Communication - Speaking Effectively - Listening Effectively
is the activity of
allowing access between
places. Transmit information. Transmit
. Be in
; interchange information or ideas
Transfer from one place or period to another.
Being able to effectively Communicate is the most valuable skill in
every persons life. Without communication,
could not exist.
The skill and the privilege to communicate should never be taken for
granted, or misused. There is a lot to learn about communication because
it covers many different subjects and categories
. This is why
communication is so extremely important. It's literally connected to
everything that you do in your life. Effective communication will serve
you more then any other skill that you will acquire in your entire life. So
please do yourself a huge favor, Learn to communicate effectively and
efficiently, if not, then your life will be more of a struggle and you
will also be more vulnerable to misinformation
. If you learn this, then
you could learn anything that you ever wanted to learn. Language is the
gateway to all knowledge and information. Language is more then a tool and
more then the ultimate vehicle for transferring information and knowledge,
Language is power, Language is freedom, Language is control, Language is
endless possibilities.How to Speak Effectively
(Transferring Information)Learning Speech
How to Listen Effectively
"Every act of Communication is an act of
is the long-term
interaction between two or more individuals
in terms of the ease and comfort of communication.
"To say what you mean
what does that mean?"
based on what you know and how you perceived the particular experiences
that you have in life. The people that we are exposed to on TV, 90% of
what we see is mostly entertainment or
. And hardly anyone is concerned about how underutilized our
TV is used. It's more of a toy then it is the incredible technology, a
technology that gives us incredible abilities to communicate. The adults
in our world really need to start taking our communication advancements
more seriously and use them more responsibly, we are not children, we are
the adults. The TV is not going to educate you, it's either going to
entertaining you or manipulating you. So where does your knowledge of the
world come from? Not schools, because at the moment schools mostly teach
reading, writing and math, which are extremely important, but incredibly
inadequate. The transfer of information needs to be based on reality and
not fantasy. Kids watch and read more about fantasy characters then they
listen to intelligent people speaking. People dying and suffering is not a
fantasy. Everyone has imprisoned themselves unknowingly. All because of
our inability to effectively communicate, which is something that we can
easily teach in schools. If there is one thing for you to remember about
how extremely important transferring information is, is that if life
cannot transfer important information, then life does not exist. Humans do
not exist. If a
cell dividing does not share it's information with the new cell, then that
cell will die
, and life would not exist. The transfer of information
is extremely important. So we need to take communication seriously, and
increase our reality based transmissions and limit the amount of fantasy
and propaganda transmissions. At this current time in 2016, most
transmissions are ineffective in delivering valuable knowledge and
information. We need to be more responsible and more aware. this transfer
of information is the core of who we are. Human species as a whole does
not want to take responsibility for the problems that we have. We have
unknowingly separated ourselves and distant ourselves from each other and
from our problems. Trying to pretend that these horrors don't exist
literally neutralizes our greatest strength and power, which is our
ability to work together as a
to accomplish any goal that we set our minds to, like protecting
and preserving all life on this planet. We have to come together and
utilize our combined intelligence
and utilize our combined power and strength in numbers. Pretending that we
are separate undermines our greatest strength and power.
Unity is everything
, your entire body
is a unity of microbes working together to sustain life, your life. Listen
to life, life is telling you how to live, and one way to live is being
able to work together with life. And since we are all part of life,
working together just makes sense. A lot of people already know how
beneficial working together is. So this is not foreign to us. But we need
to utilize this strength that we have, because if we don't, then everyone
on the planet is more vulnerable, less safe and a lot more weaker. We have
the technology and the abilities, now all we need is a plan. So if you are
reading this, what's your plan to become a better communicator?
Every human brain has a the capacity to
millions upon millions of memories
. So it would be a great idea to fill
your brain with the most valuable knowledge and information that the world
has to offer. This way you will be more intelligent then the previous
generation, and also have more abilities then the previous generation. You
will be the first humans on this planet to be known and confirmed as
intelligent life. This is a huge responsibility and will take a lot of
work. But being able to solve any problem is this world increases your
odds for a great life by 1,000 percent. This goes way beyond any utopian
narrow point of view. The future of this planet will be a lot more
beautiful then ever imagined. Our biggest problem then will be learning how do we
keep ourselves from smiling all the time?
"The biggest mistake
that any human can make is believing that they know enough."
can only be aware of things that you learned to be aware of, so you're
literally blind and you don't even know it"
should never feel worried or pressured because you don't
about a particular
subject, you should only be thankful that you're aware that you don't know
enough about a particular subject, at least now you can start learning."
So without wasting any
more of your time, it's time to start learning...
You need to learn
how to use Language
effectively and efficiently.
You need to learn how to
You need to learn how to carefully
is the act of conveying intended meanings from
one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood
signs and semiotic rules. The basic steps of communication are: The
forming of communicative intent. Message composition. Message encoding and
decoding. Transmission of the encoded message as a sequence of signals
using a specific channel or medium. Reception of signals. Reconstruction
of the original message. Interpretation and making sense of the
is a field of
that studies the technical process of
information and the process of
, which is the field dedicated to understanding how
humans communicate. Human communication is grounded in cooperative and
is an academic discipline that deals with processes
of human communication. There are three types of communication:
, involving listening
to a person to understand the meaning
of a message; written
, in which a message is
read; and nonverbal
involving observing a person and inferring meaning. The
discipline encompasses a range of topics, from face-to-face conversation
to mass media outlets
such as television
broadcasting. Communication studies also examines how messages are
interpreted through the political, cultural, economic, semiotic,
hermeneutic, and social dimensions of their contexts.
that allow two or more
entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind
of variation of a physical quantity. These are the rules or standard that
defines the syntax, semantics and synchronization of communication and
possible error recovery methods. Protocols may be implemented by hardware,
software, or a combination of both. Communicating systems use well-defined
formats (protocol) for exchanging various messages. Each message has an
exact meaning intended to elicit a response from a range of possible
responses pre-determined for that particular situation. The specified
behavior is typically independent of how it is to be implemented.
