 100 chemical messengers have been uniquely identified.
is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is
transmitted through a cell
as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein
catalysed by protein
which ultimately results in a cellular response. Proteins responsible for
detecting stimuli are generally termed receptors, although in some cases
the term sensor is used. The changes elicited by ligand binding (or signal
sensing) in a receptor give rise to a signaling cascade, which is a chain
of biochemical events along a signaling pathway. When signaling pathways
interact with one another they form networks, which allow cellular
responses to be coordinated, often by combinatorial signaling events. At
the molecular level, such responses include changes in the transcription
or translation of genes, and post-translational and conformational changes
in proteins, as well as changes in their location. These molecular events
are the basic mechanisms controlling cell growth, proliferation,
metabolism and many other processes. In multicellular organisms, signal
transduction pathways have evolved to regulate cell communication in a
wide variety of ways. Each component (or node) of a signaling pathway is
classified according to the role it plays with respect to the initial
stimulus. Ligands are termed first messengers, while receptors are the
signal transducers, which then activate primary effectors. Such effectors
are often linked to second messengers, which can activate secondary
effectors, and so on. Depending on the efficiency of the nodes, a signal
can be amplified (a concept known as signal gain), so that one signaling
generate a response involving hundreds to millions of
molecules. As with other signals, the transduction of biological signals
is characterised by delay, noise, signal feedback and feedforward and
interference, which can range from negligible to pathological. With the
advent of computational biology, the analysis of signaling pathways and
networks has become an essential tool to understand cellular functions and
disease, including signaling rewiring mechanisms underlying responses to
acquired drug resistance.
plays an important role in biochemical processes, such as
well as in signal transduction. It is also a neuromodulator, believed to
play a role in promoting sleep
arousal. Adenosine also plays a role in regulation of blood flow to
various organs through vasodilation
is a chemical synapse formed by the contact
between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber. It is at the neuromuscular
junction that a motor neuron is able to transmit a signal to the muscle
fiber, causing muscle contraction.
Acetylcholine as a neuromodulator: cholinergic signaling shapes nervous
an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the
human brain and body as a hormone
is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and
body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a
chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells. Its name
is derived from its chemical structure: it is an ester of acetic acid and
choline. Parts in the body that use or are affected by acetylcholine are
referred to as cholinergic. Substances that interfere with acetylcholine
activity are called anticholinergics.
Boyden: Light Switch for Neurons
located in your fingertips
perform mathematical calculations
that provide us with
geometric information about objects we touch. Somatosensory
is a complex system of nerve cells that responds to changes to
the surface or internal state of the body. Nerve cells called "sensory
receptors" (including thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors
and nociceptors) send signals along a chain of nerve cells to the spinal
cord where they may be processed by other nerve cells and then relayed to
the brain for further processing. Sensory receptors are found in many
parts of the body including the skin, epithelial tissues, skeletal
muscles, bones and joints, internal organs, and the cardiovascular system.
is rhythmic or repetitive neural
activity in the central nervous system. Neural tissue can generate
oscillatory activity in many ways, driven either by mechanisms within
individual neurons or by interactions between neurons. In individual
neurons, oscillations can appear either as oscillations in membrane
potential or as rhythmic patterns of action potentials, which then produce
oscillatory activation of post-synaptic neurons. At the level of neural
ensembles, synchronized activity of large numbers of neurons can give rise
to macroscopic oscillations, which can be observed in an
electroencephalogram. Oscillatory activity in groups of neurons generally
arises from feedback connections between the neurons that result in the
synchronization of their firing patterns. The interaction between neurons
can give rise to oscillations at a different frequency than the firing
frequency of individual neurons. A well-known example of macroscopic
neural oscillations is alpha
is a pattern of neural oscillation in
humans with a frequency between 25 and 100 Hz, though 40 Hz is typical.
(are synaptic receptors located
primarily on the membranes of neuronal cells. Glutamate (the conjugate
base of glutamic acid) is abundant in the human body, but particularly in
the nervous system and especially prominent in the human brain where it is
the body's most prominent neurotransmitter, the brain's main excitatory
neurotransmitter, and also the precursor for GABA, the brain's main
inhibitory neurotransmitter. Glutamate receptors are responsible for the
glutamate-mediated postsynaptic excitation of neural cells, and are
important for neural communication, memory formation, learning, and
receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or
neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message
molecules (hormones) to the blood. In this way they bring about an
integration between the nervous system and the endocrine system, a process
known as neuroendocrine integration.
1. Identify neurons and understand the functional
relationship between the soma and cell processes. 2. Distinguish between
glial cells and neurons and know the different functions of these
supporting glial cells. 3. Identify and understand the connective tissue
elements of the central and peripheral nervous systems. 4. Distinguish
between specific organs/structures in the central and peripheral nervous
systems (i.e. cerebellum, peripheral nerve, autonomic ganglion).
- Binaural Beats
(is a type of biofeedback that uses
real-time displays of brain activity—most commonly
(EEG), to teach self-regulation of brain
function. Typically, sensors are placed on the scalp to measure activity,
with measurements displayed using video displays or sound.
for Neuro Feedback Research
is the science of measuring the
underlying organization of the brain's electrical activity
brainwave frequencies are associated with general psychological processes.
EEGs are used to measure the brain waves.
is a colloquialism for 'neural entrainment', which denotes how the
aggregate oscillation frequency
, resulting from synchronous electrical
activity among ensembles of cortical neurons, can adjust to synchronize
with the periodic vibration of an external
, such as a
perceived as pitch, a regularly repeating pattern of
intermittent sounds perceived as rhythm
, or a regularly intermittent
is the process of forming the characteristic folds of the
The peak of such a fold is called a gyrus (plural: gyri),
and its trough is called a sulcus (plural: sulci). The neurons of the
cerebral cortex reside in a thin layer of 'gray matter', only 2–4 mm
thick, at the surface of the brain. Much of the interior volume is
occupied by 'white matter', which consists of long axonal projections to
and from the cortical neurons
residing near the surface. Gyrification
allows a larger cortical surface area and hence greater cognitive
functionality to fit inside a smaller cranium.
is a major component of the central nervous system
of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as
unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astroglia and oligodendrocytes),
synapses, and capillaries. Grey matter is distinguished from white matter,
in that it contains numerous cell bodies and relatively few myelinated
axons, while white matter contains relatively very few cell bodies and is
composed chiefly of long-range myelinated axon tracts. The colour
difference arises mainly from the whiteness of myelin. In living tissue,
grey matter actually has a very light grey colour with yellowish or
pinkish hues, which come from capillary blood vessels and neuronal cell
is a comparison of the local
concentration of gray matter between two groups of subjects.
refers to axon tracts and commissures. Long thought to be
passive tissue, it actively affects learning and brain functions,
modulating the distribution of action potentials, acting as a relay and
coordinating communication between different brain regions. White matter
is named for its relatively light appearance resulting from the lipid
content of myelin. However, the tissue of the freshly cut brain appears
pinkish white to the naked eye because myelin is composed largely of lipid
tissue veined with capillaries. Its white color in prepared specimens is
due to its usual preservation in formaldehyde.
