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Culture

Culters around the World
Culture is the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization. A way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time. That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. A particular society at a particular time and place. The tastes in art and manners that are favored by a social group. All the knowledge and values shared by a society. A highly developed state of perfection; having a flawless or impeccable quality.

Cultural Diversity Day
Cultural Appreciation

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Subculture is a social group within a national culture that has distinctive patterns of behavior and beliefs.

Heritage is the practices that are handed down from the past by tradition. Any attribute or immaterial possession that is inherited from ancestors. That which is inherited; a title or property or estate that passes by law to the heir on the death of the owner. Hereditary succession to a title or an office or property. Conformity

Customs are accepted or habitual practice. A specific practice of long standing. Habitual patronage. An action or way of behaving that is usual and traditional among the people in a particular group or place. Something that is done regularly by a person.

Traditions are an inherited pattern of thought or action. A specific practice of long standing.
Traditional Values (wiki)

Practice is a customary way of operation or behavior. Translating an idea into action. The exercise of a profession. Knowledge of how something is usually done. Engage in or perform.
Training

Rituals are any customary observance or practice. The prescribed procedure for conducting religious ceremonies.

Initiation is a rite of passage marking entrance or acceptance into a group or society. It could also be a formal admission to adulthood in a community or one of its formal components. In an extended sense it can also signify a transformation in which the initiate is 'reborn' into a new role.

Habits are an established custom. (psychology) an automatic pattern of behavior in reaction to a specific situation; may be inherited or acquired through frequent repetition.

Patterns are a customary way of operation or behavior. Something regarded as a normative example.

Civilization is a  society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations) The social process whereby societies achieve an advanced stage of development and organization. A particular society at a particular time and place. The quality of excellence in thought and manners and taste.

Symbols
Symbolism

Knowledge Passed On


Types of Culture


Counterculture is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, often in opposition to mainstream cultural mores.
Cultural Bias occurs when people of a culture make assumptions about conventions, including conventions of language, notation, proof and evidence. They are then accused of mistaking these assumptions for laws of logic or nature. Numerous such biases exist, concerning cultural norms for color, location of body parts, mate selection, concepts of justice, linguistic and logical validity, acceptability of evidence, and taboos.
Cultural Communication
Multiculturalism describes the existence, acceptance, and/or promotion of multiple cultural traditions within a single jurisdiction, usually considered in terms of the culture associated with an aboriginal ethnic group and foreigner ethnic groups.
Cultural Imperialism refers to the creation and maintenance of unequal relationships between civilizations, favoring the more powerful civilization. Thus, cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting and imposing a culture, usually that of a politically powerful nation, over a less powerful society; in other words, the cultural hegemony of industrialized or economically influential countries which determine general cultural values and standardize civilizations throughout the world.
Cultural Anthropology is the study of cultural variation among humans and is in contrast to social anthropology which perceives cultural variation as a subset of the anthropological constant.

Architectural Conservation describes the process through which the material, historical, and design integrity of humanity's built
heritage are prolonged through carefully planned interventions. The individual engaged in this pursuit is known as an architectural conservator-restorer. Decisions of when and how to engage in an intervention are critical to the ultimate conservation-restoration of cultural heritage. Ultimately, the decision is value based: a combination of artistic, contextual, and informational values is normally considered. In some cases, a decision to not intervene may be the most appropriate choice.
Conservator-Restorer is a professional responsible for the preservation of artistic and cultural artifacts, also known as cultural heritage. Conservators possess the expertise to preserve cultural heritage in a way that retains the integrity of the object, building or site, including its historical significance, context and aesthetic or visual aspects. This kind of preservation is done by analyzing and assessing the condition of cultural property, understanding processes and evidence of deterioration, planning collections care or site management strategies that prevent damage, carrying out conservation treatments, and conducting research. A conservators job is to ensure that art object's cultural heritage in a museum's collection are kept in the best possible condition, while at the same time, serving the museum's mission to bring art before the public.
Cultural Conservation

Cultural Heritage Management is the moulder and practice of managing cultural heritage. It is a branch of cultural resources management (CRM), although it also draws on the practices of cultural conservation, restoration, museology, archaeology, history and architecture.

