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Communication - Speaking Effectively - Listening Effectively


Communication is the activity of conveying information. A connection allowing access between persons or places. Transmit information. Transmit thoughts or feelings. Be in verbal contact; interchange information or ideas. Transfer from one place or period to another. Languages

Message is a communication (usually brief) that is written or spoken or signaled.

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Being able to effectively Communicate is the most valuable skill in every persons life. Without communication, life could not exist.

The Letter ' L ' in Sign Language The Letter ' E ' in Sign Language The Letter ' A ' in Sign Language The Letter ' R ' in Sign Language The Letter ' N ' in Sign Language
Sign Language

The skill and the privilege to communicate should never be taken for granted, or misused. There is a lot to learn about communication because it covers many different subjects and categories. This is why communication is so extremely important. It's literally connected to everything that you do in your life. Effective communication will serve you more then any other skill that you will acquire in your entire life. So please do yourself a huge favor, Learn to communicate effectively and efficiently, if not, then your life will be more of a struggle and you will also be more vulnerable to misinformation. If you learn this, then you could learn anything that you ever wanted to learn. Language is the gateway to all knowledge and information. Language is more then a tool and more then the ultimate vehicle for transferring information and knowledge, Language is power, Language is freedom, Language is control, Language is endless possibilities.

Speaking Effectively (Transferring Information)

Learning Speech (Learning to Speak)

Listen Effectively (Receiving Information)

Debate - Discussion - Argue

"Every act of Communication is an act of Translation.” (Gregory Rabassa)

Interpersonal Compatibility is the long-term interaction between two or more individuals in terms of the ease and comfort of communication.

"To say what you mean, what does that mean?"

Reality is based on what you know, and how you Perceive the particular experiences that you have in Life. The people that we are exposed to on TV, 90% of what we see, is mostly entertainment or propaganda. And hardly anyone is concerned about how underutilized our TV is used. It's more of a toy then it is the incredible technology, a technology that gives us incredible abilities to communicate. The adults in our world really need to start taking our communication advancements more seriously and use them more responsibly, we are not children, we are the adults. The TV is not going to educate you, it's either going to entertaining you or manipulating you. So where does your knowledge of the world come from? Not schools, because at the moment schools mostly teach reading, writing and math, which are extremely important, but incredibly inadequate. The transfer of information needs to be based on reality and not fantasy. Kids watch and read more about fantasy characters then they listen to intelligent people speaking. People dying and suffering is not a fantasy. Everyone has imprisoned themselves unknowingly. All because of our inability to effectively communicate, which is something that we can easily teach in schools. If there is one thing for you to remember about how extremely important transferring information is, is that if life cannot transfer important information, then life does not exist. Humans do not exist. If a cell dividing does not share it's information with the new cell, then that cell will die, and life would not exist. The transfer of information is extremely important. So we need to take communication seriously, and increase our reality based transmissions and limit the amount of fantasy and propaganda transmissions. At this current time in 2016, most transmissions are ineffective in delivering valuable knowledge and information. We need to be more responsible and more aware. this transfer of information is the core of who we are. Human species as a whole does not want to take responsibility for the problems that we have. We have unknowingly separated ourselves and distant ourselves from each other and from our problems. Trying to pretend that these horrors don't exist literally neutralizes our greatest strength and power, which is our ability to work together as a unit to accomplish any goal that we set our minds to, like protecting and preserving all life on this planet. We have to come together and utilize our combined intelligence and utilize our combined power and strength in numbers. Pretending that we are separate undermines our greatest strength and power. Unity is everything, your entire body is a unity of microbes working together to sustain life, your life. Listen to life, life is telling you how to live, and one way to live is being able to work together with life. And since we are all part of life, working together just makes sense. A lot of people already know how beneficial working together is. So this is not foreign to us. But we need to utilize this strength that we have, because if we don't, then everyone on the planet is more vulnerable, less safe and a lot more weaker. We have the technology and the abilities, now all we need is a plan. So if you are reading this, what's your plan to become a better communicator?

Every human brain has a the capacity to store millions upon millions of memories. So it would be a great idea to fill your brain with the most valuable knowledge and information that the world has to offer. This way you will be more intelligent then the previous generation, and also have more abilities then the previous generation. You will be the first humans on this planet to be known and confirmed as intelligent life. This is a huge responsibility and will take a lot of work. But being able to solve any problem is this world increases your odds for a great life by 1,000 percent. This goes way beyond any utopian narrow point of view. The future of this planet will be a lot more beautiful then ever imagined. Our biggest problem then will be learning how do we keep ourselves from smiling all the time?

"The biggest mistake that any human can make is believing that they know enough."

"You can only be aware of things that you learned to be aware of, so you're literally blind and you don't even know it"

"You should never feel worried or pressured because you don't know enough about a particular subject, you should only be thankful that you're aware that you don't know enough about a particular subject, at least now you can start learning."

So without wasting any more of your time, it's time to start learning...

You need to learn how to use Language effectively and efficiently.
You need to learn how to Read and Write effectively and efficiently.
You need to learn how to carefully Analyze Information effectively and efficiently.

Communication is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. The basic steps of communication are: The forming of communicative intent. Message composition. Message encoding and decoding. Transmission of the encoded message as a sequence of signals using a specific channel or medium. Reception of signals. Reconstruction of the original message. Interpretation and making sense of the reconstructed message.

Communication Theory is a field of information theory and mathematics that studies the technical process of information and the process of Human Communication, which is the field dedicated to understanding how humans communicate. Human communication is grounded in cooperative and shared intentions.

Communication Science is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication. There are three types of communication: Verbal, involving listening to a person to understand the meaning of a message; written, in which a message is read; and nonverbal communication involving observing a person and inferring meaning. The discipline encompasses a range of topics, from face-to-face conversation to mass media outlets such as television broadcasting. Communication studies also examines how messages are interpreted through the political, cultural, economic, semiotic, hermeneutic, and social dimensions of their contexts.

Communications System is a collection of individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and data terminal equipment (DTE) usually capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an integrated whole. The components of a communications system serve a common purpose, are technically compatible, use common procedures, respond to controls, and operate in union. Telecommunications is a method of communication (e.g., for sports broadcasting, mass media, journalism, etc.). A communications subsystem is a functional unit or operational assembly that is smaller than the larger assembly under consideration.

Signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon". In the physical world, any quantity exhibiting variation in time or variation in space (such as an image) is potentially a signal that might provide information on the status of a physical system, or convey a message between observers, among other possibilities. The IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing states that the term "signal" includes audio, video, speech, image, communication, geophysical, sonar, radar, medical and musical signals or code. In nature, signals can take the form of any action by one organism able to be perceived by other organisms, ranging from the release of chemicals by plants to alert nearby plants of the same type of a predator, to sounds or motions made by animals to alert other animals of the presence of danger or of food. Signaling occurs in organisms all the way down to the cellular level, with cell signaling. Signaling theory, in evolutionary biology, proposes that a substantial driver for evolution is the ability for animals to communicate with each other by developing ways of signaling. In human engineering, signals are typically provided by a sensor, and often the original form of a signal is converted to another form of energy using a transducer. For example, a microphone converts an acoustic signal to a voltage waveform, and a speaker does the reverse. The formal study of the information content of signals is the field of information theory. The information in a signal is usually accompanied by noise. The term noise usually means an undesirable random disturbance, but is often extended to include unwanted signals conflicting with the desired signal (such as crosstalk). The prevention of noise is covered in part under the heading of signal integrity. The separation of desired signals from a background is the field of signal recovery, one branch of which is estimation theory, a probabilistic approach to suppressing random disturbances. Engineering disciplines such as electrical engineering have led the way in the design, study, and implementation of systems involving transmission, storage, and manipulation of information. In the latter half of the 20th century, electrical engineering itself separated into several disciplines, specialising in the design and analysis of systems that manipulate physical signals; electronic engineering and computer engineering as examples; while design engineering developed to deal with functional design of man–machine interfaces.

Communications Protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity. These are the rules or standard that defines the syntax, semantics and synchronization of communication and possible error recovery methods. Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of both. Communicating systems use well-defined formats (protocol) for exchanging various messages. Each message has an exact meaning intended to elicit a response from a range of possible responses pre-determined for that particular situation. The specified behavior is typically independent of how it is to be implemented. Communications protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved. To reach agreement, a protocol may be developed into a technical standard. A programming language describes the same for computations, so there is a close analogy between protocols and programming languages: protocols are to communications what programming languages are to computations.
Communication Laws

Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, writings, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology. It is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation Such transmission paths are often divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. The term is often used in its plural form, telecommunications, because it involves many different technologies.

Phone Networks (telephone) - Wireless Communication

How Does a Telephone Work? As you chat away, your phone converts your voice into an electrical signal, which is then transmitted as radio waves and converted back into sound by your friend's phone. A basic mobile phone is therefore little more than a combined radio transmitter and a radio receiver, quite similar to a walkie-talkie or CB radio.

Channel Communications refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking. A channel is used to convey an information signal, for example a digital bit stream, from one or several senders (or transmitters) to one or several receivers. A channel has a certain capacity for transmitting information, often measured by its bandwidth in Hz or its data rate in bits per second.

Cellular Communication is an umbrella term used in biology and more in depth in biophysics and biochemistry to identify different types of communication methods between living cells. Some of the methods include cell signaling among others. This process allows millions of cells to communicate and work together to perform important bodily processes that are necessary to survival. Both multicellular and unicellular organisms heavily rely on cell-cell communication.