Brain’s White Matter
is the tissue that connects and protects
neurons emanating from the
Anterior Cingulate Cortex
, is a region of particular
importance for rational decision-making and effortful problem-solving.
Seeing into the Brain
is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for
clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
is the use of various techniques to
either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology
of the nervous system
. It is a relatively new discipline within medicine,
, and psychology. Physicians who
specialize in the performance and interpretation of
in the clinical setting are neuroradiologists.
is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record
electrical activity of
ECG or EKG (Heart
is a type of electrophysiological monitoring that uses electrodes placed
directly on the exposed surface of the brain to record electrical activity
from the cerebral cortex
Positron Emission Tomography
is a nuclear medicine,
functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes
in the body. The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by
a positron-emitting radionuclide (tracer), which is introduced into the
body on a biologically active molecule. Three-dimensional images of tracer
concentration within the body are then constructed by computer analysis.
In modern PET-CT scanners, three dimensional imaging is often accomplished
with the aid of a CT X-ray scan performed on the patient during the same
session, in the same machine. (PET)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
is a medical imaging
technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the
physiological processes of the body in both health and disease. MRI
scanners use strong magnetic fields, radio waves, and field gradients to
generate images of the inside of the body. (MRI - Magnetic Resonance Imaging).
is the application of nuclear magnetic resonance
in NMR spectroscopy with respect to hydrogen-1 nuclei within the molecules
of a substance, in order to determine the structure of its molecules. In
samples where natural hydrogen (H) is used, practically all the hydrogen
consists of the isotope 1H (hydrogen-1; i.e. having a proton for a
nucleus). A full 1H atom is called protium.Proton Magnetic
Resonance Spectroscopy in the Brain
Electrical Brain Stimulation
is a form of
electrotherapy and technique used in research and clinical neurobiology to
stimulate a neuron or neural network in the brain through the direct or
indirect excitation of its cell membrane by using an electric current. It
is used for research or for therapeutical purposes.
is a functional neuroimaging
technique for mapping brain activity by recording magnetic fields produced
by electrical currents occurring naturally in the brain, using very
Trans-Cranial Magnetic Stimulation
method used to stimulate small regions of the brain. During a
TMS procedure, a magnetic field generator, or "coil", is placed near the
head of the person receiving the treatment. The coil produces small
electric currents in the region of the brain just under the coil via
. The coil is
connected to a pulse generator, or stimulator, that delivers electric
current to the coil.
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
is a form of
neurostimulation which uses constant, low current delivered to the brain
area of interest via electrodes on the scalp.
Reactivation of latent working memories with transcranial magnetic
- Electroshock Therapy
Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography
nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays. It is
very similar to conventional nuclear medicine planar imaging using a gamma
camera. However, it is able to provide true 3D information. This
information is typically presented as cross-sectional slices through the
patient, but can be freely reformatted or manipulated as required.
makes use of
computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different
angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices")
of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the
object without cutting.
- AT Scan
refers to imaging by sections or
sectioning, through the use of any kind of penetrating wave. The method is
used in radiology, archaeology, biology, atmospheric science, geophysics,
oceanography, plasma physics, materials science, astrophysics, quantum
information, and other areas of science. In most cases the production of
these images is based on the mathematical procedure tomographic
is a form of
. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from
0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30
petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the
range 100 eV to 100 keV. X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV
rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays.
is a subspecialty of radiology
focusing on the diagnosis and characterization of abnormalities of the
central and peripheral nervous system, spine, and head and neck using
uses Medical imaging to diagnose and treat
diseases seen within the body. A variety of imaging techniques such as
X-ray radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine
including positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI) are used to diagnose and/or treat diseases. Interventional
radiology is the performance of (usually minimally invasive) medical
procedures with the guidance of imaging technologies.
nanosecond pulsed laser.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
is a functional
neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity
by detecting changes associated with blood flow.
is the use of neuroimaging technology to measure an
aspect of brain function, often with a view to understanding the
relationship between activity in certain brain areas and specific mental
Patch-type brain wave sensor that can easily be attached just like
applying a cool soft gel sheet to the forehead
learning to analyze radiographs and CT and MRI scans.
Deep Brain Stimulation
implantation of a medical device
called a neurostimulator (sometimes
referred to as a 'brain pacemaker'), which sends electrical impulses,
through implanted electrodes, to specific targets in the brain (brain
nuclei) for the treatment of movement and neuropsychiatric disorders.
is a form of computed tomography that creates a
digital volumetric model of an object by reconstructing images made from
light transmitted and scattered through an object. Optical tomography is
used mostly in medical imaging research. Optical tomography in industry is
used as a sensor of thickness and internal structure of semiconductors.
Optical Coherence Tomography
is an established medical imaging
technique that uses light to capture micrometer-resolution,
three-dimensional images from within optical scattering media (e.g.,
biological tissue). Optical coherence tomography is based on low-coherence
interferometry, typically employing near-infrared light. The use of
relatively long wavelength light allows it to penetrate into the
scattering medium. Confocal microscopy, another optical technique,
typically penetrates less deeply into the sample but with higher
resolution. Depending on the properties of the light source (superluminescent
diodes, ultrashort pulsed lasers, and supercontinuum lasers have been
employed), optical coherence tomography has achieved sub-micrometer
resolution (with very wide-spectrum sources emitting over a ~100 nm
Industrial Process Imaging
or process tomography are methods used to
form an image of a cross section of vessel or pipe in a chemical
engineering or mineral processing, or petroleum extraction or refining
plant. Process imaging is used for the development of process equipment
such as filters, separators and conveyor, as well as monitoring of
production plant including flow rate measurement. As well as conventional
tomographic methods widely used in medicine such as X-ray computed
tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and gamma ray tomography, and
ultra-sound tomography, new and emerging methods such as electrical
capacitance tomography and magnetic induction tomography and electrical
resistivity tomography (similar to medical electrical impedance
tomography) are also used.
