Facebook Twiter Goole Plus Linked In YouTube Blogger

Computers


Desktop Computer A Computer is a machine for performing calculations automatically. An expert at calculation (or at operating calculating machines). Code

"A Keen Impassioned Beauty of a Great Machine"  "A Bicycle for the Brain"

Previous SubjectNext Subject

Everything about Computers

You can learn several different subjects at the same time when you're learning about computers. You can learn Problem Solving, Math, Languages, Communication, Technology, Electricity, Physics and Intelligence, just to name a few.

Basic Computer Skills - Computer Literacy - How Does a Computer Work? - Help

Computer Science is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. It is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications and the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to information. An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems.

Doctor of Computer Science is a doctorate in Computer Science by dissertation or multiple research papers.

Computer Movies

The Machine that Changed the World - Episode II - Inventing the Future (youtube)
HyperLand (youtube)
The Virtual Revolution (youtube)
Internet Rising (youtube)
The Code - Linux (film)
All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace (vimeo)
Kids Growing Up Online (PBS)

Charles Babbage was an English polymath. A mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer, Babbage is best remembered for originating the concept of a digital programmable computer. (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871).
List of Pioneers in Computer Science
Great Inventions
Difference Engine (youtube)
Difference Engine is an automatic mechanical calculator designed to tabulate polynomial functions. The name derives from the method of divided differences, a way to interpolate or tabulate functions by using a small set of polynomial coefficients. Most mathematical functions commonly used by engineers, scientists and navigators, including logarithmic and trigonometric functions, can be approximated by polynomials, so a difference engine can compute many useful tables of numbers. The historical difficulty in producing error-free tables by teams of mathematicians and human "computers" spurred Charles Babbage's desire to build a mechanism to automate the process.
Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage. It was first described in 1837 as the successor to Babbage's difference engine, a design for a mechanical computer. The Analytical Engine incorporated an arithmetic logic unit, control flow in the form of conditional branching and loops, and integrated memory, making it the first design for a general-purpose computer that could be described in modern terms as Turing-complete. In other words, the logical structure of the Analytical Engine was essentially the same as that which has dominated computer design in the electronic era. Babbage was never able to complete construction of any of his machines due to conflicts with his chief engineer and inadequate funding. It was not until the 1940s that the first general-purpose computers were actually built, more than a century after Babbage had proposed the pioneering Analytical Engine in 1837.
Computer History


Hardware

Hardware is the collection of physical components that constitute a computer system. Computer hardware is the physical parts or components of a computer, such as monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, hard disk drive (HDD), graphic card, sound card, memory (RAM), motherboard, and so on, all of which are tangible physical objects. By contrast, software is instructions that can be stored and run by hardware. Hardware is directed by the software to execute any command or instruction. A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system.
Hardware Architecture refers to the identification of a system's physical components and their interrelationships. This description, often called a hardware design model, allows hardware designers to understand how their components fit into a system architecture and provides to software component designers important information needed for software development and integration. Clear definition of a hardware architecture allows the various traditional engineering disciplines (e.g., electrical and mechanical engineering) to work more effectively together to develop and manufacture new machines, devices and components
Computer Architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems. Some definitions of architecture define it as describing the capabilities and programming model of a computer but not a particular implementation. In other definitions computer architecture involves instruction set architecture design, microarchitecture design, logic design, and implementation.
Printed Circuit Board mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. Components (e.g. capacitors, resistors or active devices) are generally soldered on the PCB. Advanced PCBs may contain components embedded in the substrate.
Circuit Board Components
Design

Integrated Circuit - IC

Computer Memory (amazon)
Internal Hard Drives (amazon)
Laptop Computers (amazon)
Desktop Computers (amazon)

Webopedia has definitions to words, phrases and abbreviations related to computing and information technology.

Computer Motherboard
Mother Board (image)
Motherboard is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in general purpose microcomputers and other expandable systems. It holds and allows communication between many of the crucial electronic components of a system, such as the central processing unit (CPU) and memory, and provides connectors for other peripherals. Unlike a backplane, a motherboard usually contains significant sub-systems such as the central processor, the chipset's input/output and memory controllers, interface connectors, and other components integrated for general purpose use. Motherboard specifically refers to a PCB with expansion capability and as the name suggests, this board is often referred to as the "mother" of all components attached to it, which often include peripherals, interface cards, and daughtercards: sound cards, video cards, network cards, hard drives, or other forms of persistent storage; TV tuner cards, cards providing extra USB or FireWire slots and a variety of other custom components. Similarly, the term mainboard is applied to devices with a single board and no additional expansions or capability, such as controlling boards in laser printers, televisions, washing machines and other embedded systems with limited expansion abilities.
Circuit Board Components

Processor

Microprocessor accepts digital or binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output.

Central Processing Unit CPU carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

Coprocessor is a computer processor used to supplement the functions of the primary processor (the CPU).

Multi-Core Processor can run multiple instructions at the same time, increasing overall speed for programs.
Multiprocessing is a computer system having two or more processing units (multiple processors) each sharing main memory and peripherals, in order to simultaneously process programs. It is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a single computer system. The term also refers to the ability of a system to support more than one processor or the ability to allocate tasks between them. There are many variations on this basic theme, and the definition of multiprocessing can vary with context, mostly as a function of how CPUs are defined (multiple cores on one die, multiple dies in one package, multiple packages in one system unit, etc.). Multitasking - Batch Process

Process - Processing

Information Processor is a system (be it electrical, mechanical or biological) which takes information (a sequence of enumerated symbols or states) in one form and processes (transforms) it into another form, e.g. to statistics, by an algorithmic process. An information processing system is made up of four basic parts, or sub-systems: input, processor, storage, output.
Processor Affinity enables the binding and unbinding of a process or a thread to a central processing unit.

