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Human Brain - Neuroscience - Cognitive Science

The Human Brain is the most Complex Processer of Information on the Planet. Our ability to Process Information and Store Information, (PC), is what makes us Human. Information Defines us, Information Controls us, Information Teaches us. Know your Processor, understand the Software (Mind), and understand the Hardware (Body).  PDF

Brain and Computer Similarities

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Brain Research - Plasticity - Brain MaintenanceBrain Injury - Neuroscience - Imaging
Human Brain X-Ray Image
Learning about the inner workings of your brain will help you understand your abilities and your vulnerabilities. Especially knowing that the Prefrontal Cortex, which controls focus, planning, and efficient action, takes almost 20 years to mature. A baby’s brain cerebral cortex expands by 88 percent in the first year of life. Its cells are also reorganizing themselves and rapidly forming new connections to one another.

Mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgment, and memory. The mind is the faculty of a human being's reasoning and thoughts. It holds the power of imagination, recognition, and appreciation, and is responsible for processing feelings and emotions, resulting in attitudes and actions.

Intelligence - Soul

Theory of Mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc.—to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.

Child Development

Philosophy of Mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, consciousness, and their relationship to the physical body, particularly the brain. Gestalt Psychology is a philosophy of mind of the Berlin School of experimental psychology.

Mind-Body Problem is the question of how the human mind and body can causally interact. This question arises when mind and body are considered as distinct, based on the premise that the mind and the body are fundamentally different in nature

Mirror Neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another.

Mirror Stage - Nervous System - Proteins 

Frontal Lobe is located at the front of the brain, is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain. The frontal lobe contains most of the dopamine-sensitive neurons in the cerebral cortex. The dopamine system is associated with reward, attention, short-term memory tasks, planning, and motivation. Dopamine tends to limit and select sensory information arriving from the thalamus to the forebrain.


Key Features and Functions of your Brain

The human brain is built and designed to learn and built to be creative. It's very important to know how you developed, what influences affected your development, and that human development continues throughout your lifetime.

Whole Brain from AboveThe Human Brain weighs about 3 Pounds, which is 2% of a person's weight, but consumes as much as 25 percent of our body’s Oxygen, burns 20% of our total Calories each day, with Glucose being the main energy source for the brain that runs on around 12 watts of power, which is a fifth of the power required by a standard 60 watt light bulb. The Brain has 400 miles of Capillaries, 86 Billion Microscopic Neurons in constant Synaptic communication, making 10 quadrillion calculations every second. Each neuron is like a tiny branching tree, whose limbs reach out and touch other neurons making between 5,000 and 10,000 connections with other neurons, that’s more than 500 trillion connections performing a dazzling array of complex mental processes every second, geared to generating and regulating our sensations and perceptions, how we reason, how we think, our emotions, our mental images, our attention span, learning, and our memory which is essentially a Pattern of connections between neurons. Protein

What is the synaptic firing rate of the human brain?
200 times per second, 17.2 trillion action potentials?

Resting Metabolic Rate of the Human Brain
1300 kilocalories, or kcal, the kind used in nutrition.
1,300 kcal over 24 hours = 54.16 kcal per hour = 15.04 gram calories per second.
15.04 gram calories/sec = 62.93 joules/sec = about 63 watts. 20 percent of 63 watts = 12.6 watts.
Adenosine Triphosphate is a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) a small molecule used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often referred to as the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.

A piece of brain matter the size of a grain of sand contains approximately 100,000 neurons, 2 million axons, and 1 billion synapses.

"So your Brain requires a lot of food energy, so don't waste it. You have to make sure that you keep adding to your knowledge base so that you are not just feeding yourself to run in circles, to never progress or amount to anything is a waste of potential."

Left Side - Right Side

Left Brain - Serial Processing

Serial Memory Processing is the act of attending to and processing one item at a time. This is usually contrasted against parallel Memory processing, which is the act of attending to and processing all items simultaneously. Serial processing is processing that occurs sequentially. There is an explicit order in which operations occur and in general the results of one action are known before a next action is considered. Serial processing systems may mimic the action of parallel systems, albeit with a concurrent (and usually serious) loss in efficiency. Compare to parallel processing.

Jill Bolte Taylor TED Talks (youtube)

N400 is part of the normal brain response to words and other meaningful (or potentially meaningful) stimuli, including visual and auditory words, sign language signs, pictures, faces, environmental sounds, and smells.
A component of time-locked EEG signals known as event-related potentials (ERP). It is a negative-going deflection that peaks around 400 milliseconds post-stimulus onset, although it can extend from 250-500 ms, and is typically maximal over centro-parietal electrode sites.

Cerebral Hemisphere. The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres. Each of these hemispheres has an outer layer of grey matter, the cerebral cortex, that is supported by an inner layer of white matter. In eutherian (placental) mammals, the hemispheres are linked by the corpus callosum, a very large bundle of nerve fibers. Smaller commissures, including the anterior commissure, the posterior commissure and the fornix, also join the hemispheres and these are also present in other vertebrates. These commissures transfer information between the two hemispheres to coordinate localized functions. There are three poles of the hemispheres named as the occcipital pole (at the back), the frontal pole, and at the front of the temporal lobe the temporal pole. The central sulcus is a prominent fissure which separates the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe and the primary motor cortex from the primary somatosensory cortex. Macroscopically the hemispheres are roughly mirror images of each other, with only subtle differences, such as the Yakovlevian torque seen in the human brain, which is a slight warping of the right side, bringing it just forward of the left side. On a microscopic level, the cytoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex, shows the functions of cells, quantities of neurotransmitter levels and receptor subtypes to be markedly asymmetrical between the hemispheres. However, while some of these hemispheric distribution differences are consistent across human beings, or even across some species, many observable distribution differences vary from individual to individual within a given species.

Hemispheric Asymmetry Handedness and Cerebral Dominance (Britannica)
Info Graphic (image)

They say that it's easier to rehabilitate a person who has had a stroke on the left side of the brain then it is to rehabilitate a person who has had a stroke on the right side, why?

The ability to spell is in two areas of the left hemisphere, one towards the front of the brain and the other at the lower part of the brain towards the back.

Cerebral Cortex

Midbrain is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.

Right Brain - Parallel Processing

Parallel Processing (psychology) is the ability of the brain to simultaneously process incoming stimuli of differing quality. This becomes most important in vision, as the brain divides what it sees into four components: color, motion, shape, and depth. These are individually analyzed and then compared to stored memories, which helps the brain identify what you are viewing.
The brain then combines all of these into the field of view that you see and comprehend. Parallel processing has been linked, by some experimental psychologists, to the Stroop effect. This is a continual and seamless operation.

Parallel Processing (DSP implementation) is a technique duplicating function units to operate different tasks (signals) simultaneously. Accordingly, we can perform the same processing for different signals on the corresponding duplicated function units. Further, due to the features of parallel processing, the parallel DSP design often contains multiple outputs, resulting in higher throughput than not parallel.

Parallel Computing is a type of computation in which many calculations are carried out simultaneously, or the execution of processes are carried out simultaneously.

Lineal Thinking

In parallel processing systems, many events may be considered and acted upon simultaneously. Since a variety of actions may be considered simultaneously, coherence in behavior is an issue for parallel systems. A parallel system may be synchronous, in which there is an explicit parallel decision cycle or asynchronous. In asynchronous systems, there are usually a set of independent components which act autonomously to one another; this makes coherence an even more difficult problem. A parallel architecture does not necessarily imply parallel processing; for instance, the human cognitive architecture is inherently serial at the cognitive level even though the biological band is explicitly parallel. However, there may tremendous improvements to efficiency for some parallel processing strategies, compared to serial ones. 

Spatial intelligence

Lateralization of Brain Function refers to how some neural functions, or cognitive processes tend to be more dominant in one hemisphere than the other. (Dual Brain Theory) The medial longitudinal fissure separates the human brain into two distinct cerebral hemispheres, connected by the corpus callosum. Although the macrostructure of the two hemispheres appears to be almost identical, different composition of neuronal networks allows for specialized function that is different in each hemisphere.

Asymmetry is the absence of, or a violation of, symmetry (the property of an object being invariant to a transformation, such as reflection). Symmetry is an important property of both physical and abstract systems and it may be displayed in precise terms or in more aesthetic terms. The absence of violation of symmetry that are either expected or desired can have important consequences for a system.

Ambidextrous (body smart)
Central Sulcus separating the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe.

L-directed thinking and R-directed thinking. The L-directed (left brain–directed) thinking skills are sequential, literal, functional, textual, and analytic—typically functions believed to be performed by the left hemisphere of the human brain.
The R-directed (right brain–directed) thinking skills are characterized as simultaneous, metaphorical, aesthetic, contextual, and synthetic—typically functions assigned to the right hemisphere of the brain.

Linear Learners - Holistic Learners

Brain Maintenance 101

All Schools need to Teach Students about proper Brain Maintenance

I think that the Grey Matter in the adolescent brain declines mostly because of our inadequate education system rather then it just being the normal process of Neuron Pruning. Synaptic pruning is a little to close to a Lobotomy or Frontotemporal Dementia. And you can't say that it's a normal process when the process itself hasn't even been defined. The Prefrontal Cortex also tends to lose volume with age, but age can't be the only factor? This type of Atrophy should not be happening, it's not a Frontal Lobe Disorder, it's more of an Education Disorder. Education should be about preserving brain matter, not decreasing it. Does Neurogenesis slow down when learning slows down? We're fully aware of the Plasticity of the Brain and it's ability to repair and rewire. So it seems like we just got here yesterday.

Brain Parts Map Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.

Synaptic Pruning is the process of synapse elimination that occurs between early childhood and the onset of puberty in many mammals, including humans. Pruning starts near the time of birth and is completed by the time of sexual maturation in humans. At birth, the human brain consists of approximately 86 (± 8) billion neurons. The infant brain will increase in size by a factor of up to 5 by adulthood. Two factors contribute to this growth: the growth of synaptic connections between neurons, and the myelination of nerve fibers; the total number of neurons, however, remains the same. Pruning is influenced by environmental factors and is widely thought to represent learning. After adolescence, the volume of the synaptic connections decreases again due to synaptic pruning.

Cerebral Atrophy describes a loss of neurons and the connections between them. (space brain).

Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.

It's not so much the Aging Brain, it's more about the long term abuse that accumulates from eating bad food, from lack of sleep, from lack of exercise, and from the exposure to chemicals and toxins in our environment.

Long-Term Depression is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus.

Programmed Cell Death is the death of a Cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program.

Concussions - Alzheimer

Frontal Lobe Disorder is an impairment of the frontal lobe that occurs due to disease or head trauma.

Natural Defenses

Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells and progenitor cells. Through precise genetic mechanisms of cell fate determination, many different varieties of excitatory and inhibitory neurons are generated from different kinds of neural stem cells. Neurogenesis occurs during embryogenesis in all animals and is responsible for producing all the neurons of the organism. Prior to the period of neurogenesis, neural stem cells first multiply until the correct number of progenitor cells is achieved.

DNA Repair

Neurotrophin are a family of proteins that induce the survival, development, and function of neurons. They belong to a class of growth factors, secreted proteins that are capable of signaling particular cells to survive, differentiate, or grow. Growth factors such as neurotrophins that promote the survival of neurons are known as neurotrophic factors. Neurotrophic factors are secreted by target tissue and act by preventing the associated neuron from initiating programmed cell death - thus allowing the neurons to survive. Neurotrophins also induce differentiation of progenitor cells, to form neurons.