consists of tomographic imaging of systems, such as process
pipes in industry. In tomography the 3D distribution of some physical
quantity in the object is determined. There is a widespread need to get
tomographic information about process. This information can be used, for
example, in the design and control of processes. Tomography involves
taking measurements around the periphery of an object (e.g. process vessel
or patient) to determine what is going on inside.The best known technique
is CAT scanning in medicine, however process tomography instrumentation
needs to be cheaper, faster and more robust.
is a miniaturized and simplified version of an organ produced in vitro in
three dimensions that shows realistic micro-anatomy. They are derived from
one or a few cells from a tissue, embryonic stem cells or induced
pluripotent stem cells, which can self-organize in three-dimensional
culture owing to their self-renewal and differentiation capacities. The
technique for growing organoids has rapidly improved since the early 2010s,
and it was named by The Scientist as one of the biggest scientific
advancements of 2013.
is the destruction or degeneration of
brain cells. Brain injuries occur due to a wide range of internal and
external factors. A common category with the greatest number of injuries
is traumatic brain injury.
occurs when an external force traumatically injures the
Intracranial Traumatic Brain Injury
occurs when an
external force traumatically injures the brain.
Brain Injury Rehabilitation
Recovery after Brain Injury
Brain Injury Explanation
Brain Injuries Heal Faster when people Move
Apps for Brain Injuries
is defined as a head injury with a temporary loss of
brain function. Symptoms include a variety of physical, cognitive, and
emotional symptoms, which may not be recognized if subtle. A variety of
signs accompany concussion including headache, feeling in a fog, and
emotional changeability. Physical signs (such as loss of consciousness or
amnesia), behavioral changes (such as irritability), cognitive impairment
(such as slowed reaction times), or sleep disturbances. Fewer than 10% of
sports-related concussions among children are associated with loss of
Concussions in Sports
Impact Test App for Minor Concussions
Eye-Sync Eye Tracking
helps diagnose concussions on the spot. 60-second tool to
objectively screen for ocular-motor synchronization, a key impairment in
Scientists discover Concussion Biomarker
by measuring the brain’s
ability to process sound or auditory response. Children who sustained
concussions had on average a 35 percent smaller neural response to pitch.
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
is a progressive
degenerative disease found in people who have had a severe blow or
repeated blows to the head. The disease was previously called dementia
pugilistica (DP), i.e. "punch-drunk," as it was initially found in those
with a history of boxing. CTE has been most commonly found in professional
athletes participating in American football, rugby, ice hockey, boxing,
professional wrestling, stunt performing, bull riding, rodeo, and other
contact sports who have experienced repeated concussions or other brain
trauma. Its presence in domestic violence is also being investigated. It
can affect high school athletes, especially American football players,
following few years of activity. It is a form of tauopathy.
of sensory and cognitive function typically involves methods for
retraining neural pathways or training new neural pathways to regain or
improve neurocognitive functioning that has been diminished by disease or
O2 & Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Reverses Brain Damage in Drowned Toddler
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the therapeutic administration of 100%
oxygen at environmental pressures greater than one atmosphere, while
normobaric oxygen therapy (NBOT) is oxygen administered at one atmosphere.
Parallel recovery of consciousness and sleep in acute traumatic brain
A good sleep for a fresh mind in patients with acute traumatic brain
Structural Advanced MRI Imaging
is a motor disorder caused by damage to the
deals with life-threatening
diseases of the nervous system, which are those that involve the brain,
spinal cord and nerves.
is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the
brain tissue or ventricles. Symptoms can include headache, one sided
weakness, vomiting, seizures, decreased level of consciousness, and neck
stiffness. Often symptoms get worse over time. Fever is also common. In
many cases bleeding is present in both the brain tissue and the
Blood Brain Barrier
are a type of glial cell located
throughout the brain and spinal cord. Microglia account for 10–15% of all
cells found within the brain. As the resident macrophage cells, they act
as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
also known as Lou
Gehrig's disease and motor neurone disease (MND), is a specific disease
that causes the death of neurons which control voluntary muscles. Some
also use the term "motor neuron disease" for a group of conditions of
which ALS is the most common. ALS is characterized by stiff muscles,
muscle twitching, and gradually worsening weakness due to muscles
decreasing in size. This results in difficulty in speaking, swallowing,
and eventually breathing.
is when poor blood flow to the brain results in cell
death. There are two main types of stroke:
, due to lack of blood flow, and
, due to bleeding. They result in part of the brain not
functioning properly. Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an
inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding
or speaking, feeling like the world is spinning, or loss of vision to one
side among others. Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke
has occurred. If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a
transient ischemic attack (TIA). Hemorrhagic strokes may also be
associated with a severe headache.
is a stroke that does not have any outward symptoms
associated with stroke, and the patient is typically unaware they have
suffered a stroke. Despite not causing identifiable symptoms a silent
stroke still causes damage to the brain, and places the patient at
increased risk for both transient ischemic attack and major stroke in the
future. (white matter stroke)
Transient Ischemic Attack
is a transient episode of neurologic
dysfunction caused by ischemia (loss of blood flow) – either focal
brain, spinal cord, or retinal – without acute infarction (tissue death).
TIAs have the same underlying cause as strokes: a disruption of cerebral
blood flow (CBF), and are often referred to as mini-strokes. Symptoms
caused by a TIA resolve in 24 hours or less. TIA was originally defined
clinically by the temporary nature of less than 24 hours of the associated
UCLA study shows how brain begins repairs after ‘silent strokes’
Blocking a molecular receptor helps restore brain function.
Smart cells teach Neurons to Heal themselves
"A finding suggests that people with more education have brains
that are better able to "find ways around the damage" caused by an
- Pain Scale
Constraint-induced Movement Therapy
is a form of
rehabilitation therapy that improves upper extremity function in stroke
and other central nervous system damage victims by increasing the use of
their affected upper limb.
has been shown to exert modulatory action
at multiple molecular targets, notably: neurotransmitter systems, ion
channels, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and polyamine metabolism and this
provides bases for further research into potential applications.
is an inability to comprehend and formulate
language because of damage to specific brain regions.
is a motor disorder caused by damage to the
brain (specifically the posterior parietal cortex), in which the
individual has difficulty with the motor planning to perform tasks or
movements when asked, provided that the request or command is understood
and he/she is willing to perform the task. A person with apraxia has
impaired volitional control of speech making it difficult to move his or
her lips or tongue to the right place, as the messages from the brain to
the mouth are disrupted. The nature of the brain damage determines the
severity and the absence of sensory loss or paralysis helps explain the
level of difficulty.