Communications protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved.
To reach agreement, a protocol may be developed into a technical standard.
A programming language describes the same for computations, so there is a
close analogy between protocols and
programming languages: protocols
are to communications what programming languages are to computations.Speech
is the transmission of signs, signals, messages,
writings, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature
radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs
when the exchange of information between communication participants
includes the use of technology. It is transmitted either electrically over
physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation Such
transmission paths are often divided into communication channels which
afford the advantages of multiplexing. The term is often used in its
plural form, telecommunications, because it involves many different
is non-concurrent, remote communication
between people, including letters, email, newsgroups, Internet forums,
refers either to a physical transmission medium
such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such
as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking. A
channel is used to convey an information signal, for example a digital bit
stream, from one or several senders (or transmitters) to one or several
receivers. A channel has a certain capacity for transmitting information,
often measured by its bandwidth in Hz or its data rate in bits per second.
is an umbrella term used in biology and more
in depth in biophysics and biochemistry to identify different types of
communication methods between living cells. Some of the methods include
cell signaling among others. This process allows millions of cells to
communicate and work together to perform important bodily processes that
are necessary to survival. Both multicellular and unicellular organisms
heavily rely on cell-cell communication.Networks
- Communication Technologies
of Communication Studies
Early humans went from using
methods, to eventually having a
. And then we advanced to
. And now in the 21st century we have advanced
, which is an incredible advancement. We
can now for the first time communicate in more ways then any other time in human
history. The digital world changes everything.
is us mimicking the
. We will soon be connected to
everything on the planet. And we will soon have full
and full power of
our collaborative abilities
Now the flow of knowledge and information has no limits. The human
race is about to embark on the most incredible adventure ever, the
adventures in learning.
Not only do we have millions of people with
don't have access to valuable knowledge and information, but the billions
of people who do have access are not communicating effectively or efficiently. So our
ability to communicate has advanced, just not our ability to
? There's a lot of room for improvements. Knowledge
is to present reasons and
. Give evidence of. Have an
argument about something. Give
evidence in support of an idea, action, or theory, typically
with the aim of persuading others to share one's view. exchange
or express diverging or opposite views, typically in a heated or
Anger ruins Arguments
Profanity ruins Communication
"It's ok to disagree with me, I can't force you to be right."
is a fact or assertion offered as evidence that something is true.
A contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong
disagreement. A discussion in which reasons are advanced for and
against some proposition or proposal. A course of reasoning
aimed at demonstrating a truth or falsehood; the methodical
process of logical reasoning.
Just Complaining is
not an Argument
You can make your argument seem more
appealing using rhetoric that invites an emotional response. Just stating
the facts may not be enough.
used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a
community, nation, or ideology.
the logic behind an argument, which tries to inform an audience using
logical arguments and supportive evidence.
represents an appeal to the emotions of the audience, and elicits feelings
that already reside in them. Pathos is a communication technique used most
often in rhetoric (where it is considered one of the three modes of
persuasion, alongside ethos and logos), and in literature, film and other
narrative art. Emotional appeal can be accomplished in a multitude of
ways: By a metaphor or storytelling, commonly known as a hook. By passion
in the delivery of the speech or writing, as determined by the audience.
Personal anecdote or short account of an incident.
What are the
Facts and Evidence
What is the
current situation now?
What is expected to happen in the future?
How do people feel?
is a rhetorical device that juxtaposes potential future
outcomes to communicate support or opposition for a given action or
policy. In deliberative rhetoric, an argument is made using examples from
the past to predict future outcomes in order to illustrate that a given
policy or action will either be harmful or beneficial in the future.
praise-and-blame rhetoric that deals with goodness, excellence, nobility,
shame, honor, dishonor, beauty, and matters of virtue and vice. The
"components" of virtue according to
"justice, courage, self-control, magnificence, magnanimity, liberality,
gentleness, practical and speculative wisdom" or "reason". Vice was the
"contrary" of virtue.
is a kind
of logical argument that applies
to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more
propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true.
is an ancient Greek treatise on the art of
persuasion, dating from the 4th century BC.
is a discussion in which reasons are advanced for and against some
proposition or proposal. The formal presentation of a stated
proposition and the opposition to it (usually followed by a
vote). Argue with one another. Think about carefully; weigh.
pros and cons
of an issue.
is contention in argument; strife, dissension, quarrelling, controversy;
especially a formal discussion of subjects before a public assembly or
legislature, in Parliament or in any deliberative assembly.
is debating by
, or in public.
Chatham House Rule
is a system for holding debates and
discussion panels on controversial issues.
debate or discourse is a succinct statement designed to support
persuasively one side taken on an issue. Such statements can either be
free standing or created as retorts to the opposition's talking points and
are frequently used in public relations, particularly in areas heavy in
debate such as politics
The Great Debaters
debaters argue a topic of national importance.
is a type of one-on-one debate with a format that
emphasizes logic, ethical values, and philosophy.
Evidence Based Argumentation
is a debate technique from 1982 by Ray Ransberger and Marshall Fritz in
which the speaker attempts to find
person they are trying to convince of their view. Once a person objects to
the speaker's ideas, the speaker employs the technique in three stages. 1)
Listen to the other person's objections. 2) Understand the other person's
objections. 3) Find a common
in the other person's objections and convince them your way is a
solution to the agreed problem.
EBA Developing Evidence Based Arguments
is to force (a person or
animal) into a place or situation from which it is hard to escape.