555 timer IC
Semiconductor Design
Digikey
BIOS
Crystal Oscillator
Nand 2 Tetris
Clock Speed
Silicon Photonics
Analog Chip
Transistor
Carbon Nanotube Field-effect Transistor
PC Maintenance Tips
Nimbula
Analog Signal
Digital Signal
Math Works
Learning Tools

Interfaces
Brain
Robots
3D Printing

Software

Software is that part of a computer system that consists of encoded information or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built. Computer Software
Software Engineering is the application of engineering to the development of software in a systematic method.Typical formal definitions of Software Engineering are: Research, design, develop, and test operating systems-level software, compilers, and network distribution software for medical, industrial, military, communications, aerospace, business, scientific, and general computing applications. The systematic application of scientific and technological knowledge, methods, and experience to the design, implementation, testing, and documentation of software"; The application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software; An engineering discipline that is concerned with all aspects of software production; And the establishment and use of sound engineering principles in order to economically obtain software that is reliable and works efficiently on real machines.
Software Architecture
Software Development
Software Development Process
Agile Software Development
Development Process - Develop Meaning
Software as a Service is a software licensing and delivery model in which software is licensed on a subscription basis and is centrally hosted.
Computer Program is a collection of instructions that performs a specific task when executed by a computer. A computer requires programs to function, and typically executes the program's instructions in a central processing unit.
Instruction Set is the interface between a computer's software and its hardware, and thereby enables the independent development of these two computing realms; it defines the valid instructions that a machine may execute.
Software Release Life Cycle
Computing Platform
Scrum
Mobile Application Development
APPS
A/B Testing
Regression Testing
Benchmark
Command Pattern
Compiled Language
Communications Protocol
Data
Interpreted Language
Iterative and incremental Development
OSI Model
Technology Stack
Abstraction Layer
Open Systems Interconnection
Enterprise Architecture Framework
Enterprise Architecture
International Organization for Standardization
Matrix
Conceptual Model
Model-Driven Engineering
Model-Based Design
Structure
Interfaces
Architectural Pattern
Software Design Pattern
Resource-Oriented Architecture
Representational State Transfer  (REST)
Programming Paradigm
Software Configuration Management 

Cucumber is a software tool that computer programmers use for testing other software.
Selenium
Apache Maven
Jwebunit software is a Java-based testing framework for web applications

Apache JMeter is an Apache project that can be used as a load testing tool for analyzing and measuring the performance of a variety of services, with a focus on web applications.
Free Software

Learn to Code

Computing

Bio-inspired Computing is a field of study that loosely knits together subfields related to the topics of connectionism, social behaviour and emergence. It is often closely related to the field of artificial intelligence, as many of its pursuits can be linked to machine learning. It relies heavily on the fields of biology, computer science and mathematics. Briefly put, it is the use of computers to model the living phenomena, and simultaneously the study of life to improve the usage of computers. Biologically inspired computing is a major subset of natural computation.
Biological Computation is the study of the computations performed by natural biota, including the subject matter of systems biology. The design of algorithms inspired by the computational methods of biota. The design and engineering of manufactured computational devices using synthetic biology components. Computer methods for the analysis of biological data, elsewhere called computational biology. When biological computation refers to using biology to build computers, it is a subfield of computer science and is distinct from the interdisciplinary science of bioinformatics which simply uses computers to better understand biology.
Computational Biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, behavioral, and social systems. The field is broadly defined and includes foundations in computer science, applied mathematics, animation, statistics, biochemistry, chemistry, biophysics, molecular biology, genetics, genomics, ecology, evolution, anatomy, neuroscience, and visualization. Computational biology is different from biological computation, which is a subfield of computer science and computer engineering using bioengineering and biology to build computers, but is similar to bioinformatics, which is an interdisciplinary science using computers to store and process biological data. Information
Model of Computation is the definition of the set of allowable operations used in computation and their respective costs. It is used for measuring the complexity of an algorithm in execution time and or memory space: by assuming a certain model of computation, it is possible to analyze the computational resources required or to discuss the limitations of algorithms or computers.
Computer Simulation - Virtual Reality
Ubiquitous Computing is a concept in software engineering and computer science where computing is made to appear anytime and everywhere. In contrast to desktop computing, ubiquitous computing can occur using any device, in any location, and in any format. A user interacts with the computer, which can exist in many different forms, including laptop computers, tablets and terminals in everyday objects such as a fridge or a pair of glasses. The underlying technologies to support ubiquitous computing include Internet, advanced middleware, operating system, mobile code, sensors, microprocessors, new I/O and user interfaces, networks, mobile protocols, location and positioning and new materials.
Parallel Computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out simultaneously. Large problems can often be divided into smaller ones, which can then be solved at the same time. There are several different forms of parallel computing: bit-level, instruction-level, data, and task parallelism. Parallelism has been employed for many years, mainly in high-performance computing, but interest in it has grown lately due to the physical constraints preventing frequency scaling. As power consumption (and consequently heat generation) by computers has become a concern in recent years, parallel computing has become the dominant paradigm in computer architecture, mainly in the form of multi-core processors.
Human Centered Computing studies the design, development, and deployment of mixed-initiative human-computer systems. It is emerged from the convergence of multiple disciplines that are concerned both with understanding human beings and with the design of computational artifacts. Human-centered computing is closely related to human-computer interaction and information science. Human-centered computing is usually concerned with systems and practices of technology use while human-computer interaction is more focused on ergonomics and the usability of computing artifacts and information science is focused on practices surrounding the collection, manipulation, and use of information.
Cloud Computing is a type of Internet-based computing that provides shared computer processing resources and data to computers and other devices on demand. It is a model for enabling ubiquitous, on-demand access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., computer networks, servers, storage, applications and services), which can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort. Cloud computing and storage solutions provide users and enterprises with various capabilities to store and process their data in either privately owned, or third-party data centers that may be located far from the user–ranging in distance from across a city to across the world. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economy of scale, similar to a utility (like the electricity grid) over an electricity network.
Cloud Computing Tools
Reversible Computing