Networks - Communication Technologies

UCLA Department of Communication Studies

Early humans went from using Gestures and Non-Verbal Communication methods, to eventually having a Spoken Language. And then we advanced to Graphic Communication or Written Language. And now in the 21st century we have advanced into Digital Communication, which is an incredible advancement. We can now for the first time communicate in more ways then any other time in human history. The digital world changes everything. The Internet is us mimicking the human brain. We will soon be connected to everything on the planet. And we will soon have full consciousness and full power of our collaborative abilities.

Now that the flow of knowledge and information has no limits. The human race is about to embark on the most incredible adventure ever, the adventures in learning.

Not only do we have millions of people with don't have access to valuable knowledge and information, but the billions of people who do have access are not communicating effectively or efficiently. So our ability to communicate has advanced, just not our ability to teach it, Why?  There's a lot of room for improvements.  Knowledge Management

Visual Communication is communication through a visual aid and is described as the conveyance of ideas and information in forms that can be read or looked upon. Visual communication in part or whole relies on vision, and is primarily presented or expressed with two dimensional images, it includes: signs, typography, drawing, graphic design, illustration, Industrial Design, Advertising, Animation colour, Body Language and electronic resources. It also explores the idea that a visual message accompanying text has a greater power to inform, educate, or persuade a person or audience. Visual Tools

Visual Language is a system of communication using visual elements. Speech as a means of communication cannot strictly be separated from the whole of human communicative activity which includes the visual and the term 'language' in relation to vision is an extension of its use to describe the perception, comprehension and production of visible signs.

Nonverbal Communication (body language) - Presentations (charts and graphs)

Technical Communication is a means to convey scientific, engineering, or other technical information. Individuals in a variety of contexts and with varied professional credentials engage in technical communication. Some individuals are designated as technical communicators or technical writers. These individuals use a set of methods to research, document, and present technical processes or products. Technical communicators may put the information they capture into paper documents, web pages, computer-based training, digitally stored text, audio, video, and other media. The Society for Technical Communication defines the field as any form of communication that focuses on technical or specialized topics, communicates specifically by using technology or provides instructions on how to do something. More succinctly, the Institute of Scientific and Technical Communicators defines technical communication as factual communication, usually about products and services. The European Association for Technical Communication briefly defines technical communication as "the process of defining, creating and delivering information products for the safe, efficient and effective use of products (technical systems, software, services)". Whatever the definition of technical communication, the overarching goal of the practice is to create easily accessible information for a specific audience. Technical Writing process can be divided into six broad steps: Determine purpose and audience. Collect information. Organize and outline information. Write the first draft. Revise and edit. Publish output.

Interpersonal Communication is an exchange of information between two or more people. It is also an area of study. Communication skills are developed and may be enhanced or improved with increased knowledge and practice. During interpersonal communication, there is message sending and message receiving. This can be conducted using both direct and indirect methods. Successful interpersonal communication is when the message senders and the message receivers understand the message. Encompasses: speech communication, nonverbal communication.

Intercultural Communication is a discipline that studies communication across different Cultures and social groups, or how culture affects communication. It is used to describe the wide range of communication processes and problems that naturally appear within an organization or social context made up of individuals from different religious, social, ethnic, and educational backgrounds. Intercultural communication is sometimes used synonymously with cross-cultural communication. In this sense it seeks to understand how people from different countries and cultures act, communicate and perceive the world around them. Many people in intercultural business communication argue that culture determines how individuals encode messages, what medium they choose for transmitting them, and the way messages are interpreted.

Correspondence is non-concurrent, remote communication between people, including letters, email, newsgroups, Internet forums, blogs.

Human Communication is the field dedicated to understanding how humans communicate. Human communication is grounded in cooperative and shared intentions.

Communication Studies is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication. There are three types of communication: verbal, involving listening to a person to understand the meaning of a message; written, in which a message is read; and nonverbal communication involving observing a person and inferring meaning. The discipline encompasses a range of topics, from face-to-face conversation to mass media outlets such as television broadcasting. Communication studies also examines how messages are interpreted through the political, cultural, economic, semiotic, hermeneutic, and social dimensions of their contexts.

Communication Skills
Communication Skills
Develop Good Communication Skills (wikihow)
Types of Communication
Communication Problems

Strategic Communication can mean either communicating a concept, a process, or data that satisfies a long term strategic goal of an organization by allowing facilitation of advanced planning, or communicating over long distances usually using international telecommunications or dedicated global network assets to coordinate actions and activities of operationally significant commercial, non-commercial and military business or combat and logistic subunits. It can also mean the related function within an organization, which handles internal and external communication processes. Strategic communication can also be used for political warfare.

Internal Monologue

Reading
Reading Comprehension
Poetry
Meaning
Art
Communication Noise

Models of Communication are conceptual models used to explain the human communication process.
An information source, which produces a message.
A transmitter, which encodes the message into signals
A channel, to which signals are adapted for transmission
A receiver, which 'decodes' (reconstructs) the message from the signal.
A destination, where the message arrives.
Shannon and Weaver argued that there were three levels of problems for communication within this concept
The technical problem: how accurately can the message be transmitted?
The semantic problem: how precisely is the meaning 'conveyed'?
The effectiveness problem: how effectively does the received meaning affect behavior?
Daniel Chandler critiques the transmission model by stating:
It assumes communicators are isolated individuals.
No allowance for differing purposes.
No allowance for differing interpretations.
No allowance for unequal power relations.

Four-Sides Model is a communication model that states every message has four facets. The matter layer contains statements which are matter of fact like data and facts, which are part of the news. In the self-revealing or self-disclosure the speaker - conscious or not intended - tells something about himself, his motives, values, emotions etc. In the Relationship-layer is expressed resp. received, how the sender gets along with the receiver and what he thinks of him. The Appeal contains the desire, advice, instruction and effects that the speaker is seeking for.

Four Discourses states there are four fundamental types of discourse. Master, University, Hysteric and Analyst.
Discourse of the Master – Struggle for mastery / domination / penetration. Based on Hegel's master–slave dialectic.
Discourse of the University – Provision and worship of "objective" knowledge — usually in the unacknowledged service of some external master discourse.
Discourse of the Hysteric – Symptoms embodying and revealing resistance to the prevailing master discourse.
Discourse of the Analyst – Deliberate subversion of the prevailing master discourse.

Story Telling
Stories

Freestyle Rap is a style of improvisation with or without instrumental beats, in which lyrics are recited with no particular subject or structure It is similar to other improvisational music, such as jazz (Myka 9 of Freestyle Fellowship describes it as being "like a jazz solo"), where there is a lead instrumentalist acting as the improviser and the rest of the band providing the beat. Improv/freestyles are improvised in this way.

Ad Lib is saying or doing something with little or no preparation or forethought. Said or done without having been planned or written in advance. Remark made spontaneously without prior preparation. Done on the fly. Means at one's pleasure.

Sport Communication is an aspect of communication studies which specializes in the study of communication in a sports setting. It can encompass the study of interpersonal and organizational communication (both verbal and non-verbal) between participants within a particular sport (e.g. players, coaches, managers, referees, trainers and physiotherapists, and governing bodies); communication between sports participants, fans, and the media; and the way that sports are represented and communicated in the media. Sports communication is something that happens at all levels of ranging from kindergarten to the college level and is not restricted to professionals. It happens on a constant basis and works best with people that are willing to work collectively as a team. If everyone is on board with positive thoughts and communication, it becomes very dismantling to the person receiving the message. It is not only for positive talk, though, because negative sports communication happens all the time.

Information Literacy
Media Literacy
Social Communication
Journalism
Social Media

Onomatopoeia is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes.

Dispatcher are communications personnel responsible for receiving and transmitting pure and reliable messages, tracking vehicles and equipment, and recording other important information. A number of organizations, including police and fire departments, emergency medical services, motorcycle couriers, taxicab providers, trucking companies, railroads, and public utility companies, use dispatchers to relay information and coordinate their operations. Essentially, the dispatcher is the "conductor" of the force, and is responsible for the direction of all units within it.

Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy, whereas pigeon post is not. Telegraphy requires that the method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver. Such methods are designed according to the limits of the signalling medium used. The use of smoke signals, beacons, reflected light signals, and flag semaphore signals are early examples. In the 19th century, the harnessing of electricity led to the invention of electrical telegraphy. The advent of radio in the early 20th century brought about radiotelegraphy and other forms of wireless telegraphy. In the Internet age, telegraphic means developed greatly in sophistication and ease of use, with natural language interfaces that hide the underlying code, allowing such technologies as electronic mail and instant messaging.

Organizational Communication is a subfield of the larger discipline of communication studies. Organizational communication, as a field, is the consideration, analysis, and criticism of the role of communication in organizational contexts. Its main function is to inform, persuade and promote goodwill. The flow of communication could be either formal or informal. Communication flowing through formal channels are downward, horizontal and upward whereas communication through informal channels are generally termed as grapevine. Knowledge Management

Small Group Communication is interpersonal communication within groups of between 3 and 20 individuals. Groups generally work in a context that is both relational and social. Quality communication such as helping behaviors and information-sharing causes groups to be superior to the average individual in terms of the quality of decisions and effectiveness of decisions made or actions taken. However, quality decision-making requires that members both identify with the group and have an attitude of commitment to participation in interaction. reflection of theory.

Health Communication

Crisis Communication has been defined as "a set of factors designed to combat crises and to lessen the actual damages inflicted." Crisis management should not merely be reactionary; it should also consist of preventative measures and preparation in anticipation of potential crises. Effective crisis management has the potential to greatly reduce the amount of damage the organization receives as a result of the crisis, and may even prevent an incident from ever developing into a crisis.

