How to Develop
and grow without
without wasting time, people, resources, energy and money.
is a densely Populated
settlement with complex systems for sanitation
, utilities, land usage,
, and transportation
Why Cities Are
Where They Are
Sustainable DevelopmentSmart Cities
is a human settlement with high population density and
infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through
urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns,
conurbations or suburbs. In urbanism, the term contrasts to rural areas
such as villages and hamlets and in urban sociology or urban anthropology
it contrasts with natural environment.
in which people
live. A settlement can range in size from a small number of dwellings
grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized
areas. Settlements may include hamlets, villages, towns and cities.
is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but
smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few
is a geographic area that is located outside
towns and cities (Farming
is a residential area or a mixed use area,
either existing as part of a city or urban area or as a separate
residential community within commuting distance of a city. (Residential District
outside of a City)
human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city. The size
definition for what constitutes a "town" varies considerably in different
parts of the world.State
is an organized
living under a
single political structure and government, sovereign or constituent.
is the territory occupied by a nation of people. A politically organized
body of people under a single government with geographical region boundary
area outside of cities and towns.
is a large group
or collective of people with
attributed to them — including language,
traditions, mores (customs), habitus (habits), and ethnicity. By
comparison, a nation is more impersonal, abstract, and overtly political
than an ethnic group. It is a cultural-political
that has become conscious of its autonomy, unity, and
is a human
, which in turn is defined differently by different
authors in different disciplines, and by different cultures in different
times and places.Citizen
is someone who has a document
that states that they are living in a particular country.
is the international movement of people into a destination country of
which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in
order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or
naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or
temporarily as a foreign worker.
is a comprehensive document that sets out an overall strategy.
(architecture) A small-scale graphic outline that shows all the
major elements of a project. To develop or improve (land, a
community, a building complex, or the like) through a long-range
plan that balances and harmonizes
all elements: In
, a government entity’s plan for the overall utilization
of a particular area, including its allocation for residential or manufacturing
uses and the corresponding environmental impacts.
Big 5 Needs
is a process that determines
and aspirations in
terms of community development. The outcome of comprehensive
is the Comprehensive Plan which dictates public
policy in terms of transportation, utilities, land use, recreation, and
housing. Comprehensive plans typically encompass large geographical areas,
a broad range of topics, and cover a long-term time horizon.
Official Community Plan
is a comprehensive plan created by
an incorporated municipality which dictates public policy in terms of
transportation, utilities, land use, recreation, and housing. OCPs
typically encompass large geographical areas, a broad range of topics, and
cover a long-term time horizon. The process of creating an OCP is today
often referred to as a Community Vision
co-operative design or
is an approach
to design attempting to actively involve all stakeholders (e.g. employees,
partners, customers, citizens, end users) in the design process to help
ensure the result meets their needs and is usable. Participatory design is
an approach which is focused on processes and
of design and is not a
. The term is used in a
variety of fields e.g. software design, urban design, architecture,
landscape architecture, product design, sustainability, graphic design,
planning, and even medicine as a way of creating environments that are
more responsive and appropriate to their inhabitants' and users' cultural,
emotional, spiritual and practical needs. It is one approach to
placemaking. Recent research suggests that designers create more
and ideas when
working within a co-design environment with others than they do when
creating ideas on their own. Participatory design has been used in many
settings and at various scales. For some, this approach has a political
dimension of user empowerment
. For others, it is seen as a way of abrogating
design responsibility and innovation by designers.
is a process where
community members come together
to take collective action and generate solutions to common problems." It
is a broad term given to the practices of civic
, involved citizens and professionals to improve various
aspects of communities, typically aiming to build stronger and more
resilient local communities.
Enhanced Integrated Framework
is a global development
program with the objective of supporting least developed countries (LDCs)
to better integrate into the global
and to make trade a driver for development.
The Limits to Growth
a 1972 book about the computer simulation of exponential economic and
population growth with finite resource supplies.
is the structural political and economic
inequalities between regions within a nation state. The term is used to
describe the uneven effects of economic development on a regional basis,
otherwise known as "uneven
", and to describe the exploitation of minority groups
within a wider society. This is held to be similar to the relationship
between metropole and colony, in colonialism proper. The term used to
describe the distinct separation of the dominant core, from the periphery
in an empire.
How do you quantify the
cost of sprawl
? There are so many, after all. For local governments,
the cost of single-family homes and shopping malls tend to outweigh the
tax benefits. Sprawl drives up fuel and energy consumption, commute times,
and per capita land use, and
drives down individual
, physical activity, and even psychological well-being.
Combining the the 50 largest metro areas in the U.S., he found,
commuters pay more than $107 billion annually
, which is about $1,400
per commuter, on average. Those are the dollar costs of the number of
additional hours Americans spend traveling to and from work due to
sprawling land-use patterns—which, by their methodology, ends up being
around 3.9 billion extra hours total, or 50 hours per worker, per year.
The Limits to Growth
and that the
Balance of Nature
is not an
is sometimes unpredictable just like
. But what we do know is that
Cause and Effect
cannot be ignored. Even when there is no
100 percent guarantee
we still have to play the
as best as we can.
states that if an action or policy has a suspected
risk of causing harm to the public, or to the environment, in the absence
of scientific consensus (that the action or policy is not harmful), the
burden of proof that it is not harmful
falls on those taking that action.
refers to the approval needed for construction or expansion
(including significant renovation) in some jurisdictions. It is usually
given in the form of a building permit (or construction permit).
Generally, the new construction must be inspected during construction and
after completion to ensure compliance with national, regional, and local
Human Impact on the Environment
includes impacts on biophysical
environments, biodiversity, and other resources. The term
designates an effect or object resulting from human
is the process of facilitating decision making
to carry out land development with the consideration given to the natural
environment, social, political, economic and governance factors and
provides a holistic framework to achieve sustainable outcomes. A major
goal of environmental planning is to create sustainable communities, which
aim to conserve and protect undeveloped land. Some of the main elements of
present-day environmental planning are: Social & economic development,
Urban development, Regional development, Natural resource management &
integrated land use, Infrastructure systems, Governance frameworks. The
environmental planning assessments encompass areas such as land use,
socio-economics, transportation, economic and housing characteristics, air
pollution, noise pollution, the wetlands, habitat of the endangered
species, flood zones susceptibility, coastal zones erosion, and visual
studies among others, and is referred to as an Integrated environmental
planning assessment. It is the ability to analyze environmental issues
that will facilitate critical decision making.
a professional who practices in the field of urban planning.