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
Woman Has no Cerebellum
is a heterogeneous group
of disorder of cerebellar maldevelopment presenting as early onset non
progressive ataxia, hypotonia, and motor learning disability. Various
causes has been incriminated like hereditary, metabolic, toxic and viral
Diffuse Axonal Injury
is a brain injury in which
damage in the form of extensive lesions in white matter tracts occurs over
a widespread area. DAI is one of the most common and devastating types of
traumatic brain injury, and is a major cause of unconsciousness and
persistent vegetative state after severe head trauma. It occurs in about
half of all cases of severe head trauma and may be the primary damage that
occurs in concussion. The outcome is frequently coma, with over 90% of
patients with severe DAI never regaining consciousness. Those who do wake
up often remain significantly impaired.
is a condition in which a patient
is aware but cannot move or communicate
due to complete paralysis of nearly all voluntary muscles in
the body except for the eyes. Total locked-in syndrome is a version of
locked-in syndrome wherein the eyes are paralyzed as well.
Brigham and Women's
is a neuropsychological
condition in which, after damage to one hemisphere of
is sustained, a deficit in attention to and awareness of one
side of space is observed. It is defined by the inability of a person to
process and perceive stimuli on one side of the body or environment, where
that inability is not due to a lack of sensation. Hemispatial neglect is
very commonly contralateral to the damaged hemisphere, but instances of
ipsilesional neglect (on the same side as the lesion) have been reported.
is a lay term to describe the result
when the corpus callosum connecting the two hemispheres of the brain is
severed to some degree. It is an association of symptoms produced by
disruption of or interference with the connection between the hemispheres
of the brain.
is a neurological sign consisting of lack of
voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.
Ataxia is a non-specific clinical manifestation implying dysfunction of
the parts of the nervous system that coordinate movement, such as the
Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis
is a condition arising from an
abnormal immune response
normal body part. There are at least 80 types of autoimmune diseases.
Nearly any body part can be involved. Common symptoms include low grade
fever and feeling tired. Often symptoms come and go.
is a portion of the central nervous system
associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal
(alertness), and temperature regulation.
Transplanted embryonic neurons integrate into adult neocortical circuits
Implanting new neurons to integrate with existing
Acquired Savant Syndrome
when a brain injury can sometimes activate incredible skills that a person
never experienced before.
is a state of unconsciousness in which a person
cannot be awakened; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light,
or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary
UCLA scientists use ultrasound to jump-start a man’s brain after coma
Persistent Vegetative State
is a disorder of
consciousness in which patients with severe brain damage are in a state of
partial arousal rather than true awareness. After four weeks in a
vegetative state (VS), the patient is classified as in a persistent
Ways to Communicate
is the complete and irreversible loss of
brain function (including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life).
is loss of muscle function for one or more
muscles. Paralysis can be accompanied by a loss of feeling (sensory loss)
in the affected area if there is sensory damage as well as motor.
is an acute inflammation of the brain. Acute
onset of fever, headache, confusion, and sometimes seizures.
Younger children or infants may present irritability, poor
appetite and fever. Neurological examinations usually reveal a
drowsy or confused patient. Stiff neck, due to the irritation of
the meninges covering the brain, indicates that the patient has
meningitis or meningoencephalitis.
is an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal
fluid (CSF) in the brain. This causes increased intracranial
pressure inside the skull and may cause progressive enlargement
of the head if it occurs in childhood, potentially causing
convulsion, tunnel vision, and mental disability. It was once
informally called "Water on the brain.
is many aspects of the brain remain
changeable (or "plastic") even into adulthood.
is the ability of
strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in
their activity. There is no such thing as a Hard
Wired Brain. Sensory Substitution
describes the processes by
which human intelligence
may be augmented through changes in
neuroplasticity. These changes may come as a result of genetics,
pharmacological factors, psychological factors, behavior, or environmental
refers to the processes that generate, shape, and
reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of
embryogenesis to adulthood. Child
is a persistent strengthening of synapses based
on recent patterns of activity. These are patterns of synaptic activity
that produce a long-lasting increase in signal transmission between two
. The opposite of LTP is
, which produces a
long-lasting decrease in synaptic strength.
refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the
, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to the final years of
which postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) (EPPs or EPSPs)
evoked by an impulse are increased when that impulse closely follows a
prior impulse. PPF is thus a form of short-term synaptic plasticity.
a healthy person's lifespan.
Brain Improvement Methods
10,000 Hour Rule
Nervous System Development
are a family of proteins that induce
the survival, development, and function of neurons.
is the process by which neurons are
generated from neural stem cells and progenitor cells. Through precise
genetic mechanisms of cell fate determination, many different varieties of
excitatory and inhibitory neurons are generated from different kinds of
neural stem cells. The Brain can generate about 700 new neurons each day.
Thuret: Grow New Brain Cells
are non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide
support and protection for neurons in the central and peripheral nervous
are nerve that transmit sensory
information (sight, sound, feeling, etc.). They are activated by sensory
input, and send projections to other elements of the nervous system,
ultimately conveying sensory information to the brain or spinal cord.
create neural circuits, enabling
communication between sensory or motor neurons
and the central nervous
is how the brain progressively
sculpts itself and how it gradually becomes specialized over developmental
is a complex medical process
which aims to aid recovery from a nervous system injury, and to minimize
and/or compensate for any functional alterations resulting from it.
Human Neurons Continue to Migrate after Birth
Late migration of
inhibitory neurons could play a role in human cognitive abilities,
, which use the
, make up about 20 percent of the neurons in the
cerebral cortex and play a vital role in balancing the brain’s need for
stability with its ability to learn and change.
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential
is a kind of synaptic potential that
makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an
The opposite of an inhibitory postsynaptic potential is an excitatory
postsynaptic potential (EPSP), which is a synaptic potential that makes a
postsynaptic neuron more likely to generate an action potential. They can
take place at all chemical synapses, which use the secretion of
neurotransmitters to create cell to cell signaling.
is a synthetic nucleoside that is an analog of
thymidine. BrdU is commonly used in the detection of proliferating cells
in living tissues. 5-Bromodeoxycytidine is deaminated to form BrdU.
is cause to grow or increase
is a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside. Deoxythymidine is the DNA nucleoside T,
which pairs with deoxyadenosine (A) in double-stranded DNA. In cell
biology it is used to synchronize the cells in G1/early S phase.