Offer and Acceptance
Successful negotiation is not about getting to
yes, it's about mastering no and understanding what the path to an
agreement is. more little yeses you get, the more likely you are to say
yes to a big yes. "Well you want me to be successful don't you?" That's
pushing for a yes. The flipside question to that instead is, "Do you want
me to fail?" "That's right."
is a section of a composition or speech that
marks a temporary shift of subject; the digression ends when the writer or
speaker returns to the main topic. Digressions can be used intentionally
as a stylistic or rhetorical device.
is someone who, given a certain argument, takes a
position they do not necessarily agree with (or simply an alternative
position from the accepted norm), for the sake of debate or to explore the
is a person
who harasses and tries to disconcert others with questions, challenges, or
gibes. Hecklers are often known to shout disparaging comments at a
performance or event, or to interrupt set-piece speeches, with the intent
of disturbing performers and/or participants. Interrupts (a public
speaker) with derisive or aggressive comments or abuse
is an act of
showing displeasure for someone or something, generally an entertainer, by
loudly yelling boo! (and holding the "oo" sound) or making other noises of
disparagement, such as hissing. People may make hand signs at the
entertainer, such as the thumbs down sign. If spectators particularly
dislike the performance they may also accompany booing by throwing objects
(traditionally rotten fruit and vegetables) onstage, though the objects
may not be meant to physically hurt the performer.
is a person who sows discord on the Internet by starting arguments or
upsetting people, by posting inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic
messages in an online community (such as a newsgroup, forum, chat room, or
blog) with the deliberate intent of provoking readers into an emotional
response or of otherwise disrupting normal on-topic discussion, often for
their own amusement.Critics
is an extended communication (often interactive) dealing with some
particular topic. An exchange of views on some topic.
is a written
or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a
literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.
is a form of interactive, spontaneous
communication between two or more people. Typically, it occurs in spoken
communication, as written exchanges are usually not referred to as
conversations. The development of conversational skills and etiquette is
an important part of socialization. The development of conversational
skills in a new language is a frequent focus of language teaching and
learning. Conversation analysis is a branch of sociology which studies the
structure and organization of human interaction, with a more specific
focus on conversational interaction.
Listening - Hearing accurately when other People Speak
Try to quite your
or inner voice so that you are truly
listening and not just waiting to speak. Keep
. Give full
and correctly hear
and understand someone's messages. Sometimes it's hard when someone's
talking and you have a question to ask, but you want to be
polite and wait until a person finishes speaking. And then you
have to decide if the question that you want to ask is
appropriate at this time? Because you first want to acknowledge
that you heard the person correctly before you ask questions
that might lead in a different direction. Sometimes hold your
questions for another time. Have a
. Do not create resistance in the
listener. It's hard to listen to things that you don't understand. But
don't pretend that you understand the subject. Tell the person that you're
not sure that you understand them completely, but you're definitely
interested in what they're saying.
"You Were Born With Two Ears And One Mouth For A Reason,
We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we
"If we were meant to talk more than listen, we would have
two mouths and one ear." Mark Twain (1835 - 1910)
We can listen to
500 words a minute, but only speak 250 words a minute.
Julian Treasure 5 ways to Listen Better
Directed Listening and Thinking Activity
Silence is Golden
is to hear with intention. Pay close
attention to; give heed to. You
have to learn how to listen.
is a skill.
You can't hear
something that you have never learned how to listen for.
Being able to truly listen to someone takes
and knowing what to listen for, by knowing the person,
and by knowing the different ways that people use to
Know the Difference between
is to perceive (sound) via the auditory sense.
Get to know or become aware of, usually accidentally. Listen and
Receive a communication from someone. Examine or hear (evidence
or a case) by judicial process.
Expresses enthusiastic agreement. (Discover,
Learn, Notice, Comprehend)
"We listen to obtain
information. We listen to understand. We listen for enjoyment. We listen
Analyze Information Accurately
1. Stop Talking
Don't talk, listen.
Limit your own
talking. You can’t talk and listen at the same time. If you are
thinking about what you are going to say next, then you're not
listening. Don’t argue mentally. Don’t allow yourself to become
annoyed or irritated with anything that is said. Try agreeing with points
to see if you can understand the speaker’s perspective better.
Don’t jump to conclusions. Avoid making unwarranted assumptions
about what is going to be said. Don’t mentally try to complete
the other person’s sentences. Listen and learn.
When somebody else is talking, listen to what
they are saying, do not interrupt, or talk over them or finish
their sentences for them. Stop, just listen.
Don’t interrupt or change the subject. A pause, even a long
pause, doesn’t always mean that the speaker has finished saying
everything that he or she has to say. When the other
person has finished talking, then you may need to clarify to ensure
you have received their message accurately.
2. Prepare Yourself to Listen
Prepare in advance. Remarks and questions prepared in advance,
when possible, free your mind for listening.
Relax. Focus on the speaker. Put other things out of mind.
Turn off your own worries. Turning off and tuning in aren’t
always easy, but they are important. Personal problems or
worries not connected with the subject at hand form a kind of
internal "static" that can blank out the real message that you
are tuning in. The
human mind is easily distracted by other thoughts – what’s for
lunch, what time do I need to leave to catch my train, is it
going to rain – try to put other thoughts out of mind and
concentrate on the messages that are being communicated.
Concentrate on what you are hearing. Focus your mind on what the
speaker is saying. Practice shutting out outside distractions
3. Put the Speaker at Ease
Help the speaker to feel free to speak. Remember their needs and
concerns. Nod or use other gestures or words to encourage them
to continue. Maintain eye contact but don’t stare – show you are
listening and understanding what is being said.
React to ideas, not the person. Don’t allow irritation to rise
from things said, or from mannerisms. Try not to respond to
these distractions. Base your response on principles, not
4. Remove Distractions
Focus on what is being said: don’t doodle, shuffle papers, look
out the window, pick your fingernails or similar. Avoid
unnecessary interruptions. These behaviors disrupt the listening
process and send messages to the speaker that you are bored or
Consider taking notes. In some settings, taking notes is
appropriate and will help you remember important points. Be
selective. Trying to take notes on everything said can result in
being left far behind or in retaining irrelevant information.