Cognitive Reserve describes the mind's resistance to damage of the brain. The mind's resilience is evaluated behaviorally, whereas the neuropathological damage is evaluated histologically, although damage may be estimated using blood-based markers and imaging methods.

Cognitive Off-Loading
Cognitive Science
Cognition Tests
Brain Chip
Brain Health (University of Texas at Dallas)

Long-Term Potentiation is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity. These are patterns of synaptic activity that produce a long-lasting increase in signal transmission between two neurons. The opposite of LTP is long-term depression, which produces a long-lasting decrease in synaptic strength.

Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons. This is in contrast to classical synaptic transmission, in which one presynaptic neuron directly influences a single postsynaptic partner. Neuromodulators secreted by a small group of neurons diffuse through large areas of the nervous system, affecting multiple neurons. Major neuromodulators in the central nervous system include dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, and norepinephrine.

Perineuronal Net are specialized extracellular matrix structures responsible for synaptic stabilization in the adult brain.

Extracellular Matrix is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.

Hemispherectomy is a very rare surgical procedure in which one cerebral hemisphere (half of the brain) is removed, disconnected, or disabled.

Cognitive Module the modularity of mind and the closely related society of mind theory, a specialized tool or sub-unit that can be used by other parts to resolve cognitive tasks.

Modularity of Mind is the notion that a mind may, at least in part, be composed of innate neural structures or modules which have distinct established evolutionarily developed functions.

Mild Cognitive Impairment is a brain function syndrome involving the onset and evolution of cognitive impairments beyond those expected based on the age and education of the individual, but which are not significant enough to interfere with their daily activities.

Neuroinflammation is inflammation of the nervous tissue.

Inflammatory Response System

Neuroimmunology is to further develop our understanding of the pathology of certain neurological diseases.


Cytokine category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling. Their release has an effect on the behaviour of cells around them.

IL-2 Receptor is a heterotrimeric protein expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as lymphocytes, that binds and responds to a cytokine called IL-2.

Acetylcholine is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

Anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.


Brain Food

Consuming Knowledge

Neuron Pruning is similar to a computer when a person deletes old computer files. Brain cells are programed to die if not used, which makes room for more cell growth. Brilliant!

Changing Old Habits

Pruning Decision Trees

Phagocytosis is involved in the acquisition of nutrients for some cells. The process is homologous to eating at the level of single-celled organisms; in multicellular animals, the process has been adapted to eliminate debris and pathogens, as opposed to taking in fuel for cellular processes, except in the case of the animal Trichoplax.

Microglia are a type of glial cell located throughout the brain and spinal cord. Account for 10–15% of all cells found within the brain. As the resident macrophage cells, they act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system (CNS).

Neuronal Hyperactivity Disturbs ATP Microgradients, Impairs Microglial Motility, and Reduces Phagocytic Receptor Expression Triggering Apoptosis/Microglial Phagocytosis Uncoupling.

We are born with 100 billion neurons in our brain and spinal cord. During the early years following birth, humans manufacture an estimated 250,000 neurons per minute, and then spend the next few years wiring them together. We also lose thousands of neurons everyday, but we have the ability to make the remaining neurons form connections with beneficial counterparts. It seems that some neurons never die, giving us the ability to hold on to memories that are important to us. Even as we grow old into adulthood, the human brain makes hundreds of new neurons everyday all through life, mostly in the hippocampus, a key region for memory.

Old Memories are not deleted even when they are not recalled for years. Amnesia does not mean memories are deleted, just the files have been misplaced.

Benjaman Kyle

Canadian man missing for 30 years remembers real identity

Billions of neuronal connections are made in the human brain in early childhood; some can only be made during this period, and others require much more training to achieve the same result later in life, although the brain’s plasticity ensures that it never stops learning.

Brain Connector density is at its highest level in the first three years of life

Early Childhood Learning 

The Brain Drain starts with an ineffective education that ends with people not knowing what to do, or where to go.


Maintaining our physical and mental wellbeing is one of our most important responsibilities. But like all things, we have to learn how this responsibility is performed. If you're not using it, you're losing it. The Brain is a machine that needs maintenance. Maintaining skills and abilities at a proficient level needs exercise. Just like all muscles, muscles become weak when you stop using them. And neuron connections in the brain become weaker when you stop using them. So what would be the perfect brain exercises that you can do to maximize your cognitive ability and stay sharp? What are the most effective and efficient ways to maintain optimum physical and mental wellbeing?  Brain Food  What are the physical exercises people must do in order to maintain physical and mental strength?

Caudate Nucleus plays important roles in various other nonmotor functions as well, including procedural learning, associative learning, and executive functions (e.g., inhibitory control), among other functions. The caudate is also one of the brain structures which compose the reward system and functions as part of the cortico–basal ganglia–thalamic loop.

Reading is extremely important, but just don't read anything. People who tell others to read anything are ignorant, and they are misleading you. Don't just read anything. Consume the most valuable knowledge and information that you can find. Learn the right things at the right time. In order to become more knowledgeable about yourself and the world around you, you need to carefully choose what to read, and know how to apply new knowledge and information to the knowledge and information you have gained in previous years of your life. And you also must understand that most of what you read and hear is not relevant. Comprehension is extremely valuable skill, but that skill is wasted if you never read valuable knowledge and information.

Humans only use 10% of their Brains is just a metaphor that resembles our failing education system. People don't have enough knowledge and information that would give them the ability to use the full power of the human brain. MRI's show that only certain areas of the brain show activity during certain actions. The adult brain makes new neurons, but only in very restricted areas. For example, the hippocampus of an adult rat makes between 5,000-10,000 new neurons each day. Joe Herbert’s lab in Cambridge has showed that cortisol dramatically decreases the rate new brain cells are made. So perhaps some of the adverse effects of stress are related to fewer brain cells being created in the hippocampus. Did you know that people with O Blood Type have more gray matter in their brain?

Computational Neuroscience
Artificial Neural Network
Default Mode Network
Brain Plasticity
Brain Food

Maybe this type of brain damage is from endocrine disruptors or maybe even Fluoride? Hey you never know, better safe then sorry. Either way it's still an education problem.

Toxins and Child Development 
Endocrine Disruptor are chemicals that, at certain doses, can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems. These disruptions can cause cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other developmental disorders. Any system in the body controlled by hormones can be derailed by hormone disruptors. Specifically, endocrine disruptors may be associated with the development of learning disabilities, severe attention deficit disorder, cognitive and brain development problems; deformations of the body (including limbs); breast cancer, prostate cancer, thyroid and other cancers; sexual development problems such as feminizing of males or masculinizing effects on females, etc.

Pesticides - Body Burden
Processed Food Dangers
Drug Use Dangers
Smart Drugs Dangers
Cognition Measuring

Synaptic Noise refers to the constant bombardment of synaptic activity in neurons. This occurs in the background of a cell when potentials are produced without the nerve stimulation of an action potential, and are due to the inherently random nature of synapses. These random potentials have similar time courses as excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), yet they lead to variable neuronal responses. The variability is due to differences in the discharge times of action potentials.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor are chemicals that inhibit the activity of the monoamine oxidase enzyme family.

Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential.

Lateral Lemniscus is a tract of axons in the brainstem that carries information about sound from the cochlear nucleus to various brainstem nuclei and ultimately the contralateral inferior colliculus of the midbrain.

Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the GRM5 gene.

Donepezil is a medication used in the palliative treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Agmatine is a chemical substance which is naturally created from the chemical arginine. Agmatine has been shown to exert modulatory action at multiple molecular targets, notably: neurotransmitter systems, ion channels, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and polyamine metabolism and this provides bases for further research into potential applications.

Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory.

45 minutes of exercise three days a week can actually increase the volume of the brain. Even for people who have been very sedentary, exercise improves cognition and helps people perform better on things like planning, scheduling, multitasking and working memory. Increased hippocampal volume is associated with greater serum levels of BDNF, a mediator of neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus.

Brain Function Examination
Basic Brain Maintenance for Adults (PDF)
Memory Exercises
Brain Games

Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor
Growth Differentiation Factor (GDF11)

Regenerative Biology is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage.

Socially-induced brain ‘fertilization’: play promotes brain derived neurotrophic factor transcription in the amygdala and dorsolateral frontal cortex in juvenile rats
Prosocial foundations of children's academic achievement
Learning Toys and Games

Enhancing Cognition
Klotho is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the KL gene. This gene encodes a type-I membrane protein that is related to β-glucuronidases. Reduced production of this protein has been observed in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), and this may be one of the factors underlying the degenerative processes.
Cell Reports

Synaptic GluN2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRIN2B gene.

NMDA Receptor is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells. It is activated when glutamate and glycine (or D-serine) bind to it, and when activated it allows positively charged ions to flow through the cell membrane. The NMDA receptor is very important for controlling synaptic plasticity and memory function.

Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism. Most eukaryotes have two matching sets of chromosomes; that is, they are diploid. Diploid organisms have the same loci on each of their two sets of homologous chromosomes, except that the sequences at these loci may differ between the two chromosomes in a matching pair and that a few chromosomes may be mismatched as part of a chromosomal sex-determination system. If both alleles of a diploid organism are the same, the organism is homozygous at that locus. If they are different, the organism is heterozygous at that locus. If one allele is missing, it is hemizygous, and, if both alleles are missing, it is nullizygous.

Brain Secret For Instant Genius (youtube)

Think of your brain as being like a car. A well maintained car is reliable and hardly ever breaks down. If you put in good gas, it runs better and goes faster. If you constantly make improvements to your car by learning about all the new technological advancements that are available, then your brain, or car, will be a high performance machine with more capabilities.

Brain Memory Capacity
Spatial Intelligence

"If your brain becomes Hard Wired and Cemented in Place, that means you have stopped learning, which is very dangerous in todays world, physically and mentally. "  (Keep Learning my Friends)

The Jennifer Aniston Neuron (youtube) - Funny Joke

"When I here about research that has not included people with disabilities, the research raises more questions then it answers.
There is a lot we can learn from blind people, deaf people and anyone with a disability."

I see a day when we will be able to communicate with the cells in our own bodies without having to use drugs. We already know how to manipulate stem cells manually, but one day soon we will be able to tell the stem cells in our bodies to repair things that are causing us problems. We can already manipulate atoms into a language, so it's just a matter of time that we will discover the language of our cells, and be able to communicate with them and give them special instructions when needed.

The Human Brain makes up only 2% mass in the body but uses 20% of the bodies oxygen and calories.
(Feed Me Seymore, but this time Feed me information and knowledge, please!)

The brain processes 400 Billion bits of information a second. BUT, we are ONLY aware of 2,000 of those?" -Dr. Joseph Dispenza, D.C.   The average "clock speed" of neurons in the brain is a mere 200 firings per second. 10 Mbits of information are transmitted along each optic nerve PER SECOND. But is transmission speed the same thing as processing speed? Brain processes data no faster than 60 bits per second? The brain processes around 0.1 quadrillion information bytes per second? The human body sends 11 million bits per second to the brain for processing, yet the conscious mind seems to be able to process only 50 bits per second? It appears that a tremendous amount of compression is taking place if 11 million bits are being reduced to less than 50. Note that the discrepancy between the amount of information being transmitted and the amount of information being processed is so large that any inaccuracy in the measurements is insignificant.

