Integrated Circuit (September 12th, 1958)
And now almost 60 years later...
Integrated Circuit is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip resulted in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components.
World's first 1,000-Processor Chip A microchip containing 1,000 independent programmable processors has been designed. The energy-efficient 'KiloCore' chip has a maximum computation rate of 1.78 trillion instructions per second and contains 621 million transistors. The highest clock-rate processor ever designed.
Atomically Thin Transistors that is Two-Dimensional
Berkeley Lab-led research breaks major barrier with the Smallest Transistor Ever by creating gate only 1 nanometer long. High-end 20-nanometer-gate transistors now on the market.
Chip-sized, high-speed terahertz modulator raises possibility of faster data transmission
Computers Made of Genetic Material? HZDR researchers conduct electricity using DNA-based nanowires.
Semiconductor-free microelectronics are now possible, thanks to metamaterials
Metamaterial is a material engineered to have a property that is not found in nature.
Semiconductor-free microelectronics (youtube)
2D materials that could make devices faster, smaller, and efficient nanomaterials that are only a few atoms in thickness.
Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials
Carbon Nanotube Transistors Outperform Silicon, for first time.
Neuromorphic Engineering also known as neuromorphic computing, is a concept describing the use of very-large-scale integration (VLSI) systems containing electronic analog circuits to mimic neuro-biological architectures present in the nervous system. Very-Large-Scale Integration is the current level of computer microchip miniaturization and refers to microchips containing in the hundreds of thousands of transistors. LSI (large-scale integration) meant microchips containing thousands of transistors. Earlier, MSI (medium-scale integration) meant a microchip containing hundreds of transistors and SSI (small-scale integration) meant transistors in the tens.
Reconfigurable Chaos-Based Microchips Offer Possible Solution to Moore’s Law. Nonlinear, chaos-based integrated circuits that enable computer chips to perform multiple functions with fewer transistors. The transistor circuit can be programmed to implement different instructions by morphing between different operations and functions. The potential of 100 morphable nonlinear chaos-based circuits doing work equivalent to 100 thousand circuits, or of 100 million transistors doing work equivalent to three billion transistors holds promise for extending Moore’s law.
Redox-Based Resistive Switching Random Access Memory (ReRAM)
A team of international scientists have found a way to make memory chips perform computing tasks, which is traditionally done by computer processors like those made by Intel and Qualcomm. Currently, all computer processors in the market are using the binary system, which is composed of two states -- either 0 or 1. For example, the letter A will be processed and stored as 01000001, an 8-bit character. However, the prototype ReRAM circuit built by Asst Prof Chattopadhyay and his collaborators
processes data in four states instead of two. For example, it can store and process data as 0, 1, 2, or 3, known as Ternary number system. Because ReRAM uses different electrical resistance to store information, it could be possible to store the data in an even higher number of states, hence speeding up computing tasks beyond current limitations current computer systems, all information has to be translated into a string of zeros and ones before it can be processed.
Parallel Computing: 18-core credit card sized computer
Memristor or memory resistor, is a hypothetical non-linear passive two-terminal electrical component relating electric charge and magnetic flux linkage. According to the characterizing mathematical relations, the memristor would hypothetically operate in the following way: The memristor's electrical resistance is not constant but depends on the history of current that had previously flowed through the device, i.e., its present resistance depends on how much electric charge has flowed in what direction through it in the past; the device remembers its history — the so-called non-volatility property. When the electric power supply is turned off, the memristor remembers its most recent resistance until it is turned on again.
Illinois team advances GaN-on-Silicon technology towards scalable high electron mobility transistors
Small tilt in Magnets makes them viable Memory Chips - Nano Technology
T-rays will “speed up” computer memory by a factor of 1,000
Germanium Tin Laser Could Increase Processing Speed of Computer Chips
Silicon Photonics is the study and application of photonic systems which use silicon as an optical medium. The silicon is usually patterned with sub-micrometre precision, into microphotonic components. These operate in the infrared, most commonly at the 1.55 micrometre wavelength used by most fiber optic telecommunication systems. The silicon typically lies on top of a layer of silica in what (by analogy with a similar construction in microelectronics) is known as silicon on insulator (SOI).
Silicon Carbide is a compound of silicon and carbon with chemical formula SiC. It occurs in nature as the extremely rare mineral moissanite. Synthetic silicon carbide powder has been mass-produced since 1893 for use as an abrasive. Grains of silicon carbide can be bonded together by sintering to form very hard ceramics that are widely used in applications requiring high endurance, such as car brakes, car clutches and ceramic plates in bulletproof vests. Electronic applications of silicon carbide such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and detectors in early radios were first demonstrated around 1907. SiC is used in semiconductor electronics devices that operate at high temperatures or high voltages, or both. Large single crystals of silicon carbide can be grown by the Lely method; they can be cut into gems known as synthetic moissanite. Silicon carbide with high surface area can be produced from SiO2 contained in plant material.
ORNL Researchers Break Data Transfer Efficiency Record transfer of information via superdense coding, a process by which the properties of particles like photons, protons and electrons are used to store as much information as possible. Superdense Coding is a technique used to send two bits of classical information using only one qubit, which is a unit of quantum information.