Try to understand the other person’s point of view. Look at
issues from their perspective. Let go of preconceived ideas. By
having an open mind we can more fully empathize with the
speaker. If the speaker says something that you disagree with
then wait and construct an argument to counter what is said but
keep an open mind to the views and opinions of others.
6. Be Patient
A pause, even a long pause, does not necessarily mean that the
speaker has finished. Be patient and let the speaker continue in
their own time, sometimes it takes time to formulate what to say
and how to say it. Never interrupt or finish a sentence for
Listen for ideas, not just words. You want to get the whole
picture, not just isolated bits and pieces. Listen for key
Use interjections to punctuate your listening. An occasional
"Yes" or "I see" shows you are still with the speaker. However,
wait until the speaker has finished his or her comment, and
don’t overdo or use interjections as meaningless comments.
7. Avoid Personal Prejudice
Try to be impartial. Don't become irritated and don't let the
person’s habits or mannerisms distract you from what they are
really saying. Everybody has a different way of speaking - some
people are for example more nervous or shy than others, some
have regional accents or make excessive arm movements, some
people like to pace whilst talking - others like to sit still.
Focus on what is being said and try to ignore styles of
8. Listen to the Tone
Volume and tone both add to what someone is saying. A good
speaker will use both volume and tone to their advantage to keep
an audience attentive; everybody will use pitch, tone and volume
of voice in certain situations – let these help you to
understand the emphasis of what is being said.
9. Listen for Ideas – Not Just Words
You need to get the whole picture, not just isolated bits and
pieces. Maybe one of the most difficult aspects of listening is
the ability to link together pieces of information to reveal the
ideas of others. With proper concentration, letting go of
distractions, and focus this
10. Wait and Watch for Non-Verbal Communication
Gestures, facial expressions, and eye-movements can all be
important. We don’t just listen with our ears but also with our eyes –
watch and pick up the additional information being transmitted via
Skills you Need
When listening, asking
a good question tells the speaker the listener has not only heard what was
said, but that they comprehended it well enough to want additional
information. Good listening was consistently seen as a two-way dialog.
It's good to Restate issues to confirm that their understanding is
correct. Good listeners make the conversation a positive experience for
the other party. Good listening is characterized by the creation of a safe
environment in which issues and differences could be discussed openly. A
good listener increasingly understands the other person’s emotions and
feelings about the topic at hand, and identifies and acknowledges them.
The listener empathizes with and validates those feelings in a supportive,
nonjudgmental way. Good listeners never highjack the conversation so that
they or their issues become the subject of the discussion. 80% of what we
communicate comes from
Listening is the
ability to accurately receive and interpret messages in the
Listening is key to all effective communication, without the
ability to listen effectively messages are easily misunderstood
– communication breaks down and the sender of the message can
easily become frustrated or irritated.
A good listener will
listen not only to what is being said, but also to what is left
unsaid or only partially said.
Effective listening involves observing body language and
noticing inconsistencies between verbal and non-verbal messages.
For example, if someone tells you that they are happy with their
life but through gritted teeth or with tears filling their eyes,
you should consider that the verbal and non-verbal messages are
in conflict, they maybe don't mean what they say.
for Developing Listening Skills / Language learning depends on listening.
Listening provides the aural input that serves as the basis for
language acquisition and enables learners to interact in spoken
Effective language instructors show students how
they can adjust their listening behavior to deal with a variety of
situations, types of input, and listening purposes. They help students
develop a set of listening strategies and match appropriate strategies to
each listening situation.
Listening strategies are techniques or
activities that contribute directly to the comprehension and recall of
listening input. Listening strategies can be classified by how the
listener processes the input.
Top-down strategies are listener
based; the listener taps into background knowledge of the topic, the
situation or context, the type of text, and the language. This background
knowledge activates a set of expectations that help the listener to
interpret what is heard and anticipate what will come next. Top-down
Listening for the main idea
Bottom-up strategies are text
based; the listener relies on the language in the message, that is, the
combination of sounds, words, and grammar that creates meaning. Bottom-up
Listening for specific details
Recognizing word-order patterns
also use metacognitive strategies to plan, monitor, and evaluate their
They plan by deciding which listening strategies will serve
best in a particular situation.
They monitor their comprehension and
the effectiveness of the selected strategies.
They evaluate by
determining whether they have achieved their listening comprehension goals
and whether the combination of listening strategies selected was an
Listening for Meaning
To extract meaning from a
listening text, students need to follow four basic steps:
the purpose for listening. Activate background knowledge of the topic in
order to predict or anticipate content and identify appropriate listening
Attend to the parts of the listening input that are
relevant to the identified purpose and ignore the rest. This selectivity
enables students to focus on specific items in the input and reduces the
amount of information they have to hold in short-term memory in order to
Select top-down and bottom-up strategies that are
appropriate to the listening task and use them flexibly and interactively.
Students' comprehension improves and their confidence increases when they
use top-down and bottom-up strategies simultaneously to construct meaning.
Check comprehension while listening and when the listening task is over.
Monitoring comprehension helps students detect inconsistencies and
comprehension failures, directing them to use alternate strategies.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory
Listening Training and Auditory Integration
AIT - Auditory Integration Training
very little empirical evidence
regarding this assertion.
Academy of Audiology
Speech Pathology Services
How to Listen when
others are Speaking
Learning to Speak - Speech
is the vocalized form of communication based upon the
syntactic combination of lexicals
and names that are drawn from very large (usually about 1,000 different
. Each spoken
word is created out of the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel
and consonant speech sound units. These vocabularies, the syntax which
structures them, and their set of speech sound units differ, creating the
existence of many thousands of different types of mutually unintelligible
human languages. Most human speakers are able to communicate in two or
more of them, hence being polyglots. The vocal abilities that enable humans
to produce speech also provide humans with the ability to sing.
is a word formed by analogy
. The purpose is to draw attention to the neglect of oral
skills in education.