What Each Human Senses Processes?
eyes - 10,000,000 bits per second 
skin - 1,000,000 bits per second
ears - 100,000 bits per second
smell - 100,000 bits per second
taste - 1,000 bits per second

Smart Brain Tech
Brain Master
Mind Modulations
Mind Update
Mind and Life
Child Mind

Brain Documentaries

Identify and foster human intelligence for the benefit of humanity, to encourage research in the nature, characteristics and uses of intelligence, and to promote stimulating intellectual and social opportunities for its members. 

Gifted - Defining Intelligence

Brain Games - Educational Toys

N-back task is a continuous performance task that is commonly used as an assessment in cognitive neuroscience to measure a part of working memory and working memory capacity

Mind Stretchers
Changing Minds
Cogni Fit
The Mental Fitness Center
Posit Science
Cog Med
Your Amazing Brain
Brain Connection

Physical exercises can be designed to improve certain parts of the body. Brain exercises should also be designed in the same way. So the brain exercise will also be a test as well as a quick way to run a systems check. So what Brain Functions do you think you need to exercise and check?

Mind Institute
Mind Research
The Mind Institute
Sharp Brains
Center for Brain Health
Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences
Incredible Years
Parents, Teachers & Children Training 

Meditation - Hypnosis
Counseling - Therapy


Protein are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. Proteins, the components of our body that execute, control and organize basically all functions in our cells, are made out of strings of amino acids, which -- like an origami -- are folded into specific and complex three-dimensional structures according to their desired functions. However, since folding and maintaining of such structures is highly sensitive to cellular or environmental stress, proteins can potentially misfold or form clumps (aggregates). Such undesired protein waste can be toxic for cells and may even lead to cell death. Because several human neurodegenerative diseases are known to be linked to an accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates, basic science aimed to understand how cells remove cellular garbage is elementary for designing strategies for a potential prevention or cure of such disorders. Proteins are the workhorse molecules of life. Among their many jobs, they carry oxygen, build tissue, copy DNA for the next generation, and coordinate events within and between cells.

Protein (nutrient) are essential nutrients for the human body. They are one of the building blocks of body tissue, and can also serve as a fuel source. As a fuel, proteins provide as much energy density as carbohydrates: 4 kcal (17 kJ) per gram; in contrast, lipids provide 9 kcal (37 kJ) per gram. The most important aspect and defining characteristic of protein from a nutritional standpoint is its amino acid composition. Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. During human digestion, proteins are broken down in the stomach to smaller polypeptide chains via hydrochloric acid and protease actions. This is crucial for the synthesis of the essential amino acids that cannot be biosynthesized by the body. There are nine essential amino acids which humans must obtain from their diet in order to prevent protein-energy malnutrition and resulting death. They are phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine. There are five dispensable amino acids which humans are able to synthesize in the body. These five are alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid and serine. There are six conditionally essential amino acids whose synthesis can be limited under special pathophysiological conditions, such as prematurity in the infant or individuals in severe catabolic distress. These six are arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine, proline and tyrosine. Humans need the essential amino acids in certain ratios. Some protein sources contain amino acids in a more or less 'complete' sense. This has given rise to various ranking systems for protein sources, as described in the article. Dietary sources of protein include both animals and plants: meats, dairy products, fish and eggs as well as grains, legumes and nuts. Vegetarians and vegans can get enough essential amino acids by eating a variety of plant proteins. It is commonly believed that athletes should consume a higher-than-normal protein intake to maintain optimal physical performance. Warning: Too much protein can be bad for your health, especially protein from certain foods.

Protein isoform is an ambiguous term describing either several different forms of protein coded from the same gene, or proteins with amino acid sequence and functional similarities, even when they are products of different genes.

Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the GDNF gene. GDNF is a small protein that potently promotes the survival of many types of neurons. It signals through GFRα receptors, particularly GFRα1.

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene. BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are related to the canonical Nerve Growth Factor. Neurotrophic factors are found in the brain and the periphery.

FOXP2 Protein Speech & Language Gene is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOXP2 gene, also known as CAGH44, SPCH1 or TNRC10, and is required for proper development of speech and language. Initially identified as the genetic factor of speech disorder in KE family, its gene is the first gene discovered associated with speech and language. The gene is located on chromosome 7 (7q31, at the SPCH1 locus), and is expressed in fetal and adult brain, heart, lung and gut.


Tau Protein are proteins that stabilize microtubules. They are abundant in neurons of the central nervous system and are less common elsewhere, but are also expressed at very low levels in CNS astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.

Welcome to Fold it !! (youtube)

Folding Proteins turned into a Game

Build Blocks of Life

Protein Synthesis. Proteins are assembled from amino acids using information encoded in genes. Each protein has its own unique amino acid sequence that is specified by the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding this protein. The genetic code is a set of three-nucleotide sets called codons and each three-nucleotide combination designates an amino acid, for example AUG (adenine-uracil-guanine) is the code for methionine. Because DNA contains four nucleotides, the total number of possible codons is 64; hence, there is some redundancy in the genetic code, with some amino acids specified by more than one codon.

On the role of anionic lipids in charged protein interactions with membraness

Protein Domain

Scientists have found a way to ‘unboil’ eggs – and it could be a life-saver

Competitive Programming

Designer Proteins fold DNA Biophysicists construct complex hybrid structures using DNA and proteins.

Protein is an essential nutrient which helps form the structural component of body tissues and is used within many biological processes, for example protein is used to make enzymes, antibodies to help us fight infection as well as DNA the building blocks to life. It’s also needed to make up muscle tissue which in turn helps to keep our bodies active, strong, and healthy. Most protein is stored in the body as muscle, generally accounting for around 40-45% of our body’s total pool, so it makes sense that if you increase activity, perhaps to improve health and fitness or body composition, you also need to consider protein as an important food group in your diet.

Neuroscience - Human Brain Resources

Nervous System Diagram Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior.

Nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs. In the central nervous system, the analogous structures are known as tracts. Neurons are sometimes called nerve cells, though this term is potentially misleading since many neurons do not form nerves, and nerves also include non-neuronal Schwann cells that coat the axons in myelin. Each nerve is a cordlike structure containing bundles of axons. Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the endoneurium. The axons are bundled together into groups called fascicles, and each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the perineurium. Finally, the entire nerve is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the epineurium. Nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers running to various organs and tissues of the body.

Computational Neuroscience is the study of brain function in terms of the information processing properties of the structures that make up the nervous system. It is an interdisciplinary science that links the diverse fields of neuroscience, cognitive science, and psychology with electrical engineering, computer science, mathematics, and physics.

Contemplative Neuroscience the study of neural mechanisms of mindfulness meditation. Contemplative neuroscience looks into neurological, physiological, epigenetic, behavioral, social and cognitive manifestations or consequences of a state of mind which is at the same time meditative/mindful and compassionate/calm and selfless/altruistic although bodily-aware.

Central Nervous System (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord. The central nervous system is so named because it integrates information it receives from, and coordinates and influences the activity of, all parts of the bodies of bilaterally symmetric animals.

Spinal Cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column. The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system (CNS). Pain

Autonomic Nervous System is a division of the peripheral nervous system that influences the function of internal organs. The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates bodily functions such as the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal. This system is the primary mechanism in control of the fight-or-flight response and the freeze-and-dissociate response.

Peripheral Nervous System is the part of the nervous system that consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord. The main function of the PNS is to connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the limbs and organs, essentially serving as a communication relay going back and forth between the brain and spinal cord with the rest of the body.

Parasympathetic Nervous System is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the sympathetic nervous system.

Sympathetic Nervous System is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.

Enteric Nervous System is one of the main divisions of the nervous system and consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal system. It is now usually referred to as separate from the autonomic nervous system since it has its own independent reflex activity.

Neuroanatomy is the study of the anatomy and stereotyped organization of nervous systems.

Electrophysiology is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. It involves measurements of voltage change or electric current on a wide variety of scales from single ion channel proteins to whole organs like the heart.
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity). Neurotoxins are an extensive class of exogenous chemical neurological insults that can adversely affect function in both developing and mature nervous tissue.
Brain and Body (youtube)

Brain Side Veiw Blood Brain Barrier is a highly selective permeability barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS). The blood–brain barrier is formed by brain endothelial cells, which are connected by tight junctions with an extremely high electrical resistivity of at least 0.1 Ω⋅m. The blood–brain barrier allows the passage of water, some gases, and lipid-soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. On the other hand, the blood–brain barrier may prevent the entry of lipophilic, potential neurotoxins by way of an active transport mechanism mediated by P-glycoprotein. Astrocytes are necessary to create the blood–brain barrier. A small number of regions in the brain, including the circumventricular organs (CVOs), do not have a blood–brain barrier. Blood-Brain Barrier on a Chip

Circumventricular Organs are structures in the brain that are characterized by their extensive vasculature and lack of a normal blood brain barrier (BBB). The CVOs allow for the linkage between the central nervous system and peripheral blood flow; additionally they are an integral part of neuroendocrine function. The lack of a blood brain barrier allows the CVOs to act as an alternative route for peptides and hormones in the neural tissue to the peripheral blood stream, while still protecting it from toxic substances.

Endothelium is a type of epithelium that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. It is a thin layer of simple squamous cells called endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells.

Developmental Neuroscience describes the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and throughout life.

Neuropsychology studies the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviors. It is an experimental field of psychology that aims to understand how behavior and cognition are influenced by brain functioning and is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral and cognitive effects of neurological disorders.

Child Neurology Society
Child Neurology Foundation
Child Development
Neuroscience Society
Neuroscience Institute
Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neurological Diagnostic Tests
Neurologist (wiki)
Journal of Neurology
Neurological Disorders
Neuroscience Kit
International Neuropsychological Society
Affective Neuroscience and Development Laboratory (Harvard)

Neurophysiology is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system.

Clinical Neurophysiology is a medical specialty that studies the central and peripheral nervous systems through the recording of bioelectrical activity, whether spontaneous or stimulated.

Cognitive Neuropsychology is a branch of cognitive psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. Cognitive psychology is the science that looks at how the brain's mental processes are responsible for our cognitive abilities to store and produce new memories, produce language, recognize people and objects, as well as our ability to reason and problem solve.

Cognitive Neuropsychiatry is a growing multidisciplinary field arising out of cognitive psychology and neuropsychiatry that aims to understand mental illness and psychopathology in terms of models of normal psychological function.

Neurocognitive functions are cognitive functions closely linked to the function of particular areas, neural pathways, or cortical networks in the brain substrate layers of neurological matrix at the cellular molecular level. Therefore, their understanding is closely linked to the practice of neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience, two disciplines that broadly seek to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to perception defragmentation of concepts, memory embed, association and recall both in the thought process and behaviour.

Neuropsychologia is an International Journal in Behavioural and Cognitive Neuroscience.

Neurotechnology is any technology that has a fundamental influence on how people understand the brain and various aspects of consciousness, thought, and higher order activities in the brain. It also includes technologies that are designed to improve and repair brain function and allow researchers and clinicians to visualize the brain.