Quantum Computing makes direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. Quantum computers are different from binary digital electronic computers based on transistors. Whereas common digital computing requires that the data are encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses quantum bits, which can be in superpositions of states.
Computer Chip Close-up Macro Photo
The moment you turn on your pc, what you see is the work of thousands and thousands of people, educated in the fields of engineering, science, math and physics, just to name a few. And that's just the software. The hardware also took the work of thousands of skilled people. Covering many different industries, which adds the work of thousands of more people. I'm also a product that took millions of people over thousands of years to make, just to get me here in this moment in time.
Computer Industry is the range of businesses involved in designing computer hardware and computer networking infrastructures, developing computer software, manufacturing computer components, and providing information technology (IT) services. Software Industry includes businesses for development, maintenance and publication of software that are using different business models, also includes software services, such as training, documentation, consulting and data recovery.
The First Computer
Antikythera Mechanism is 2,100-year-old ancient analog computer. An international team of scientists has now read about 3,500 characters of explanatory text -- a quarter of the original -- in the innards of the 2,100-year-old remains.
Analog Computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as Electrical Network, Mechanics, or Hydraulics quantities to model the problem being solved. Digital computers represent varying quantities symbolically, as their numerical values change. As an analog computer does not use discrete values, but rather continuous values, processes cannot be reliably repeated with exact equivalence, as they can with Turing machines. Unlike digital signal processing, analog computers do not suffer from the quantization noise, but are limited by analog noise.
Turing Machine is an abstract machine that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules; to be more exact, it is a mathematical model of computation that defines such a device. Despite the model's simplicity, given any computer algorithm, a Turing machine can be constructed that is capable of simulating that algorithm's logic.
Curta is a small mechanical calculator developed by Curt Herzstark in the 1930s in Vienna, Austria. By 1938, he had filed a key patent, covering his complemented stepped drum, Deutsches Reichspatent (German National Patent) No. 747073. This single drum replaced the multiple drums, typically around 10 or so, of contemporary calculators, and it enabled not only addition, but subtraction through nines complement math, essentially subtracting by adding. The nines' complement math breakthrough eliminated the significant mechanical complexity created when "borrowing" during subtraction. This drum would prove to be the key to the small, hand-held mechanical calculator the Curta would become. Curtas were considered the best portable calculators available until they were displaced by electronic calculators in the 1970s.
Abstract Machine also called an abstract computer, is a theoretical model of a computer hardware or software system used in automata theory. Abstraction of computing processes is used in both the computer science and computer engineering disciplines and usually assumes a discrete time paradigm.
Computer Programming in the Punched Card Era was the invention of computer programming languages up to the mid-1980s, many if not most computer programmers created, edited and stored their programs line by line on punched cards. The practice was nearly universal with IBM computers in the era. A punched card is a flexible write-once medium that encodes data, most commonly 80 characters. Groups or "decks" of cards form programs and collections of data. Users could create cards using a desk-sized keypunch with a typewriter-like keyboard. A typing error generally necessitated repunching an entire card. In some companies, programmers wrote information on special forms called coding sheets, taking care to distinguish the digit zero from the letter O, the digit one from the letter I, eight from B, two from Z, and so on. These forms were then converted to cards by keypunch operators, and in some cases, checked by verifiers. The editing of programs was facilitated by reorganizing the cards, and removing or replacing the lines that had changed; programs were backed up by duplicating the deck, or writing it to magnetic tape.
Keypunch is a device for precisely punching holes into stiff paper cards at specific locations as determined by keys struck by a human operator.
Punched Card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. The information might be data for data processing applications or, in earlier examples, used to directly control automated machinery. The terms IBM card, or Hollerith card specifically refer to punched cards used in semiautomatic data processing. Punched cards were widely used through much of the 20th century in what became known as the data processing industry, where specialized and increasingly complex unit record machines, organized into data processing systems, used punched cards for data input, output, and storage. Many early digital computers used punched cards, often prepared using keypunch machines, as the primary medium for input of both computer programs and data. While punched cards are now obsolete as a recording medium, as of 2012, some voting machines still use punched cards to record votes.
The First Apple Computer (1976)
Monochrome Monitor or Green screen was the common name for a monochrome monitor using a green "P1" phosphor screen. CRT computer monitor which was very common in the early days of computing, from the 1960s through the 1980s, before color monitors became popular. Monochrome monitors have only one color of phosphor (mono means "one", and chrome means "color"). Pixel for pixel, monochrome monitors produce sharper text and images than color CRT monitors. This is because a monochrome monitor is made up of a continuous coating of phosphor and the sharpness can be controlled by focusing the electron beam; whereas on a color monitor, each pixel is made up of three phosphor dots (one red, one blue, one green) separated by a mask. Monochrome monitors were used in almost all dumb terminals and are still widely used in text-based applications such as computerized cash registers and point of sale systems because of their superior sharpness and enhanced readability.
Organic computers are coming Scientists found a molecule
that will help to make organic electronic devices.
Radialene are alicyclic organic compounds containing n cross-conjugated exocyclic double bonds.
Worlds Smallest Computer Michigan Micro Mote (M3)
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