Speech and Language Pathology
is a field of expertise
practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP),
also called speech and language therapist, or speech therapist, who
specializes in the evaluation and treatment of communication disorders,
cognition, voice disorders, and swallowing disorders. A common
misconception is that speech-language pathology is restricted to
correcting pronunciation difficulties, such as helping English speaking
individuals enunciate their "s" and "r" sounds, and helping people who
stutter to speak more fluently. In fact, speech-language pathology is
concerned with a broad scope of speech, language, swallowing, and voice
issues involving communication, some of which are: Word-finding issues,
either as a result of a specific language problem such as a language delay
or a more general issue such as dementia.
difficulties involving how people communicate ideas with others
(pragmatics). Structural language impairments, including difficulties
creating sentences that are grammatical (syntax) and meaningful
Literacy impairments (reading and writing) related to the
letter-to-sound relationship (phonics), the word-to-meaning relationship
(semantics), and understanding the ideas presented in a text (reading
comprehension). Voice difficulties, such as a
, a voice that is too
soft, or other voice difficulties that negatively impact a person's social
or professional performance. Cognitive impairments (e.g., attention,
memory, executive function) to the extent that they interfere with
communication. The components of speech production include: phonation
(producing sound); resonance; fluency; Intonation, Pitch variance; Voice
(including aeromechanical components of respiration) The components of
language include: phonology (manipulating sound according to the rules of
a language); Morphology (understanding and using minimal units of
meaning); syntax (constructing sentences according to languages' grammar
rules); semantics (interpreting signs or symbols of communication to
construct meaning); pragmatics (social aspects of communication).
Primary pediatric speech and language disorders include receptive and
expressive language disorders, speech sound disorders, childhood apraxia
of speech, stuttering, and language-based learning disabilities.
Swallowing disorders include difficulties in any system of the swallowing
process (i.e. oral, pharyngeal, esophageal), as well as functional
dysphagia and feeding disorders. Swallowing disorders can occur at any age
and can stem from multiple causes
Learning a New
for language processing.
Inferior Frontal Gyrus
Speech takes both sides of the
is the vocalized form of communication
based upon the syntactic combination of lexicals and names that are drawn
from very large (usually about 1,000 different words)
vocabularies. Each spoken word is created out of the phonetic combination
of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units (phonemes).
These vocabularies, the syntax which structures them, and their sets of
speech sound units differ, creating many thousands of different, and
mutually unintelligible, human languages. Most human speakers are able to
communicate in two or more of them, hence being polyglots. The vocal
abilities that enable humans to produce speech also enable them to
is the study of speech signals and the processing
methods of these signals. The signals are usually processed in a digital
representation, so speech processing can be regarded as a special case of
digital signal processing
, applied to
speech signal. Aspects of speech processing includes the acquisition,
manipulation, storage, transfer and output of speech signals. The input is
called speech recognition and the output is called speech synthesis.
is the ability to convey wants, needs, thoughts, and ideas meaningfully
using appropriate syntactic, pragmatic, semantic, and phonological
language structures. Oral expression should NOT be confused with reading
aloud or reading fluently.
is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical
or grammatical meaning
– that is, to
distinguish or to inflect words. All verbal languages use pitch to express
emotional and other paralinguistic information and to convey emphasis,
contrast, and other such features in what is called intonation, but not
all languages use tones to distinguish words or their inflections,
analogously to consonants and vowels. Languages that do have this feature
are called tonal languages; the distinctive tone patterns of such a
language are sometimes called tonemes, by analogy with phoneme. Tonal
languages are extremely common in Africa, East Asia, and Central America,
but rare elsewhere in Asia and in Europe; as many as seventy percent of
world languages may be tonal.
is a branch of
that comprises the
study of the sounds
of human speech, or—in
the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign. It is concerned
with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their
physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and
neurophysiological status. Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with
the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs.
The field of phonetics is a multilayered subject of linguistics that
focuses on speech. In the case of oral languages there are three basic
areas of study:
Articulatory phonetics: the study of the production of
speech sounds by the articulatory and vocal tract by the speaker.
Acoustic phonetics: the study of the physical transmission of speech
sounds from the speaker to the listener.
Auditory phonetics: the study
of the reception and perception of speech sounds by the listener.
areas are inter-connected through the common mechanism of sound, such as
wavelength (pitch), amplitude, and
Phonetics – The Sound of American English
Flash Animation Project: University of Iowa
Motor Learning and Control
UCLA Bureau of Glottal Affairs
International Speech Communication Association
Using Praat for
Sauce Program for Voice Analysis
Expressive Synthetic Speech Resource
One area of the brain
is for perceiving speech, and another area of the brain is for
Medium of instruction
Visual Processing Disorders
Stammering Lidcombe Program
Singing and Stuttering
Primary Progressive Aphasia
is a neurological syndrome in
which language capabilities slowly and progressively become
impaired while other mental functions remain intact.
is a combination of a speech and language disorder
that affects about 1 million individuals within
, also known as Wernicke’s aphasia, fluent
aphasia, or sensory aphasia, is a type of aphasia in which an
individual is unable to understand language in its written or
Place of Articulation
How To Say
Tongue Twister Exercises
Rhetoric and Composition Parts of
Dynamic Information Processing
Measures in Audiovisual Speech Perception
Verbal Fluency Test
Reticence in Speaking
Fran Capo is world's fastest talking
female clocked at 603.32 words in 54.2 seconds. That’s 11 words
to Talk Faster
Pressure of Speech
Talking - Speaking Effectively
that fail to specify your message. If you give a
clear example of what you're trying to say, then people will
have an easier time understanding you, and they might even be
able to answer your comment more accurately, and correctly.
Directly to Someone versus Speaking Indirectly to Someone
"We have made
our ability to communicate more complicated then it needs to be."
Direct Communication versus Indirect Communication.