Peripheral Neuropathy is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected. Common causes include systemic diseases (such as diabetes or leprosy), vitamin deficiency, medication (e.g., chemotherapy, or commonly prescribed antibiotics including Metronidazole and the Fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin, Levaquin, Avelox etc.), traumatic injury, radiation therapy, excessive alcohol consumption, immune system disease, Coeliac disease, or viral infection.

Cognitive Science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines the nature, the tasks, and the functions of cognition. Cognitive scientists study intelligence and behavior, with a focus on how nervous systems represent, process, and transform information. Mental faculties of concern to cognitive scientists include language, perception, memory, attention, reasoning, and emotion; to understand these faculties, cognitive scientists borrow from fields such as linguistics, psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, and anthropology. The typical analysis of cognitive science span many levels of organization, from learning and decision to logic and planning; from neural circuitry to modular brain organization. The fundamental concept of cognitive science is that "thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures.

Cognitive Neuroscience the scientific study of the biological processes and aspects that underlie cognition, with a specific focus on the neural connections in the brain which are involved in mental processes. It addresses the questions of how psychological/cognitive activities are affected or controlled by neural circuits in the brain. Cognitive neuroscience is a branch of both psychology and neuroscience, overlapping with disciplines such as physiological psychology, cognitive psychology, and neuropsychology. Cognitive neuroscience relies upon theories in cognitive science coupled with evidence from neuropsychology, and computational modeling.

Cognitivism is a theoretical framework for understanding the mind.

Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences
Cognitive Processes
Intelligence Testing


Neuron Anatomy Diagram Neuron or nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. These signals between neurons occur via synapses, specialized connections with other cells. Neurons can connect to each other to form neural networks. Neurons are the core components of the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and of the ganglia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

Trans-Synaptic Nanocolumn (youtube video animation) - Neuron Cell Diagram Image

Neural Development refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood.

Neurochemistry is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence the function of neurons.

Neurochemical is an organic molecule, such as serotonin, dopamine, or nerve growth factor, that participates in neural activity. The science of neurochemistry studies the functions of neurochemicals.

Artificial Neural Network

When neurons die, their debris needs to be quickly removed in order for the surrounding brain tissue to continue to function properly.

Synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron. Communication from a neuron to any other cell type, such as to a motor cell, although such non-neuronal contacts may be referred to as junctions (a historically older term).

Excitatory Synapse is a synapse in which an action potential in a presynaptic neuron increases the probability of an action potential occurring in a postsynaptic cell. Neurons form networks through which nerve impulses travel, each neuron often making numerous connections with other cells. These electrical signals may be excitatory or inhibitory, and, if the total of excitatory influences exceeds that of the inhibitory influences, the neuron will generate a new action potential at its axon hillock, thus transmitting the information to yet another cell.

Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential is a postsynaptic potential that makes the post synaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential. This temporary depolarization of postsynaptic membrane potential, caused by the flow of positively charged ions into the postsynaptic cell, is a result of opening ligand-gated ion channels.

Summation (neurophysiology) is the process that determines whether or not an action potential will be triggered by the combined effects of excitatory and inhibitory signals, both from multiple simultaneous inputs (spatial summation), and from repeated inputs (temporal summation). Depending on the sum total of many individual inputs, summation may or may not reach the threshold voltage to trigger an action potential.

Chemical Synapse are biological junctions through which neurons signal can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands. Chemical synapses allow neurons to form circuits within the central nervous system. They are crucial to the biological computations that underlie perception and thought. They allow the nervous system to connect to and control other systems of the body.

Axon is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body. Myelinated axons are known as nerve fibers. The function of the axon is to transmit information to different neurons, muscles and glands. Axon Terminal

Dendrite are the branched projections of a neuron that act to propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project. Electrical stimulation is transmitted onto dendrites by upstream neurons (usually their axons) via synapses which are located at various points throughout the dendritic tree. Dendrites play a critical role in integrating these synaptic inputs and in determining the extent to which action potentials are produced by the neuron.

Soma is the bulbous end of a neuron, containing the cell nucleus.

Potassium Channel function to conduct potassium ions down their electrochemical gradient, doing so both rapidly (up to the diffusion rate of K+ ions in bulk water) and selectively (excluding, most notably, sodium despite the sub-angstrom difference in ionic radius). Biologically, these channels act to set or reset the resting potential in many cells. In excitable cells, such as neurons, the delayed counterflow of potassium ions shapes the action potential.

Ion is an Atom or a Molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge. Ions can be created, by either chemical or physical means, via ionization.

Neural Coding is a neuroscience related field concerned with characterizing the relationship between the stimulus and the individual or ensemble neuronal responses and the relationship among the electrical activity of the neurons in the ensemble. Based on the theory that sensory and other information is represented in the brain by networks of neurons, it is thought that neurons can encode both digital and analog information.

Interneuron is one of the three classifications of neurons found in the human body. Interneurons create neural circuits, enabling communication between sensory or motor neurons and the central nervous system (CNS). They have been found to function in reflexes, neuronal oscillations, and neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain. Interneurons can be further broken down into two groups: local interneurons, and relay interneurons. Local interneurons have short axons and form circuits with nearby neurons to analyze small pieces of information. Relay interneurons have long axons and connect circuits of neurons in one region of the brain with those in other regions. The interaction between interneurons allow the brain to perform complex functions such as learning, and decision-making. (also called relay neuron, association neuron, connector neuron, intermediate neuron or local circuit neuron).

Spinal Interneuron is an interneuron found in the spinal cord that relays signals between afferent neurons and efferent neurons. Different classes of spinal interneurons are involved in the process of sensory-motor integration. Most interneurons are found in the grey column, a region of grey matter in the spinal cord.

Myelin is a fatty white substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer. It is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. It is an outgrowth of a type of Glial Cell or Neuroglia, which are non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Oligodendrocyte are a type of neuroglia. Their main functions are to provide support and insulation to axons in the central nervous system.

Myelin Sheath Gap are periodic gaps in the insulating myelin sheaths of myelinated axons where the axonal membrane is exposed to the extracellular space.

Myelinogenesis is generally the proliferation of myelin sheaths throughout the nervous system, and specifically the progressive myelination of nerve axon fibers in the central nervous system. This is a non-simultaneous process that occurs primarily postnatally in mammalian species, beginning in the embryo during the midst of early development and finishing after birth.
Myelination Learning

Myelin Basic Protein is a protein believed to be important in the process of myelination of nerves in the nervous system. The myelin sheath is a multi-layered membrane, unique to the nervous system, that functions as an insulator to greatly increase the velocity of axonal impulse conduction. MBP maintains the correct structure of myelin, interacting with the lipids in the myelin membrane.

Oligodendrocyte are a type of neuroglia. Their main functions are to provide support and insulation to axons in the central nervous system of some vertebrates, equivalent to the function performed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Oligodendrocytes do this by creating the myelin sheath, which is 80% lipid and 20% protein. A single oligodendrocyte can extend its processes to 50 axons, wrapping approximately 1 μm of myelin sheath around each axon; Schwann cells, on the other hand, can wrap around only one axon. Each oligodendrocyte forms one segment of myelin for several adjacent axons.

Schwann Cell are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Glial cells function to support neurons and in the PNS, also include satellite cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, enteric glia and glia that reside at sensory nerve endings, such as the Pacinian corpuscle. There are two types of Schwann cell, myelinating and nonmyelinating. Myelinating Schwann cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath. The Schwann cell promoter is present in the Downstream region of the Human Dystrophin Gene that gives shortened transcript that are again synthesized in a tissue specific manner.

Claustrum is a sheet of neurons that is attached to the underside of the neocortex in the center of the brain. Contains a great deal of longitudinal connections between its neurons that could serve to synchronize the entire anterior-posterior extent of the claustrum.

Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons. This is in contrast to classical synaptic transmission, in which one presynaptic neuron directly influences a single postsynaptic partner. Neuromodulators secreted by a small group of neurons diffuse through large areas of the nervous system, affecting multiple neurons. Major neuromodulators in the central nervous system include dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, and norepinephrine.

Neurotransmission also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron). Neurotransmission is essential for the process of communication between two neurons. Synaptic transmission relies on: the availability of the neurotransmitter; the release of the neurotransmitter by exocytosis; the binding of the postsynaptic receptor by the neurotransmitter; the functional response of the postsynaptic cell; and the subsequent removal or deactivation of the neurotransmitter. Information is carried from one cell to the other by neurotransmitters such as glutamate, dopamine, and serotonin, which activate receptors on the receiving neuron to convey excitatory or inhibitory messages.

Neuropeptide are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.

Neurotransmitter also known as chemical messengers, are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission. They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. Neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles in synapses into the synaptic cleft, where they are received by receptors on the target cells. Many neurotransmitters are synthesized from simple and plentiful precursors such as amino acids, which are readily available from the diet and only require a small number of biosynthetic steps for conversion. Neurotransmitters play a major role in shaping everyday life and functions. Their exact numbers are unknown, but more than 100 chemical messengers have been uniquely identified.

Neuromuscular Junction is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber. It is at the neuromuscular junction that a motor neuron is able to transmit a signal to the muscle fiber, causing muscle contraction.

Acetylcholine as a neuromodulator: cholinergic signaling shapes nervous system

Norepinephrine is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the human brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

Acetylcholine is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells. Its name is derived from its chemical structure: it is an ester of acetic acid and choline. Parts in the body that use or are affected by acetylcholine are referred to as cholinergic. Substances that interfere with acetylcholine activity are called anticholinergics.

Ed Boyden: Light Switch for Neurons (youtube)

Sensory Neurons located in your fingertips perform mathematical calculations that provide us with geometric information about objects we touch. Somatosensory System is a complex system of nerve cells that responds to changes to the surface or internal state of the body. Nerve cells called "sensory receptors" (including thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors and nociceptors) send signals along a chain of nerve cells to the spinal cord where they may be processed by other nerve cells and then relayed to the brain for further processing. Sensory receptors are found in many parts of the body including the skin, epithelial tissues, skeletal muscles, bones and joints, internal organs, and the cardiovascular system.

Brain Areas Map Neural Oscillation is rhythmic or repetitive neural activity in the central nervous system. Neural tissue can generate oscillatory activity in many ways, driven either by mechanisms within individual neurons or by interactions between neurons. In individual neurons, oscillations can appear either as oscillations in membrane potential or as rhythmic patterns of action potentials, which then produce oscillatory activation of post-synaptic neurons. At the level of neural ensembles, synchronized activity of large numbers of neurons can give rise to macroscopic oscillations, which can be observed in an electroencephalogram. Oscillatory activity in groups of neurons generally arises from feedback connections between the neurons that result in the synchronization of their firing patterns. The interaction between neurons can give rise to oscillations at a different frequency than the firing frequency of individual neurons. A well-known example of macroscopic neural oscillations is alpha activity.

Gamma Waves is a pattern of neural oscillation in humans with a frequency between 25 and 100 Hz, though 40 Hz is typical.

Glutamate Receptor (are synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal cells. Glutamate (the conjugate base of glutamic acid) is abundant in the human body, but particularly in the nervous system and especially prominent in the human brain where it is the body's most prominent neurotransmitter, the brain's main excitatory neurotransmitter, and also the precursor for GABA, the brain's main inhibitory neurotransmitter. Glutamate receptors are responsible for the glutamate-mediated postsynaptic excitation of neural cells, and are important for neural communication, memory formation, learning, and regulation.