American Institute of Certified Planners
certifies professionals in
the United States in the field of Urban planning and assists planners in
the areas of ethics, professional development, planning education, and the
standards of planning practice. Members of AICP pledge to adhere to a
detailed Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. Once certified,
professional planners may place the designation "AICP" after their name to
indicate their membership in AICP, and their mastery of the principles,
skills, knowledge, and experience determined by the organization as
essential for a professional planner. To become certified, a planner must
have a specified combination of relevant education and professional
experience, must pass an examination that tests skills and knowledge, must
pay an annual fee, and must be a member of the
American Planning Association
in good standing. The AICP certification
exam is offered twice a year for two weeks, in May and November. Beginning
in 2004 the exam uses a computer-based format. To maintain membership in
the AICP, a certified planner must earn a specified number of continuing
education credit hours that include courses in planning law and ethics
every two years.
is the practice of teaching and learning urban
theory, studies, and professional practices. The interaction between
public officials, professional planners and the public involves a
continuous education on planning process. Community members often serve on
a city planning commission, council or board. As a result, education
outreach is effectively an ongoing cycle. Core courses typically include
coursework in history/theory of urban planning, urban design, statistics,
land use/planning law, urban economics, and planning practice. Many
planning degree programs also allow a student to "concentrate" in a
specific area of interest within planning, such as land use, environmental
planning, housing, community development, economic development, historic
preservation, international development, urban design, transportation
planning, or geographic information systems (GIS). Some programs permit a
student to concentrate in real estate, however, graduate real estate
education has changed giving rise to specialized real estate programs.
of a model represents the proportional ratio of a linear
of the model to the same
feature of the original. Examples include a
3-Dimensional Scale Model
building or the scale drawings
of the elevations or plans of a building.
In such cases the scale is dimensionless and exact throughout the model or
drawing. The scale can be expressed in four ways: in words (a lexical
scale), as a ratio
, as a fraction and as a
graphical (bar) scale. Thus on an architect's drawing one might read 'one
centimetre to one metre' or 1:100 or 1/100 and a bar scale would also
normally appear on the drawing.
a special kind of numerical parameter of a parametric family of
. The larger the
scale parameter, the more spread out the distribution.
Scale (social sciences)
is the process of measuring or ordering entities with respect to
quantitative attributes or traits.
is the capability of a system, network, or
process to handle a growing amount of work, or its potential to be
enlarged in order to accommodate that growth.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi
in 2015 said private property
developers should not decide how a city should grow, and the
decision should be taken by residents and the city leadership,
leadership that is not corrupted or criminal and ignorant of
is the technique, profession, and science of
determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and
the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is
called a land surveyor. These points are usually on the surface of the
Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for
ownership, locations like building corners or the surface location of
subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil
law, such as property sales. Surveyors work with elements of
, regression analysis, physics
, programming languages and the law
They use equipment like total stations, robotic total stations, GPS
receivers, retroreflectors, 3D scanners, radios, handheld tablets, digital
levels, drones, GIS and surveying software. Surveying has been an element
in the development of the human environment since the beginning of
recorded history. The planning and execution of most forms of construction
require it. It is also used in transport, communications, mapping, and the
definition of legal boundaries for land ownership. It is an important tool
for research in many other scientific disciplines.
is a comprehensive register of the real estate or real property's
metes-and-bounds of a country.
Land Survey System
is the surveying method developed and used in the
United States to plat, or divide, real property for sale and settling.
Also known as the Rectangular Survey System, it was created by the Land
Ordinance of 1785 to survey land ceded to the United States by the Treaty
of Paris in 1783, following the end of the American Revolution.
encompasses a set of theories and
techniques for the analysis of
is face-to-face encounters between individuals
or social units representing different interests and backed by different
is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other,
forming a grid. In the context of the culture of ancient Rome, the grid
plan method of land measurement was called Centuriation.
Square-Mile Street Network Visualization
Century of Sprawl in the United States
is No Free Lunch.
Only criminals believe that profiting from death
is somehow called making a living. This is what ignorance does, it blinds
a person from their own murderess acts. And they believe they can do it
just by changing the definitions of words to fit their own distorted
reality. They try to cover up their crimes, and hope to some how feel good
You can't call it growth when you steal from other
people and steal from millions of future generations.
You can't call it
growth when you poison the water, poison the land and poison the air.
You can't call it growth when people die because of it.
This is way
beyond being amoral, or lacking any sense of
moral standards or principles
this is something extremely evil and dangerous, a million times worse then
a rabid animal. This is a disease. And it needs to be treated as such.
is a type of good consisting of a natural or human-made
resource system (e.g. an irrigation system or fishing grounds), whose size
or characteristics makes it costly, but not impossible, to exclude
potential beneficiaries from obtaining benefits from its use. Unlike pure
public goods, common pool resources face problems of congestion or
overuse, because they are subtractable. A common-pool resource typically
consists of a core resource (e.g. water or fish), which defines the stock
variable, while providing a limited quantity of extractable fringe units,
which defines the flow variable. While the core resource is to be
protected or nurtured in order to allow for its continuous exploitation,
the fringe units can be harvested or consumed.
is a phenomenon that occurs when the
growth rate of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the
function's current value, resulting in its growth with time being an
exponential function. Exponential decay occurs in the same way when the
growth rate is negative. In the case of a discrete domain of definition
with equal intervals, it is also called geometric growth or geometric
decay, the function values forming a geometric progression.
is an illegal act which directly harms
Human Development Index - List of Countries
The Human Development
Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and
income per capita indicators
Human Development Index
to the social and environmental consequences associated with this
development where the expansion of human populations away from central
urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent
communities, in a process called suburbanization.
an acronym for the phrase "Not In My Back Yard", which is an opposition by
residents to a proposal for a new development because it is close to them
(or, in some cases, because the development involves controversial or
potentially dangerous technology) often with the connotation that such
residents believe that the developments are needed in society but should
be further away. The residents are often called Nimbys and their state of
mind is called Nimbyism.