Knowing when and
why to be direct is the key to effective communication. Knowing when to
give subtle hints, Knowing when to talk around a subject. Knowing when to
give under-the-surface meaning versus implicit meaning. It's good to Speak
directly too the person, not indirectly. Don't beat around the bush, speak to someone one and not at someone.
Avoid blunt comments.
Avoiding insults may be seen as more important
than providing honest feedback
attention to nonverbal behaviors. In particular, a discrepancy between
nonverbal behaviors and the words used by an indirect speaker can indicate
words aren’t accurate. Recognize that, for indirect
communicators, it’s “always easier to agree than to disagree”.
Sometimes it's good to use open-ended, non-leading questions. Avoid
phrasing a question so that the answer may be perceived as insulting to
someone (for example, may be seen as criticizing someone).
indirect speakers when communicating with direct speakers include:
Recognize that your subtle messages may not be perceived in the way you
expect or may not be perceived at all. Accept that direct communicators
respect direct speech.
Politeness can sometimes make the message less affective.
tend to say what they think, and Indirect communicators seek
to avoid conflict, tension and uncomfortable situations. We all use indirect
communication strategies at times and in certain circumstances – we mean
more than we say, and we gather meaning from others beyond the words they
use. Try not to use these ignorant excuses
when explaining and communicating
...Tell it like it is. Let the
facts speak for themselves. If If you don't have anything nice to say,
don't say anything. Tell someone what you think they want to hear. The
squeaky wheel gets the grease. The nail that sticks out gets hammered back
in. Honesty is the best policy. Being polite is more important than
. It's okay to say no. Avoid
saying no; say “maybe” or “possibly,” even if you mean “no.” The truth is
more important than sparing someone’s feelings. Don’t beat around the
bush. If the truth might hurt, soften it. Say what you mean and mean what
you say. Read between the lines. Take communication at face value. Handle
communication to save face.
Time is money. Get to the point. Small talk
before business is important. It’s okay to disagree with your boss at a
meeting. Criticism of others, especially people with more authority,
should be unspoken or careful and veiled.
Cultural Dimension: direct versus indirect communication style
"You can create the perfect message,
but the understanding depends on the skill of the receiver to
correctly decipher it."
is the act of speaking clearly and concisely.
The opposite of good enunciation is mumbling or slurring.
Pronunciation is a
is to pronounce sounds of words correctly.
"Lets be Frank" is a directness in manner or speech; without subtlety
or evasion. The quality of being honest and straightforward in attitude
and speech. Giving an answer that is short and precise.
is declaring one's
conversational intent and inviting consent from one's
prospective conversation partner.
uninterrupted time for talking.
Have a Meaningful Conversation
the flow of information back and
forth between partners in a conversation by alternating roles of
speaker and listener.
Beauty and persuasion in speech. Powerful and effective
Don't talk to fill pauses, or respond to statements in a
Whole Body Listening
and evaluation until you can see things from
You Don't Know Everything
Avoid making distracting gestures and maintain an appropriate
distance and posture.
Think like the person to whom you are speaking
. His or her
problems and needs are important. You’ll understand and retain
them better if you keep his or her point of view.
Ask clarification questions. If you don’t understand something,
or if you feel you may have missed a point, clear it up now
before it embarrasses you later.
When to Change the Subject
How to Tell if You Talk Too Much
Delayed Auditory Feedback
Knowing the right time to
someone and knowing when to let someone else
interrupt you is very important. Genuinely seek
. Keep feedback impersonal and goal-oriented.
toward behavior that the recipient can
control. Ask questions to ensure understanding of the feedback.
Avoid being emotional or attacking others.
you heard, especially to clarify the speaker's intentions.
on specific behaviors rather than making general statements.
Learn to separate
and enjoy each one individually.
Thinking in Levels
Automated Conversation Coach
is the beauty and persuasion
in speech. Powerful and effective language.
Most of the time, words are translated with
little confusion. It's when we put many words together is when we start to
have most of the errors in translation. People are biased against certain
words, and sometimes subconsciously. So we have to pay
we say things and also confirm what we are saying is interpreted
correctly. With out any under lying meanings, or undertones, or even a
perceived play on words. And that's another problem, how to deal with miss
interpretations and personal perceptions. We can't assume that people are
understanding our messages the right way, and not taking it the wrong way.
We should choose words that minimize confusion, but still transfer our
messages at a higher rate of accuracy.
Getting Your Point
Across (5 Tips)
The Average Rate for an American
Speaker is 150 Words Per Minute.
Calm yourself, don't get upset or let your emotions control your
speech. Avoid arguing. Avoid degrading others or insulting
people, or prejudging people. Don't use
Try not to say anything that would be counterproductive to
the goal that you want to achieve.
Develop a Friendly Tone of Voice
Begin your speech, if necessary, state your name and any
relevant information that would lead up to this point in time.
Be sure to generate enough vocal power and energy to reach every
listener in the room.Breathe
Express your view about the important issue. Explain the goals
explain how it benefits others. Back up your opinion with facts,
evidence, witnesses and or documents. And don't forget that you have
to explain why you think this evidence is
relevant, because just presenting facts is not good enough, you
have to explain the meaning and the importance of these facts.
Use examples and make suggestions.
Search for Meaning
. Relate to the opinions of others and let them know that
you understand their point of view. Be ready for the follow up
questions and have appropriate responses ready. Don't tell a
person they are wrong, just explain why you believe that you are
right, and why it is more fair to everyone, and that it's free from
favoritism, or self-interest, or bias, or deception.
I once too
thought that same way, or similar way. And then I experienced a
change when I learned some new information.
verifying this information and researching it more deeply, I
have come to the conclusion that I must change, or, I will be
responsible for any damage that is done from these negative
actions, actions that do more harm then good. Humans are born
good, and I have never met a bad dog either, I guess that is why
dogs are mans best friend, we seek out similar company even
outside our own species.