Neuroendocrine Cell are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood. In this way they bring about an integration between the nervous system and the endocrine system, a process known as neuroendocrine integration.

Nervous Tissue 1. Identify neurons and understand the functional relationship between the soma and cell processes. 2. Distinguish between glial cells and neurons and know the different functions of these supporting glial cells. 3. Identify and understand the connective tissue elements of the central and peripheral nervous systems. 4. Distinguish between specific organs/structures in the central and peripheral nervous systems (i.e. cerebellum, peripheral nerve, autonomic ganglion).

Brain Waves - Binaural Beats

NeuroFeedback (is a type of biofeedback that uses real-time displays of brain activity—most commonly electroencephalography (EEG), to teach self-regulation of brain function. Typically, sensors are placed on the scalp to measure activity, with measurements displayed using video displays or sound.

Society for Neuro Feedback Research

Neurometrics is the science of measuring the underlying organization of the brain's electrical activity. Certain brainwave frequencies are associated with general psychological processes. EEGs are used to measure the brain waves.

Brainwave Entrainment is a colloquialism for 'neural entrainment', which denotes how the aggregate oscillation frequency, resulting from synchronous electrical activity among ensembles of cortical neurons, can adjust to synchronize with the periodic vibration of an external stimulus, such as a sustained acoustic frequency perceived as pitch, a regularly repeating pattern of intermittent sounds perceived as rhythm, or a regularly intermittent flashing light.

Gyrification is the process of forming the characteristic folds of the cerebral cortex The peak of such a fold is called a gyrus (plural: gyri), and its trough is called a sulcus (plural: sulci). The neurons of the cerebral cortex reside in a thin layer of 'gray matter', only 2–4 mm thick, at the surface of the brain. Much of the interior volume is occupied by 'white matter', which consists of long axonal projections to and from the cortical neurons residing near the surface. Gyrification allows a larger cortical surface area and hence greater cognitive functionality to fit inside a smaller cranium.

Grey Matter is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astroglia and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries. Grey matter is distinguished from white matter, in that it contains numerous cell bodies and relatively few myelinated axons, while white matter contains relatively very few cell bodies and is composed chiefly of long-range myelinated axon tracts. The colour difference arises mainly from the whiteness of myelin. In living tissue, grey matter actually has a very light grey colour with yellowish or pinkish hues, which come from capillary blood vessels and neuronal cell bodies.

Voxel-Based Morphometry is a comparison of the local concentration of gray matter between two groups of subjects.

White Matter refers to axon tracts and commissures. Long thought to be passive tissue, it actively affects learning and brain functions, modulating the distribution of action potentials, acting as a relay and coordinating communication between different brain regions. White matter is named for its relatively light appearance resulting from the lipid content of myelin. However, the tissue of the freshly cut brain appears pinkish white to the naked eye because myelin is composed largely of lipid tissue veined with capillaries. Its white color in prepared specimens is due to its usual preservation in formaldehyde. Concussions
Brain’s White Matter is the tissue that connects and protects neurons emanating from the Anterior Cingulate Cortex, is a region of particular importance for rational decision-making and effortful problem-solving.


Seeing into the Brain

Adult and Child Brain Scans Medical Imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).

Neuro Imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system. It is a relatively new discipline within medicine, neuroscience, and psychology. Physicians who specialize in the performance and interpretation of neuroimaging in the clinical setting are neuroradiologists.

Electroencephalography or EEG, is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
EEG Info
Electrocardiography ECG or EKG (Heart)

Brain MRI Scan Electrocorticography is a type of electrophysiological monitoring that uses electrodes placed directly on the exposed surface of the brain to record electrical activity from the cerebral cortex. (ECoG)

Positron Emission Tomography is a nuclear medicine, functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body. The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radionuclide (tracer), which is introduced into the body on a biologically active molecule. Three-dimensional images of tracer concentration within the body are then constructed by computer analysis. In modern PET-CT scanners, three dimensional imaging is often accomplished with the aid of a CT X-ray scan performed on the patient during the same session, in the same machine. (PET)

Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields, radio waves, and field gradients to generate images of the inside of the body. (MRI - Magnetic Resonance Imaging).

Proton NMR is the application of nuclear magnetic resonance in NMR spectroscopy with respect to hydrogen-1 nuclei within the molecules of a substance, in order to determine the structure of its molecules. In samples where natural hydrogen (H) is used, practically all the hydrogen consists of the isotope 1H (hydrogen-1; i.e. having a proton for a nucleus). A full 1H atom is called protium.

Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the Brain (PDF)

Diffusion MRI

Electrical Brain Stimulation is a form of electrotherapy and technique used in research and clinical neurobiology to stimulate a neuron or neural network in the brain through the direct or indirect excitation of its cell membrane by using an electric current. It is used for research or for therapeutical purposes.

Noninvasive Brain Stimulation

Magneto Encephalography is a functional neuroimaging technique for mapping brain activity by recording magnetic fields produced by electrical currents occurring naturally in the brain, using very sensitive magnetometers.

Trans-Cranial Magnetic Stimulation is a magnetic method used to stimulate small regions of the brain. During a TMS procedure, a magnetic field generator, or "coil", is placed near the head of the person receiving the treatment. The coil produces small electric currents in the region of the brain just under the coil via electromagnetic induction. The coil is connected to a pulse generator, or stimulator, that delivers electric current to the coil. Magnets

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation is a form of neurostimulation which uses constant, low current delivered to the brain area of interest via electrodes on the scalp.

Reactivation of latent working memories with transcranial magnetic stimulation

Electroconvulsive Therapy - Electroshock Therapy

Electric Field Therapy - Cancer

Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays. It is very similar to conventional nuclear medicine planar imaging using a gamma camera. However, it is able to provide true 3D information. This information is typically presented as cross-sectional slices through the patient, but can be freely reformatted or manipulated as required.

CT Scan makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
EMI- AT Scan (wiki)

Tomography refers to imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of any kind of penetrating wave. The method is used in radiology, archaeology, biology, atmospheric science, geophysics, oceanography, plasma physics, materials science, astrophysics, quantum information, and other areas of science. In most cases the production of these images is based on the mathematical procedure tomographic reconstruction.

X-Rays is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays.

Neuroradiology is a subspecialty of radiology focusing on the diagnosis and characterization of abnormalities of the central and peripheral nervous system, spine, and head and neck using neuroimaging techniques.

Radiology uses Medical imaging to diagnose and treat diseases seen within the body. A variety of imaging techniques such as X-ray radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine including positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used to diagnose and/or treat diseases. Interventional radiology is the performance of (usually minimally invasive) medical procedures with the guidance of imaging technologies.

Photoacoustic Imaging nanosecond pulsed laser.

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

Functional Neuroimaging is the use of neuroimaging technology to measure an aspect of brain function, often with a view to understanding the relationship between activity in certain brain areas and specific mental functions.

Patch-type brain wave sensor that can easily be attached just like applying a cool soft gel sheet to the forehead

Enlitic uses deep learning to analyze radiographs and CT and MRI scans.

Deep Brain Stimulation involving the implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator (sometimes referred to as a 'brain pacemaker'), which sends electrical impulses, through implanted electrodes, to specific targets in the brain (brain nuclei) for the treatment of movement and neuropsychiatric disorders.

Optical Tomography is a form of computed tomography that creates a digital volumetric model of an object by reconstructing images made from light transmitted and scattered through an object. Optical tomography is used mostly in medical imaging research. Optical tomography in industry is used as a sensor of thickness and internal structure of semiconductors.

Optical Coherence Tomography is an established medical imaging technique that uses light to capture micrometer-resolution, three-dimensional images from within optical scattering media (e.g., biological tissue). Optical coherence tomography is based on low-coherence interferometry, typically employing near-infrared light. The use of relatively long wavelength light allows it to penetrate into the scattering medium. Confocal microscopy, another optical technique, typically penetrates less deeply into the sample but with higher resolution. Depending on the properties of the light source (superluminescent diodes, ultrashort pulsed lasers, and supercontinuum lasers have been employed), optical coherence tomography has achieved sub-micrometer resolution (with very wide-spectrum sources emitting over a ~100 nm wavelength range). Spatial Intelligence

Industrial Process Imaging or process tomography are methods used to form an image of a cross section of vessel or pipe in a chemical engineering or mineral processing, or petroleum extraction or refining plant. Process imaging is used for the development of process equipment such as filters, separators and conveyor, as well as monitoring of production plant including flow rate measurement. As well as conventional tomographic methods widely used in medicine such as X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and gamma ray tomography, and ultra-sound tomography, new and emerging methods such as electrical capacitance tomography and magnetic induction tomography and electrical resistivity tomography (similar to medical electrical impedance tomography) are also used.

Process Tomography consists of tomographic imaging of systems, such as process pipes in industry. In tomography the 3D distribution of some physical quantity in the object is determined. There is a widespread need to get tomographic information about process. This information can be used, for example, in the design and control of processes. Tomography involves taking measurements around the periphery of an object (e.g. process vessel or patient) to determine what is going on inside.The best known technique is CAT scanning in medicine, however process tomography instrumentation needs to be cheaper, faster and more robust.

Organoid is a miniaturized and simplified version of an organ produced in vitro in three dimensions that shows realistic micro-anatomy. They are derived from one or a few cells from a tissue, embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells, which can self-organize in three-dimensional culture owing to their self-renewal and differentiation capacities. The technique for growing organoids has rapidly improved since the early 2010s, and it was named by The Scientist as one of the biggest scientific advancements of 2013. Research


Brain Injuries

Brain Damage is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. Brain injuries occur due to a wide range of internal and external factors. A common category with the greatest number of injuries is traumatic brain injury.

Traumatic Brain Injury occurs when an external force traumatically injures the brain.
Intracranial Traumatic Brain Injury occurs when an external force traumatically injures the brain.

Brain Injury Rehabilitation
Recovery after Brain Injury
Brain Injury Explanation
Brain Injuries Heal Faster when people Move
Apps for Brain Injuries (PDF)

Concussion is defined as a head injury with a temporary loss of brain function. Symptoms include a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms, which may not be recognized if subtle. A variety of signs accompany concussion including headache, feeling in a fog, and emotional changeability. Physical signs (such as loss of consciousness or amnesia), behavioral changes (such as irritability), cognitive impairment (such as slowed reaction times), or sleep disturbances. Fewer than 10% of sports-related concussions among children are associated with loss of consciousness.

Concussions in Sports - Inflammation

Impact Test App for Minor Concussions

Scientists discover Concussion Biomarker by measuring the brain’s ability to process sound or auditory response. Children who sustained concussions had on average a 35 percent smaller neural response to pitch.

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy is a progressive degenerative disease found in people who have had a severe blow or repeated blows to the head. The disease was previously called dementia pugilistica (DP), i.e. "punch-drunk," as it was initially found in those with a history of boxing. CTE has been most commonly found in professional athletes participating in American football, rugby, ice hockey, boxing, professional wrestling, stunt performing, bull riding, rodeo, and other contact sports who have experienced repeated concussions or other brain trauma. Its presence in domestic violence is also being investigated. It can affect high school athletes, especially American football players, following few years of activity. It is a form of tauopathy.