Emergencies

Medium is the collective communication outlets or tools that are used to store and deliver information or data. It is either associated with communication media, or the specialized mass media communication businesses such as print media and the press, photography, advertising, cinema, broadcasting (radio and television) and publishing.

Telemetry (environment)

Message is a discrete unit of communication intended by the source for consumption by some recipient or group of recipients. A message may be delivered by various means, including courier, telegraphy, carrier pigeon and electronic bus. A message can be the content of a broadcast. An interactive exchange of messages forms a conversation.

Creative Thinking
Thinking
Writing Tips
Vocabulary
Technology Tools
Digital Communication
Internet Freedom

Argue is to present reasons and Argument. Give evidence of. Have an argument about something. Give reasons or cite evidence in support of an idea, action, or theory, typically with the aim of persuading others to share one's view. exchange or express diverging or opposite views, typically in a heated or Angry way.

Anger ruins Arguments
Profanity ruins Communication

Compromises (diplomacy)

Proof of Evidence (Law)

Some people are like a unique puzzle. Some puzzles can not be solved unless you approach it in the way that it was designed. Meaning, some people communicate differently. Unless you modify your communication methods, you will always struggle with communication with that particular person. Some people don't know which questions to ask.

"It's ok to disagree with me, I can't force you to be right."

Argument is a fact or assertion offered as evidence that something is true. A contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement. A discussion in which reasons are advanced for and against some proposition or proposal. A course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating a truth or falsehood; the methodical process of logical reasoning, without assumptions.

Rebuttal is the speech act of refuting by offering a contrary contention or argument. Refuting is to prove to be false or incorrect.

Reductio ad absurdum is a form of argument which attempts either to disprove a statement by showing it inevitably leads to a ridiculous, absurd, or impractical conclusion, or to prove one by showing that if it were not true, the result would be absurd or impossible.

Just Complaining is not an Argument

Contentious is something that is likely to cause controversy, or cause a dispute and disagreement.

How To Argue With Your Partner when we are confronted suddenly. Don't hurt back when feeling unloved or misunderstood. (youtube)

You can make your argument seem more appealing using rhetoric that invites an emotional response. Just stating the facts may not be enough.

Ethos is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology.

Logos is the logic behind an argument, which tries to inform an audience using logical arguments and supportive evidence.

Pathos represents an appeal to the emotions of the audience, and elicits feelings that already reside in them. Pathos is a communication technique used most often in rhetoric (where it is considered one of the three modes of persuasion, alongside ethos and logos), and in literature, film and other narrative art. Emotional appeal can be accomplished in a multitude of ways: By a metaphor or storytelling, commonly known as a hook. By passion in the delivery of the speech or writing, as determined by the audience. Personal anecdote or short account of an incident. Not the Whole Truth.

What are the Facts and Evidence? What is the current situation now? What is expected to happen in the future? How do people feel?

Deliberation is a process of thoughtfully weighing options, usually prior to voting. Deliberation emphasizes the use of logic and reason as opposed to power-struggle, creativity, or dialog. Group decisions are generally made after deliberation through a vote or consensus of those involved. In legal settings a jury famously uses deliberation because it is given specific options, like guilty or not guilty, along with information and arguments to evaluate. In "deliberative democracy", the aim is for both elected officials and the general public to use deliberation rather than power-struggle as the basis for their vote.

Deliberative Rhetoric is a rhetorical device that juxtaposes potential future outcomes to communicate support or opposition for a given action or policy. In deliberative rhetoric, an argument is made using examples from the past to predict future outcomes in order to illustrate that a given policy or action will either be harmful or beneficial in the future. Fallacies

Epideictic praise-and-blame rhetoric that deals with goodness, excellence, nobility, shame, honor, dishonor, beauty, and matters of virtue and vice. The "components" of virtue according to Aristotle, were "justice, courage, self-control, magnificence, magnanimity, liberality, gentleness, practical and speculative wisdom" or "reason". Vice was the "contrary" of virtue.

Syllogism is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true.

Rhetoric (Aristotle) is an ancient Greek treatise on the art of persuasion, dating from the 4th century BC.

Debate is a discussion in which reasons are advanced for and against some proposition or proposal. The formal presentation of a stated proposition and the opposition to it (usually followed by a vote). Argue with one another. Think about carefully; weigh. Discuss the pros and cons of an issue. Diplomacy - Argue

Debating is contention in argument; strife, dissension, quarrelling, controversy; especially a formal discussion of subjects before a public assembly or legislature, in Parliament or in any deliberative assembly.

Public Debate is debating by the public, or in public.

Chatham House Rule is a system for holding debates and discussion panels on controversial issues.

Talking Point in debate or discourse is a succinct statement designed to support persuasively one side taken on an issue. Such statements can either be free standing or created as retorts to the opposition's talking points and are frequently used in public relations, particularly in areas heavy in debate such as politics and marketing.

The Great Debaters (Film)
100 Debates
Debate

Public Forum Debate debaters argue a topic of national importance. Public Participation

Lincoln Douglas Debate is a type of one-on-one debate with a format that emphasizes logic, ethical values, and philosophy.

Argumentation Theory is the interdisciplinary study of how conclusions can be reached through logical reasoning; that is, claims based, soundly or not, on premises. It includes the arts and sciences of civil debate, dialogue, conversation, and persuasion. It studies rules of inference, logic, and procedural rules in both artificial and real world settings. Argumentation includes debate and negotiation which are concerned with reaching mutually acceptable conclusions. It also encompasses eristic dialog, the branch of social debate in which victory over an opponent is the primary goal. This art and science is often the means by which people protect their beliefs or self-interests in rational dialogue, in common parlance, and during the process of arguing. Argumentation is used in law, for example in trials, in preparing an argument to be presented to a court, and in testing the validity of certain kinds of evidence. Also, argumentation scholars study the post hoc rationalizations by which organizational actors try to justify decisions they have made irrationally.

Evidence Based Argumentation

Ransberger Pivot is a debate technique from 1982 by Ray Ransberger and Marshall Fritz in which the speaker attempts to find common ground with the person they are trying to convince of their view. Once a person objects to the speaker's ideas, the speaker employs the technique in three stages. 1) Listen to the other person's objections. 2) Understand the other person's objections. 3) Find a common goal in the other person's objections and convince them your way is a solution to the agreed problem.

Dialectic is a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.

EBA Developing Evidence Based Arguments
Evidence Based (PDF)

Cornering is to force (a person or animal) into a place or situation from which it is hard to escape.

Mirror Image Rule
Offer and Acceptance

Successful negotiation is not about getting to yes, it's about mastering no and understanding what the path to an agreement is. more little yeses you get, the more likely you are to say yes to a big yes. "Well you want me to be successful don't you?" That's pushing for a yes. The flipside question to that instead is, "Do you want me to fail?" "That's right."

Marketing Tricks

Digression is a section of a composition or speech that marks a temporary shift of subject; the digression ends when the writer or speaker returns to the main topic. Digressions can be used intentionally as a stylistic or rhetorical device.

Devil's Advocate is someone who, given a certain argument, takes a position they do not necessarily agree with (or simply an alternative position from the accepted norm), for the sake of debate or to explore the thought further.

Heckler is a person who harasses and tries to disconcert others with questions, challenges, or gibes. Hecklers are often known to shout disparaging comments at a performance or event, or to interrupt set-piece speeches, with the intent of disturbing performers and/or participants. Interrupts (a public speaker) with derisive or aggressive comments or abuse

Booing is an act of showing displeasure for someone or something, generally an entertainer, by loudly yelling boo! (and holding the "oo" sound) or making other noises of disparagement, such as hissing. People may make hand signs at the entertainer, such as the thumbs down sign. If spectators particularly dislike the performance they may also accompany booing by throwing objects (traditionally rotten fruit and vegetables) onstage, though the objects may not be meant to physically hurt the performer.

Internet Troll is a person who sows discord on the Internet by starting arguments or upsetting people, by posting inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic messages in an online community (such as a newsgroup, forum, chat room, or blog) with the deliberate intent of provoking readers into an emotional response or of otherwise disrupting normal on-topic discussion, often for their own amusement.

Critics - Bullies - Skepticism

Discussion is an extended communication (often interactive) dealing with some particular topic. An exchange of views on some topic. Debate - Argue

Avoiding Invalid Reasons (valid, sound, persuasive, conditionals, consistent)

Dialogue is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.

Conversation is a form of interactive, spontaneous communication between two or more people. Typically, it occurs in spoken communication, as written exchanges are usually not referred to as conversations. The development of conversational skills and etiquette is an important part of socialization. The development of conversational skills in a new language is a frequent focus of language teaching and learning. Conversation analysis is a branch of sociology which studies the structure and organization of human interaction, with a more specific focus on conversational interaction.

I noticed throughout my life that hardly anyone ever has a meaningful or deep conversation. No one takes the time to ask questions that would help them to truly understand someone. There's no real investigations into reality. People just see the surface and pretend that they know what's underneath it all. There for there is very little learning going on. It's easy to overlook things when you don't know they exist. To assume is to live a lie.

Negotiation - Compromise
Conflict Resolution
Dispute Management
Diplomacy
Reasoning
Activism
Brain Storming
Decision Making
Collaboration

Lawsuit
Arbitration
Laws

Public Hearing

Discourse Analysis is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event.