Pure Science Specials
The Brain that Changes Itself
Season 1 Ep. 85 | 01/04/2015 | 55:05
Changing Your Mind
Season 1 Ep. 84 | 01/03/2015 | 52:26
Episode 1. The Brain that Changes Itself, Norman Doidge
Robots that Adapt
Cause of phantom limb pain in amputees, and potential treatment,
reorganisation of the wiring of the brain is the underlying
cause of phantom limb pain.
Induced sensorimotor brain plasticity controls pain in phantom limb
intelligent Trial and Error Algorithm
is a putty-like modelling material made
from calcium salts, petroleum jelly and aliphatic acids.
are undifferentiated biological cells that
can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis)
to produce more stem cells.
Stem Cell Research
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
are a type of
pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells.
is a biological cell that, like a
stem cell, has a tendency to differentiate into a specific type of cell,
but is already more specific than a stem cell and is pushed to
differentiate into its "target" cell. The most important difference
between stem cells and progenitor cells is that stem cells can replicate
indefinitely, whereas progenitor cells can divide only a limited number of
are substances and processes that originate from within an organism,
tissue, or cell.
is the fact of an action or object originating externally. It contrasts
with endogeny or endogeneity, the fact of being influenced within a
is a persistent
based on recent patterns of activity. These are patterns of
synaptic activity that produce a long-lasting increase in signal
transmission between two Neurons
is an activity-dependent
reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer
following a long patterned stimulus
is a group of endogenous
cannabinoid receptors located in the mammalian brain and throughout the
central and peripheral nervous systems, consisting of neuromodulatory
lipids and their receptors. Known as "the body’s own cannabinoid system",
the ECS is involved in a variety of physiological processes including
appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory, and in mediating the
psychoactive effects of cannabis
are changes in the membrane
potential of the postsynaptic terminal of a chemical
star-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord.
is a glutamate receptor and ion
channel protein found in nerve cells.
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
Human Brain Project
Institute for Brain Science
The Dana Foundation
Your Wonderful Brain summary of the key features and functions of your brain
Medical Imaging Technology
- The ways we can see into our Brains.
describes the use of
very-large-scale integration (VLSI) systems containing electronic analog
circuits to mimic neuro-biological architectures present in the nervous
is the world's largest collection of well-preserved,
sectioned and stained brains of mammals. Viewers can see and download
photographs of brains of over 100 different species of mammals (including
humans) representing over 20 Mammalian Orders.
consists of the reptilian complex, the
paleomammalian complex (limbic system), and the neomammalian complex (neocortex),
viewed as structures sequentially added to the forebrain in the course of
is a colloquialism for 'neural entrainment', which denotes how the
aggregate oscillation frequency, resulting from synchronous electrical
activity among ensembles of cortical neurons, can adjust to synchronize
with the periodic vibration of an external stimulus, such as a sustained
acoustic frequency perceived as pitch, a regularly repeating pattern of
intermittent sounds perceived as rhythm, or a regularly intermittent
is a method by which multiple analog or digital
signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium.
can be viewed at three levels. At the level of gross anatomy, the
cerebellum consists of a tightly folded and crumpled layer of cortex, with
white matter underneath, several deep nuclei embedded in the white matter,
and a fluid-filled ventricle in the middle. At the intermediate level, the
cerebellum and its auxiliary structures can be broken down into several
hundred or thousand independently functioning modules or "microzones". At
the microscopic level, each module consists of the same small set of
neuronal elements, laid out with a highly stereotyped geometry.
is an organic chemical that functions in
the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a
neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to
is an α-amino acid that is used in the
biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group, an α-carboxylic
acid group, and a side chain indole, classifying it as a non-polar,
aromatic amino acid. It is essential in humans, meaning the body cannot
synthesize it and thus it must be obtained from the diet. Tryptophan is
also a precursor to the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin.
is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in
the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), blood platelets, and the central
nervous system (CNS) of animals, including humans. It is popularly thought
to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness.
is the chief inhibitory
neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. It plays the
principal role in reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous
system. In humans, GABA is also directly responsible for the regulation of
, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones. When used as
a medication, it is known as hydrocortisone.
are pore-forming membrane proteins whose
functions include establishing a resting membrane potential, shaping
action potentials and other electrical signals by gating the flow of ions
across the cell membrane, controlling the flow of ions across secretory
and epithelial cells, and regulating cell volume. Ion channels are present
in the membranes of all cells. Ion channels are one of the two classes of
ionophoric proteins, along with ion transporters (including the
sodium-potassium pump, sodium-calcium exchanger, and sodium-glucose
are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and
peptide hormones in humans and other animals. They are produced by the
central nervous system and the pituitary gland.
are a class of psychoactive drugs
whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a
diazepine ring. The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium).
are small protein-like molecules
(peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other. They are
neuronal signaling molecules that influence the activity of the brain and
the body in specific ways. Different neuropeptides are involved in a wide
range of brain functions, including analgesia, reward, food intake,
metabolism, reproduction, social behaviors, learning and memory.
an organic molecule, such as serotonin,
dopamine, or nerve growth factor, that participates in neural activity.
The science of
studies the functions of neurochemicals.
are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines. They
are found bound to the outer membrane of mitochondria in most cell types
in the body.
Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis
a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three
endocrine glands: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped
structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called
"suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
is a small endocrine gland in the
vertebrate brain. The shape of the gland resembles a pine cone, hence its
name. The pineal gland is located in the epithalamus, near the center of
the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two
halves of the thalamus join. The pineal gland produces melatonin, a
serotonin derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns in both circadian
and seasonal cycles,
is a set of four interconnected
cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is
produced. Within each ventricle is a region of choroid plexus, a network
of ependymal cells involved in the production of CSF. The ventricular
system is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord (from the
fourth ventricle) allowing for the flow of CSF to circulate. All of the
ventricular system and the central canal of the spinal cord is lined with
ependyma, a specialised form of epithelium.
Central Nervous System
is the cerebrum's (brain) outer layer of neural tissue in humans and other
mammals. It is divided into two cortices, along the sagittal plane: the
left and right cerebral hemispheres
divided by the medial longitudinal
fissure. The cerebral cortex plays a key role in memory
, and consciousness. The human
cerebral cortex is 2 to 4 millimetres (0.079 to 0.157 in) thick.
is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part
of the frontal lobe
. This brain region has been implicated in planning
complex cognitive behavior,
expression, decision making
and moderating social behaviour
basic activity of this brain region is considered to be orchestration of
thoughts and actions in accordance with internal goals.