Digital Displays

Digital Signage is a sub segment of signage. Digital signages use technologies such as LCD, LED and Projection to display content such as digital images, video, streaming media, and information. They can be found in public spaces, transportation systems, museums, stadiums, retail stores, hotels, restaurants, and corporate buildings etc., to provide wayfinding, exhibitions, marketing and outdoor advertising. Digital Signage market is expected to grow from USD $15 billion to over USD $24bn by 2020.
7-Segment Display
9-Segment Display
14-Segment Display

Interfaces
Operating Systems
Code - Programing
Computer Courses
Online Dictionary of Computer &Technology Terms
Variable (cs)
CS Unplugged
Computer Science without using computers
Theoretical Computer Science

Technology Education
Robots
Engineering
Technology Addiction
Technical Competitions
Internet

Computer Standards
IPv6 recent version of the Internet Protocol
IPv6
Web 2.0

Trouble-Shoot PC's
Fixing PC's

Networks

Computer Network is a telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, networked computing devices exchange data with each other using a data link. The connections between nodes are established using either cable media or wireless media. The best-known computer network is the Internet.
Server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients". This architecture is called the client–server model, and a single overall computation is distributed across multiple processes or devices. Servers can provide various functionalities, often called "services", such as sharing data or resources among multiple clients, or performing computation for a client. A single server can serve multiple clients, and a single client can use multiple servers. A client process may run on the same device or may connect over a network to a server on a different device. Typical servers are database servers, file servers, mail servers, print servers, web servers, game servers, and application servers.
Proxy Server
Network Theory
Network Science
Network Science
Network Cultures
Network Monitoring
Network Management
Node - Ai
Network Packet
Coreos
Cluster Manager
Omega
Mesos
Network Administrator 
Automated Server Infrastructures
Downstream Networking
Upstream Networking
Network Operating System
Matrix
Professional Services Networks
Value Network Analysis
Value Network
Cross Linking
Encapsulation Networking
Dynamic Network Analysis
Link Aggregation
Artificial Neural Network
Virtual Private Network
Network Topology
Routing
Internet Connection Types
Fiber Optics
Social Networks
Collaborations

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)

Internet
Internet Connection Types
Search Engines
Social Networks
Levels of Thinking 

HomePNA Phone-Line Networking
Phone Network
Landline
Telephone
Ethernet
Tin Can Telephone (wiki)

Communicating Knowledge

Communication Law
Communications Act of 1934
Telecommunications Policy
Communications Protocol
Signal Corps

International Communications Law

Outline of Communication

Information and Communications Technology ICT
Unified Communications
Information Technology

Super Computers

Supercomputer is a computer with a high level of computing performance compared to a general-purpose computer. Performance of a supercomputer is measured in floating-point operations per second (FLOPS) instead of million instructions per second (MIPS). As of 2015, there are supercomputers which can perform up to quadrillions of FLOPS.
Titan
K Computer
Quantum Computer
Qubit
The Tianhe-2 is the most powerful supercomputer built to date, demands 24 megawatts of power, while the human brain runs on just 10 watts.
Biological Neuron-Based Computer Chips (wetchips)
Artificial Intelligence
TOP 500 list of the World’s Top Supercomputers
ASC Sequoia
Darpa
iarpa  
Institute for Computational Cosmology
Exascale Computing a billion billion calculations per second.
Fiber Optics
Petascale Computing one quadrillion Floating Point operations per second.
A transistor stores a single “bit” of information. If the transistor is “on,” it holds a 1, and if it’s “off,” it holds a 0.
“Qubit” can store a Zero's and Ones simultaneously - Superposition Principle - Quantum Annealing