Architecture that's Built to Heal: Michael Murphy
Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace (Ep. 2)
Gilding: The Earth is Full
is a community or society that is undesirable or frightening. It is
translated as "not-good place"
approach for exploring
– their structures,
constraints, and possibilities.
is a constant solution to a differential
Rare Earth ElementEconomics
is the period of time required for a quantity to double in size or
M. King Hubbert
Over Development Dangers
Arithmetic, Population and Energy with Dr. Albert Bartlett
Malls and Huge Shopping
that has a
highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure
relative to other less industrialized nations.
is a nation or sovereign state with a
industrial base and a low
Human Development Index
(HDI) relative to other
Least Developed Country
CKK provides for instant desktop analysis of potential impacts of
industrial development on traditional land use, species habitat, and any
areas of importance to a community. This fully customizable
referrals/consultation tracking and management system is configured to
suit and support each community’s specific needs and consultation process.
The CKK also provides a comprehensive digital community archive for
documents, photographs, audio, and video files.
Tools for Data SharingHousing
is making land more usable by humans
without waste, abuse or corruption
Principles of Intelligent Urbanism
is urban planning
composed of a set of ten axioms intended to guide the formulation of city
plans and urban designs. They are intended to reconcile and integrate
diverse urban planning and management concerns. These axioms include
environmental sustainability, heritage conservation, appropriate
technology, infrastructure-efficiency, placemaking, social access,
transit-oriented development, regional integration, human scale, and
is a technical and political process
concerned with the development and use of land, protection and use of the
environment, public welfare, and the design of the urban environment,
including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban
areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
Urban planning is also referred to as urban and regional planning,
regional planning, town planning, city planning, rural planning or some
combination in various areas worldwide. It takes many forms and it can
share perspectives and practices with urban design.
is a city designed with consideration of
environmental impact, inhabited by people dedicated to minimization of
required inputs of energy, water and food, and waste output of heat, air
pollution - CO2, methane, and water pollution.
was a reform philosophy of North American
architecture and urban planning that flourished during the 1890s and 1900s
with the intent of introducing beautification and monumental grandeur in
cities were intended to be planned,
self-contained communities surrounded by "greenbelts", containing
proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture.
believes in having a central
computer base where people can ask questions and get answers.
Of course this central database will
need humans to operate it, humans to manage it, humans to update
it, and humans to monitor it. (Autonomic
) Computers are not a self reliant entity, they do need
human interaction. For now you can just
ask the internet a question
or ask a search engine a
question and get an answer, collectively, it's truly our
So we just
need to expand on that
a little more so that
people can understand the idea a little better.
Jacque has great vision
and great ideas.
I love his ideas on future cities and society. He just needs to
explain the Transition
from our old incompetent way of
living to the new improved and sustainable way of living
also need to
old cities so that we can help
and make it easy for everyone during these
improvements. And of course we have to come up with a way to
educate people so that these improvements are clearly understood
by everyone and why we need to make these improvements as quick
Photos of Design Ideas for Future Cities
only take up 2% of the usable land on earth.
But Major Cities are home to 50% of the worlds population,
consume 75% of the worlds energy and emit 80% of
CO2 Carbon Dioxide
So fixing cities are a good place to start.
Romer: The World's First Charter City
is a city in which the governing system is
defined by the city's own charter document rather than by state,
provincial, regional or national laws. In locations where city charters
are allowed by law, a city can adopt or modify its organizing charter by
decision of its administration by the way established in the charter.
These cities may be administered predominantly by residents or through a
third-party management structure, because a charter gives a city the
flexibility to choose novel types of government structure. Charter cities
are similar in administrative structure to special administrative regions.
is an urban development vision to integrate
multiple information and communication technology (ICT) and Internet of
Things (IoT) solutions in a secure fashion to manage a city's assets – the
city's assets include, but are not limited to, local departments'
information systems, schools, libraries, transportation systems,
hospitals, power plants, water supply networks, waste management, law
enforcement, and other community services. The goal of building a smart
city is to improve quality of life by using urban informatics and
technology to improve the efficiency of services and meet residents'
needs. ICT allows city officials to interact directly with the community
and the city infrastructure and to monitor what is happening in the city,
how the city is evolving, and how to enable a better quality of life.
Through the use of sensors integrated with real-time monitoring systems,
data are collected from citizens and devices – then processed and
analyzed. The information and knowledge gathered are keys to tackling
Smart City Prototype
Smart Cities Initiative
Environmentally Sustainable Urban Spaces
is the process of improving a broken, damaged, or
outdated structure. Renovations are typically either commercial or
residential. Additionally, renovation can refer to making something new,
or bringing something back to life and can apply in social contexts. For
example, a community can be renovated if it is strengthened and revive.
refers to grassroot community projects that
aim to increase self-sufficiency
to reduce the potential effects of peak oil, climate destruction, and
refers to the addition of new technology or features to older
The Death and Life of Great American Cities
is a 1961 book by writer
and activist Jane Jacobs. The book is a critique of 1950s urban planning
policy, which it holds responsible for the decline of many city
neighborhoods in the United States. Going against the modernist planning
dogma of the era, it proposes a newfound appreciation for organic urban
vibrancy in the United States.
Real Estate Development
has no specific credential required,
or license. Almost any person or company can call himself a real estate
is that which belongs to or with something, whether
as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
Social Economic Development
The End of Ownership
(youtube -VPRO Backlight, 47:52)
Instead of having property lines that just show
, we should have lines that show protected areas,
polluted areas and areas that could sustain life.
is the branch of civil engineering
concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials. Geotechnical
engineering is important in civil engineering, but also has applications
in military, mining, petroleum and other engineering disciplines
concerned with construction occurring on the surface or within the ground.