Rehabilitation Neuropsychology of sensory and cognitive function typically involves methods for retraining neural pathways or training new neural pathways to regain or improve neurocognitive functioning that has been diminished by disease or trauma.

Neuro Skills - Brain Injury

Parallel recovery of consciousness and sleep in acute traumatic brain injury
A good sleep for a fresh mind in patients with acute traumatic brain injury
Sleeping Knowledge
Structural Advanced MRI Imaging

Apraxia is a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain.  

Neurointensive Care deals with life-threatening diseases of the nervous system, which are those that involve the brain, spinal cord and nerves.

Cerebral Hemorrhage is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles. Symptoms can include headache, one sided weakness, vomiting, seizures, decreased level of consciousness, and neck stiffness. Often symptoms get worse over time. Fever is also common. In many cases bleeding is present in both the brain tissue and the ventricles.

Blood Brain Barrier

Microglia are a type of glial cell located throughout the brain and spinal cord. Microglia account for 10–15% of all cells found within the brain. As the resident macrophage cells, they act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system (CNS).

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis also known as Lou Gehrig's disease and motor neurone disease (MND), is a specific disease that causes the death of neurons which control voluntary muscles. Some also use the term "motor neuron disease" for a group of conditions of which ALS is the most common. ALS is characterized by stiff muscles, muscle twitching, and gradually worsening weakness due to muscles decreasing in size. This results in difficulty in speaking, swallowing, and eventually breathing.

Stroke is when poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding. They result in part of the brain not functioning properly. Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, feeling like the world is spinning, or loss of vision to one side among others. Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred. If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA). Hemorrhagic strokes may also be associated with a severe headache.

Silent Stroke is a stroke that does not have any outward symptoms associated with stroke, and the patient is typically unaware they have suffered a stroke. Despite not causing identifiable symptoms a silent stroke still causes damage to the brain, and places the patient at increased risk for both transient ischemic attack and major stroke in the future. (white matter stroke)

Transient Ischemic Attack is a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction caused by ischemia (loss of blood flow) – either focal brain, spinal cord, or retinal – without acute infarction (tissue death). TIAs have the same underlying cause as strokes: a disruption of cerebral blood flow (CBF), and are often referred to as mini-strokes. Symptoms caused by a TIA resolve in 24 hours or less. TIA was originally defined clinically by the temporary nature of less than 24 hours of the associated neurologic symptoms.

UCLA study shows how brain begins repairs after ‘silent strokes’ Blocking a molecular receptor helps restore brain function.

Smart cells teach Neurons to Heal themselves
"A finding suggests that people with more education have brains that are better able to "find ways around the damage" caused by an injury." 

Disability Rating Scale - Pain Scale

Constraint-induced Movement Therapy is a form of rehabilitation therapy that improves upper extremity function in stroke and other central nervous system damage victims by increasing the use of their affected upper limb.


Agmatine has been shown to exert modulatory action at multiple molecular targets, notably: neurotransmitter systems, ion channels, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and polyamine metabolism and this provides bases for further research into potential applications.

Aphasia is an inability to comprehend and formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions.

Apraxia is a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain (specifically the posterior parietal cortex), in which the individual has difficulty with the motor planning to perform tasks or movements when asked, provided that the request or command is understood and he/she is willing to perform the task. A person with apraxia has impaired volitional control of speech making it difficult to move his or her lips or tongue to the right place, as the messages from the brain to the mouth are disrupted. The nature of the brain damage determines the severity and the absence of sensory loss or paralysis helps explain the level of difficulty.

Brain-Computer Interface
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor 
Woman Has no Cerebellum

Cerebellar Hypoplasia is a heterogeneous group of disorder of cerebellar maldevelopment presenting as early onset non progressive ataxia, hypotonia, and motor learning disability. Various causes has been incriminated like hereditary, metabolic, toxic and viral agents.

Communication App

Diffuse Axonal Injury is a brain injury in which damage in the form of extensive lesions in white matter tracts occurs over a widespread area. DAI is one of the most common and devastating types of traumatic brain injury, and is a major cause of unconsciousness and persistent vegetative state after severe head trauma. It occurs in about half of all cases of severe head trauma and may be the primary damage that occurs in concussion. The outcome is frequently coma, with over 90% of patients with severe DAI never regaining consciousness. Those who do wake up often remain significantly impaired.

Locked-in Syndrome is a condition in which a patient is aware but cannot move or communicate verbally due to complete paralysis of nearly all voluntary muscles in the body except for the eyes. Total locked-in syndrome is a version of locked-in syndrome wherein the eyes are paralyzed as well.

Brigham and Women's
Music Therapy

Hemispatial Neglect is a neuropsychological condition in which, after damage to one hemisphere of the brain is sustained, a deficit in attention to and awareness of one side of space is observed. It is defined by the inability of a person to process and perceive stimuli on one side of the body or environment, where that inability is not due to a lack of sensation. Hemispatial neglect is very commonly contralateral to the damaged hemisphere, but instances of ipsilesional neglect (on the same side as the lesion) have been reported.

Split-Brain is a lay term to describe the result when the corpus callosum connecting the two hemispheres of the brain is severed to some degree. It is an association of symptoms produced by disruption of or interference with the connection between the hemispheres of the brain.

NeurodegenerativeBrain Shrinkage 

Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality. Ataxia is a non-specific clinical manifestation implying dysfunction of the parts of the nervous system that coordinate movement, such as the cerebellum.

Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis
Human Senses

Autoimmune Disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part. There are at least 80 types of autoimmune diseases. Nearly any body part can be involved. Common symptoms include low grade fever and feeling tired. Often symptoms come and go.

Ramona Pierson (video)

Midbrain is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.

Transplanted embryonic neurons integrate into adult neocortical circuits Implanting new neurons to integrate with existing neocortical circuits. Grafting

Acquired Savant Syndrome is when a brain injury can sometimes activate incredible skills that a person never experienced before.

Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awakened; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.

UCLA scientists use ultrasound to jump-start a man’s brain after coma
Coma Scale

Persistent Vegetative State is a disorder of consciousness in which patients with severe brain damage are in a state of partial arousal rather than true awareness. After four weeks in a vegetative state (VS), the patient is classified as in a persistent vegetative state.

Ways to Communicate

Brain Death is the complete and irreversible loss of brain function (including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life).

Paralysis is loss of muscle function for one or more muscles. Paralysis can be accompanied by a loss of feeling (sensory loss) in the affected area if there is sensory damage as well as motor.

Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain. Acute onset of fever, headache, confusion, and sometimes seizures. Younger children or infants may present irritability, poor appetite and fever. Neurological examinations usually reveal a drowsy or confused patient. Stiff neck, due to the irritation of the meninges covering the brain, indicates that the patient has either meningitis or meningoencephalitis.

Hydrocephalus is an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. This causes increased intracranial pressure inside the skull and may cause progressive enlargement of the head if it occurs in childhood, potentially causing convulsion, tunnel vision, and mental disability. It was once informally called "Water on the brain.

Brain Disorders
Special Needs


Neuro Plasticity is many aspects of the brain remain changeable (or "plastic") even into adulthood.

Cell Division

Synaptic Plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity. There is no such thing as a Hard Wired Brain.  

Sensory Substitution

Malleability of Intelligence describes the processes by which human intelligence may be augmented through changes in neuroplasticity. These changes may come as a result of genetics, pharmacological factors, psychological factors, behavior, or environmental conditions.

Neural Development refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood. Child Development

Long-Term Potentiation is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity. These are patterns of synaptic activity that produce a long-lasting increase in signal transmission between two neurons. The opposite of LTP is long-term depression, which produces a long-lasting decrease in synaptic strength.

Neural Development refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to the final years of life.

Neural Facilitation which postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) (EPPs or EPSPs) evoked by an impulse are increased when that impulse closely follows a prior impulse. PPF is thus a form of short-term synaptic plasticity. Stimulus

Brain AnatomyLearning Methods

Synaptogenesis occurs throughout a healthy person's lifespan.

Brain Improvement Methods
Cognitive Exercises
10,000 Hour Rule

Nervous System Development

Neurotrophin are a family of proteins that induce the survival, development, and function of neurons.

Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells and progenitor cells. Through precise genetic mechanisms of cell fate determination, many different varieties of excitatory and inhibitory neurons are generated from different kinds of neural stem cells.

Sandrine Thuret: Grow New Brain Cells (video)

Neuroglia are non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Sensory Neuron are nerve that transmit sensory information (sight, sound, feeling, etc.). They are activated by sensory input, and send projections to other elements of the nervous system, ultimately conveying sensory information to the brain or spinal cord.

Interneuron create neural circuits, enabling communication between sensory or motor neurons and the central nervous system (CNS).

Neuroconstructivism is how the brain progressively sculpts itself and how it gradually becomes specialized over developmental time.

Neurorehabilitation is a complex medical process which aims to aid recovery from a nervous system injury, and to minimize and/or compensate for any functional alterations resulting from it.

Human Neurons Continue to Migrate after Birth Late migration of inhibitory neurons could play a role in human cognitive abilities, neurological disease. Inhibitory neurons, which use the neurotransmitter GABA, make up about 20 percent of the neurons in the cerebral cortex and play a vital role in balancing the brain’s need for stability with its ability to learn and change.

Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential. The opposite of an inhibitory postsynaptic potential is an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), which is a synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron more likely to generate an action potential. They can take place at all chemical synapses, which use the secretion of neurotransmitters to create cell to cell signaling.


Bromodeoxyuridine is a synthetic nucleoside that is an analog of thymidine. BrdU is commonly used in the detection of proliferating cells in living tissues. 5-Bromodeoxycytidine is deaminated to form BrdU.

is cause to grow or increase rapidly.

Thymidine is a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside. Deoxythymidine is the DNA nucleoside T, which pairs with deoxyadenosine (A) in double-stranded DNA. In cell biology it is used to synchronize the cells in G1/early S phase.

Dentate Gyrus

Pure Science Specials
The Brain that Changes Itself (youtube) Season 1 Ep. 85 |  01/04/2015 |  55:05
Changing Your Mind (youtube) Season 1 Ep. 84 |  01/03/2015 | 52:26
Mental Makeover Episode 1. The Brain that Changes Itself, Norman Doidge (youtube)
Robots that Adapt (youtube)

Cause of phantom limb pain in amputees, and potential treatment, identified reorganisation of the wiring of the brain is the underlying cause of phantom limb pain. Induced sensorimotor brain plasticity controls pain in phantom limb patients

intelligent Trial and Error Algorithm

Plasticine is a putty-like modelling material made from calcium salts, petroleum jelly and aliphatic acids.

Stem Cell are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells.
Stem Cell Research

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells.

Progenitor Cell is a biological cell that, like a stem cell, has a tendency to differentiate into a specific type of cell, but is already more specific than a stem cell and is pushed to differentiate into its "target" cell. The most important difference between stem cells and progenitor cells is that stem cells can replicate indefinitely, whereas progenitor cells can divide only a limited number of times.

Endogeny are substances and processes that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.

Exogeny is the fact of an action or object originating externally. It contrasts with endogeny or endogeneity, the fact of being influenced within a system.

Long-term Potentiation is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity. These are patterns of synaptic activity that produce a long-lasting increase in signal transmission between two Neurons.