Virtual PC

Virtual Machine is an emulation of a computer system. Virtual machines are based on computer architectures and provide functionality of a physical computer. Their implementations may involve specialized hardware, software, or a combination. There are different kinds of virtual machines, each with different functions: System virtual machines (also termed full virtualization VMs) provide a substitute for a real machine. They provide functionality needed to execute entire operating systems. A hypervisor uses native execution to share and manage hardware, allowing for multiple environments which are isolated from one another, yet exist on the same physical machine. Modern hypervisors use hardware-assisted virtualization, virtualization-specific hardware, primarily from the host CPUs. Process virtual machines are designed to execute computer programs in a platform-independent environment. Some virtual machines, such as QEMU, are designed to also emulate different architectures and allow execution of software applications and operating systems written for another CPU or architecture. Operating-system-level virtualization allows the resources of a computer to be partitioned via the kernel's support for multiple isolated user space instances, which are usually called containers and may look and feel like real machines to the end users.
Virtual Desktop is a term used with respect to user interfaces, usually within the WIMP paradigm, to describe ways in which the virtual space of a computer's desktop environment is expanded beyond the physical limits of the screen's display area through the use of software. This compensates for a limited desktop area and can also be helpful in reducing clutter. There are two major approaches to expanding the virtual area of the screen. Switchable virtual desktops allow the user to make virtual copies of their desktop view-port and switch between them, with open windows existing on single virtual desktops. Another approach is to expand the size of a single virtual screen beyond the size of the physical viewing device. Typically, scrolling/panning a subsection of the virtual desktop into view is used to navigate an oversized virtual desktop.
v2.0 Desktops allows you to organize your applications on up to four virtual desktops.
Hardware Virtualization is the virtualization of computers as complete hardware platforms, certain logical abstractions of their componentry, or only the functionality required to run various operating systems. Virtualization hides the physical characteristics of a computing platform from the users, presenting instead another abstract computing platform. At its origins, the software that controlled virtualization was called a "control program", but the terms "hypervisor" or "virtual machine monitor" became preferred over time.
Virtualization Software specifically emulators and hypervisors, are software packages that emulate the whole physical computer machine, often providing multiple virtual machines on one physical platform. The table below compares basic information about platform virtualization hypervisors.
Hypervisor is computer software, firmware, or hardware, that creates and runs virtual machines. A computer on which a hypervisor runs one or more virtual machines is called a host machine, and each virtual machine is called a guest machine. The hypervisor presents the guest operating systems with a virtual operating platform and manages the execution of the guest operating systems. Multiple instances of a variety of operating systems may share the virtualized hardware resources: for example, Linux, Windows, and OS X instances can all run on a single physical x86 machine. This contrasts with operating-system-level virtualization, where all instances (usually called containers) must share a single kernel, though the guest operating systems can differ in user space, such as different Linux distributions with the same kernel.
Virtual Box
Sandbox is a security mechanism for separating running programs. It is often used to execute untested or untrusted programs or code, possibly from unverified or untrusted third parties, suppliers, users or websites, without risking harm to the host machine or operating system. A sandbox typically provides a tightly controlled set of resources for guest programs to run in, such as scratch space on disk and memory. Network access, the ability to inspect the host system or read from input devices are usually disallowed or heavily restricted. In the sense of providing a highly controlled environment, sandboxes may be seen as a specific example of virtualization. Sandboxing is frequently used to test unverified programs that may contain a virus or other malicious code, without allowing the software to harm the host device.
Operating System Sandbox: Virtual PC (youtube)
VM Ware
Hyper-V formerly known as Windows Server Virtualization, is a native hypervisor; it can create virtual machines on x86-64 systems running Windows. Starting with Windows 8, Hyper-V supersedes Windows Virtual PC as the hardware virtualization component of the client editions of Windows NT. A server computer running Hyper-V can be configured to expose individual virtual machines to one or more networks.
Parallels
Virtual Private Server is a virtual machine sold as a service by an Internet hosting service. A VPS runs its own copy of an operating system, and customers may have superuser-level access to that operating system instance, so they can install almost any software that runs on that OS. For many purposes they are functionally equivalent to a dedicated physical server, and being software-defined, are able to be much more easily created and configured. They are priced much lower than an equivalent physical server. However, as they share the underlying physical hardware with other VPSs, performance may be lower, depending on the workload of any other executing virtual machines. 
Virtual Private Network enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network. Applications running across the VPN may therefore benefit from the functionality, security, and management of the private network.
Artificial Neural Network
Safe Internet Use
Dedicated Hosting Service is a type of Internet hosting in which the client leases an entire server not shared with anyone else. This is more flexible than shared hosting, as organizations have full control over the server(s), including choice of operating system, hardware, etc. There is also another level of dedicated or managed hosting commonly referred to as complex managed hosting. Complex Managed Hosting applies to both physical dedicated servers, Hybrid server and virtual servers, with many companies choosing a hybrid (combination of physical and virtual) hosting solution.
Virtualization refers to the act of creating a Virtual (rather than actual) version of something, including virtual computer hardware platforms, storage devices, and computer network resources.
Windows Virtual PC is a virtualization program for Microsoft Windows. In July 2006 Microsoft released the Windows version as a free product.
Virtual PC
Virtual Reality


Remote PC to PC

Teaching via Video Conference - Remote IT Services
Remote PC to PC Services
Log Me In 
Team Viewer
Go to Assist
Pogo Plug
Dyn DNS
Tight VNC
Web Conferencing

Tutoring

Operating Systems

Operating System is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. All computer programs, excluding firmware, require an operating system to function.
Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources.
OS Operating Systems
Android Operating System (wiki)
Red Hat Linux
Linux (wiki)
GNU
Ubuntu
Server OS
How to Dual Boot Linux on your PC
CloudReady lightweight operating system
Backup Operating System
Substitute Alternate Operating Systems

Human Operating System (HOS)

Server Operating System
A server operating system, also called a server OS, is an Operating System specifically designed to run on servers, which are specialized computers that operate within a client/server architecture to serve the requests of client computers on the network.
The server operating system, or server OS, is the software layer on top of which other software programs, or applications, can run on the server hardware. Server operating systems help enable and facilitate typical server roles such as Web server, mail server, file server, database server, application server and print server.
Popular server operating systems include Windows Server, Mac OS X Server, and variants of Linux such as Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Server edition of Ubuntu Linux is free.