Don't be discouraged if you need to end the conversation. Don't
feel bad if your point didn't get through. Learn to ask for more
time to think, and to seek out more information on the matter. And also to learn more about other peoples point of view, so
that you can better explain and understand your own point of
Room! - Sample Lesson: Voice Modulation and Speed
of a Powerful Speaking Voice
The Proper use of Pitch for your Speaking Voice
Develop a Perfect Speaking Voice
selectively. Repeat the last one to three words that a
person just said back to them to establish a rapport, this will help the
person feel more comfortable to be open, and also help communicate to the
person that you're striving to understand their feelings, and that you
like them. When a person feels that you understand them, like when saying
"that's right", is reaffirming that you're truly listening and
understanding them. Acknowledging their side and mirroring their point.
Questions that allow opportunities to say no can give the other person a
measure of control and give them a sense of security, other then getting
the other person to answer yes to questions. Don't try to force your
opponent to admit that you are right. Rephrase and summarize.
no-oriented questions like: "Have you given up on this aspect?" and "Is it
too late to talk about x ?" Use phrases like "It sounds like you are
afraid of..." and "It looks like you're concerned about..." Use empathy
strategically. Knowing the weaknesses of your position will help you to be
prepared for difficult questions.
more then you show, speak less then you know."
Talk With a Deeper Voice
Tone & Inflection
responsibility of confirming if someone is listening to you is your
responsibility, it's not the responsibility of the listener.
In every communication between people, only half of the message
is clear, or completely understood. That's because not every
question is answered during a normal conversation. People need
to know more then just the definition of a word. And people also
need to know more about the context, because a lot of context
that surrounds words is non factual,
made up of
that could easily mislead someone. First we need to
learn to speak in truths, then we need to learn to communicate
fully and accurately. I see conversations in the future being
more fuller, more enjoyable, more meaningful, more open, and
more honest, where one word could
speak a thousand truths
one word could answer a 1000 questions. But that's from everyone
having a high quality education, an education that does not
exist as of 2016. But the research is near completion, so a high
quality education is not that far away. So when a person says
that they are educated, it will mean that have 1000 different
skills and qualities, and know a 1000 different things, and they
could explain them for you if needed, using
20,000 unique words
Why do some people assume that when they talk, everyone
understands what they're saying?
Just because you use a
or a phrase,
this does not explain the message, you only reveal a small
detail, and then you expect people to fill in all the missing
information correctly. So in your mind, you believe that you're
explaining everything the person needs to understand the message. For some maybe, but for most of the people, they need
more details, need more info, and they need the reason why.
Other wise, you're not saying anything. You're like a barking
dog. You know the dog is trying to say something, but until you
investigate to find out why the dog is barking, you will not
know why the dog is barking.
"Some people use
that say very
little, and they pretend like they are answering a question, when in fact
they are actually asking more questions in the form of an answer."
is an obnoxious and
foolish and loquacious talker. (chatterbox)
is to speak (about unimportant matters) rapidly and incessantly.
Gift of Gab
always think before we speak and always choose the right moment.
But be careful, it's not just what you say, but it's also what
you don't say that can cause the most damage. Remember, no one
can read your mind, so don't be afraid to speak your mind,
because you may never have another chance.
It's not just what you say, but how you say it. Remember,
language is the easy part, communicating effectively is the hard
part.Writing TipsSpeaking with Purpose
Don't Beat Around the Bush
"If we both stop
Jumping to Conclusions
then maybe we'll get somewhere"
"If you just say
what you mean, you can avoid the possibility of things being
, or being misunderstood."
The differences between "The Silent Treatment
" and "Turning a Blind Eye
Sometimes you don't want to satisfy someone with a response to a
question, or an observation or an opinion, because it might
encourage someone to continue talking about something that you
don't feel comfortable about, or something that you disagree
with, or something that you don't have enough information about
so that you can reply with a correct response. And you don't
want to get caught in a conversation with someone who is upset
and will most likely drag you into an argument. But sometimes
you don't want to totally ignore someone. Make eye contact with
the person that shows no emotion, so as not to influence or
encourage someone to continue a conversation that is making an
incorrect observation, or just asking the wrong questions.
Sometimes it's just better to change the subject, in a nice way
of course. Or ask for the conversation to continue later in a
better time and place.
Sometimes you just
want to be a
Fly on the Wall
in certain situations, meaning that you
would like to be there secretly to see and hear what happens.
, being an
without the risk of actually being there. Interested
but not ready to commit or ready to be fully involved where your
true character can be on display and tested along side the
Talking to Yourself - Inner Voice
Is Thinking to Yourself and Talking to Yourself the
Conversations in your Head are only one half of a
Even though you're talking to yourself
counts as only one opinion
. You can't say "my paranoid side says
yes while my logical side says no", because you still need to
confirm the accuracy of both of those questions, just like when
trying to figuring out if something is
How can you be sure "That it Goes without Saying" if you never
say it out loud?
To pretend to have a conversation with someone else, and to guess
what their responses would be, is not that unusual, people do it
all the time, it's called "thinking to yourself
." It's anticipating
responses to particular questions that you might ask someone.
But the bottom line is, you're still only answering your own questions, so
you're pretty much still just talking to yourself, in a form of
role-playing. And it's not a great way to teach yourself, mostly
because you're only relying on one information source. So you
still need to seek out more information and knowledge in order
to obtain a better understanding about the questions you're
asking, and, you also have to be sure that you're asking the
right questions, and using the right sources?
also known as inner voice, internal speech, or verbal stream
of consciousness is thinking in words. It also refers to the semi-constant
internal monologue some people have with themselves at a conscious or
semi-conscious level (see Default mode network). Much of what people
consciously report "thinking about" may be thought of as an internal
monologue, a conversation with oneself. Some of this can be considered as
speech rehearsal. When reading, some people's internal monologue moves
their muscles slightly as if they were speaking; this is called
subvocalizing. In some medical or mental conditions, there is uncertainty
about the source of internal sentences. Attribution for an internal
monologue may lead to concerns over schizophrenia, hallucinations, or
hearing voices. This internal monologue is stimulated by the sensory parts
of the brain, activating both auditory and visual receptors. Contemplation
"attempts to calm the internal voice" by various means.