Geotechnical engineering uses principles of soil mechanics and rock
mechanics to investigate subsurface conditions and materials; determine
the relevant physical/mechanical and chemical properties of these
materials; evaluate stability of natural slopes and man-made soil
deposits; assess risks posed by site conditions; design earthworks and
structure foundations; and monitor site conditions, earthwork and
Geospatial Predictive Modeling
is a process for analyzing events
through a geographic filter in order to make statements of likelihood for
event occurrence or emergence. Spatial environment factors
(infrastructure, sociocultural, topographic, etc.) that constrain and
influence where the locations of events occur. Geospatial predictive
modeling attempts to describe those constraints and influences by
spatially correlating occurrences of historical geospatial locations with
environmental factors that represent those constraints and influences.
is a professional engineering discipline
that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical
and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges,
canals, dams, and buildings.
is the application of the geological
sciences to engineering study for the purpose of assuring that the
geological factors regarding the location, design, construction, operation
and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and accounted for.
Engineering geologists provide geological and geotechnical
recommendations, analysis, and design associated with human development
and various types of structures. The realm of the engineering geologist is
essentially in the area of earth-structure interactions, or investigation
of how the earth or earth processes impact human made structures and human
was a form of modern
architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early
is a development of postmodern architecture
that began in the late 1950s. It is influenced by the theory of
"Deconstruction", which is a form of semiotic analysis. It is
characterized by fragmentation, an interest in manipulating a structure's
surface, skin, non-rectilinear shapes which appear to distort and
dislocate elements of architecture, such as structure and envelope. The
finished visual appearance of buildings that exhibit deconstructivist
"styles" is characterized by unpredictability and controlled chaos.
refers to structures
, systems, and
serving the country, city,
town, or area, including technical structures' such as
roads, bridges, tunnels
, or other constructed facilities such as
, cold storage chambers,
, fuel tanks,
cranes, overhead clearances, or components of water
, electrical grids
, and so forth. Infrastructure thus consists of
improvements with significant cost to develop or install that return an
is a network providing the
“ingredients” for solving urban and climatic challenges by building with
nature. The main components of this approach include
adaptation, less heat stress, more biodiversity,
, better air quality, sustainable energy production,
and healthy soils, as well as the
more anthropocentric functions such as increased quality of life through
recreation and providing shade and shelter in and around towns and cities.
Green infrastructure also serves to provide an ecological framework for
social, economic and environmental health of the surroundings.
is an organization that maintains the infrastructure for a
public service (often also providing a service using that infrastructure).
Public utilities are subject to forms of public control and regulation
ranging from local community-based groups to statewide government
monopolies. Electricity, natural gas, Water
sewage. Broadband internet services (both fixed-line and mobile) are
increasingly being included within the definition.
are a broad category of infrastructure
projects, financed and constructed by the government, for recreational,
employment, and health and safety uses in the greater community. They
include public buildings (municipal buildings, schools, hospitals),
transport infrastructure (roads, railroads, bridges, pipelines, canals,
ports, airports), public spaces (public squares, parks, beaches), public
services (water supply, sewage, electrical grid, dams), and other, usually
long-term, physical assets and facilities. Though often interchangeable
with public infrastructure and public capital, public works does not
necessarily carry an economic component, thereby being a broader term.
an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a
council–manager form of city government. Local officials serving in this
position are sometimes referred to as the chief executive officer (CEO) or
chief administrative officer (CAO) in some municipalities.
Office of Management and Budget
is the largest office within the
President of the United States.
is the implementation of
and also an academic discipline
that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working
in the public service
is usually a single urban administrative division having corporate status
and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and
state laws, to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the
county, which may encompass rural territory and/or numerous small
communities such as towns, villages and hamlets.
is a type of administrative division that, in some
countries, is managed by local government.
operates by grouping multiple information
technology (IT) components into a single, optimized
Components of a converged infrastructure may include
, networking equipment
and software for
, automation and orchestration. IT organizations use
converged infrastructure to centralize the management of IT resources, to
consolidate systems, to increase resource-utilization rates, and to lower
costs. Converged infrastructures foster these objectives by implementing
pools of computers, storage and networking resources that can be shared by
multiple applications and managed in a collective manner using
policy-driven processes. IT vendors and IT industry analysts use various
terms to describe the concept of a converged infrastructure. These include
"converged system", "unified computing", "fabric-based computing", and
World's Highest Bridge Opens in Southwest China
Beipanjiang Bridge is a 1,341-meter-long cable-stayed suspension bridge
started construction in 2013 - 9/2016. Costing about 1 billion yuan (about
150 million U.S. dollars).
570 meters above a valley, high as 200-story
building.You have to know how the system works
in order to
improve it, repair it, maintain it and understand it.
Keeping it Clean - Sanitation - Waste Management
is the hygienic means of promoting health through
prevention of human contact with the
of wastes as
well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage or wastewater. Hazards
can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of
disease that can cause health problems.
is someone who helps keep areas free from dirt or impurities. Makes clean
by removing dirt, filth, or unwanted substances from without spreading
is protection from Harm
The state of being free from danger or injury
Freedom from anxiety or
. A guarantee that an obligation
will be met. Measures taken as a precaution against
sabotage etc. Defense against financial failure
is the function of governments which ensures
the protection of citizens, organizations, and institutions against
threats to their well-being – and to the prosperity of their communities.
This includes protection against
and abuse from the
is the state of being "safe", the condition of being protected from harm
or other non-desirable outcomes
Safety can also refer to the control of recognized hazards in order to
achieve an acceptable level of
is free from danger
is a constituted body of persons
by the state to enforce the law, protect property, and limit
civil disorder. Their powers include the legitimized
use of force, but not abuse
is a person holding a particular office, most
commonly in criminal law enforcement. The office of constable can vary
significantly in different jurisdictions. A constable is commonly the rank
of an officer within the police. Other persons may be granted powers of a
constable without holding the title of constable.
is a member of a local government council.
Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading
Integrated Pest Management
is a broad-based approach that
integrates practices for economic control of pests. IPM aims to suppress
pest populations below the economic injury level (EIL), which is the
smallest number of insects (amount of injury) that will cause yield losses
equal to the insect management costs. Economic threshold. The pest density
at which management action should be taken to prevent an increasing pest
population from reaching the economic injury level.
People need safety, insurances and stability
If things go bad, people want to be prepared and avoid catastrophic
failures, like wars, diseases and environmental threats. Having insurances
makes life a lot more enjoyable and a lot more pleasant. As long as we
don't create a false sense of security or forget our
life to the highest degree
(disasters - catastrophes)
Transportation - Mobility
Intelligent Transportation Systems
are advanced applications
which, without embodying intelligence as such, aim to provide innovative
services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management
and enable various users to be better informed and make safer, more
coordinated, and 'smarter' use of transport networks.
is the process of defining future
policies, goals, investments and designs to prepare for future needs to
move people and goods
is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another.
Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline and
space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and
operations. Transport is important because it enables trade between
people, which is essential for the development of civilizations.
is a shared passenger-transport
service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from
modes such as taxicab, carpooling, or hired buses, which are not shared by
strangers without private arrangement.
is a proposed design for very-high-speed rail transportation. Maglev (magnetic
Environmentally Safe Roads
is a measure of how friendly an area is to
walking. Walkability has health, environmental, and economic benefits.
Speck: The Walkable City
4 ways to make a city more walkable: Jeff Speck
(video and interactive
Barcelona is taking city streets back from cars
is a person traveling on foot, whether walking or running. In some
communities, those traveling using tiny wheels such as roller skates,
skateboards, and scooters, as well as wheelchair users are also included
as pedestrians. In modern times, the term usually refers to someone
walking on a road or pavement, but this was not the case historically.
is one of the
main gaits of locomotion among legged animals, and is typically slower
than running and other gaits. Walking is defined by an 'inverted pendulum'
gait in which the body vaults over the stiff limb or limbs with each step.
This applies regardless of the number of limbs - even arthropods, with
six, eight or more limbs, walk.
is the pattern of
movement of the limbs of animals, including humans, during locomotion over
a solid substrate. Body Smart
How Your Neighborhood May Impact Your Health and Well-Being
of traditional neighborhoods walk the most, while residents of suburban
developments report the best mental health, the UA's Adriana Zuniga-Teran
travelers are "highly mobile individuals" who
take "frequent trips, often over great distances.
Project for Public
is a contemporary paradigm in the social sciences that
explores the movement of people, ideas and things, as well as the broader
social implications of those movements.
is the movement of individuals,
families, households, or other categories of people within or between
social strata in a society. It is a change in social status relative to
others' social location within a given society.
is the measure of how populations move over time.
is the ability of an individual, family or some other group
to improve (or lower) their economic status—usually measured in income.
refers to students and teachers in higher education moving to
another institution inside or outside their own country to study or teach
for a limited time.
Bicycle Transportation Engineering
is designing and
implementation of cycling infrastructure.
encompasses any cycling done simply as a
means of transport rather than as a sport or leisure activity. It is the
original and most common type of cycling in the world.
City, Great City (2014)
Design in the Netherlands
Biking Knowledge and Information
Streetfilms-Ciclovia (Bogotá, Colombia)
Every Sunday and holiday,
every week, the City of Bogotá, Colombia closes down over 70 miles of
roadways to cars and let people bike, walk, talk, exercise, picnic,
sunbathe, I could go on and on. Just watch the video, it's amazing.
Tactical Urbanism and Demonstration Projects
Vehicle Infrastructure Integration
is an initiative fostering research
and applications development for a series of technologies directly linking
road vehicles to their physical surroundings, first and foremost in order
to improve road safety.
is designing safe and efficient movement
of people and goods on roadways. It focuses mainly on research for safe
and efficient traffic flow, such as road geometry, sidewalks and
crosswalks, cycling infrastructure, traffic signs, road surface markings
and traffic lights.
evaluating sustainability include the
particular vehicles used for road, water or air transport; the source of
energy; and the infrastructure used to accommodate the transport (roads,
railways, airways, waterways, canals and terminals).
Transportation Alternatives (TA) Data Exchange
is a mixed-use residential and commercial
area designed to maximize access to public transport, and often
incorporates features to encourage transit ridership while dissuading the
ownership of automobiles. A TOD neighborhood typically has a center with a
transit station or stop (train station, metro station, tram stop, or bus
stop), surrounded by relatively high-density development with
progressively lower-density development spreading outward from the center.
TODs generally are located within a radius of one-quarter to one-half mile
(400 to 800 m) from a transit stop, as this is considered to be an
appropriate scale for pedestrians, thus solving the last mile problem.
Overlay zoning is a regulatory tool that creates a special zoning
district, placed over an existing base zone(s), which identifies special
provisions in addition to those in the underlying base zone.
Parks - Open Spaces
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat
is the scientific study of the relation
of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context
of an urban environment. The urban environment refers to environments
dominated by high-density residential and commercial buildings, paved
surfaces, and other urban-related factors that create a unique landscape
dissimilar to most previously studied environments in the field of
Nature of Cities
is the cultural process by which a group reclaims terms or artifacts that
were previously used in a way disparaging of that group.
are community spaces. They are buildings which
are used for a range of disparate activities, which can be linked only by
being not-for-profit. They might be organizing centers for local
activities or they might provide support networks for minority groups such
as prisoners and refugees. Often they provide a base for initiatives such
as cafes, free shops, public computer labs, graffiti murals, legal
collectives and free housing for travellers. The services are determined
by both the needs of the community in which the social center is based and
the skills which the participants have to offer.
is a field of practices directed toward
the creation or enhancement of community among individuals within a
regional area (such as a neighborhood) or with a common interest. It is
sometimes encompassed under the field of community development.
are public locations where members of a
community tend to gather for group activities, social support, public
information, and other purposes. They may sometimes be open for the whole
community or for a specialized group within the greater community.
open-air marketplace or commercial quarter in Western Asian and North
is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of
provisions, livestock, and other goods.
land owned collectively by a number of persons, or by one person, but over
which other people have certain traditional rights, such as to allow their
livestock to graze upon it, to collect firewood, or to cut turf for fuel.
is a park in cities which may have playgrounds,
gardens, hiking, running and fitness trails or paths, bridle paths, sports
fields and courts, public restrooms, boat ramps and/or picnic facilities,
depending on the budget and natural features available.
is an area of
protected or conserved
land or water
on which development is indefinitely set aside.