Open Source

Open-source Software is computer software with its source code made available with a license in which the copyright holder provides the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. According to scientists who studied it, open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration.
Open Source is a decentralized development model that encourages open collaboration. A main principle of open-source software development is peer production, with products such as source code, blueprints, and documentation freely available to the public. The open-source movement in software began as a response to the limitations of proprietary code. The model is used for projects such as in open-source appropriate technologies,and open-source drug discovery.
Business Software Tools and Apps
Open Source Software
Open Source Education
Open Source Initiative 
Open Source
Asterisk open source framework for building communications applications
Alfresco software built on open standards

Open-Source Electronics
Arduino
Raspberry Pi
Mmassimo Banzi (video)
Arduino 3D Printer
Science Kits
Open Source Hardware
Freeware Files

Computer Rentals

Rent Solutions
Vernon Computer Source
Smart Source Rentals
Google Cromebook

Miles Technologies Technology Solutions

Maximum PC
Knowledge Management
Artificial Intelligence
Science
Ideas
Innovation

Word Processors

Open Office Suite
Libre Office
Abi Source
List of word Processors (wiki)
Google Docs
Google Business Tools and Apps
Zoho
Photo Editing Software

Scraper Wiki getting data from the web, spreadsheets, PDFs.

Comet Docs Convert, Store and Share your documents.

Computer Courses

W3 Schools
Webmaster Tutorials
Technology Terms
Creator Academy by Google
J Learning
Lynda
Compucert
Learning Tree
IT Training
Building a Search Engine

More Online Schools

Learn to Code


Apps

Application program or APP for short, is a computer program designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.
Authoring System is a program that has pre-programmed elements for the development of interactive multimedia software titles. Authoring systems can be defined as software that allows its user to create multimedia applications for manipulating multimedia objects. Applications Interface
Create Mobile Apps
Phone Gap
Como
Sweb Apps
App Breeder
My App Builder
I Build App
Mobile Roadie
Yapp
App Makr 
Best App Makers
Build Your Own Business Apps in 3 Minutes
Gigster building your app
Google Developer Apps
Thing Space Verizon
App Management Interface
AppCenter: The Pay-What-You-Want App Store
Health Medical Apps
Apps from Amazon
Car Finder App
Visual Travel Tours
Audio Travel
Gate Guru App
App Brain
Trip It
Field Tripper App
Test Flight App
App Shopper
Red Laser
Portable Apps
I-nigma Bar Code Reader
More Apps
M-Pesa
Language Translators
Wikitude
Yellow Pages App
Portable Apps
What's App
Apps for Plant Lovers
Press Pad App for Digital Magazines and Publishers
Tech Fetch
Travel Tools
Cell Phones & Tools
Next Juggernaut
Rethink DB
Big in Japan
Near by Now
The Find
Milo
Apple
X Code
Quixey
Just in Mind

User Testing from concept to launch, UserTesting provides actionable insights enabling you to create great experiences.
Validately recruit testers, launch tests, and analyze results.
Lookback designer & research.
Prototypes (engineering)

Enable Cognitive Computing Features In Your App Using IBM Watson's Language, Vision, Speech and Data APIs

Computer Maintenance

Computer Hope
How to Geek
Stack Overflow
PC Mag
Data Doctors
Repairs 4 Laptop
Maintain Your Computer (wiki how)
PC User
Maintain PC (ehow)
Open Source Ultra Defrager
Data Recovery Software
Dmoz Computers Websites
Inter-Hacktive

Hackerspace
Technology Tools
Math
Games
Information Management
Computer History
Laptops for Learning
Flash Drive Knowledge
Engineering Design
Technology News

Self-Help Computer Resources
Thanks to the millions of people sharing their knowledge and experiences online, you can pretty much learn anything you want on your own.  So over the years I have collected some great resources that come in handy. Sharing is awesome!
Information Sources

Surfing the Internet Tips
First a Little Warning: When visiting other websites be very careful what you click on because some software downloads are very dangerous to your computer, so be absolutely sure what you are downloading. Read the ".exe" file name. Search the internet for more info, or to verify '.exe' executable files. It's a good idea to always get a second opinion on what software you might need.

Free Virus Protection
Internet Browsers
Internet Safety Info
Internet Connections

Computer Quick Fix Tips
Make sure that your Computer System Restore is on. This can sometimes be used to fix a bad computer virus or malfunction. It's a good idea to do a System Restore and a Virus Scan in the Safe Mode (During Computer Restart hit the F8 Key and then follow the instructions)  (F2 is Setup and F12 is the Boot Menu) Warning: System Restore that is found under Start/Programs/Accessories/System Tools is not the same as PC Restore, Factory Settings or Image Restore, which will delete all your personal files and software from the PC. If you don't have OS Setup Disk that came with your PC then sometimes the PC will have a Factory Settings copy installed. This you need to do while your PC is rebooting. Press ' Ctrl '  then press F11 and then release both at the same time. You should see something like Symantec Ghost where you will be prompted to reinstall Factory Settings. This will delete all your personal files and software from the PC so please back up first.

Always Have your Operating System Restore Disk or Recovery Disc handy because not all computer problems can be fixed. You also need your Drivers and Applications Disks too. Always backup your most important computer files because reinstalling the operating system will clear your data.

