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Computers


A Computer is a machine for performing calculations automatically. An expert at calculation (or at operating calculating machines)

"A Keen Impassioned Beauty of a Great Machine"  "A Bicycle for the Brain"

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Everything about Computers

You can learn several different subjects at the same time when you're learning about computers. You can learn Problem Solving, Math, Languages, Communication, Technology, Electricity, Physics and Intelligence, just to name a few.

Basic Computer Skills - Computer Literacy

Computer Science is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. It is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications and the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to information. An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems.
Doctor of Computer Science is a doctorate in Computer Science by dissertation or multiple research papers.



Hardware
Hardware (wiki)
How Does a Computer Work?
Hardware Architecture
Computer Architecture
Printed Circuit Board

Circuit Board Components

Design

Processor
Microprocessor accepts digital or binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output.
Multi-Core Processor can run multiple instructions at the same time, increasing overall speed for programs.
Central Processing Unit CPU carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
Coprocessor is a computer processor used to supplement the functions of the primary processor (the CPU).
Process
Processing
Information Processor
is a system (be it electrical, mechanical or biological) which takes information (a sequence of enumerated symbols or states) in one form and processes (transforms) it into another form, e.g. to statistics, by an algorithmic process. An information processing system is made up of four basic parts, or sub-systems: input, processor, storage, output.
Processor Affinity enables the binding and unbinding of a process or a thread to a central processing unit.

555 timer IC
Semiconductor Design
Digikey
BIOS
Crystal Oscillator
Nand 2 Tetris
Clock Speed
Integrated Circuit
Silicon Photonics
Interfaces
Brain
Robots
3D Printing
Analog Chip
Transistor
Carbon Nanotube Field-effect Transistor
PC Maintenance Tips
Nimbula
Analog Signal
Digital Signal
Math Works
Learning Tools

Computer Memory (amazon)
Internal Hard Drives (amazon)
Laptop Computers (amazon)
Desktop Computers (amazon)

Webopedia has definitions to words, phrases and abbreviations related to computing and information technology.

Software
Software (wiki)
Computer Software
Software as a Service
Computer Program
Instruction Set
Free Software
Software Development
Software Development Process
Agile Software Development
Software Release Life Cycle
Develop Meaning
Computing Platform
Scrum
Mobile Application Development
APPS
A/B Testing
Regression Testing
Benchmark
Command Pattern
Compiled Language
Communications Protocol
Data
Interpreted Language
Iterative and incremental Development
OSI Model
Technology Stack
Abstraction Layer
Open Systems Interconnection
Enterprise Architecture Framework
Enterprise Architecture
International Organization for Standardization
Matrix
Conceptual Model
Model-Driven Engineering
Model-Based Design
Structure
Interfaces
Software Architecture
Architectural Pattern
Software Design Pattern
Resource-Oriented Architecture
Representational State Transfer  (REST)
Programming Paradigm
Software Configuration Management 

Develop Process

Cucumber is a software tool that computer programmers use for testing other software.
Selenium
Apache Maven
Jwebunit software is a Java-based testing framework for web applications

Apache JMeter is an Apache project that can be used as a load testing tool for analyzing and measuring the performance of a variety of services, with a focus on web applications.

Learn to Code

Computing
Bio-inspired Computing
Biological Computation
Computational Biology
Information
Model of Computation
Computer Simulation
Ubiquitous Computing
Parallel Computing
Human Centered Computing
Cloud Computing
Cloud Computing Tools
Reversible Computing


Super Computers
Supercomputer (wiki)
Titan
K Computer
Quantum Computer
Qubit
The Tianhe-2 is the most powerful supercomputer built to date, demands 24 megawatts of power, while the human brain runs on just 10 watts.
Biological Neuron-Based Computer Chips (wetchips)
Artificial Intelligence
TOP 500 list of the World’s Top Supercomputers
ASC Sequoia
Darpa
iarpa  
Institute for Computational Cosmology
Exascale Computing a billion billion calculations per second.
Fiber Optics
Petascale Computing one quadrillion Floating Point operations per second.
A transistor stores a single “bit” of information.
If the transistor is “on,” it holds a 1, and if it’s “off,” it holds a 0.
Zero's and Ones

“qubit” can store a 0 and 1 simultaneously.
(Superposition Principle, Quantum Annealing)




Enable Cognitive Computing Features In Your App Using IBM Watson's Language, Vision, Speech and Data APIs

Self-Help Computer Resources

Thanks to the millions of people sharing their knowledge and experiences online, you can pretty much learn anything you want on your own.  So over the years I have collected some great resources that come in handy.  Sharing is awesome!
Information Sources

Surfing the Internet Tips
First a Little Warning: When visiting other websites be very careful what you click on because some software downloads are very dangerous to your computer, so be absolutely sure what you are downloading. Read the ".exe" file name. Search the internet for more info, or to verify '.exe' executable files. It's a good idea to always get a second opinion on what software you might need.