Cultural Industry combines the creation, production, and distribution of goods and services that are cultural in nature and usually protected by intellectual property rights.
Cognitive-Cultural Economy is characterized by digital technologies combined with high levels of cognitive and cultural labor.
Pachamama Alliance
Indigenous Environmental Network - IEN
Alliance of Small Island States - AOSIS

Intercultural Competence is the ability to communicate effectively and appropriately with people of other cultures.
Cultural Diversity is the quality of diverse or different cultures, as opposed to monoculture, the global monoculture, or a homogenization of cultures, akin to cultural decay.
Cultural identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group. It is part of a person's self-conception and self-perception and is related to nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation, locality or any kind of social group that has its own distinct culture. In this way, cultural identity is both characteristic of the individual but also of the culturally identical group of members sharing the same cultural identity.
Cultural Heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. Cultural heritage includes tangible culture (such as buildings, monuments, landscapes, books, works of art, and artifacts), intangible culture (such as folklore, traditions, language, and knowledge), and natural heritage (including culturally significant landscapes, and biodiversity).
Transformation of Culture is the dynamic process whereby the living cultures of the world are changing and adapting to external or internal forces. This process is occurring within Western culture as well as non-Western and indigenous cultures and cultures of the world. Forces which contribute to the cultural change described in this article include: colonization, globalization, advances in communication, transport and infrastructure improvements.
Community
Culture Shock is an experience a person may have when one moves to a cultural environment which is different from one's own; it is also the personal disorientation a person may feel when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life due to immigration or a visit to a new country, a move between social environments, or simply transition to another type of life. One of the most common causes of culture shock involves individuals in a foreign environment. Culture shock can be described as consisting of at least one of four distinct phases: honeymoon, negotiation, adjustment, and adaptation. Common problems include: information overload, language barrier, generation gap, technology gap, skill interdependence, formulation dependency, homesickness (cultural), infinite regress (homesickness), boredom (job dependency), response ability (cultural skill set). There is no true way to entirely prevent culture shock, as individuals in any society are personally affected by cultural contrasts differently.
Indoctrination is the process of forcibly inculcating ideas, attitudes, cognitive strategies or a professional methodology (see doctrine) by coercion. Conspiring institutions such as police and mental health institutions have been widely used as a modus operandi of indoctrinators.
Cultural Assimilation is the process by which a person or a group's language and/or culture come to resemble those of another group.
Cumulative Culture
Cultural Hegemony is the domination of a culturally diverse society, by the ruling class who manipulate the culture of that society—the beliefs, explanations, perceptions, values, and mores—so that their imposed, ruling-class worldview becomes the accepted cultural norm; the universally valid dominant ideology, which justifies the social, political, and economic status quo as natural and inevitable, perpetual and beneficial for everyone, rather than as artificial social constructs that benefit only the ruling class.
Ethnic Groups is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities, such as common language, ancestral, social, cultural, or national experiences. Unlike other social groups (wealth, age, hobbies), ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which a person lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art, and physical appearance.

Cross-Cultural Studies is a specialization in anthropology and sister sciences (sociology, psychology, economics, political science) that uses field data from many societies to examine the scope of human behavior and test hypotheses about human behavior and culture. Sometimes called holocultural studies or comparative studies.
Cross Cultural Training and Intercultural Awareness
Ethnic Studies  is the interdisciplinary study of difference—chiefly race, ethnicity, and nation, but also sexuality, gender, and other such markings—and power, as expressed by the state, by civil society, and by individuals.
Sociology of Race and Ethnic Relations is the study of social, political, and economic relations between races and ethnicities at all levels of society. This area encompasses the study of racism, residential segregation, and other complex social processes between different racial and ethnic groups. The sociological analysis of race and ethnicity frequently interacts with other areas of sociology such as stratification and social psychology, as well as with postcolonial theory.

Ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth). Ancestor is "any person from whom one is descended. In law the person from whom an estate has been inherited. Scion is a descendent or heir. Connected by a relationship of blood. A person considered as descended from some ancestor or race.

Indigenous People are ethnic groups who are descended from and identify with the original inhabitants of a given region.

Traditional Society refers to a society characterized by an orientation to the past, not the future, with a predominant role for custom and habit. Such societies are marked by a lack of distinction between family and business, with the division of labor influenced primarily by age, gender, and status.
Cross-Cultural a comparative tendency in various fields of cultural analysis.
Popular Culture is the entirety of ideas, perspectives, attitudes, images, and other phenomena that are within the mainstream of a given culture, especially Western culture of the early to mid 20th century and the emerging global mainstream of the late 20th and early 21st century.
Primitive Culture refers to a society believed to lack cultural, technological, or economic sophistication or development.
Is a Primitive Culture Really Primitive?