Kingston DataTraveler 200 - 128 GB USB 2.0 Flash Drive DT200/128GB (Black)
Western Digital 2 TB USB 2.0 Desktop External Hard Drive

Sending Large Files
Bit Torrent Protocol (wiki)
Lime Wire P2P
Send Large Files
Zip Files
Stuffit File Compression
File-Zilla
Dropbox
File Sharing for Professionals
We Transfer

You can try some of these free programs to help keep your computer safe: (might be outdated)
Lava Soft Ad-Ware
Spybot Search & Destroy
CCleaner
Malwarebytes
Hijack This
Spyware Blaster

Download.com has the software above but be very careful not to click on the wrong download item.
Please Verify the correct ".exe file." name.

Free Software ?
As the saying goes "Nothing is Free." Free software sometimes comes loaded with other software programs that you don't need. So always check or uncheck the appropriate boxes, and read everything carefully. But even then, they might sneak unwanted programs by you, so you will have to remove those programs manually. With the internet, dangers are always lurking around the corner, so please be careful, be aware and educate yourself. When our computer systems and the internet are running smoothly the beauty of this machine becomes very evident. This is the largest collaboration of people in human history. With so many contributors from all over the world, we now have more knowledge and information at our fingertips then ever before, our potential is limitless. 
Free Software Info
Free Software Foundation
General Public License
Free BSD
Jolla
Hadoop Apache
Open Mind
Software Geek

New Computers
Sadly new PC's are loaded with a lot of bogus software and programs that you don't need. Removing them can be a challenge, but it's absolutely necessary if you want your PC to run smoothly without all those annoying distractions that slow your PC down.
Lojack For Laptops (amazon)

Tired and Disgusted with Windows 8 dysfunctional Operating System Interface, Download Classic Shell to make your computer like XP, and find things again, or you can just update your windows 8.0 to windows 8.1,, because 8.1 is definitely better then 8.0, but still not perfect yet.

Oasis Websoft advanced software by providing superior solutions for web applications, web sites and enterprise software. We are committed to building infrastructure that will ensure that the West African sub-region is not left behind in the continuous evolution of information technology.

Fawn fast, scalable, and energy-efficient cluster architecture for data-intensive computing.

BlueStacks is currently the best way to run Android apps on Windows. It doesn’t replace your entire operating system. Instead, it runs Android apps within a window on your Windows desktop. This allows you to use Android apps just like any other program.

Utility Software is system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize or maintain a computer. Utility software, along with operating system software, is a type of system software used to support the computer infrastructure, distinguishing it from application software which is aimed at directly performing tasks that benefit ordinary users.

Service-Oriented Architecture is an architectural pattern in computer software design in which application components provide services to other components via a communications protocol, typically over a network. The principles of service-orientation are independent of any vendor, product or technology. A service is a self-contained unit of functionality, such as retrieving an online bank statement. By that definition, a service is an operation that may be discretely invoked. However, in the Web Services Description Language (WSDL), a service is an interface definition that may list several discrete services/operations. And elsewhere, the term service is used for a component that is encapsulated behind an interface. This widespread ambiguity is reflected in what follows. Services can be combined to provide the functionality of a large software application. SOA makes it easier for software components on computers connected over a network to cooperate. Every computer can run any number of services, and each service is built in a way that ensures that the service can exchange information with any other service in the network without human interaction and without the need to make changes to the underlying program itself. A paradigm for organizing and utilizing distributed capabilities that may be under the control of different ownership domains. It provides a uniform means to offer, discover, interact with and use capabilities to produce desired effects consistent with measurable preconditions and expectations.



The First Integrated Circuit  (September 12th, 1958)

The First Microchip Handmade in 1958 by Jack Kilby
And now almost 60 years later...

Integrated Circuit is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip resulted in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components.

Integrated Circuit Layout is the representation of an integrated circuit in terms of planar geometric shapes which correspond to the patterns of metal, oxide, or semiconductor layers that make up the components of the integrated circuit. When using a standard process—where the interaction of the many chemical, thermal, and photographic variables is known and carefully controlled—the behaviour of the final integrated circuit depends largely on the positions and interconnections of the geometric shapes. Using a computer-aided layout tool, the layout engineer—or layout technician—places and connects all of the components that make up the chip such that they meet certain criteria—typically: performance, size, density, and manufacturability. This practice is often subdivided between two primary layout disciplines: Analog and digital. The generated layout must pass a series of checks in a process known as physical verification. The most common checks in this verification process are design rule checking (DRC), layout versus schematic (LVS), parasitic extraction, antenna rule checking, and electrical rule checking (ERC). When all verification is complete, the data is translated into an industry-standard format, typically GDSII, and sent to a semiconductor foundry. The process of sending this data to the foundry is called tapeout because the data used to be shipped out on a magnetic tape. The foundry converts the data into another format and uses it to generate the photomasks used in a photolithographic process of semiconductor device fabrication. In the earlier, simpler, days of IC design, layout was done by hand using opaque tapes and films, much like the early days of printed circuit board (PCB) design. Modern IC layout is done with the aid of IC layout editor software, mostly automatically using EDA tools, including place and route tools or schematic-driven layout tools. The manual operation of choosing and positioning the geometric shapes is informally known as "polygon pushing".

World's first 1,000-Processor Chip A microchip containing 1,000 independent programmable processors has been designed. The energy-efficient 'KiloCore' chip has a maximum computation rate of 1.78 trillion instructions per second and contains 621 million transistors. The highest clock-rate processor ever designed.