Long-term Depression is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus.

Endocannabinoid System is a group of endogenous cannabinoid receptors located in the mammalian brain and throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems, consisting of neuromodulatory lipids and their receptors. Known as "the body’s own cannabinoid system", the ECS is involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory, and in mediating the psychoactive effects of cannabis. Cannabinoids

Postsynaptic Potential are changes in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic terminal of a chemical synapse.

Astrocyte star-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord.
NMDA Receptor is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells. 

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

Drug Dangers

Brain Tumors


Brain Research

Functional Areas of the Brain Human Brain Project
Human Brain Project (video)
Human Brain Project (video)

Allen Institute for Brain Science

Brain Research The Dana Foundation

Your Wonderful Brain summary of the key features and functions of your brain (PDF)

Medical Imaging Technology - The ways we can see into our Brains.

Neuromorphic Engineering describes the use of very-large-scale integration (VLSI) systems containing electronic analog circuits to mimic neuro-biological architectures present in the nervous system.

Mammalian Brains is the world's largest collection of well-preserved, sectioned and stained brains of mammals. Viewers can see and download photographs of brains of over 100 different species of mammals (including humans) representing over 20 Mammalian Orders.

Triune Brain consists of the reptilian complex, the paleomammalian complex (limbic system), and the neomammalian complex (neocortex), viewed as structures sequentially added to the forebrain in the course of evolution.

Brainwave Entrainment is a colloquialism for 'neural entrainment', which denotes how the aggregate oscillation frequency, resulting from synchronous electrical activity among ensembles of cortical neurons, can adjust to synchronize with the periodic vibration of an external stimulus, such as a sustained acoustic frequency perceived as pitch, a regularly repeating pattern of intermittent sounds perceived as rhythm, or a regularly intermittent flashing light.

Multiplexing is a method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium.

Cerebellum Anatomy can be viewed at three levels. At the level of gross anatomy, the cerebellum consists of a tightly folded and crumpled layer of cortex, with white matter underneath, several deep nuclei embedded in the white matter, and a fluid-filled ventricle in the middle. At the intermediate level, the cerebellum and its auxiliary structures can be broken down into several hundred or thousand independently functioning modules or "microzones". At the microscopic level, each module consists of the same small set of neuronal elements, laid out with a highly stereotyped geometry.

Anatomy and Functional Areas of the Brain Acetylcholine is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

Tryptophan is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group, an α-carboxylic acid group, and a side chain indole, classifying it as a non-polar, aromatic amino acid. It is essential in humans, meaning the body cannot synthesize it and thus it must be obtained from the diet. Tryptophan is also a precursor to the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin.

Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan,[9] serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of animals, including humans. It is popularly thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. It plays the principal role in reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. In humans, GABA is also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone.

Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones. When used as a medication, it is known as hydrocortisone.

Ion Channel are pore-forming membrane proteins whose functions include establishing a resting membrane potential, shaping action potentials and other electrical signals by gating the flow of ions across the cell membrane, controlling the flow of ions across secretory and epithelial cells, and regulating cell volume. Ion channels are present in the membranes of all cells. Ion channels are one of the two classes of ionophoric proteins, along with ion transporters (including the sodium-potassium pump, sodium-calcium exchanger, and sodium-glucose transport proteins).

Endorphins are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and peptide hormones in humans and other animals. They are produced by the central nervous system and the pituitary gland.

Benzodiazepines are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium).

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other. They are neuronal signaling molecules that influence the activity of the brain and the body in specific ways. Different neuropeptides are involved in a wide range of brain functions, including analgesia, reward, food intake, metabolism, reproduction, social behaviors, learning and memory.

Neurochemical an organic molecule, such as serotonin, dopamine, or nerve growth factor, that participates in neural activity. The science of neurochemistry studies the functions of neurochemicals.

Monoamine Oxidase are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines. They are found bound to the outer membrane of mitochondria in most cell types in the body.

Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three endocrine glands: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).

Pineal Gland is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. The shape of the gland resembles a pine cone, hence its name. The pineal gland is located in the epithalamus, near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two halves of the thalamus join. The pineal gland produces melatonin, a serotonin derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns in both circadian and seasonal cycles,

Ventricular System is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. Within each ventricle is a region of choroid plexus, a network of ependymal cells involved in the production of CSF. The ventricular system is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord (from the fourth ventricle) allowing for the flow of CSF to circulate. All of the ventricular system and the central canal of the spinal cord is lined with ependyma, a specialised form of epithelium.

Internal Categories
Electromagnetic Fields
Action Potential
Brain Computer Comparisons
Early Development
Reward System
Spatial intelligence
Central Nervous System


Cerebral Cortex is the cerebrum's (brain) outer layer of neural tissue in humans and other mammals. It is divided into two cortices, along the sagittal plane: the left and right cerebral hemispheres divided by the medial longitudinal fissure. The cerebral cortex plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness. The human cerebral cortex is 2 to 4 millimetres (0.079 to 0.157 in) thick.

Prefrontal Cortex is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe. This brain region has been implicated in planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behaviour. The basic activity of this brain region is considered to be orchestration of thoughts and actions in accordance with internal goals.
Brodmann Area 10 is the anterior-most portion of the prefrontal cortex in the human brain.

Parietal Lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. Integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe.

Temporal Lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The temporal lobe is located beneath the lateral fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain. The temporal lobe is involved in processing sensory input into derived meanings for the appropriate retention of visual memory, language comprehension, and emotion association.

Visual Cortex is a part of the cerebral cortex that plays an important role in processing visual information.

Visual System is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions. It detects and interprets information from visible light to build a representation of the surrounding environment. The visual system carries out a number of complex tasks, including the reception of light and the formation of monocular representations; the buildup of a nuclear binocular perception from a pair of two dimensional projections; the identification and categorization of visual objects; assessing distances to and between objects; and guiding body movements in relation to the objects seen. The psychological process of visual information is known as visual perception, a lack of which is called blindness. Non-image forming visual functions, independent of visual perception, include the pupillary light reflex (PLR) and circadian photoentrainment.

Occipital Lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex.
Fusiform Gyrus also known as the (discontinuous) occipitotemporal gyrus, is part of the temporal lobe and occipital lobe in Brodmann area 37. The fusiform gyrus is located between the lingual gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus.

Entorhinal Cortex is an area of the brain located in the medial temporal lobe and functioning as a hub in a widespread network for memory and navigation. The EC is the main interface between the hippocampus and neocortex. The EC-hippocampus system plays an important role in declarative (autobiographical/episodic/semantic) memories and in particular spatial memories including memory formation, memory consolidation, and memory optimization in sleep. The EC is also responsible for the pre-processing (familiarity) of the input signals in the reflex nictitating membrane response of classical trace conditioning, the association of impulses from the eye and the ear occurs in the entorhinal cortex.
Precuneus the medial area of the superior parietal cortex. involved with episodic memory, visuospatial processing, reflections upon self, and aspects of consciousness.

Association Cortex is the cerebral cortex outside the primary areas. It is essential for mental functions that are more complex than detecting basic dimensions of sensory stimulation, for which primary sensory areas appear to be necessary. In humans the association areas are by far the most developed part of the cerebral cortex, and the brain in general. These areas are necessary for perceptual activities, like recognizing objects (toasters, horses, trees, words, etc), rather than simple contours, edges or sensory qualities like color or pitch.

Anterior Cingulate Cortex is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex that resembles a "collar" surrounding the frontal part of the corpus callosum. It consists of Brodmann areas 24, 32, and 33. It appears to play a role in a wide variety of autonomic functions, such as regulating blood pressure and heart rate. It is also involved in certain higher-level functions, such as reward anticipation, decision-making, impulse control, and emotion.

Insular Cortex is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus (the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes). The insulae are believed to be involved in consciousness and play a role in diverse functions usually linked to emotion or the regulation of the body's Homeostasis, which is the metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes. These functions include perception, motor control, self-awareness, cognitive functioning, and interpersonal experience. In relation to these, it is involved in psychopathology. The insular cortex is divided into two parts: the larger anterior insula and the smaller posterior insula in which more than a dozen field areas have been identified. The cortical area overlying the insula toward the lateral surface of the brain is the operculum (meaning lid). The opercula are formed from parts of the enclosing frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Posterior is located at or near or behind a part or near the end of a structure. Anterior is near the head end or toward the front plane of a body.

Neocortex is the largest part of the cerebral cortex which covers the two cerebral hemispheres, with the allocortex making up the rest. The neocortex is made up of six layers, labelled from the outermost inwards, I to VI. In humans, the neocortex is involved in higher functions such as sensory perception, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language. There are two types of cortex in the neocortex – the true isocortex and the proisocortex. The neocortex has also been shown to play an influential role in sleep, memory and learning processes. Semantic memories appear to be stored in the neocortex, specifically the anterolateral temporal lobe of the neocortex. It is also involved in instrumental conditioning; responsible for transmitting sensory information and information about plans for movement to the basal ganglia. The firing rate of neurons in the neocortex also has an effect on slow-wave sleep. When the neurons are at rest and are hyperpolarizing, a period of inhibition occurs during a slow oscillation, called the down state. When the neurons of the neocortex are in the excitatory depolarizing phase and are firing briefly at a high rate, a period of excitation occurs during a slow oscillation, called the up state.

Rhinal Cortex is proposed to be part of the neural circuit for explicit memory.

Allocortex is one of the two types of cerebral cortex, the other being the neocortex. It is characterized by having just three or four cell layers, in contrast with the six layers of the neocortex, and takes up a much smaller area than the neocortex. There are three subtypes of allocortex: the paleocortex, the archicortex, and the periallocortex – a transitional zone between the neocortex and the allocortex.

Auditory Cortex is the part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information in humans and other vertebrates. It is a part of the auditory system, performing basic and higher functions in hearing. It is located bilaterally, roughly at the upper sides of the temporal lobes – in humans on the superior temporal plane, within the lateral fissure and comprising parts of Heschl's gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus, including planum polare and planum temporale (roughly Brodmann areas 41, 42, and partially 22). Unilateral destruction results in slight hearing loss, whereas bilateral destruction results in cortical deafness.

Sensory Cortex can refer informally to the primary somatosensory cortex, or it can be used as a term for the primary and secondary cortices of the different senses (two cortices each, on left and right hemisphere): the visual cortex on the occipital lobes, the auditory cortex on the temporal lobes, the primary olfactory cortex on the uncus of the piriform region of the temporal lobes, the gustatory cortex on the insular lobe (also referred to as the insular cortex), and the primary somatosensory cortex on the anterior parietal lobes. Just posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex lies the somatosensory association cortex, which integrates sensory information from the primary somatosensory cortex (temperature, pressure, etc.) to construct an understanding of the object being felt. Inferior to the frontal lobes are found the olfactory bulbs, which receive sensory input from the olfactory nerves and route those signals throughout the brain. Not all olfactory information is routed to the olfactory cortex. Some neural fibers are routed directly to limbic structures, while others are routed to the supraorbital region of the frontal lobe. Such a direct limbic connection makes the olfactory sense unique. The brain cortical regions are related to the auditory, visual, olfactory, and somatosensory (touch, proprioception) sensations, which are located lateral to the lateral fissure and posterior to the central sulcus, that is, more toward the back of the brain. The cortical region related to gustatory sensation is located anterior to the central sulcus. Note that the central sulcus (sometimes referred to as the central fissure) divides the primary motor cortex (on the precentral gyrus of the posterior frontal lobe) from the somatosensory cortex (on the postcentral gyrus of the anterior parietal lobe). The somatosensory cortex is involved in somatic sensation, visual stimuli, and movement planning.