Discourse denotes written and spoken communications such as: In semantics and discourse analysis: Discourse is a conceptual generalization of conversation within each modality and context of communication. The totality of codified language (vocabulary) used in a given field of intellectual enquiry and of social practice, such as legal discourse, medical discourse, religious discourse, et cetera. In the work of Michel Foucault, and that of the social theoreticians he inspired: discourse describes "an entity of sequences, of signs, in that they are enouncements (énoncés)", statements in conversation.

Dialectical Reasoning is a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.

Socratic Method is a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presumptions. It is a dialectical method, often involving a discussion in which the defense of one point of view is questioned; one participant may lead another to contradict themselves in some way, thus weakening the defender's point.

Questioning - Skepticism
Marketing
Professions
Presuming
Hypnotic Language


Listening - Hearing accurately when other People Speak


Try to quite your Internal Monologue or inner voice so that you are truly listening and not just waiting to speak. Keep Silent when Listening. Give full Attention and correctly hear and understand someone's messages. Sometimes it's hard when someone's talking and you have a question to ask, but you want to be polite and wait until a person finishes speaking. And then you have to decide if the question that you want to ask is appropriate at this time? Because you first want to acknowledge that you heard the person correctly before you ask questions that might lead in a different direction. Sometimes hold your questions for another time. Have a Psychological Connection. Do not create resistance in the listener. It's hard to listen to things that you don't understand. But don't pretend that you understand the subject. Tell the person that you're not sure that you understand them completely, but you're definitely interested in what they're saying. 

Active Listening is a communication technique used in counseling, training, and conflict resolution. It requires that the listener fully concentrate, understand, respond and then remember what is being said. This is opposed to reflective listening where the listener repeats back to the speaker what they have just heard to confirm understanding of both parties.

Reflective Listening is a communication strategy involving two key steps: seeking to understand a speaker's idea, then offering the idea back to the speaker, to confirm the idea has been understood correctly. It attempts to "reconstruct what the client is thinking and feeling and to relay this understanding back to the client". Reflective listening is a more specific strategy than the more general methods of active listening.
Focusing upon the conversation by reducing or eliminating any kind of distraction.
Genuinely embracing the speaker’s perspective without necessarily agreeing with it. By engaging in a non-judgmental and empathetic approach, listeners encourage the others to speak freely.
Mirroring the mood of the speaker, reflecting the emotional state with words and nonverbal communication. This requires the listener to quiet his mind and focus fully upon the mood of the speaker. This mood will become apparent not just in the words used but in the tone of voice, posture and other nonverbal cues given by the speaker. The listener will look for congruence between words and mood.
Summarizing what the speaker said, using the speaker’s own words rather than merely paraphrasing words and phrases, thereby mirroring the essential concept of the speaker.
Responding to the speaker's specific point, without digressing to other subjects.
Repeating the procedure for each subject, and switching the roles of speaker and listener, if necessary.
During the reflective listening approach, both client and therapist embrace the technique of thoughtful silence, rather than to engage in idle chatter.

"Listen to understand, just don't listen in order to give a reply"

Empathic Concern refers to other-oriented emotions elicited by and congruent with the perceived welfare of someone in need. These other-oriented emotions include feelings of tenderness, sympathy, compassion, soft-heartedness, and the like. Empathic concern is often and wrongly confused with Empathy. To empathize is to respond to another's perceived emotional state by experiencing feeling of a similar sort. Empathic concern or sympathy not only include empathizing, but also entails having a positive regard or a non-fleeting concern for the other person. Listening Skills: Patients, alarm fatigue, cry wolf, confirm listening.

"You Were Born With Two Ears And One Mouth For A Reason, We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we speak."

"If we were meant to talk more than listen, we would have two mouths and one ear." Mark Twain (1835 - 1910)

We can listen to 500 words a minute, but only speak 250 words a minute.

Julian Treasure 5 ways to Listen Better (video)
Listening Skills
Informational Listening (PDF)
Directed Listening and Thinking Activity (PDF)
Focus
Silence is Golden
Internal Listening

Listen is to hear with intention. Pay close attention to; give heed to. You have to learn how to listen. Listening is a skill.

You can't hear something that you have never learned how to listen for. Being able to truly listen to someone takes awareness, focus and knowing what to listen for, by knowing the person, and by knowing the different ways that people use to communicate.

Listening Skills

Brain mechanisms of Pitch Perception. (the rise and fall of the voice in speaking).
To emphasize a word, we briefly raise our pitch; this alone can change the meaning of a sentence. Tang et al. performed high-density brain recordings on clinically monitored neurosurgical patients. They discovered that intonational pitch is represented by a highly specialized and dedicated neural population in the auditory cortex. Discrete cortical sites extracted intonational information in real time from the speech signal. These sites were overlapping with, but functionally independent from, sites that encode other critical aspects of speech, such as the phonemes and information about the speaker. Speakers of all human languages regularly use intonational pitch to convey linguistic meaning, such as to emphasize a particular word. Listeners extract pitch movements from speech and evaluate the shape of intonation contours independent of each speaker’s pitch range. We used high-density electrocorticography to record neural population activity directly from the brain surface while participants listened to sentences that varied in intonational pitch contour, phonetic content, and speaker. Cortical activity at single electrodes over the human superior temporal gyrus selectively represented intonation contours. These electrodes were intermixed with, yet functionally distinct from, sites that encoded different information about phonetic features or speaker identity. Furthermore, the representation of intonation contours directly reflected the encoding of speaker-normalized
relative pitch but not absolute pitch.

Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory
Auditory-Processing Malleability

Know the Difference between Hearing and Listening. 
Deliberate Listening
Passive Listening
Media Literacy 

Hear is to perceive (sound) via the auditory sense. Get to know or become aware of, usually accidentally. Listen and pay attention. Receive a communication from someone. Examine or hear (evidence or a case) by judicial process. Expresses enthusiastic agreement. (Discover, Learn, Notice, Comprehend)  
Hearing Problems

 "We listen to obtain information. We listen to understand. We listen for enjoyment. We listen to learn." 

Comprehension when Listening
Unbiased Listening
Non-Judgmental Listening
Analyze Information Accurately 

Listening Techniques


1. Stop Talking
Don't talk, listen. Limit your own talking. You can’t talk and listen at the same time. If you are thinking about what you are going to say next, then you're not listening. Don’t argue mentally. Don’t allow yourself to become annoyed or irritated with anything that is said. Try agreeing with points to see if you can understand the speaker’s perspective better. Don’t jump to conclusions. Avoid making unwarranted assumptions about what is going to be said. Don’t mentally try to complete the other person’s sentences. Listen and learn. When somebody else is talking, listen to what they are saying, do not interrupt, or talk over them or finish their sentences for them. Stop, just listen. Don’t interrupt or change the subject. A pause, even a long pause, doesn’t always mean that the speaker has finished saying everything that he or she has to say. When the other person has finished talking, then you may need to clarify to ensure you have received their message accurately.

2. Prepare Yourself to Listen
Prepare in advance. Remarks and questions prepared in advance, when possible, free your mind for listening. Relax. Focus on the speaker. Put other things out of mind. Turn off your own worries. Turning off and tuning in aren’t always easy, but they are important. Personal problems or worries not connected with the subject at hand form a kind of internal "static" that can blank out the real message that you are tuning in. The human mind is easily distracted by other thoughts – what’s for lunch, what time do I need to leave to catch my train, is it going to rain – try to put other thoughts out of mind and concentrate on the messages that are being communicated. Concentrate on what you are hearing. Focus your mind on what the speaker is saying. Practice shutting out outside distractions when listening.

3. Put the Speaker at Ease
Help the speaker to feel free to speak. Remember their needs and concerns. Nod or use other gestures or words to encourage them to continue. Maintain eye contact but don’t stare – show you are listening and understanding what is being said. React to ideas, not the person. Don’t allow irritation to rise from things said, or from mannerisms. Try not to respond to these distractions. Base your response on principles, not personalities.

4. Remove Distractions
Focus on what is being said: don’t doodle, shuffle papers, look out the window, pick your fingernails or similar. Avoid unnecessary interruptions. These behaviors disrupt the listening process and send messages to the speaker that you are bored or distracted. Consider taking notes. In some settings, taking notes is appropriate and will help you remember important points. Be selective. Trying to take notes on everything said can result in being left far behind or in retaining irrelevant information.

5. Empathize
Try to understand the other person’s point of view. Look at issues from their perspective. Let go of preconceived ideas. By having an open mind we can more fully empathize with the speaker. If the speaker says something that you disagree with then wait and construct an argument to counter what is said but keep an open mind to the views and opinions of others.

6. Be Patient
A pause, even a long pause, does not necessarily mean that the speaker has finished. Be patient and let the speaker continue in their own time, sometimes it takes time to formulate what to say and how to say it. Never interrupt or finish a sentence for someone. Listen for ideas, not just words. You want to get the whole picture, not just isolated bits and pieces. Listen for key themes. Use interjections to punctuate your listening. An occasional "Yes" or "I see" shows you are still with the speaker. However, wait until the speaker has finished his or her comment, and don’t overdo or use interjections as meaningless comments.

7. Avoid Personal Prejudice
Try to be impartial. Don't become irritated and don't let the person’s habits or mannerisms distract you from what they are really saying. Everybody has a different way of speaking - some people are for example more nervous or shy than others, some have regional accents or make excessive arm movements, some people like to pace whilst talking - others like to sit still.
Focus on what is being said and try to ignore styles of delivery.

8. Listen to the Tone
Volume and tone both add to what someone is saying. A good speaker will use both volume and tone to their advantage to keep an audience attentive; everybody will use pitch, tone and volume of voice in certain situations – let these help you to understand the emphasis of what is being said.