Free Virus Protection
Internet Browsers
Internet Safety Info
Internet Connections

Computer Quick Fix Tips
Make sure that your Computer System Restore is on. This can sometimes be used to fix a bad computer virus or malfunction. It's a good idea to do a System Restore and a Virus Scan in the Safe Mode (During Computer Restart hit the F8 Key and then follow the instructions)  (F2 is Setup and F12 is the Boot Menu) Warning: System Restore that is found under Start/Programs/Accessories/System Tools is not the same as PC Restore, Factory Settings or Image Restore, which will delete all your personal files and software from the PC. If you don't have OS Setup Disk that came with your PC then sometimes the PC will have a Factory Settings copy installed. This you need to do while your PC is rebooting. Press ' Ctrl '  then press F11 and then release both at the same time. You should see something like Symantec Ghost where you will be prompted to reinstall Factory Settings. This will delete all your personal files and software from the PC so please back up first.

Always Have your Operating System Restore Disk or Recovery Disc handy because not all computer problems can be fixed. You also need your Drivers and Applications Disks too. Always backup your most important computer files because reinstalling the operating system will clear your data.

Kingston DataTraveler 200 - 128 GB USB 2.0 Flash Drive DT200/128GB (Black)
Western Digital 2 TB USB 2.0 Desktop External Hard Drive

You can try some of these free programs to help keep your computer safe: (might be outdated)
Lava Soft Ad-Ware
Spybot Search & Destroy
CCleaner
Malwarebytes
Hijack This
Spyware Blaster

Download.com has the software above but be very careful not to click on the wrong download item.
Please Verify the correct ".exe file." name.


Free Software:
As the saying goes "Nothing is Free." Free software sometimes comes loaded with other software programs that you don't need. So always check or uncheck the appropriate boxes, and read everything carefully. But even then, they might sneak unwanted programs by you, so you will have to remove those programs manually.
With the internet, dangers are always lurking around the corner, so please be careful, be aware and educate yourself. When our computer systems and the internet are running smoothly the beauty of this machine becomes very evident. This is the largest collaboration of people in human history. With so many contributors from all over the world, we now have more knowledge and information at our fingertips then ever before, our potential is limitless. 
Free Software Info
Free Software Foundation
General Public License
Free BSD
Jolla
Hadoop Apache
Open Mind
Software Geek

New Computers
Sadly new PC's are loaded with a lot of bogus software and programs that you don't need. Removing them can be a challenge, but it's absolutely necessary if you want your PC to run smoothly without all those annoying distractions that slow your PC down.
Lojack For Laptops (amazon)

Tired and Disgusted with Windows 8 dysfunctional Operating System Interface, Download Classic Shell to make your computer like XP, and find things again, or you can just update your windows 8.0 to windows 8.1,, because 8.1 is definitely better then 8.0, but still not perfect yet.

Oasis Websoft advanced software by providing superior solutions for web applications, web sites and enterprise software. We are committed to building infrastructure that will ensure that the West African sub-region is not left behind in the continuous evolution of information technology.

Fawn fast, scalable, and energy-efficient cluster architecture for data-intensive computing.

BlueStacks is currently the best way to run Android apps on Windows. It doesn’t replace your entire operating system. Instead, it runs Android apps within a window on your Windows desktop. This allows you to use Android apps just like any other program.

Server Operating System
A server operating system, also called a server OS, is an Operating System specifically designed to run on servers, which are specialized computers that operate within a client/server architecture to serve the requests of client computers on the network.
The server operating system, or server OS, is the software layer on top of which other software programs, or applications, can run on the server hardware. Server operating systems help enable and facilitate typical server roles such as Web server, mail server, file server, database server, application server and print server.
Popular server operating systems include Windows Server, Mac OS X Server, and variants of Linux such as Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Server edition of Ubuntu Linux is free.

Utility Software is system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize or maintain a computer. Utility software, along with operating system software, is a type of system software used to support the computer infrastructure, distinguishing it from application software which is aimed at directly performing tasks that benefit ordinary users.

Service-Oriented Architecture is an architectural pattern in computer software design in which application components provide services to other components via a communications protocol, typically over a network. The principles of service-orientation are independent of any vendor, product or technology. A service is a self-contained unit of functionality, such as retrieving an online bank statement. By that definition, a service is an operation that may be discretely invoked. However, in the Web Services Description Language (WSDL), a service is an interface definition that may list several discrete services/operations. And elsewhere, the term service is used for a component that is encapsulated behind an interface. This widespread ambiguity is reflected in what follows. Services can be combined to provide the functionality of a large software application. SOA makes it easier for software components on computers connected over a network to cooperate. Every computer can run any number of
services, and each service is built in a way that ensures that the service can exchange information with any other service in the network without human interaction and without the need to make changes to the underlying program itself. A paradigm for organizing and utilizing distributed capabilities that may be under the control of different ownership domains. It provides a uniform means to offer, discover, interact with and use capabilities to produce desired effects consistent with measurable preconditions and expectations.