Atomically Thin Transistors that is Two-Dimensional
Berkeley Lab-led research breaks major barrier with the Smallest Transistor Ever by creating gate only 1 nanometer long. High-end 20-nanometer-gate transistors now on the market.
Molybdenum Disulfide

Chip-sized, high-speed terahertz modulator raises possibility of faster data transmission

Computers Made of Genetic Material? HZDR researchers conduct electricity using DNA-based nanowires.
Semiconductor-free microelectronics are now possible, thanks to metamaterials
Metamaterial is a material engineered to have a property that is not found in nature.
Semiconductor-free microelectronics (youtube)

2D materials that could make devices faster, smaller, and efficient nanomaterials that are only a few atoms in thickness.
Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials

Researchers pave the way for Ionotronic Nanodevices. Discovery helps develop new kinds of electrically switchable memories. Ionotronic devices rely on charge effects based on ions, instead of electrons or in addition to electrons.

Carbon Nanotube Transistors Outperform Silicon, for first time.

Neuromorphic Engineering also known as neuromorphic computing, is a concept describing the use of very-large-scale integration (VLSI) systems containing electronic analog circuits to mimic neuro-biological architectures present in the nervous system. Very-Large-Scale Integration is the current level of computer microchip miniaturization and refers to microchips containing in the hundreds of thousands of transistors. LSI (large-scale integration) meant microchips containing thousands of transistors. Earlier, MSI (medium-scale integration) meant a microchip containing hundreds of transistors and SSI (small-scale integration) meant transistors in the tens.

Reconfigurable Chaos-Based Microchips Offer Possible Solution to Moore’s Law. Nonlinear, chaos-based integrated circuits that enable computer chips to perform multiple functions with fewer transistors. The transistor circuit can be programmed to implement different instructions by morphing between different operations and functions. The potential of 100 morphable nonlinear chaos-based circuits doing work equivalent to 100 thousand circuits, or of 100 million transistors doing work equivalent to three billion transistors holds promise for extending Moore’s law.

Redox-Based Resistive Switching Random Access Memory (ReRAM)
A team of international scientists have found a way to make memory chips perform computing tasks, which is traditionally done by computer processors like those made by Intel and Qualcomm. Currently, all computer processors in the market are using the binary system, which is composed of two states -- either 0 or 1. For example, the letter A will be processed and stored as 01000001, an 8-bit character. However, the prototype ReRAM circuit built by Asst Prof Chattopadhyay and his collaborators
processes data in four states instead of two. For example, it can store and process data as 0, 1, 2, or 3, known as Ternary number system. Because ReRAM uses different electrical resistance to store information, it could be possible to store the data in an even higher number of states, hence speeding up computing tasks beyond current limitations current computer systems, all information has to be translated into a string of zeros and ones before it can be processed.

Parallel Computing: 18-core credit card sized computer

Memristor or memory resistor, is a hypothetical non-linear passive two-terminal electrical component relating electric charge and magnetic flux linkage. According to the characterizing mathematical relations, the memristor would hypothetically operate in the following way: The memristor's electrical resistance is not constant but depends on the history of current that had previously flowed through the device, i.e., its present resistance depends on how much electric charge has flowed in what direction through it in the past; the device remembers its history — the so-called non-volatility property. When the electric power supply is turned off, the memristor remembers its most recent resistance until it is turned on again.

Illinois team advances GaN-on-Silicon technology towards scalable high electron mobility transistors

Small tilt in Magnets makes them viable Memory Chips - Nano Technology

T-rays will “speed up” computer memory by a factor of 1,000

Germanium Tin Laser Could Increase Processing Speed of Computer Chips
Silicon Photonics is the study and application of photonic systems which use silicon as an optical medium. The silicon is usually patterned with sub-micrometre precision, into microphotonic components. These operate in the infrared, most commonly at the 1.55 micrometre wavelength used by most fiber optic telecommunication systems. The silicon typically lies on top of a layer of silica in what (by analogy with a similar construction in microelectronics) is known as silicon on insulator (SOI).

Silicon Carbide is a compound of silicon and carbon with chemical formula SiC. It occurs in nature as the extremely rare mineral moissanite. Synthetic silicon carbide powder has been mass-produced since 1893 for use as an abrasive. Grains of silicon carbide can be bonded together by sintering to form very hard ceramics that are widely used in applications requiring high endurance, such as car brakes, car clutches and ceramic plates in bulletproof vests. Electronic applications of silicon carbide such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and detectors in early radios were first demonstrated around 1907. SiC is used in semiconductor electronics devices that operate at high temperatures or high voltages, or both. Large single crystals of silicon carbide can be grown by the Lely method; they can be cut into gems known as synthetic moissanite. Silicon carbide with high surface area can be produced from SiO2 contained in plant material.

ORNL Researchers Break Data Transfer Efficiency Record transfer of information via superdense coding, a process by which the properties of particles like photons, protons and electrons are used to store as much information as possible. Superdense Coding is a technique used to send two bits of classical information using only one qubit, which is a unit of quantum information.

Quantum Computing makes direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. Quantum computers are different from binary digital electronic computers based on transistors. Whereas common digital computing requires that the data are encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses quantum bits, which can be in superpositions of states.

A Single Atom can store one bit of binary information
When the holmium atoms were placed on a special surface made of magnesium oxide, they naturally oriented themselves with a magnetic north and south pole—just like regular magnets have—pointing either straight up or down, and remained that way in a stable condition. What’s more, they could make the atoms flip by giving them a zap with a scanning tunneling microscope that has a needle with a tip just one atom wide. Orientation conveys binary information—either a one or a zero. Experiment shows that they could store one bit of information in just one atom. If this kind of technology could be scaled up, it theoretically could hold 80,000 gigabytes of information in just a square inch. A credit-card-size device could hold 35 million songs. Atoms could be placed within just about a nanometer of each other without interfering with their neighbors, meaning they could be packed densely. This tech won't show up in your smartphone anytime soon. For starters, the experiment required a very, very chilly temperature: 1 degree Kelvin, which is colder than -450 Fahrenheit. That's pretty energy intensive, and not exactly practical in most data storage settings.