9. Listen for Ideas – Not Just Words
You need to get the whole picture, not just isolated bits and pieces. Maybe one of the most difficult aspects of listening is the ability to link together pieces of information to reveal the ideas of others. With proper concentration, letting go of distractions, and focus this becomes easier.

10. Wait and Watch for Non-Verbal Communication
Gestures, facial expressions, and eye-movements can all be important. We don’t just listen with our ears but also with our eyes – watch and pick up the additional information being transmitted via non-verbal communication. 
Skills you Need

More Tips: When listening, asking a good question tells the speaker the listener has not only heard what was said, but that they comprehended it well enough to want additional information. Good listening was consistently seen as a two-way dialog. It's good to Restate issues to confirm that their understanding is correct. Good listeners make the conversation a positive experience for the other party. Good listening is characterized by the creation of a safe environment in which issues and differences could be discussed openly. A good listener increasingly understands the other person’s emotions and feelings about the topic at hand, and identifies and acknowledges them. The listener empathizes with and validates those feelings in a supportive, nonjudgmental way. Good listeners never highjack the conversation so that they or their issues become the subject of the discussion. 80% of what we communicate comes from body language signals.

Listening is the ability to accurately receive and interpret messages in the communication process. Listening is key to all effective communication, without the ability to listen effectively messages are easily misunderstood – communication breaks down and the sender of the message can easily become frustrated or irritated.

A good listener will listen not only to what is being said, but also to what is left unsaid or only partially said. Effective listening involves observing body language and noticing inconsistencies between verbal and non-verbal messages. For example, if someone tells you that they are happy with their life but through gritted teeth or with tears filling their eyes, you should consider that the verbal and non-verbal messages are in conflict, they maybe don't mean what they say.


Teaching Listening


Strategies for Developing Listening Skills / Language learning depends on listening. Listening provides the aural input that serves as the basis for language acquisition and enables learners to interact in spoken
communication.

Effective language instructors show students how they can adjust their listening behavior to deal with a variety of situations, types of input, and listening purposes. They help students develop a set of listening strategies and match appropriate strategies to each listening situation.

Listening strategies are techniques or activities that contribute directly to the comprehension and recall of listening input. Listening strategies can be classified by how the listener processes the input.

Top-down strategies are listener based; the listener taps into background knowledge of the topic, the situation or context, the type of text, and the language. This background knowledge activates a set of expectations that help the listener to interpret what is heard and anticipate what will come next. Top-down strategies include

Listening for the main idea
Predicting
Drawing inferences
Summarizing

Bottom-up strategies are text based; the listener relies on the language in the message, that is, the combination of sounds, words, and grammar that creates meaning. Bottom-up strategies include

Listening for specific details
Recognizing cognates
Recognizing word-order patterns

Strategic listeners also use metacognitive strategies to plan, monitor, and evaluate their listening.
They plan by deciding which listening strategies will serve best in a particular situation.
They monitor their comprehension and the effectiveness of the selected strategies.
They evaluate by determining whether they have achieved their listening comprehension goals and whether the combination of listening strategies selected was an effective one.

Listening for Meaning
To extract meaning from a listening text, students need to follow four basic steps:
Figure out the purpose for listening. Activate background knowledge of the topic in order to predict or anticipate content and identify appropriate listening strategies.
Attend to the parts of the listening input that are relevant to the identified purpose and ignore the rest. This selectivity enables students to focus on specific items in the input and reduces the amount of information they have to hold in short-term memory in order to recognize it.
Select top-down and bottom-up strategies that are appropriate to the listening task and use them flexibly and interactively. Students' comprehension improves and their confidence increases when they use top-down and bottom-up strategies simultaneously to construct meaning.
Check comprehension while listening and when the listening task is over. Monitoring comprehension helps students detect inconsistencies and comprehension failures, directing them to use alternate strategies.



Hearing Difficulties
 
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory
Listening Training and Auditory Integration
Auditory Processing Techniques
AIT - Auditory Integration Training very little empirical evidence regarding this assertion.
Auditory Training
American Academy of Audiology
Speech Pathology Services
Learning Specialists (Child Development)
The Listening Center
Sounds
How to Listen when others are Speaking

Hearing Impaired - Deafness



Learning to Speak - Speech


Speech is the vocalized form of communication based upon the syntactic combination of lexicals and names that are drawn from very large (usually about 1,000 different words) vocabularies. Each spoken word is created out of the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units. These vocabularies, the syntax which structures them, and their set of speech sound units differ, creating the existence of many thousands of different types of mutually unintelligible human languages. Most human speakers are able to communicate in two or more of them, hence being polyglots. The vocal abilities that enable humans to produce speech also provide humans with the ability to Sing.

Oracy is a word formed by analogy from literacy and numeracy. The purpose is to draw attention to the neglect of oral skills in education.

Speech and Language Pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also called speech and language therapist, or speech therapist, who specializes in the evaluation and treatment of communication disorders, cognition, voice disorders, and swallowing disorders. A common misconception is that speech-language pathology is restricted to correcting pronunciation difficulties, such as helping English speaking individuals enunciate their "s" and "r" sounds, and helping people who stutter to speak more fluently. In fact, speech-language pathology is concerned with a broad scope of speech, language, swallowing, and voice issues involving communication, some of which are: Word-finding issues, either as a result of a specific language problem such as a language delay or a more general issue such as dementia. Social communication difficulties involving how people communicate ideas with others (pragmatics). Structural language impairments, including difficulties creating sentences that are grammatical (syntax) and meaningful (semantics). Literacy impairments (reading and writing) related to the letter-to-sound relationship (phonics), the word-to-meaning relationship (semantics), and understanding the ideas presented in a text (reading comprehension). Voice difficulties, such as a raspy voice, a voice that is too soft, or other voice difficulties that negatively impact a person's social or professional performance. Cognitive impairments (e.g., attention, memory, executive function) to the extent that they interfere with communication. The components of speech production include: phonation (producing sound); resonance; fluency; Intonation, Pitch variance; Voice (including aeromechanical components of respiration) The components of language include: phonology (manipulating sound according to the rules of a language); Morphology (understanding and using minimal units of meaning); syntax (constructing sentences according to languages' grammar rules); semantics (interpreting signs or symbols of communication to construct meaning); pragmatics (social aspects of communication). Primary pediatric speech and language disorders include receptive and expressive language disorders, speech sound disorders, childhood apraxia of speech, stuttering, and language-based learning disabilities. Swallowing disorders include difficulties in any system of the swallowing process (i.e. oral, pharyngeal, esophageal), as well as functional dysphagia and feeding disorders. Swallowing disorders can occur at any age and can stem from multiple causes.

Learning Specialists (Child Development)

Babies first Words (effects on children)

Learning a New Language

Broca's Area is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere (usually the left) of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.

Inferior Frontal Gyrus is also extremely important for language comprehension and production due to the fact that most language processing takes place in the left hemisphere. Speech takes both sides of the brain.

Speech Communication is the vocalized form of communication based upon the syntactic combination of lexicals and names that are drawn from very large (usually about 1,000 different words)[citation needed] vocabularies. Each spoken word is created out of the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units (phonemes). These vocabularies, the syntax which structures them, and their sets of speech sound units differ, creating many thousands of different, and mutually unintelligible, human languages. Most human speakers are able to communicate in two or more of them, hence being polyglots. The vocal abilities that enable humans to produce speech also enable them to sing.

Speech Processing is the study of speech signals and the processing methods of these signals. The signals are usually processed in a digital representation, so speech processing can be regarded as a special case of digital signal processing, applied to speech signal. Aspects of speech processing includes the acquisition, manipulation, storage, transfer and output of speech signals. The input is called speech recognition and the output is called speech synthesis.

Oral Expression is the ability to convey wants, needs, thoughts, and ideas meaningfully using appropriate syntactic, pragmatic, semantic, and phonological language structures. Oral expression should NOT be confused with reading aloud or reading fluently.

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words. All verbal languages use pitch to express emotional and other paralinguistic information and to convey emphasis, contrast, and other such features in what is called intonation, but not all languages use tones to distinguish words or their inflections, analogously to consonants and vowels. Languages that do have this feature are called tonal languages; the distinctive tone patterns of such a language are sometimes called tonemes, by analogy with phoneme. Tonal languages are extremely common in Africa, East Asia, and Central America, but rare elsewhere in Asia and in Europe; as many as seventy percent of world languages may be tonal.

Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status. Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs. The field of phonetics is a multilayered subject of linguistics that focuses on speech. In the case of oral languages there are three basic areas of study:
Articulatory phonetics: the study of the production of speech sounds by the articulatory and vocal tract by the speaker.
Acoustic phonetics: the study of the physical transmission of speech sounds from the speaker to the listener.
Auditory phonetics: the study of the reception and perception of speech sounds by the listener.
These areas are inter-connected through the common mechanism of sound, such as wavelength (pitch), amplitude, and harmonics.

Phonetics – The Sound of American English
Phonetics Flash Animation Project: University of Iowa
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Motor Learning and Control
communicating UCLA Bureau of Glottal Affairs
Glottal Consonant are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.
Glottis is defined as the opening between the vocal folds.
International Speech Communication Association
International Pragmatics Association
Praat
Using Praat for Linguistic Research
Voice Sauce Program for Voice Analysis
TalkBank Database
Expressive Synthetic Speech Resource
Speech Websites
Speech Accents Archive
Language
Writing
Reading
Speech-Language and Hearing
Speech Buddy
Speech Easy

Speech Perception is the process by which the sounds of language are heard, interpreted and understood. The study of speech perception is closely linked to the fields of phonology and phonetics in linguistics and cognitive psychology and perception in psychology. Research in speech perception seeks to understand how human listeners recognize speech sounds and use this information to understand spoken language. Speech perception research has applications in building computer systems that can recognize speech, in improving speech recognition for hearing- and language-impaired listeners, and in foreign-language teaching.