Brodmann Area 10
is the anterior-most portion of the
prefrontal cortex in the human brain.
is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain
which is involved in the
of decision-making. The OFC is considered
anatomically synonymous with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.
Therefore, the region is distinguished due to the distinct neural
connections and the distinct functions it performs. It is defined as the
part of the prefrontal cortex that receives projections from the
magnocellular, medial nucleus of the mediodorsal thalamus, and is thought
to represent emotion and reward
decision making. It gets its name from its position immediately above the
orbits in which the eyes are located. Considerable individual variability
has been found in the OFC of both humans and non-human primates.
Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex
is a part of the prefrontal cortex in
the mammalian brain. The ventral medial prefrontal is located in the
frontal lobe at the bottom of the cerebral hemispheres and is implicated
in the processing of risk
. It also plays a role in
the inhibition of emotional
, and in the process of decision making and
. It is also involved
in the cognitive evaluation of
is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in
the brain of mammals. Integrates sensory information among various
and navigation (proprioception), the main
sensory receptive area
for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex
which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus,
and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from
the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the
thalamus to the parietal lobe.
one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of
mammals. The temporal lobe is located beneath the lateral fissure on both
of the mammalian brain. The
temporal lobe is involved in processing sensory input into derived
meanings for the appropriate retention of visual memory, language
comprehension, and emotion
is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex
in the brain of mammals. The occipital lobe is the
center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of
the visual cortex.
also known as the (discontinuous)
occipitotemporal gyrus, is part of the temporal lobe and occipital lobe in
Brodmann area 37. The fusiform gyrus is located between the lingual gyrus
and parahippocampal gyrus.
is an area of the brain located in the medial
temporal lobe and functioning as a hub in a widespread network for memory
. The EC is the main interface between the
and neocortex. The
EC-hippocampus system plays an important role in declarative
(autobiographical/episodic/semantic) memories and in particular
, and memory
optimization in sleep. The EC is also responsible for the pre-processing
(familiarity) of the input signals in the reflex nictitating membrane
response of classical trace conditioning, the association of impulses from
the eye and the ear occurs in the entorhinal cortex.
the medial area of the superior parietal cortex. involved
with episodic memory, visuospatial processing, reflections upon self, and
aspects of consciousness
is the cerebral cortex outside the primary areas. It is essential for
mental functions that are more complex than detecting basic dimensions of
, for which primary sensory areas appear to be
necessary. In humans the
areas are by far the most developed
part of the cerebral cortex, and the brain in general. These areas are
necessary for perceptual activities, like recognizing objects (toasters,
horses, trees, words, etc), rather than simple contours, edges or sensory
qualities like color or pitch.
Anterior Cingulate Cortex
is the frontal part of the
cingulate cortex that resembles a "collar" surrounding the frontal part of
the corpus callosum. It consists of Brodmann areas 24, 32, and 33. It
appears to play a role in a wide variety of autonomic functions, such as
regulating blood pressure and heart rate. It is also involved in certain
higher-level functions, such as reward anticipation, decision-making,
impulse control, and emotion.
is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within
the lateral sulcus (the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the
parietal and frontal lobes). The insulae are believed to be involved in
and play a role in diverse functions usually linked to
or the regulation of the
, which is the metabolic
equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms
that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting
changes. These functions
include perception, motor control
and interpersonal experience
. In relation to these, it is involved in
psychopathology. The insular cortex is divided into two parts: the larger
anterior insula and the smaller posterior insula in which more than a
dozen field areas have been identified. The cortical area overlying the
insula toward the lateral surface of the brain is the operculum (meaning
lid). The opercula are formed from parts of the enclosing frontal,
temporal, and parietal lobes. Posterior
located at or near or behind a part or near the end of a structure.
is near the head end or toward the
front plane of a body.
is the largest part of the cerebral cortex which covers the two cerebral
hemispheres, with the allocortex making up the rest. The neocortex is made
up of six layers, labelled from the outermost inwards, I to VI. In humans,
the neocortex is involved in higher functions such as
generation of motor commands
. There are
two types of cortex in the neocortex – the true isocortex and the
proisocortex. The neocortex has
also been shown to play an influential role in sleep,
. Semantic memories appear to be stored in the neocortex,
specifically the anterolateral temporal lobe of the neocortex. It is also
involved in instrumental conditioning; responsible for transmitting
and information about plans for movement to the basal
ganglia. The firing rate of neurons in the neocortex also has an effect on
. When the neurons are at rest and are hyperpolarizing, a
period of inhibition occurs during a slow oscillation, called the down
state. When the neurons of the neocortex are in the excitatory
depolarizing phase and are firing briefly at a high rate, a period of
excitation occurs during a slow oscillation, called the up state.
is proposed to be part of the neural circuit
for explicit memory
is one of the two types of cerebral cortex, the other being
the neocortex. It is characterized by having just three or four cell
layers, in contrast with the six layers of the neocortex, and takes up a
much smaller area than the neocortex. There are three subtypes of
allocortex: the paleocortex, the archicortex, and the periallocortex – a
transitional zone between the neocortex and the allocortex.
a part of the cerebral cortex that plays an important role in processing
the part of the central nervous system
organisms the ability to
process visual detail
, as well as enabling the formation of several
non-image photo response functions. It detects and interprets information
from visible light to build a representation of the surrounding
environment. The visual system carries out a number of complex tasks,
including the reception of light and the formation of monocular
representations; the buildup of a nuclear binocular perception from a pair
of two dimensional projections; the
identification and categorization of visual objects
distances to and between objects; and guiding body movements in relation
to the objects seen. The psychological process of visual information is
known as visual perception, a lack of which is called
. Non-image forming visual functions, independent of visual
perception, include the pupillary light reflex (PLR) and circadian
is the part of the
that processes auditory
in humans and other vertebrates. It is a part of the
auditory system, performing basic and higher functions in
. It is located bilaterally, roughly at
the upper sides of the temporal lobes – in humans on the superior temporal
plane, within the lateral fissure and comprising parts of Heschl's gyrus
and the superior temporal gyrus, including planum polare and planum
temporale (roughly Brodmann areas 41, 42, and partially 22). Unilateral
destruction results in slight hearing loss, whereas bilateral destruction
results in cortical deafness.
can refer informally to the primary somatosensory cortex, or it can be
used as a term for the primary and secondary cortices of the different
senses (two cortices each, on left and right hemisphere): the visual
cortex on the occipital lobes, the auditory cortex on the temporal lobes,
the primary olfactory cortex on the uncus of the piriform region of the
temporal lobes, the gustatory cortex on the insular lobe (also referred to
as the insular cortex), and the primary somatosensory cortex on the
anterior parietal lobes. Just posterior to the primary somatosensory
cortex lies the somatosensory association cortex, which integrates sensory
information from the primary somatosensory cortex (temperature, pressure,
etc.) to construct an understanding of the object being felt. Inferior to
the frontal lobes are found the olfactory bulbs, which receive sensory
input from the olfactory nerves and route those signals throughout the
brain. Not all olfactory information is routed to the olfactory cortex.