Intelligence Platform helps quantify how public space is used structured
data about pedestrian, bike, and vehicle traffic.
Tools for Data Sharing
is an open,
powerful, and intuitive platform for discovering and predicting the key
insights underlying the location data in our world.
comprises all naturally occurring resources whose
supply is inherently fixed. Examples are any and all particular
geographical locations, mineral deposits, forests, fish stocks,
atmospheric quality, geostationary orbits, and portions of the
electromagnetic spectrum. Natural resources are fundamental to the
production of all goods, including capital goods. Location values must not
be confused with values imparted by fixed capital improvements. In
classical economics, land is considered one of the three factors of
production (also sometimes called the three producer goods) along with
capital, and labor. Land is sometimes merged with capital to simplify
micro-economics. However, a common mistake is combining land and capital
in macro-analysis. Income derived from ownership or control of natural
resources is referred to as rent.
is a park in use for conservation
purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed
land that a sovereign state declares or owns.
is a natural environment
Earth that has not been significantly modified by civilized human
activity. It may also be defined as: "The most intact, undisturbed wild
natural areas left on our planet—those last truly wild places that humans
do not control and have not developed with roads, pipelines or other
There is a big difference between
Developing Land and Destroying Land, make sure that people know
are a type of stadium designed
to be easily used by multiple types
. While any stadium could potentially host more than one type
of sport or event, this concept usually refers to a specific design
philosophy that stresses multifunctionality over specificity.
Wolfgang Kessling: Building Outdoor
is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor
sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either
partly or completely surrounded by a tiered structure designed to allow
spectators to stand or sit and view the event.
is an enclosed area, often circular or
oval-shaped, designed to showcase theater, musical performances, or
is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the
city of Rome, Italy.
is an open-air venue used for entertainment,
performances, and sports.
Bjarke Ingels: Sustainable Design
Sustainable Lawns and Landscapes
Before I Die
is the study of the form of human
settlements and the process of their formation and transformation. The
study seeks to understand the spatial structure and character of a
metropolitan area, city, town or village by examining the patterns of its
component parts and the pro\ , ownership or control and occupation.
Typically, analysis of physical form focuses on street pattern, lot (or,
in the UK, plot) pattern and building pattern, sometimes referred to
collectively as urban grain. Analysis of specific settlements is usually
undertaken using cartographic sources and the process of development is
deduced from comparison of historic maps.
is the process whereby a previously
functioning city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude.
It may feature deindustrialization, depopulation or changing population,
restructuring, abandoned buildings, high local unemployment, fragmented
families, political disenfranchisement, crime, and a desolate,
inhospitable city landscape.
is a trained peer leader who
supervises those living in a residence hall or group housing facility. The
majority of RAs work at colleges, universities, or residential mental
health and substance abuse facilities.
is a type of urban development
that blends residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or
industrial uses, where those functions are physically and functionally
integrated, and that provides pedestrian connections. Greater housing
variety and density, reduced distances between housing, workplaces, retail
businesses, and other destinations, more compact development, stronger
neighborhood character, pedestrian and bicycle-friendly environments.
Official Development Assistance
is widely used as an indicator
of international aid flow. It includes some loans.
is financial aid given by governments and other agencies
to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development
of developing countries. It is distinguished from humanitarian aid by
focusing on alleviating poverty in the long term, rather than a short term
is a trend of thought that favors equality
for all people.
We should not have
Human Development Index
Industry - Resources
is the Production
is the period of social and economic
change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an
industrial one, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for
the purpose of manufacturing.
is the use of various
for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in
factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone
networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other
applications with minimal or reduced
. Some processes have been completely
is a way of producing goods and services
that relies on self-organizing communities of individuals. In such
communities, the labor of a large number of people is coordinated towards
a shared outcome.
is the value added
for use or sale using
labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or
formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from
handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial
production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on
a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other,
more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances or
automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers,
who then sell them to end users and consumers.
is based on the conversion of fibre
into yarn, yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated
into clothes. Different types of fibre are used to produce yarn. Cotton
remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There
are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming
stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration
processes to the production of a wide ranges of products. There remains a
large industry that uses hand techniques to achieve the same results.
Means of Production
are physical, non-human inputs used for
the production of economic value, such as facilities, machinery, tools,
infrastructural capital and natural capital.
Division of Labour
is the separation of tasks in any
economic system so that participants may specialize. Individuals,
organizations, and nations are endowed with or acquire specialized
capabilities and either form combinations or trade to take advantage of
the capabilities of others in addition to their own. Specialized
capabilities may include equipment or natural resources in addition to
skills and training and complex combinations of such assets are often
important, as when multiple items of specialized equipment and skilled
operators are used to produce a single product. The division of labour is
the motive for trade and the source of economic interdependence.
is the idea of fairness in the processes
that resolve disputes and allocate resources.
The Third Industrial Revolution
Industrial Development Report Series
Cooperation instead of Competition
is a business person who trades
produced by other
is an organizational entity involved in the
provision of goods
Small and Medium Enterprises
are businesses whose
numbers fall below
is the activity of buying and selling of goods and services, especially on
a large scale. The system includes legal, economic, political, social,
cultural and technological systems that are in operation in any country or
is to create the conditions for economic growth
Chamber of Commerce of the U.S.
is the world’s largest business
organization representing the interests of more than 3 million businesses
of all sizes, sectors, and regions. Our members range from mom-and-pop
shops and local chambers to leading industry associations and large
corporations. They all share one thing—they count on the Chamber to be
their voice in Washington, D.C..