In the philosophical field of language there is much research about
internal speech in correlation with the building and usage of phrases in
one's own idiom and thus the importance of language in the process of
Language and Thought
is when our emotions and behavior are caused by
our internal dialogue. We can change ourselves by learning to challenge
and refute our own thoughts, especially a number of specific mistaken
thought patterns called "cognitive distortions". Cognitive therapy has
been found to be effective by empirical studies.
is a communicator's internal use
of language or thought. It can be useful to envision intrapersonal
communication occurring in the mind of the individual in a model which
contains a sender, receiver, and feedback loop.
or silent speech, is the internal speech typically
made when reading; it provides the sound of the word as it
This is a natural process when reading and it helps the mind to access
meanings to comprehend and remember what is read, potentially reducing
cognitive load. This inner speech is characterized by minute movements in
the larynx and other muscles involved in the articulation of speech. Most
of these movements are undetectable (without the aid of machines) by the
person who is reading. It is one of the components of Baddeley and Hitch's
phonological loop proposal which accounts for the storage of these types
of information into short-term memory.
Preschoolers Correct Speaking Mistakes Even When Talking to Themselves
is a psychological concept which describes the mind's
ability to imagine the different positions of participants in an internal
dialogue, in close connection with external dialogue. The "dialogical
self" is the central concept in the Dialogical Self Theory (DST), as
created and developed by the Dutch psychologist Hubert Hermans since the
"I want everyone to know what I'm thinking, but what I'm
thinking is not always what I want to say out load, or should say out
load. Thinking bad things is not a victimless crime. You can say it's a
, but why does that excuse you? Unless
you are making a point? You have a responsibility for your own thoughts,
as well as for the words you speak. Saying horrible things, or thinking
horrible things, does not say that you are a bad person, it's only bad
when you believe those words or thoughts, it's also bad when you don't
apologize for your thoughts or words." (it is a learning process)
. We not only misinterpret each other
sometimes, we also misinterpret our own thoughts and feelings
sometimes. Not only do we experience difficulties communicating
with other people, we also have difficulties communicating with
ourselves. This is why we need more knowledge and information to
make us more skilled, more aware, and more intelligent.
is having an inaccurate mental representation of the meaning or
significance of something. Not correct; not in conformity with
fact or truth.
to myself, then who is the joke intended
for? My conscience? Who's that? If my awareness is random like my dreams,
then how can I be sure which part of me is listening, and why?"
Voices in my Head
Internal Monologue seems to have a mind of its own, as if the
mechanism for creating dreams while we sleep, is some how being
activated while you are awake, then your
might need to seek out some
How to cope with Hearing Voices
Hearing the voices of God
or just voices?
Poor supplementary motor area activation differentiates Auditory Verbal
is a tract of axons in the brainstem that
carries information about sound from the cochlear nucleus to various
brainstem nuclei and ultimately the contralateral inferior colliculus of
the midbrain. Three distinct, primarily inhibitory, cellular groups are
located interspersed within these fibers, and are thus named the nuclei of
the lateral lemniscus.
is a parasomnia that refers to talking aloud while asleep. It can be quite
loud, ranging from simple mumbling sounds to loud shouts and long
frequently inarticulate speeches, and can occur many times during a sleep
cycle. As with sleepwalking and night terrors, sleeptalking usually occurs
during the less-deep delta-wave NREM sleep stages or during temporary
Things I would say if I were me, "Who the hell
are you?" I'm you,
first person narrative
"Sometimes in order to keep
the conversation going, you have to do it yourself, ask all the
questions and look for the answers."
is a person involved in a conversation or
dialogue. Two or more people speaking to one another, are each
that other people will automatically know where they're coming
from, and at the least, everyone hopes that other people will
understand them correctly. But when we are misunderstood, we
should never be defensive or surprised, because meaning is
something that is not always a constant or a given. That is why
is extremely important. Always make sure that you are on the
same page as the other person. If you're not on the same page,
then find out which pages you're both on. And please don't be
stubborn or impatient when communicating, it will only impede
understanding and cause more problems to happen.
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments
Analyzing Cockpit Communications:
The Links Between Language,
Performance, Error, and Workload.
Gender Differences in Language Use
Gender differences in
language use were examined using standardized categories to
database of over 14,000 text files from 70 separate studies.
Women used more words related to psychological and social
processes. Men referred more to object properties and impersonal
"Let us not have any preconceived notions on who we think each other is,
let us communicate openly, like friends do, and let us focus
more on our abilities, and not so much on our disabilities, or
Levels of Communication:
Direct and Indirect
channels of Communication:Relationships
CompetencySkills You Need
is a brief statement
that presents the main points in a concise form. Without
is a restatement of the meaning of a text or
passage using other words.
As extremely important as communication
is, it is sadly over looked, taken for granted, and underutilized.
Communication is not even being taught in schools as effectively as it
should be, which is extremely disturbing considering it is the most
valuable skill on the planet. All life forms survive by transferring
important information. Everything from atoms to every cell in our body
depends on this communication of information to live and survive. Without
the ability to communicate information, there would be no life. And when
information becomes distorted or infected, that is when life is the most
vulnerable. The wrong information, or bad information, can easily produce
mistakes in our thoughts and in our actions.
Humans ability to
manually send and receive information gives us incredible advantages, but
this manual ability is also a vulnerability, because when we
, many problems can occur, like disease, death, war, poverty,
crime, corruption, and so on. Education has over looked this incredibly
important skill to communicate. You need more then just the ability to
communicate, you need to know when, why, where and what to communicate.
Communication is all about transferring information and knowledge. And as
simple as that sounds, communication is one skill that most people don't
fully understand enough in order to communicate effectively or
efficiently. Being able to communicate is one of the most important skills to have.