Some neural fibers are routed directly to limbic structures, while others
are routed to the supraorbital region of the frontal lobe. Such a direct
limbic connection makes the olfactory sense unique. The brain cortical
regions are related to the auditory, visual, olfactory, and somatosensory
) sensations, which are located lateral to the
lateral fissure and posterior to the central sulcus, that is, more toward
the back of the brain. The cortical region related to gustatory sensation
is located anterior to the central sulcus. Note that the central sulcus
(sometimes referred to as the central fissure) divides the primary motor
cortex (on the precentral gyrus of the posterior frontal lobe) from the
somatosensory cortex (on the postcentral gyrus of the anterior parietal
lobe). The somatosensory cortex is involved in somatic sensation, visual
stimuli, and movement planning.
is an area of motor cortex lying within the frontal lobe
of the brain just anterior to the primary motor cortex.
Superior Parietal Lobule
is bounded in front by the upper part of the postcentral sulcus, but is
usually connected with the postcentral gyrus above the end of the sulcus.
The superior parietal lobule contains Brodmann's areas 5 and 7.
also known as corticotropin is a
polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary
gland. It is also used as a medication and diagnostic agent.
is a derivative of aspartic acid
with a formula of C6H9NO5 and a molecular weight of 175.139. NAA is the
second-most-concentrated molecule in the brain after the amino acid
glutamate. It is detected in the adult brain in neurons, oligodendrocytes
and myelin and is synthesized in the mitochondria from the amino acid
aspartic acid and acetyl-coenzyme A.
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
also known as the neostriatum or striate nucleus, is one of the nuclei in
the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain. The striatum is a critical
component of the motor and
. It receives both
inputs from different sources, and serves as the primary
input to the rest of the basal ganglia nuclei.
is a specialized sensory receptor cell which
transduces (responds to) a chemical substance and generates a biological
signal. This signal may be in the form of an action potential if the
chemoreceptor is a neuron (nerve cell), or in the form of a
neurotransmitter that can activate a nearby nerve fiber if the chemosensor
is a specialized sensory receptor cell, such the taste receptor in a taste
bud or in an internal peripheral chemoreceptor such as the carotid body.
In more general terms, a chemosensor detects chemicals in the internal or
external environment and transmits that information to the nervous system.
is a protein molecule that receives
chemical signals from outside a cell. When such chemical signals bind to a
receptor, they cause some form of cellular/tissue response, e.g. a change
in the electrical activity of a cell. In this sense, a receptor is a
protein-molecule that recognizes and responds to endogenous chemical
signals, e.g. an acetylcholine receptor recognizes and responds to its
endogenous ligand, acetylcholine. However, sometimes in pharmacology, the
term is also used to include other proteins that are drug targets, such as
enzymes, transporters and ion channels.
is a nerve responsible for sensation in the
face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. The largest of the
cranial nerves, its name ("trigeminal" = tri-, or three and -geminus, or
twin; thrice-twinned) derives from the fact that each trigeminal nerve
(one on each side of the pons) has three major branches: the ophthalmic
nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2), and the mandibular nerve (V3). The
ophthalmic and maxillary nerves are purely sensory, and the mandibular
nerve has sensory (or "cutaneous") and motor functions.
is the set of all messenger RNA molecules in
one cell or a population of cells. It differs from the exome in that it
includes only those RNA molecules found in a specified cell population,
and usually includes the amount or concentration of each RNA molecule in
addition to the molecular identities.
Alternative Splicing in the Mammalian Nervous System
is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and
structurally continuous with the spinal cord. In the human brain the
brainstem includes the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata.
Sometimes the diencephalon, the caudal part of the forebrain, is included.
The brainstem provides the main motor and sensory innervation to the face
and neck via the cranial nerves. Of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves,
ten pairs come from the brainstem. Though small, this is an extremely
important part of the brain as the nerve connections of the motor and
sensory systems from the main part of the brain to the rest of the body
pass through the brainstem. This includes the corticospinal tract (motor),
the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway (fine touch, vibration
sensation, and proprioception), and the spinothalamic tract (pain,
temperature, itch, and crude touch). The brainstem also plays an important
role in the regulation of cardiac and respiratory function. It also
regulates the central nervous system, and is pivotal in maintaining
consciousness and regulating the sleep cycle. The brainstem has many basic
functions including heart rate, breathing, sleeping, and eating.
Reticular Activating System
is a set of connected nuclei in
the brains of vertebrates that is responsible for regulating wakefulness
and sleep-wake transitions. As its name implies, its most influential
component is the reticular formation.
is a set of interconnected nuclei that
are located throughout the brainstem. The reticular formation is not
anatomically well defined because it includes neurons located in diverse
parts of the brain. The neurons of the reticular formation all play a
crucial role in maintaining behavioral arousal and consciousness. The
functions of the reticular formation are modulatory and premotor. The
modulatory functions are primarily found in the rostral sector of the
reticular formation and the premotor functions are localized in the
neurons in more caudal regions.
is a bundle of axons
that forms part
of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, an association fiber tract. The
arcuate bidirectionally connects caudal temporal cortex
and inferior parietal cortex to locations in the frontal lobe.
Platform for Imaging Research
The Brain Observatory
Long-term neural and physiological phenotyping of a single human
My Connectome Data Sharing
New Technique Captures the Activity of an entire Brain in a
Dictionary - Word Map of the Brain
MRI scans show mapping of the
of the brain. How the brain organizes words and
language in the brain. Words are grouped by meaning. So
basically what I'm doing with BK101 is just mimicking my brains
showing which brain areas respond to hearing
different words. The map reveals how language is spread
throughout the cortex and across both hemispheres, showing
groups of words clustered together by meaning. The beautiful
interactive model allows us to explore the complex organization
of the enormous dictionaries in our heads.