The First Integrated Circuit  (September 12th, 1958)

The First Microchip Handmade in 1958 by Jack Kilby
And now almost 60 years later...

Integrated Circuit is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip resulted in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components.

World's first 1,000-Processor Chip A microchip containing 1,000 independent programmable processors has been designed. The energy-efficient 'KiloCore' chip has a maximum computation rate of 1.78 trillion instructions per second and contains 621 million transistors. The highest clock-rate processor ever designed.

Atomically Thin Transistors that is Two-Dimensional
Berkeley Lab-led research breaks major barrier with the Smallest Transistor Ever by creating gate only 1 nanometer long. High-end 20-nanometer-gate transistors now on the market.
Molybdenum Disulfide

Chip-sized, high-speed terahertz modulator raises possibility of faster data transmission

Computers Made of Genetic Material? HZDR researchers conduct electricity using DNA-based nanowires.
Semiconductor-free microelectronics are now possible, thanks to metamaterials
Metamaterial is a material engineered to have a property that is not found in nature.
Semiconductor-free microelectronics (youtube)

2D materials that could make devices faster, smaller, and efficient nanomaterials that are only a few atoms in thickness.
Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials

Carbon Nanotube Transistors Outperform Silicon, for first time.

Neuromorphic Engineering also known as neuromorphic computing, is a concept describing the use of very-large-scale integration (VLSI) systems containing electronic analog circuits to mimic neuro-biological architectures present in the nervous system. Very-Large-Scale Integration is the current level of computer microchip miniaturization and refers to microchips containing in the hundreds of thousands of transistors. LSI (large-scale integration) meant microchips containing thousands of transistors. Earlier, MSI (medium-scale integration) meant a microchip containing hundreds of transistors and SSI (small-scale integration) meant transistors in the tens.

Reconfigurable Chaos-Based Microchips Offer Possible Solution to Moore’s Law. Nonlinear, chaos-based integrated circuits that enable computer chips to perform multiple functions with fewer transistors. The transistor circuit can be programmed to implement different instructions by morphing between different operations and functions. The potential of 100 morphable nonlinear chaos-based circuits doing work equivalent to 100 thousand circuits, or of 100 million transistors doing work equivalent to three billion transistors holds promise for extending Moore’s law.

Redox-Based Resistive Switching Random Access Memory (ReRAM)
A team of international scientists have found a way to make memory chips perform computing tasks, which is traditionally done by computer processors like those made by Intel and Qualcomm. Currently, all computer processors in the market are using the binary system, which is composed of two states -- either 0 or 1. For example, the letter A will be processed and stored as 01000001, an 8-bit character. However, the prototype ReRAM circuit built by Asst Prof Chattopadhyay and his collaborators
processes data in four states instead of two. For example, it can store and process data as 0, 1, 2, or 3, known as Ternary number system. Because ReRAM uses different electrical resistance to store information, it could be possible to store the data in an even higher number of states, hence speeding up computing tasks beyond current limitations current computer systems, all information has to be translated into a string of zeros and ones before it can be processed.

Parallel Computing: 18-core credit card sized computer

Memristor or memory resistor, is a hypothetical non-linear passive two-terminal electrical component relating electric charge and magnetic flux linkage. According to the characterizing mathematical relations, the memristor would hypothetically operate in the following way: The memristor's electrical resistance is not constant but depends on the history of current that had previously flowed through the device, i.e., its present resistance depends on how much electric charge has flowed in what direction through it in the past; the device remembers its history — the so-called non-volatility property. When the electric power supply is turned off, the memristor remembers its most recent resistance until it is turned on again.

Illinois team advances GaN-on-Silicon technology towards scalable high electron mobility transistors

Small tilt in Magnets makes them viable Memory Chips - Nano Technology

T-rays will “speed up” computer memory by a factor of 1,000

Quantum Computing makes direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. Quantum computers are different from binary digital electronic computers based on transistors. Whereas common digital computing requires that the data are encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses quantum bits, which can be in superpositions of states.

Computer Chip Close-up Macro Photo
Computer Chip Closeup Macro Photo

The moment you turn on your pc, what you see is the work of thousands and thousands of people, educated in the fields of engineering, science, math and physics, just to name a few. And that's just the software. The hardware also took the work of thousands of skilled people. Covering many different industries, which adds the work of thousands of more people. I'm also a product that took millions of people over thousands of years to make, just to get me here in this moment in time.