Computer Chip Close-up Macro Photo
Computer Chip Closeup Macro Photo

The moment you turn on your pc, what you see is the work of thousands and thousands of people, educated in the fields of engineering, science, math and physics, just to name a few. And that's just the software. The hardware also took the work of thousands of skilled people. Covering many different industries, which adds the work of thousands of more people. I'm also a product that took millions of people over thousands of years to make, just to get me here in this moment in time.

Computer Industry is the range of businesses involved in designing computer hardware and computer networking infrastructures, developing computer software, manufacturing computer components, and providing information technology (IT) services. Software Industry includes businesses for development, maintenance and publication of software that are using different business models, also includes software services, such as training, documentation, consulting and data recovery.



The First Computer

Antikythera Mechanism is 2,100-year-old ancient analog computer. An international team of scientists has now read about 3,500 characters of explanatory text -- a quarter of the original -- in the innards of the 2,100-year-old remains.

Antikythera Mechanism

Analog Computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as Electrical Network, Mechanics, or Hydraulics quantities to model the problem being solved. Digital computers represent varying quantities symbolically, as their numerical values change. As an analog computer does not use discrete values, but rather continuous values, processes cannot be reliably repeated with exact equivalence, as they can with Turing machines. Unlike digital signal processing, analog computers do not suffer from the quantization noise, but are limited by analog noise.

Turing Machine is an abstract machine that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules; to be more exact, it is a mathematical model of computation that defines such a device. Despite the model's simplicity, given any computer algorithm, a Turing machine can be constructed that is capable of simulating that algorithm's logic.

Curta is a small mechanical calculator developed by Curt Herzstark in the 1930s in Vienna, Austria. By 1938, he had filed a key patent, covering his complemented stepped drum, Deutsches Reichspatent (German National Patent) No. 747073. This single drum replaced the multiple drums, typically around 10 or so, of contemporary calculators, and it enabled not only addition, but subtraction through nines complement math, essentially subtracting by adding. The nines' complement math breakthrough eliminated the significant mechanical complexity created when "borrowing" during subtraction. This drum would prove to be the key to the small, hand-held mechanical calculator the Curta would become. Curtas were considered the best portable calculators available until they were displaced by electronic calculators in the 1970s.

Abstract Machine also called an abstract computer, is a theoretical model of a computer hardware or software system used in automata theory. Abstraction of computing processes is used in both the computer science and computer engineering disciplines and usually assumes a discrete time paradigm.
Autonomous Machines

Computer Programming in the Punched Card Era was the invention of computer programming languages up to the mid-1980s, many if not most computer programmers created, edited and stored their programs line by line on punched cards. The practice was nearly universal with IBM computers in the era. A punched card is a flexible write-once medium that encodes data, most commonly 80 characters. Groups or "decks" of cards form programs and collections of data. Users could create cards using a desk-sized keypunch with a typewriter-like keyboard. A typing error generally necessitated repunching an entire card. In some companies, programmers wrote information on special forms called coding sheets, taking care to distinguish the digit zero from the letter O, the digit one from the letter I, eight from B, two from Z, and so on. These forms were then converted to cards by keypunch operators, and in some cases, checked by verifiers. The editing of programs was facilitated by reorganizing the cards, and removing or replacing the lines that had changed; programs were backed up by duplicating the deck, or writing it to magnetic tape.
Keypunch is a device for precisely punching holes into stiff paper cards at specific locations as determined by keys struck by a human operator.
Punched Card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. The information might be data for data processing applications or, in earlier examples, used to directly control automated machinery. The terms IBM card, or Hollerith card specifically refer to punched cards used in semiautomatic data processing. Punched cards were widely used through much of the 20th century in what became known as the data processing industry, where specialized and increasingly complex unit record machines, organized into data processing systems, used punched cards for data input, output, and storage. Many early digital computers used punched cards, often prepared using keypunch machines, as the primary medium for input of both computer programs and data. While punched cards are now obsolete as a recording medium, as of 2012, some voting machines still use punched cards to record votes.

The First Apple Computer (1976)

First Apple Computer 1976

Monochrome Monitor or Green screen was the common name for a monochrome monitor using a green "P1" phosphor screen. CRT computer monitor which was very common in the early days of computing, from the 1960s through the 1980s, before color monitors became popular. Monochrome monitors have only one color of phosphor (mono means "one", and chrome means "color"). Pixel for pixel, monochrome monitors produce sharper text and images than color CRT monitors. This is because a monochrome monitor is made up of a continuous coating of phosphor and the sharpness can be controlled by focusing the electron beam; whereas on a color monitor, each pixel is made up of three phosphor dots (one red, one blue, one green) separated by a mask. Monochrome monitors were used in almost all dumb terminals and are still widely used in text-based applications such as computerized cash registers and point of sale systems because of their superior sharpness and enhanced readability.

Organic computers are coming Scientists found a molecule that will help to make organic electronic devices.
Radialene are alicyclic organic compounds containing n cross-conjugated exocyclic double bonds.

Worlds Smallest Computer Michigan Micro Mote (M3)  

Histories Greatest Inventions  

Computer History Chart

Computer History Films



The Thinker Man