Premotor Cortex is an area of motor cortex lying within the frontal lobe of the brain just anterior to the primary motor cortex.

Areas of the Brain that Control Senses Superior Parietal Lobule is bounded in front by the upper part of the postcentral sulcus, but is usually connected with the postcentral gyrus above the end of the sulcus. The superior parietal lobule contains Brodmann's areas 5 and 7.


Adrenocorticotropic Hormone also known as corticotropin is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. It is also used as a medication and diagnostic agent.

N-Acetylaspartic Acid  is a derivative of aspartic acid with a formula of C6H9NO5 and a molecular weight of 175.139. NAA is the second-most-concentrated molecule in the brain after the amino acid glutamate. It is detected in the adult brain in neurons, oligodendrocytes and myelin and is synthesized in the mitochondria from the amino acid aspartic acid and acetyl-coenzyme A.

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

Striatum also known as the neostriatum or striate nucleus, is one of the nuclei in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain. The striatum is a critical component of the motor and reward systems. It receives both glutamatergic and dopaminergic inputs from different sources, and serves as the primary input to the rest of the basal ganglia nuclei.

Chemoreceptor is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance and generates a biological signal. This signal may be in the form of an action potential if the chemoreceptor is a neuron (nerve cell), or in the form of a neurotransmitter that can activate a nearby nerve fiber if the chemosensor is a specialized sensory receptor cell, such the taste receptor in a taste bud or in an internal peripheral chemoreceptor such as the carotid body. In more general terms, a chemosensor detects chemicals in the internal or external environment and transmits that information to the nervous system.

Receptor (biochemistry) is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell. When such chemical signals bind to a receptor, they cause some form of cellular/tissue response, e.g. a change in the electrical activity of a cell. In this sense, a receptor is a protein-molecule that recognizes and responds to endogenous chemical signals, e.g. an acetylcholine receptor recognizes and responds to its endogenous ligand, acetylcholine. However, sometimes in pharmacology, the term is also used to include other proteins that are drug targets, such as enzymes, transporters and ion channels.

Trigeminal Nerve is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. The largest of the cranial nerves, its name ("trigeminal" = tri-, or three and -geminus, or twin; thrice-twinned) derives from the fact that each trigeminal nerve (one on each side of the pons) has three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2), and the mandibular nerve (V3). The ophthalmic and maxillary nerves are purely sensory, and the mandibular nerve has sensory (or "cutaneous") and motor functions.

Transcriptome is the set of all messenger RNA molecules in one cell or a population of cells. It differs from the exome in that it includes only those RNA molecules found in a specified cell population, and usually includes the amount or concentration of each RNA molecule in addition to the molecular identities.

Alternative Splicing in the Mammalian Nervous System

Brainstem is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. In the human brain the brainstem includes the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata. Sometimes the diencephalon, the caudal part of the forebrain, is included. The brainstem provides the main motor and sensory innervation to the face and neck via the cranial nerves. Of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves, ten pairs come from the brainstem. Though small, this is an extremely important part of the brain as the nerve connections of the motor and sensory systems from the main part of the brain to the rest of the body pass through the brainstem. This includes the corticospinal tract (motor), the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway (fine touch, vibration sensation, and proprioception), and the spinothalamic tract (pain, temperature, itch, and crude touch). The brainstem also plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac and respiratory function. It also regulates the central nervous system, and is pivotal in maintaining consciousness and regulating the sleep cycle. The brainstem has many basic functions including heart rate, breathing, sleeping, and eating.

Reticular Activating System is a set of connected nuclei in the brains of vertebrates that is responsible for regulating wakefulness and sleep-wake transitions. As its name implies, its most influential component is the reticular formation.

Reticular Formation is a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brainstem. The reticular formation is not anatomically well defined because it includes neurons located in diverse parts of the brain. The neurons of the reticular formation all play a crucial role in maintaining behavioral arousal and consciousness. The functions of the reticular formation are modulatory and premotor. The modulatory functions are primarily found in the rostral sector of the reticular formation and the premotor functions are localized in the neurons in more caudal regions.

Informatics Platform for Imaging Research
The Brain Observatory 

Long-term neural and physiological phenotyping of a single human
My Connectome Data Sharing

New Technique Captures the Activity of an entire Brain in a Snapshot

The Brain Dictionary - Word Map of the Brain (youtube)

MRI scans show mapping of the semantic systems of the brain. How the brain organizes words and language in the brain. Words are grouped by meaning. So basically what I'm doing with BK101 is just mimicking my brains organizing ability.
Interactive map showing which brain areas respond to hearing different words. The map reveals how language is spread throughout the cortex and across both hemispheres, showing groups of words clustered together by meaning. The beautiful interactive model allows us to explore the complex organization of the enormous dictionaries in our heads.

TSRI Scientists Reveal Single-Neuron Gene Landscape of the Human Brain

Transcriptome is the set of all messenger RNA molecules in one cell or a population of cells. It differs from the exome in that it includes only those RNA molecules found in a specified cell population, and usually includes the amount or concentration of each RNA molecule in addition to the molecular identities.

Ganglionic Eminence In neuroanatomy and neuroembryology, a ganglionic eminence (GE) is a transitory brain structure that guides cell and axon migration. It is present in the embryonic and fetal stages of neural development found between the thalamus and caudate nucleus.

Researchers identified 16 neuronal subtypes in the cerebral cortex. Human brain houses diverse populations of neurons, new research shows.

A Multi-Modal Parcellation of Human Cerebral Cortex

Developing Fetal Brain Connectome is a comprehensive map of neural connections in the brain, and may be thought of as its "wiring diagram". More broadly, a connectome would include the mapping of all neural connections within an organism's nervous system.
Neuro-Science Blueprint Connectome

Brain Map database of neuronal cell types based on multimodal characterization of single cells to enable data-driven approaches to classification.
Brain Map
Brain Span
Eye Wire
Human Connectome Project
Neuroimaging Data-Sharing Initiative

Playground Tensor Flow Tinker With a Neural Network Right Here in Your Browser..Cortex

Holonomic Brain Theory is a model of human cognition that describes the brain as a holographic storage network. Pribram suggests these processes involve electric oscillations in the brain's fine-fibered dendritic webs, which are different from the more commonly known action potentials involving axons and synapses. These oscillations are waves and create wave interference patterns in which memory is encoded naturally, and the waves may be analyzed by a Fourier transform.

Brodmann Areas 1, 2 and 3 are the primary somatosensory cortex; area 4 is the primary motor cortex; area 17 is the primary visual cortex; and areas 41 and 42 correspond closely to primary auditory cortex. Higher order functions of the association cortical areas are also consistently localized to the same Brodmann areas by neurophysiological, functional imaging, and other methods. (e.g., the consistent localization of Broca's speech and language area to the left Brodmann areas 44 and 45). However, functional imaging can only identify the approximate localization of brain activations in terms of Brodmann areas since their actual boundaries in any individual brain requires its histological examination.

Limbic System is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately underneath the cerebrum. The limbic system supports a variety of functions including emotion, behavior, motivation, long-term memory, and olfaction. Emotional life is largely housed in the limbic system, and it has a great deal to do with the formation of memories.

Limbic System

Limbic System

Hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). The hypothalamus is responsible for certain metabolic processes and other activities of the autonomic nervous system. It synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones, called releasing hormones or hypothalamic hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, important aspects of parenting and attachment behaviors, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms.

Paraventricular Nucleus of Hypothalamus is a neuronal nucleus in the hypothalamus. It contains groups of neurons that can be activated by stressful and/or physiological changes. Many PVN neurons project directly to the posterior pituitary where they release oxytocin into the general circulation.While the Supraoptic nucleus release vasopressin. Other PVN neurons control various anterior pituitary functions, while still others directly regulate appetite and autonomic functions in the brainstem and spinal cord.

Thalamus is a part of the brain that has several functions such as relaying of sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness. It is a midline symmetrical structure of two halves, within the vertebrate brain, situated between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. The medial surface of the two halves constitute the upper lateral wall of the third ventricle.

Thalamic Reticular Nucleus is part of the ventral thalamus that forms a capsule around the thalamus laterally. However, recent evidence from mice and fish question this statement and define it as dorsal thalamic structure. It is separated from the thalamus by the external medullary lamina. Reticular cells are GABAergic, and have discoid dendritic arbors in the plane of the nucleus.

Superior Colliculus or optic tectum, forms a major component of the midbrain. It is a layered structure, with a number of layers that varies by species. The layers can be grouped into the superficial layers (stratum opticum and above) and the deeper layers (the remaining layers). Neurons in the superficial layers receive direct input from the retina and respond almost exclusively to visual stimuli. Many neurons in the deeper layers also respond to other modalities, and some respond to stimuli in multiple modalities. The deeper layers also contain a population of motor-related neurons, capable of activating eye movements as well as other responses. The general function of the tectal system is to direct behavioral responses toward specific points in egocentric ("body-centered") space. Each layer contains a topographic map of the surrounding world in retinotopic coordinates, and activation of neurons at a particular point in the map evokes a response directed toward the corresponding point in space. In primates, the superior colliculus has been studied mainly with respect to its role in directing eye movements. Visual input from the retina, or "command" input from the cerebral cortex, create a "bump" of activity in the tectal map, which, if strong enough, induces a saccadic eye movement. Even in primates, however, the superior colliculus is also involved in generating spatially directed head turns, arm-reaching movements, and shifts in attention that do not involve any overt movements. In other species, the tectum is involved in a wide range of responses, including whole-body turns in walking rats, swimming fishes, or flying birds; tongue-strikes toward prey in frogs; fang-strikes in snakes; etc.

Build a Human Brain?

When I hear people say they want to build a human brain I can't help but laugh. If you want to build a human brain there's this thing we have called child birth. But this time around you could actually educate this child fully and completely so the child grows up to be an intelligent human being. Then this intelligent human can then find you and then kick you in the balls for being such an ignorant moron. Build a human brain, are you kidding me, are you that stupid, or the people funding you that stupid? You can't even work the brain you have, and you want to build another brain on your own, you have a lot to learn. (kidding of course) Because even then, some of the dumbest ideas can result in some of the most amazing breakthroughs and discoveries. So the people wanting to build a human brain will first have to figure out how the human brain works, and in doing so, will most likely learn something new, so this venture may not be a total waste of time, unless this new information we learn gets exploited and misused. If the information and knowledge that is learned is not shared with the public correctly, then the public will most likely not know how to use this information effectively, and not benefit from it, like they should. Like the Hadron Collider, not everything that is learned is shared, and not everything that is shared is learned.

Blue Brain Project aims to create a digital reconstruction of the brain by reverse-engineering mammalian brain circuitry.

Artificial Brain describes research that aims to develop software and hardware with cognitive abilities similar to those of the animal or human brain.

Electronic synapses that can learn, moving towards an artificial brain?

Artificial Intelligence
Brain to Brain Communication

The Thinker Man