Department of Commerce
brings together leading independent business
associations from the major world economies and advocates on behalf of
more than 6.8 million small, medium and large companies.
Small Business Administration
is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as
the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually
as a means of service
, and is not
controlled by the State (areas of the economy controlled by the state
being referred to as the public sector
The private sector employs most of the workforce in some countries. In
private sector activities are guided by the motive to
, fair and reliable.Trade
is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates
things by hand.
that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work.
is to pass through career training from
and then to Master Craftsman.
is the process of manufacturing by hand with or
without the aid of tools.
is any worker who has special skill,
training, knowledge, and (usually acquired) ability in their work.
refers to a worker that
particular trade or craft requiring
a vocation founded upon
specialized educational training
, the purpose of
which is to supply disinterested
to others. Disinterested
manipulated or biased
seeks to understand the functioning and
dynamics of the markets for
is physical work done by people, instead of
is working for Money
is a person who makes, repairs, or alters clothing
professionally, especially suits and men's clothing.
is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a
textile or fabric.
is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial
fibres (yarn or thread). Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool,
flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands. Textiles are
formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or felting.
is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or
threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. Other
methods are knitting, felting, and braiding or plaiting. The longitudinal
threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or
filling. Weaving a
Bed, amazing Katiya Bunai
Lime Bast Rope
Video of making a rope from lime bast, the way it's been done for over a
thousand years in Norway.
is the process of making footwear, which are garments worn on the feet,
which originally serves to purpose of protection against adversities of
the environment, usually regarding ground textures and temperature.
is a person whose occupation is mainly to cut, dress,
groom, style and shave men's and boys' hair.
is a retail store that primarily
is a process for
and images using a master form or template.
is the process of constructing a building or
infrastructure. Construction differs from manufacturing in that
manufacturing typically involves mass production of similar items without
a designated purchaser, while construction typically takes place on
location for a known client.
is a tradesperson, labourer (by
tradition considered an unskilled tradesperson), or professional employed
in the physical construction of the built environment and its
is a person who works in one of the construction
trades, traditionally considered unskilled manual labor, as opposed to
skilled labor. Laborers are also employed outside of the construction
industry, in fields such as road paving, shoveling snow, digging graves,
chain gangs, and picking up leaves. In the division of labor, laborers
have all blasting, hand tools, power tools, air tools, and small heavy
equipment, and act as assistants to other trades.
is a tradesman responsible for the painting
and decorating of buildings
, and is also known as a decorator or house
painter. The purpose of painting is to improve the aesthetic of a building
and to protect it from damage by water, rust, corrosion, insects and mold.
Heavy Equipment Operators
refers to heavy-duty vehicles,
specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones
involving earthwork operations. Also known as heavy machines, heavy
trucks, construction equipment, engineering equipment, heavy vehicles, or
heavy hydraulics. They usually comprise five equipment systems: implement,
traction, structure, power train, control and information. Heavy equipment
functions through the mechanical advantage of a simple machine, the ratio
between input force applied and force exerted is multiplied. Some
equipment uses hydraulic drives as a primary source of motion.
is to stake out reference points and markers that
will guide the construction of new structures such as roads or buildings.
These markers are usually staked out according to a suitable coordinate
system selected for the project
is the technique, profession, and science of
determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and
the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is
called a land surveyor. These points are usually on the surface of the
Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for
ownership, locations like building corners or the surface location of
subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil
law, such as property sales.
is a tradesman, craftsman, or technician who uses tools to build or repair
is a mechanic with a variety of automobile makes or
either in a specific area or in a specific make of automobile. In
repairing cars, their main role is to diagnose the problem accurately and
quickly. They often have to quote prices for their customers before
commencing work or after partial disassembly for inspection. Their job may
involve the repair of a specific part or the replacement of one or more
parts as assemblies.
is a worker in a field of technology who is
proficient in the relevant skills and techniques, with a relatively
practical understanding of the theoretical principles.
is a tradesperson who installs, assembles,
fabricates, maintains and repairs mechanical piping systems. Pipefitters
usually begin as helpers or apprentices. Journeyman pipefitters deal with
industrial/commercial/marine piping and heating/cooling systems.
is a tradesperson who specializes in installing and
maintaining systems used for potable (drinking) water, sewage and drainage
in plumbing systems. The term dates from ancient times and is related to
the Latin word for lead, "plumbum".
is a natural person, business, or
corporation that provides goods or services to another entity under terms
specified in a contract or within a verbal agreement. Unlike an employee,
an independent contractor does not work regularly for an employer but
works as and when required, during which time he or she may be subject to
law of agency. Independent contractors are usually paid on a freelance
basis. Contractors often work through a limited company or franchise,
which they themselves own, or may work through an umbrella company.
is responsible for the day-to-day
oversight of a construction site, management of vendors and trades, and
the communication of information to all involved parties throughout the
course of a building project.
is an individual or in many cases a business
that signs a contract to perform part or all of the obligations of
another's contract. A subcontractor is a person who is hired by a general
contractor (or prime contractor, or main contractor) to perform a specific
task as part of the overall project and is normally paid for services
provided to the project by the originating general contractor. While the
most common concept of a subcontractor is in building works and civil
engineering, the range of opportunities for subcontractor is much wider
and it is possible that the greatest number now operate in the information
technology and information sectors of business.
is an employment relationship which is
considered non-permanent. These jobs are typically part time (typically
with variable hours), have limited job security, and result in payment on
a piece work basis. Contingent work is usually not considered to be a
career or part of a career. One of the features of contingent work is that
it usually offers little or no opportunity for career development.