Freedom of Speech
Children

One area of the brain is for perceiving speech, and another area of the brain is for producing speech.  Science Daily

Communication Disorder is any disorder that affects an individual's ability to comprehend, detect, or apply language and speech to engage in discourse effectively with others. The delays and disorders can range from simple sound substitution to the inability to understand or use one's native language.

Dyslexia is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence. Different people are affected to varying degrees. Problems may include difficulties in spelling words, reading quickly, writing words, "sounding out" words in the head, pronouncing words when reading aloud and understanding what one reads. Often these difficulties are first noticed at school. When someone who previously could read loses their ability, it is known as alexia. The difficulties are involuntary and people with this disorder have a normal desire to learn.
Dyslexia
Dyslexia Typeface (youtube)

Audiology is a branch of science that studies hearing, balance, and related disorders. Its practitioners, who treat those with hearing loss and proactively prevent related damage are audiologists. Employing various testing strategies (e.g. hearing tests, otoacoustic emission measurements, videonystagmography, and electrophysiologic tests), audiology aims to determine whether someone can hear within the normal range, and if not, which portions of hearing (high, middle, or low frequencies) are affected, to what degree, and where the lesion causing the hearing loss is found (outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, auditory nerve and/or central nervous system). If an audiologist determines that a hearing loss or vestibular abnormality is present he or she will provide recommendations to a patient as to what options (e.g. hearing aid, cochlear implants, appropriate medical referrals) may be of assistance. In addition to testing hearing, audiologists can also work with a wide range of clientele in rehabilitation (individuals with tinnitus, auditory processing disorders, cochlear implant users and/or hearing aid users), from pediatric populations to veterans and may perform assessment of tinnitus and the vestibular system.

Medium of instruction is a language used in teaching. It may or may not be the official language of the country or territory. If the first language of students is different from the official language, it may be used as the medium of instruction for part or all of schooling. Bilingual or multilingual education may involve the use of more than one language of instruction. UNESCO considers that "providing education in a child's mother tongue is indeed a critical issue".

Visual Processing Disorders refers to a reduced ability to make sense of information taken in through the eyes.

Stuttering or stammering, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the person who stutters is unable to produce sounds. The term stuttering is most commonly associated with involuntary sound repetition, but it also encompasses the abnormal hesitation or pausing before speech, referred to by people who stutter as blocks, and the prolongation of certain sounds, usually vowels or semivowels.

Stammering Lidcombe Program
Singing and Stuttering

Hearing Impaired
Blind
Languages
Linguistics
Interpersonal intelligence
Meaning

Primary Progressive Aphasia is a neurological syndrome in which language capabilities slowly and progressively become
impaired while other mental functions remain intact.

Aphasia is a combination of a speech and language disorder caused by damage to the brain that affects about 1 million individuals within the U.S.  Receptive Aphasia, also known as Wernicke’s aphasia, fluent aphasia, or sensory aphasia, is a type of aphasia in which an individual is unable to understand language in its written or spoken form.

Articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.

Place of Articulation of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth). Along with the manner of articulation and the phonation, it gives the consonant its distinctive sound.

Syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, specifically word order. The term syntax is also used to refer to the study of such principles and processes. The goal of many syntacticians is to discover the syntactic rules common to all languages.

Semantics is primarily the linguistic, and also philosophical, study of meaning—in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics. It focuses on the relationship between signifiers—like words, phrases, signs, and symbols—and what they stand for, their denotation.

Lexical Semantics is a subfield of linguistic semantics. The units of analysis in lexical semantics are lexical units which include not only words but also sub-words or sub-units such as affixes and even compound words and phrases. Lexical units make up the catalogue of words in a language, the lexicon. Lexical semantics looks at how the meaning of the lexical units correlates with the structure of the language or syntax. This is referred to as syntax-semantic interface.The study of lexical semantics looks at: The classification and decomposition of lexical items. The differences and similarities in lexical semantic structure cross-linguistically. The relationship of lexical meaning to sentence meaning and syntax. Lexical units, also referred to as syntactic atoms, can stand alone such as in the case of root words or parts of compound words or they necessarily attach to other units such as prefixes and suffixes do. The former are called free morphemes and the latter bound morphemes. They fall into a narrow range of meanings (semantic fields) and can combine with each other to generate new meanings.

Phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is roughly synonymous with expression. In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy. A phrase typically appears within a clause, but it is possible also for a phrase to be a clause or to contain a clause within it.

Accent is a way of pronunciation particular to a speaker or group of speakers.

Speech Segmentation is the process of identifying the boundaries between words, syllables, or phonemes in spoken natural languages. The term applies both to the mental processes used by humans, and to artificial processes of natural language processing.

Pronunciation is the way a word or a language is spoken, or the manner in which someone utters a word. If one is said to have "correct pronunciation", then it refers to both within a particular dialect. A word can be spoken in different ways by various individuals or groups, depending on many factors, such as: the duration of the cultural exposure of their childhood, the location of their current residence, speech or voice disorders, their ethnic group, their social class, or their education.

Pronounce Names
How To Say
Pronounced Words
Pronunciation Patterns 
Tongue Twister Exercises
Twisters
Pronunciation Practice
Pronunciation Practice
Speech Training

Rhetoric and Composition Parts of Speech
Dynamic Information Processing Measures in Audiovisual Speech Perception  PDF

Verbal Fluency Test are a kind of psychological test in which participants have to say as many words as possible from a category in a given time (usually 60 seconds). This category can be semantic, such as animals or fruits, or phonemic, such as words that begin with letter p. The semantic fluency test is sometimes described as the category fluency test or simply as "freelisting". The COWAT (Controlled oral word association test) is the most employed phonetic variant. Although the most common performance measure is the total number of words, other analyses such as number of repetitions, number and length of clusters of words from the same semantic or phonetic subcategory, or number of switches to other categories can be carried out.

Reticence in Speaking is the trait of being uncommunicative; not volunteering anything more than necessary.

Oral-Formulaic Composition seeks to explain two related issues: The process which enables oral poets to improvise poetry; and why orally improvised poetry has the characteristics it does.

Fran Capo is world's fastest talking female clocked at 603.32 words in 54.2 seconds. That’s 11 words a second.

Auction Chant is a rhythmic repetition of numbers and "filler words" spoken by auctioneers in the process of conducting an auction. The chant consists of at least the current price and the asking price to outbid. Auctioneers typically develop their own style, and competitions are held to judge them. Outside of auctions, the chant has been the subject of music and used in commercials and film. How to Talk Faster (wikihow)

Cluttering is a speech and communication disorder characterized by a rapid rate of speech, erratic rhythm, and poor syntax or grammar, making speech difficult to understand.

Pressure of Speech is a tendency to speak rapidly and frenziedly, as if motivated by an urgency not apparent to the listener. The speech produced, sometimes called pressured speech, is difficult to interrupt. It may be too fast, or too tangential for the listener to understand. It is an example of cluttered speech. It can be unrelenting, loud and without pauses.


Talking  -  Speaking Effectively


Avoid Generalized Statements that fail to specify your message. If you give a clear example of what you're trying to say, then people will have an easier time understanding you, and they might even be able to answer your comment more accurately, and correctly.  Debating

Speaking Directly to Someone versus Speaking Indirectly to Someone
"We have made our ability to communicate more complicated then it needs to be."
Direct Communication versus Indirect Communication. Meanings  Translations
Knowing when and why to be direct is the key to effective communication. Knowing when to give subtle hints, Knowing when to talk around a subject. Knowing when to give under-the-surface meaning versus implicit meaning. It's good to Speak directly too the person, not indirectly. Don't beat around the bush, speak to someone one and not at someone. Avoid blunt comments. Avoiding insults may be seen as more important than providing honest feedback. Pay attention to nonverbal behaviors. In particular, a discrepancy between nonverbal behaviors and the words used by an indirect speaker can indicate that the words aren’t accurate. Recognize that, for indirect communicators, it’s “always easier to agree than to disagree”. Sometimes it's good to use open-ended, non-leading questions. Avoid phrasing a question so that the answer may be perceived as insulting to someone (for example, may be seen as criticizing someone).

Tips for indirect speakers when communicating with direct speakers include: Recognize that your subtle messages may not be perceived in the way you expect or may not be perceived at all. Accept that direct communicators respect direct speech. Politeness can sometimes make the message less affective. Direct communicators tend to say what they think, and Indirect communicators seek to avoid conflict, tension and uncomfortable situations. We all use indirect communication strategies at times and in certain circumstances – we mean more than we say, and we gather meaning from others beyond the words they use.

Try not to use these ignorant excuses when explaining and communicating...Tell it like it is. Let the facts speak for themselves. If you don't have anything nice to say, don't say anything. Tell someone what you think they want to hear. The squeaky wheel gets the grease. The nail that sticks out gets hammered back in. Honesty is the best policy. Being polite is more important than being honest. It's okay to say no. Avoid saying no; say “maybe” or “possibly,” even if you mean “no.” The truth is more important than sparing someone’s feelings. Don’t beat around the bush. If the truth might hurt, soften it. Say what you mean and mean what you say. Read between the lines. Take communication at face value. Handle communication to save face. Time is money. Get to the point. Small talk before business is important. It’s okay to disagree with your boss at a meeting. Criticism of others, especially people with more authority, should be unspoken or careful and veiled.