TSRI Scientists Reveal Single-Neuron Gene Landscape of the Human
is the set of all messenger RNA molecules in
one cell or a population of cells. It differs from the exome in
that it includes only those RNA molecules found in a specified
cell population, and usually includes the amount or
concentration of each
RNA molecule in addition to the molecular identities.
In neuroanatomy and neuroembryology, a
ganglionic eminence (GE) is a transitory brain structure that
guides cell and axon migration. It is present in the embryonic
and fetal stages of neural development found between the
thalamus and caudate nucleus.
Researchers identified 16 neuronal subtypes in the cerebral
. Human brain houses diverse populations of neurons,
new research shows.
A Multi-Modal Parcellation of Human Cerebral Cortex
is a comprehensive map of neural
connections in the brain, and may be thought of as its "wiring diagram".
More broadly, a connectome would include the mapping of all neural
connections within an organism's nervous system
Neuro-Science Blueprint Connectome
of neuronal cell types based on multimodal characterization of single
cells to enable data-driven approaches to classification.
Human Connectome Project
Neuroimaging Data-Sharing Initiative
Multi-Dimensional Universe in Brain Networks
Universe in Brain Networks Discovered
hidden patterns of brain activity
The Blue Brain Project
- A Swiss Brain Initiative
Tinker With a Neural Network Right Here in Your
Holonomic Brain Theory
is a model of human cognition that describes the brain
as a holographic storage network. Pribram suggests these processes involve
electric oscillations in the brain's fine-fibered dendritic webs, which
are different from the more commonly known action potentials involving
axons and synapses. These oscillations are waves and create wave
interference patterns in which memory is encoded naturally, and the waves
may be analyzed by a
1, 2 and 3 are the primary somatosensory
cortex; area 4 is the primary motor cortex; area 17 is the
primary visual cortex; and areas 41 and 42 correspond closely to
primary auditory cortex. Higher order functions of the
association cortical areas are also consistently localized to
the same Brodmann areas by neurophysiological, functional
imaging, and other methods.
(e.g., the consistent localization of Broca's speech and
language area to the left Brodmann areas 44 and 45). However,
functional imaging can only identify the approximate
localization of brain activations in terms of Brodmann areas
since their actual boundaries in any individual brain requires
its histological examination.
is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the
thalamus, immediately underneath the cerebrum. The limbic system supports
a variety of functions including emotion
memory, and olfaction. Emotional life is largely housed in the limbic
system, and it has a great deal to do with the formation of
is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small
nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of
the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system
the endocrine system
via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). The
hypothalamus is responsible for certain
activities of the autonomic nervous system
. It synthesizes and secretes
certain neurohormones, called releasing
hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of
pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus controls body temperature,
important aspects of parenting and
, thirst, fatigue,
, and circadian rhythms.
Paraventricular Nucleus of Hypothalamus
is a neuronal
nucleus in the hypothalamus. It contains groups of neurons that can be
activated by stressful and/or physiological changes. Many PVN neurons
project directly to the posterior pituitary where they release oxytocin
into the general circulation.While the Supraoptic nucleus release
vasopressin. Other PVN neurons control various anterior pituitary
functions, while still others directly regulate appetite and autonomic
functions in the brainstem and spinal cord.
is a part of
the brain that has several functions such as relaying of sensory and motor
signals to the cerebral cortex
, and the regulation
of consciousness, sleep, and alertness. It is a midline symmetrical
structure of two halves, within the vertebrate brain, situated between the
cerebral cortex and the midbrain. The medial surface of the two halves
constitute the upper lateral wall of the third ventricle.
Thalamic Reticular Nucleus
is part of the ventral thalamus
that forms a capsule around the thalamus laterally. However, recent
evidence from mice and fish question this statement and define it as
dorsal thalamic structure. It is separated from the thalamus by the
external medullary lamina. Reticular cells are GABAergic, and have discoid
dendritic arbors in the plane of the nucleus.
or optic tectum, forms a major component of the
. It is a
, with a
number of layers that varies by species. The layers can be grouped into
the superficial layers (stratum opticum and above) and the deeper layers
(the remaining layers). Neurons in the superficial layers receive direct
input from the retina and respond almost exclusively to visual stimuli.
Many neurons in the deeper layers also respond to other modalities, and
some respond to stimuli in multiple modalities. The deeper layers also
contain a population of motor-related neurons, capable of activating eye
movements as well as other responses. The general function of the tectal
system is to direct behavioral responses toward specific points in
egocentric ("body-centered") space. Each layer contains a topographic map
of the surrounding world in retinotopic coordinates, and activation of
neurons at a particular point in the map evokes a response directed toward
the corresponding point in space. In primates, the superior colliculus has
been studied mainly with respect to its role in directing eye movements.
Visual input from the retina, or "command" input from the cerebral cortex,
create a "bump" of activity in the tectal map, which, if strong enough,
induces a saccadic eye movement. Even in primates, however, the superior
colliculus is also involved in generating spatially directed head turns,
arm-reaching movements, and shifts in attention that do not involve any
overt movements. In other species, the tectum is involved in a wide range
of responses, including whole-body turns in walking rats, swimming fishes,
or flying birds; tongue-strikes toward prey in frogs; fang-strikes in
Build a Human Brain?
When I hear people say they want to
build a human brain I can't help but laugh. If you want to build
a human brain there's this thing we have called child birth. But
this time around you could actually educate this child fully and
completely so the child grows up to be an intelligent human
being. Then this intelligent human can then find you and then
kick you in the balls for being such an ignorant moron. Build a
human brain, are you kidding me, are you that stupid, or the
people funding you that stupid? You can't even work the brain
you have, and you want to build another brain on your own, you
have a lot to learn. (kidding of
Because even then, some of the dumbest ideas can result in some
of the most amazing breakthroughs and discoveries. So the people
wanting to build a human brain will first have to figure out how
the human brain works, and in doing so, will most likely learn
something new, so this venture may not be a total waste of time,
unless this new information we learn gets exploited and misused.
If the information and knowledge that is learned is not shared
with the public correctly, then the public will most likely not
know how to use this information effectively, and not benefit
from it, like they should. Like the
, not everything that is learned is shared,
and not everything that is shared is learned.
Blue Brain Project
aims to create a digital
reconstruction of the brain by reverse-engineering mammalian brain
describes research that aims to develop
software and hardware with cognitive abilities similar to those of the
animal or human brain.
synapses that can learn
, moving towards an artificial brain?
Brain to Brain Communication