Computer Industry is the range of businesses involved in designing computer hardware and computer networking infrastructures, developing computer software, manufacturing computer components, and providing information technology (IT) services. Software Industry includes businesses for development, maintenance and publication of software that are using different business models, also includes software services, such as training, documentation, consulting and data recovery.



The First Computer

Antikythera Mechanism is 2,100-year-old ancient analog computer. An international team of scientists has now read about 3,500 characters of explanatory text -- a quarter of the original -- in the innards of the 2,100-year-old remains.

Antikythera Mechanism

Analog Computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as Electrical Network, Mechanics, or Hydraulics quantities to model the problem being solved. Digital computers represent varying quantities symbolically, as their numerical values change. As an analog computer does not use discrete values, but rather continuous values, processes cannot be reliably repeated with exact equivalence, as they can with Turing machines. Unlike digital signal processing, analog computers do not suffer from the quantization noise, but are limited by analog noise.

Turing Machine is an abstract machine that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules; to be more exact, it is a mathematical model of computation that defines such a device. Despite the model's simplicity, given any computer algorithm, a Turing machine can be constructed that is capable of simulating that algorithm's logic.

Curta is a small mechanical calculator developed by Curt Herzstark in the 1930s in Vienna, Austria. By 1938, he had filed a key patent, covering his complemented stepped drum, Deutsches Reichspatent (German National Patent) No. 747073. This single drum replaced the multiple drums, typically around 10 or so, of contemporary calculators, and it enabled not only addition, but subtraction through nines complement math, essentially subtracting by adding. The nines' complement math breakthrough eliminated the significant mechanical complexity created when "borrowing" during subtraction. This drum would prove to be the key to the small, hand-held mechanical calculator the Curta would become. Curtas were considered the best portable calculators available until they were displaced by electronic calculators in the 1970s.

Abstract Machine also called an abstract computer, is a theoretical model of a computer hardware or software system used in automata theory. Abstraction of computing processes is used in both the computer science and computer engineering disciplines and usually assumes a discrete time paradigm.
Autonomous Machines

Computer Programming in the Punched Card Era was the invention of computer programming languages up to the mid-1980s, many if not most computer programmers created, edited and stored their programs line by line on punched cards. The practice was nearly universal with IBM computers in the era. A punched card is a flexible write-once medium that encodes data, most commonly 80 characters. Groups or "decks" of cards form programs and collections of data. Users could create cards using a desk-sized keypunch with a typewriter-like keyboard. A typing error generally necessitated repunching an entire card. In some companies, programmers wrote information on special forms called coding sheets, taking care to distinguish the digit zero from the letter O, the digit one from the letter I, eight from B, two from Z, and so on. These forms were then converted to cards by keypunch operators, and in some cases, checked by verifiers. The editing of programs was facilitated by reorganizing the cards, and removing or replacing the lines that had changed; programs were backed up by duplicating the deck, or writing it to magnetic tape.
Keypunch is a device for precisely punching holes into stiff paper cards at specific locations as determined by keys struck by a human operator.
Punched Card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital information represented by the presence or absence
of holes in predefined positions. The information might be data for data processing applications or, in earlier examples, used to directly control automated machinery. The terms IBM card, or Hollerith card specifically refer to punched cards used in semiautomatic data processing. Punched cards were widely used through much of the 20th century in what became known as the data processing industry, where specialized and increasingly complex unit record machines, organized into data processing systems, used punched cards for data input, output, and storage. Many early digital computers used punched cards, often prepared using keypunch machines, as the primary medium for input of both computer programs and data. While punched cards are now obsolete as a recording medium, as of 2012, some voting machines still use punched cards to record votes.

The First Apple Computer (1976)

First Apple Computer 1976

Monochrome Monitor or Green screen was the common name for a monochrome monitor using a green "P1" phosphor screen. CRT computer monitor which was very common in the early days of computing, from the 1960s through the
1980s, before color monitors became popular. Monochrome monitors have only one color of phosphor (mono means "one", and chrome means "color"). Pixel for pixel, monochrome monitors produce sharper text and images than color CRT monitors. This is because a monochrome monitor is made up of a continuous coating of phosphor and the sharpness can be controlled by focusing the electron beam; whereas on a color monitor, each pixel is made up of three phosphor dots (one red, one blue, one green) separated by a mask. Monochrome monitors were used in almost all dumb terminals and are still widely used in text-based applications such as computerized cash registers and point of sale systems because of their superior sharpness and enhanced readability.

Organic computers are coming Scientists found a molecule that will help to make organic electronic devices.
Radialene are alicyclic organic compounds containing n cross-conjugated exocyclic double bonds.

Worlds Smallest Computer Michigan Micro Mote (M3)  

Histories Greatest Inventions  

Computer History Chart

Computer History Films



The Thinker Man