Cultural Dimension: direct versus indirect communication style (youtube)

"You can create the perfect message, but the understanding depends on the skill of the receiver to correctly decipher it."

Good Enunciation is the act of speaking clearly and concisely. The opposite of good enunciation is mumbling or slurring. Pronunciation is a component of enunciation. Pronunciation is to pronounce sounds of words correctly.

"Lets be Frank" is a directness in manner or speech; without subtlety or evasion. The quality of being honest and straightforward in attitude and speech. Giving an answer that is short and precise.

Initiating is declaring one's conversational intent and inviting consent from one's prospective conversation partner. Schedule sufficient, uninterrupted time for talking.

Friendships
Speech and Listening
Have a Meaningful Conversation (wikihow)

Turn-Taking is Managing the flow of information back and forth between partners in a conversation by alternating roles of speaker and listener.

Eloquence is the beauty and persuasion in speech. Powerful and effective language. Eloquence (wiki)

Don't talk to fill pauses, or respond to statements in a point-counterpoint fashion. 

Avoid Vulgarities
Whole Body Listening

Suspend Judgment and evaluation until you can see things from another person's Perspective

You Don't Know Everything

Avoid making distracting gestures and maintain an appropriate distance and posture. 

Think like the person to whom you are speaking. His or her problems and needs are important. You’ll understand and retain them better if you keep his or her point of view.

Ask clarification questions. If you don’t understand something, or if you feel you may have missed a point, clear it up now before it embarrasses you later.

Eye Contact occurs when two people look at each other's eyes at the same time. In human beings, eye contact is a form of nonverbal communication and is thought to have a large influence on social behavior.

Eye Tracking is the process of measuring either the point of gaze (where one is looking) or the motion of an eye relative to the head. An eye tracker is a device for measuring eye positions and eye movement. Eye trackers are used in research on the visual system, in psychology, in psycholinguistics, marketing, as an input device for human-computer interaction, and in product design. There are a number of methods for measuring eye movement. The most popular variant uses video images from which the eye position is extracted. Other methods use search coils or are based on the electrooculogram.

Expressions (body language)

Make sincere eye contact

When to Change the Subject
Haptic Communication (touch)
Haptic Technology
How to Tell if You Talk Too Much

Delayed Auditory Feedback also called delayed sidetone, is a type of altered auditory feedback that consists of extending the time between speech and auditory perception. It can consist of a device that enables a user to speak into a microphone and then hear his or her voice in headphones a fraction of a second later. Some DAF devices are hardware; DAF computer software is also available.

Knowing the right time to Interrupt someone and knowing when to let someone else interrupt you is very important. Genuinely seek information. Ask clarifying Questions Articulate  Offer Constructive Feedback. Keep feedback impersonal and goal-oriented.

Direct Negative Feedback toward behavior that the recipient can control. Ask questions to ensure understanding of the feedback.

Avoid being emotional and avoid attacking others.
Paraphrase the message you heard, especially to clarify the speaker's intentions.
Focus on specific behaviors rather than making general statements.
Learn to separate Sounds and enjoy each one individually.

Incommunicado as an adjective or adverb, refers to a situation or a behaviour due to which communication with outsiders is not possible, for either voluntary or involuntary reasons, especially due to confinement or reclusiveness.

Thinking in Levels
Automated Conversation Coach

Most of the time, words are translated with little confusion. It's when we put many words together is when we start to have most of the errors in translation. People are biased against certain words, and sometimes subconsciously. So we have to pay
attention how we say things and also confirm what we are saying is interpreted correctly. With out any under lying meanings, or undertones, or even a perceived play on words. And that's another problem, how to deal with miss interpretations and personal perceptions. We can't assume that people are understanding our messages the right way, and not taking it the wrong way. We should choose words that minimize confusion, but still transfer our messages at a higher rate of accuracy.


Getting Your Point Across  (5 Tips)


The Average Rate for an American Speaker is 150 Words Per Minute.

First:
Calm yourself, don't get upset or let your emotions control your speech. Avoid arguing. Avoid degrading others or insulting people, or prejudging people. Don't use vulgar language. Try not to say anything that would be counterproductive to the goal that you want to achieve.
Develop a Friendly Tone of Voice
Be Heard

Second:
Begin your speech, if necessary, state your name and any relevant information that would lead up to this point in time. Be sure to generate enough vocal power and energy to reach every listener in the room.
Breathe Diaphragmatically

Third:
Express your view about the important issue. Explain the goals and explain how it benefits others. Back up your opinion with facts, evidence, witnesses and or documents. And don't forget that you have to explain why you think this evidence is relevant, because just presenting facts is not good enough, you have to explain the meaning and the importance of these facts. Use examples and make suggestions.
Search for Meaning

Fourth:
Listen. Relate to the opinions of others and let them know that you understand their point of view. Be ready for the follow up questions and have appropriate responses ready. Don't tell a person they are wrong, just explain why you believe that you are right, and why it is more fair to everyone, and that it's free from favoritism, or self-interest, or bias, or deception.

Example:
I once too thought that same way, or similar way. And then I experienced a change when I learned some new information. And after verifying this information and researching it more deeply, I have come to the conclusion that I must change, or, I will be responsible for any damage that is done from these negative actions, actions that do more harm then good. Humans are born good, and I have never met a bad dog either, I guess that is why dogs are mans best friend, we seek out similar company even outside our own species.

Fifth:
Don't be discouraged if you need to end the conversation. Don't feel bad if your point didn't get through. Learn to ask for more time to think, and to seek out more information on the matter. And also to learn more about other peoples point of view, so that you can better explain and understand your own point of view. 

Own The Room! - Sample Lesson: Voice Modulation and Speed (youtube)
5 Aspects of a Powerful Speaking Voice (youtube)

Speaking: The Proper use of Pitch for your Speaking Voice (youtube)
Develop a Perfect Speaking Voice (wikihow)

Learn to mirror words selectively. Repeat the last one to three words that a person just said back to them to establish a rapport, this will help the person feel more comfortable to be open, and also help communicate to the person that you're striving to understand their feelings, and that you like them. When a person feels that you understand them, like when saying "that's right", is reaffirming that you're truly listening and understanding them. Acknowledging their side and mirroring their point. Questions that allow opportunities to say no can give the other person a measure of control and give them a sense of security, other then getting the other person to answer yes to questions. Don't try to force your opponent to admit that you are right. Rephrase and summarize.
Ask no-oriented questions like: "Have you given up on this aspect?" and "Is it too late to talk about x ?" Use phrases like "It sounds like you are afraid of..." and "It looks like you're concerned about..." Use empathy strategically. Knowing the weaknesses of your position will help you to be prepared for difficult questions.

Speech Science (youtube channel)

"Have more then you show, speak less then you know."  Shakespeare

pitch-variable voice

Sonority Hierarchy is a ranking of speech sounds (or phones) by amplitude. For example, if one says the vowel [a], they will produce a much louder sound than if one says the stop [t]. Sonority hierarchies are especially important when analyzing syllable structure; rules about what segments may appear in onsets or codas together, such as SSP, are formulated in terms of the difference of their sonority values. Some languages also have assimilation rules based on sonority hierarchy, for example, the Finnish potential mood, in which a less sonorous segment changes to copy a more sonorous adjacent segment.

Timbre is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound, or tone that distinguishes different types of sound production, such as choir voices and musical instruments, such as string instruments, wind instruments, and percussion instruments, and which enables listeners to hear even different instruments from the same category as different (e.g. a viola and a violin).

Talk With a Deeper Voice
Pitch, Tone & Inflection (youtube)
Your Persuasive Voice

The responsibility of confirming if someone is listening to you is your responsibility, it's not the responsibility of the listener.
In every communication between people, only half of the message is clear, or completely understood. That's because not every question is answered during a normal conversation. People need to know more then just the definition of a word. And people also need to know more about the context, because a lot of context that surrounds words is non factual, made up of opinions that could easily mislead someone. First we need to learn to speak in truths, then we need to learn to communicate fully and accurately. I see conversations in the future being more fuller, more enjoyable, more meaningful, more open, and more honest, where one word could speak a thousand truths, and one word could answer a 1000 questions. But that's from everyone having a high quality education, an education that does not exist as of 2016. But the research is near completion, so a high quality education is not that far away. So when a person says that they are educated, it will mean that have 1000 different skills and qualities, and know a 1000 different things, and they could explain them for you if needed, using 20,000 unique words.

Why do some people assume that when they talk, everyone understands what they're saying? Just because you use a Label or a phrase, this does not explain the message, you only reveal a small detail, and then you expect people to fill in all the missing information correctly. So in your mind, you believe that you're explaining everything the person needs to understand the message. For some maybe, but for most of the people, they need more details, need more info, and they need the reason why. Other wise, you're not saying anything. You're like a barking dog. You know the dog is trying to say something, but until you investigate to find out why the dog is barking, you will not know why the dog is barking.

"Some people use broad words that say very little, and they pretend like they are answering a question, when in fact they are actually asking more questions in the form of an answer."

Magpie is an obnoxious and foolish and loquacious talker. (chatterbox)

Babbler
is to speak (about unimportant matters) rapidly and incessantly. 