Contingent workers are also often called freelancers, independent
professionals, temporary contract workers, independent contractors, or
has different official meanings and
connotations in different parts of the world. The United Nations'
definition is broad, many people were working outside of their home
country. Some of these are called expatriates. Several countries have
millions of foreign workers. Some have millions of illegal immigrants,
most of them being workers also.
is a professional who provides expert advice in
a particular area such as security (electronic or physical), management,
education, accountancy, law, human resources, marketing (and public
relations), finance, engineering, science or any of many other specialized
is a professional involved in the business
of funeral rites. These tasks often entail the embalming and burial or
cremation of the dead, as well as the planning and arrangement of the
actual funeral ceremony. Funeral directors may at times be asked to
perform tasks such as dressing (in garments usually suitable for daily
wear), casketing (placing the human body in the coffin), and cossetting
(applying any sort of cosmetic or substance to the viewable areas of the
corpse for the purpose of enhancing its appearance). A funeral director
may work at a funeral home or be an independent employee. (also known as
an undertaker (British English) or mortician (American English). Security
is material and logistic assistance to
people in need. It is usually short-term help until the long-term help by
government and other institutions replaces it.Creative
includes product, price, place, promotion, personnel and presentation.
is anything that can be offered to a market that
might satisfy a want or need. In retailing, products are called
merchandise. In manufacturing, products are bought as raw materials and
sold as finished goods. A service is another common product type.
Starting a Business
is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and
resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to
customer. Supply chain activities involve the transformation of natural
resources, raw materials, and components into a
that is delivered
to the end customer. In sophisticated supply chain systems, used products
may re-enter the supply chain at any point where residual value is
recyclable. Supply chains link value
Supply Chain Management
is managing the flow of goods and services, that involves the movement and
storage of raw materials, of work-in-process inventory, and of finished
goods from point of origin to point of consumption. Interconnected or
, channels and
node businesses combine in the provision of products and services required
by end customers in a supply chain. Supply-chain management has been
defined as the "design, planning, execution,
and monitoring of supply chain activities with the objective of creating
net value, building a competitive infrastructure, leveraging worldwide
logistics, synchronizing supply with demand and measuring performance
globally." SCM practice draws heavily from the areas of industrial
engineering, systems engineering, operations management, logistics,
procurement, information technology, and marketing and strives for an
integrated approach. Marketing channels play an important role in supply
chain management. (Supply Chain Buyer).
is a linear network of links in a food web
starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use
radiation from the sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator
species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like
earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or
is the handling of an operation that involves providing labor and
materials to be supplied as needed, a detailed organization and
implementation of a complex operation. Logistics is the management of the
flow of things between the point of origin and the point of consumption in
order to meet requirements of customers. The resources managed in
logistics can include physical items such as food, materials, animals,
equipment, and liquids; as well as abstract items, such as time and
information. The logistics of physical items usually involves the
integration of information flow, material handling, production, packaging,
inventory, transportation, warehousing, and often security.
is for all operations related to the reuse of
products and materials. It is "the process of moving goods from their
typical final destination for the purpose of capturing value, or proper
disposal. Remanufacturing and refurbishing activities also may be included
in the definition of reverse logistics. The reverse logistics process
includes the management and the sale of surplus as well as returned
equipment and machines from the hardware leasing business. Normally,
logistics deal with events that bring the product towards the customer. In
the case of reverse logistics, the resource goes at least one step back in
the supply chain. For instance, goods move from the customer to the
distributor or to the manufacturer.
Recycling and ReusingReturns cost retailers
about $260 billion each year
. "Retailers" is another word
for "People and Environment".
is a technology company that works with retailers and manufacturers to
manage and then resell their returned and excess merchandise.
are officials charged with overseeing the purchase and
delivery of supplies.
Quarter of a million tons of food could be saved a year with better
- Food Waste
Material Flow Accounting
is the study of material flows on a
national or regional scale. It is therefore sometimes also referred to as
regional, national or economy-wide material flow
is the application of technology and scientific principles to the
planning, functional design, operation and management of facilities for
any mode of transportation in order to provide for the safe, efficient,
rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, and environmentally compatible
movement of people and goods (transport). It is a sub-discipline of
is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo,
goods, and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers
ply the world's seas and oceans each year, handling the bulk of
international trade. Cargo ships are usually specially designed for the
task, often being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and
unload, and come in all sizes. Today, they are almost always built by
welded steel, and with some exceptions generally have a life expectancy of
25 to 30 years before being scrapped.
are cargo ships that carry all of their load
in truck-size intermodal
, in a technique called containerization. They are a common
means of commercial intermodal freight transport and now carry most
seagoing non-bulk cargo. Container ship capacity is measured in
twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU). Typical loads are a mix of 20-foot and
40-foot (2-TEU) ISO-standard containers, with the latter predominant.
Today, about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container,
and modern container ships can carry over 19,000 TEU (e.g., MSC Zoe).
Container ships now rival crude oil tankers and bulk carriers as the
largest commercial vessels on the ocean.
Emma Maersk |
World's Largest Cargo Ship | History Documentary Films
Can carry 12,000 Containers
is a boat or ship that transports cargo or
carries passengers for hire. This excludes pleasure craft that do not
carry passengers for hire; warships are also excluded.
is the physical process of transporting
commodities and merchandise goods and cargo. The term shipping originally
referred to transport by sea, but is extended in American English to refer
to transport by land or air (International English: "carriage") as well.
"Logistics", a term borrowed from the military environment, is also
fashionably used in the same sense.
the controlled operation and movement of a motorized vehicle with wheels,
such as a car
truck, or bus by either a human or computer controller.
person employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle.
is a person who earns a living as the driver of
a truck (usually a semi truck, box truck or dump truck).
is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks
vary greatly in size, power, and configuration; smaller varieties may be
mechanically similar to some automobiles. Commercial trucks can be very
large and powerful, and may be configured to mount specialized equipment,
such as in the case of fire trucks and concrete mixers and suction
is the combination of a tractor unit and
one or more semi-trailers to carry freight.
is the process of transporting goods from a source
location to a predefined destination.
is the delivery of shipping containers, parcels, or
high value mail as single shipments. The service is provided by most
postal systems, express mail, private courier companies, and less than
truckload shipping carriers.
is a company that provides air transport services
for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply
these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines
for codeshare agreements.
are airlines mainly dedicated to the transport
of cargo by air. Some cargo airlines are divisions or subsidiaries of
larger passenger airlines.