Gift of Gab
False Advertising
Media Manipulation

Nonversation

We should always think before we speak and always choose the right moment. But be careful, it's not just what you say, but it's also what you don't say that can cause the most damage. Remember, no one can read your mind, so don't be afraid to speak your mind, because you may never have another chance. It's not just what you say, but how you say it. Remember, language is the easy part, communicating effectively is the hard part.

Writing Tips
Speaking with Purpose

Don't Beat Around the Bush is to treat a topic, but omit its main points, often intentionally.

"If we both stop Jumping to Conclusions then maybe we'll get somewhere"

"If you just say what you mean, you can avoid the possibility of things being lost during the translation, or being misunderstood."

The differences between "The Silent Treatment" "Ignoring Someone" and "Turning a Blind Eye".

Sometimes you don't want to satisfy someone with a response to a question, or an observation or an opinion, because it might encourage someone to continue talking about something that you don't feel comfortable about, or something that you disagree with, or something that you don't have enough information about so that you can reply with a correct response. And you don't want to get caught in a conversation with someone who is upset and will most likely drag you into an argument. But sometimes you don't want to totally ignore someone. Make eye contact with the person that shows no emotion, so as not to influence or encourage someone to continue a conversation that is making an incorrect observation, or just asking the wrong questions. Sometimes it's just better to change the subject, in a nice way of course. Or ask for the conversation to continue later in a better time and place.  Shunning

Sometimes you just want to be a Fly on the Wall in certain situations, meaning that you would like to be there secretly to see and hear what happens. Like a One-way Mirror, being an observer and witness without the risk of actually being there. Interested but not ready to commit or ready to be fully involved where your true character can be on display and tested along side the subject matter.



Talking to Yourself - Inner Voice


Is Thinking to Yourself and Talking to Yourself the same thing?


Remember, the Conversations in your Head are only one half of a conversation. Even though you're talking to yourself, it still counts as only one opinion. You can't say "my paranoid side says yes while my logical side says no", because you still need to confirm the accuracy of both of those questions, just like when trying to figuring out if something is Propaganda.

How can you be sure "That it Goes without Saying" if you never say it out loud? To pretend to have a conversation with someone else, and to guess what their responses would be, is not that unusual, people do it all the time, it's called "thinking to yourself." It's anticipating responses to particular questions that you might ask someone. But the bottom line is, you're still only answering your own questions, so you're pretty much still just talking to yourself, in a form of role-playing. And it's not a great way to teach yourself, mostly because you're only relying on one information source. So you still need to seek out more information and knowledge in order to obtain a better understanding about the questions you're asking, and, you also have to be sure that you're asking the right questions, and using the right sources?

Acting (practicing) - Imaginary Friend (imagination) - Praying (higher self)

Internal Monologue also known as inner voice, internal speech, or verbal stream of consciousness is thinking in words. It also refers to the semi-constant internal monologue some people have with themselves at a conscious or semi-conscious level (see Default mode network). Much of what people consciously report "thinking about" may be thought of as an internal monologue, a conversation with oneself. Some of this can be considered as speech rehearsal. When reading, some people's internal monologue moves their muscles slightly as if they were speaking; this is called subvocalizing. In some medical or mental conditions, there is uncertainty about the source of internal sentences. Attribution for an internal monologue may lead to concerns over schizophrenia, hallucinations, or hearing voices. This internal monologue is stimulated by the sensory parts of the brain, activating both auditory and visual receptors. Contemplation "attempts to calm the internal voice" by various means. In the philosophical field of language there is much research about internal speech in correlation with the building and usage of phrases in one's own idiom and thus the importance of language in the process of thinking.

Language and Thought is when our emotions and behavior are caused by our internal dialogue. We can change ourselves by learning to challenge and refute our own thoughts, especially a number of specific mistaken thought patterns called "cognitive distortions". Cognitive therapy has been found to be effective by empirical studies.

Intrapersonal Communication is a communicator's internal use of language or thought. It can be useful to envision intrapersonal communication occurring in the mind of the individual in a model which contains a sender, receiver, and feedback loop.

Subvocalization or silent speech, is the internal speech typically made when reading; it provides the sound of the word as it is read. This is a natural process when reading and it helps the mind to access meanings to comprehend and remember what is read, potentially reducing cognitive load. This inner speech is characterized by minute movements in the larynx and other muscles involved in the articulation of speech. Most of these movements are undetectable (without the aid of machines) by the person who is reading. It is one of the components of Baddeley and Hitch's phonological loop proposal which accounts for the storage of these types of information into short-term memory.

How pronouns can be used to build confidence in stressful situations. Self-distancing language or self-talk can help us 'see' ourselves through someone else's eyes.

Preschoolers Correct Speaking Mistakes Even When Talking to Themselves

Dialogical Self is a psychological concept which describes the mind's ability to imagine the different positions of participants in an internal dialogue, in close connection with external dialogue. The "dialogical self" is the central concept in the Dialogical Self Theory (DST), as created and developed by the Dutch psychologist Hubert Hermans since the 1990s.

"I want everyone to know what I'm thinking, but what I'm thinking is not always what I want to say out load, or should say out load. Thinking bad things is not a victimless crime. You can say it's a joke, but why does that excuse you? Unless you are making a point? You have a responsibility for your own thoughts, as well as for the words you speak. Saying horrible things, or thinking horrible things, does not say that you are a bad person, it's only bad when you believe those words or thoughts, it's also bad when you don't apologize for your thoughts or words." (it is a learning process)

Shoulder Angel
Self-Smart
Introvert
Sleep Talking
Inter Voice
Internal Narrative
Thinking
Speed Reading

Misinterpretations are humans Achilles Heal. We not only misinterpret each other sometimes, we also misinterpret our own thoughts and feelings sometimes. Not only do we experience difficulties communicating with other people, we also have difficulties communicating with ourselves. This is why we need more knowledge and information to make us more skilled, more aware, and more intelligent.

Misinterpretation is having an inaccurate mental representation of the meaning or significance of something. Not correct; not in conformity with fact or truth. 
Meanings
Translations

"if I'm joking to myself, then who is the joke intended for? My conscience? Who's that? If my awareness is random like my dreams, then how can I be sure which part of me is listening, and why?"


Voices in my Head

If your Internal Monologue seems to have a mind of its own, as if the Dream World mechanism for creating dreams while we sleep, is some how being activated while you are awake, then your Auditory Hallucinations might need to seek out some professional advice.

How to cope with Hearing Voices  
Hearing the voices of God or just voices?
Poor supplementary motor area activation differentiates Auditory Verbal

Lateral Lemniscus is a tract of axons in the brainstem that carries information about sound from the cochlear nucleus to various brainstem nuclei and ultimately the contralateral inferior colliculus of the midbrain. Three distinct, primarily inhibitory, cellular groups are located interspersed within these fibers, and are thus named the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus.

Somniloquy is a parasomnia that refers to talking aloud while asleep. It can be quite loud, ranging from simple mumbling sounds to loud shouts and long frequently inarticulate speeches, and can occur many times during a sleep cycle. As with sleepwalking and night terrors, sleeptalking usually occurs during the less-deep delta-wave NREM sleep stages or during temporary arousals therefrom.

Things I would say if I were me, "Who the hell are you?" I'm you, first person narrative. "Ohhh."

"Sometimes in order to keep the conversation going, you have to do it yourself, ask all the questions and look for the answers."

Interlocutor is a person involved in a conversation or dialogue. Two or more people speaking to one another, are each other's interlocutors.

Everyone expects that other people will automatically know where they're coming from, and at the least, everyone hopes that other people will understand them correctly. But when we are misunderstood, we should never be defensive or surprised, because meaning is something that is not always a constant or a given. That is why validation is extremely important. Always make sure that you are on the same page as the other person. If you're not on the same page, then find out which pages you're both on. And please don't be stubborn or impatient when communicating, it will only impede understanding and cause more problems to happen.

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments Analyzing Cockpit Communications:
The Links Between Language, Performance, Error, and Workload.

Gender Differences in Language Use: Gender differences in language use were examined using standardized categories to analyze a database of over 14,000 text files from 70 separate studies. Women used more words related to psychological and social processes. Men referred more to object properties and impersonal topics.

"Let us not have any preconceived notions on who we think each other is, let us communicate openly, like friends do, and let us focus more on our abilities, and not so much on our disabilities, or perceived limits."


Levels of Communication:
Direct and Indirect channels of Communication:
Relationships
Work Relationships

Speech Communication:
Linguistic intelligence
ICT Competency
Skills You Need

Summarizing is a brief statement that presents the main points in a concise form. Without Generalizing or Over Simplifying.
Paraphrasing is a restatement of the meaning of a text or passage using other words.
Listening

As extremely important as communication is, it is sadly over looked, taken for granted, and underutilized. Communication is not even being taught in schools as effectively as it should be, which is extremely disturbing considering it is the most valuable skill on the planet. All life forms survive by transferring important information. Everything from atoms to every cell in our body depends on this communication of information to live and survive. Without the ability to communicate information, there would be no life. And when information becomes distorted or infected, that is when life is the most vulnerable. The wrong information, or bad information, can easily produce mistakes in our thoughts and in our actions.

Humans ability to manually send and receive information gives us incredible advantages, but this manual ability is also a vulnerability, because when we misinterpret information, many problems can occur, like disease, death, war, poverty, crime, corruption, and so on. Education has over looked this incredibly important skill to communicate. You need more then just the ability to communicate, you need to know when, why, where and what to communicate.

Communication is all about transferring information and knowledge. And as simple as that sounds, communication is one skill that most people don't fully understand enough in order to communicate effectively or efficiently. Being able to communicate is one of the most important skills to have.  Extremely valuable.




The Thinker Man