Virtual Heritage is the body of works dealing with information and communication technologies (ICT) and their application to cultural heritage, such as virtual archaeology. Virtual heritage and cultural heritage have independent meanings: cultural heritage refers to sites, monuments, buildings and objects "with historical, aesthetic, archaeological, scientific, ethnological or anthropological value", whereas virtual heritage refers to instances of these within a technological domain, usually involving computer visualization of artefacts or Virtual Reality environments.

Cultural Framework is a term used in social science to describe traditions, value systems, myths and symbols that are common in a given society.
International Culture and Cognition Institute

"Everyone should have one foot in the old world and one foot in the new world, and live in the middle."

Stolen Generations  were the children of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent who were removed from their families by the Australian Federal and State government agencies and church missions, under acts of their respective parliaments. The removals of those referred to as "half-caste" children were conducted in the period between approximately 1900 and 1969, although in some places mixed-race children were still being taken into the 1970s. Documentary evidence, such as newspaper articles and reports to parliamentary committees, suggest a range of rationales. Apparent motivations include child protection, the belief that the Aboriginal people would die out, given their catastrophic population decline after white contact, and the belief that full-blooded Aboriginal people resented miscegenation and the mixed-race children fathered and abandoned by white men. Documentaries 
Seventh Generation Fund for Indian Development
Generation One
Honour Indigenous Sovereignty

Knowledge


Tribal Knowledge is any information or knowledge that is known within a tribe but often unknown outside of it. A tribe may be a group or subgroup of people that share a common knowledge. With a corporate perspective, "Tribal Knowledge or know-how is the collective wisdom of the organization. It is the sum of all the knowledge and capabilities of all the people".
Vedas "knowledge", are a large body of texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Ancient Knowledge
Traditional Knowledge indigenous knowledge (IK), and local knowledge generally refer to knowledge systems embedded in the cultural traditions of regional, indigenous, or local communities. Traditional knowledge includes types of knowledge about traditional technologies of subsistence (e.g. tools and techniques for hunting or agriculture), midwifery, ethnobotany and ecological knowledge, traditional medicine, celestial navigation, ethnoastronomy, the climate, and others. These kinds of knowledge, crucial for subsistence and survival, are generally based on accumulations of empirical observation and on interaction with the environment. In many cases, traditional knowledge has been orally passed for generations from person to person. Some forms of traditional knowledge find expression in stories, legends, folklore, rituals, songs, and laws. Other forms of traditional knowledge are expressed through different means.

Archaeoastronomy is the study of how people in the past "have understood the phenomena in the sky, how they used these phenomena and what role the sky played in their cultures. (ethnoastronomy).
Ethnobotany is the scientific study of the traditional knowledge and customs of a people concerning plants and their medical, religious, and other uses. The relationships that exist between people and plants.

Heaven Earth (vimeo)
Wisdom Keepers Project
Earth Peoples United
Earth Alive

Folklore is traditional art, literature, knowledge, and practices that are passed on in large part through oral communication and example. The information thus transmitted expresses the shared ideas and values of a particular group.
Lore is a body of traditions and knowledge on a subject or held by a particular group, typically passed from person to person by word of mouth. Knowledge gained through tradition or anecdote.  
Value (personal and cultural)
Abstraction is a conceptual process by which general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal (Real or Concrete) signifiers, first principles, or other methods. "An abstraction" is the product of this process — a concept that acts as a super-categorical noun for all subordinate concepts, and connects any related concepts as a group, field, or category.

Social Constructivism maintains that human development is socially situated and knowledge is constructed through interaction with others. It is a sociological theory of knowledge that applies the general philosophical constructivism into the social.

Indigenous Education focuses on teaching indigenous knowledge, models, methods, and content within formal or non-formal educational systems. The growing recognition and use of indigenous education methods can be a response to the erosion and loss of indigenous knowledge through the processes of colonialism, globalization, and modernity. Indigenous communities are able to “reclaim and revalue their languages and [traditions], and in so doing, improve the educational success of indigenous students,” thus ensuring their survival as a culture.
Social Learning

Tribalism is the state of being organized in, or advocating for, a tribe or tribes. In terms of conformity, tribalism may also refer in popular cultural terms to a way of thinking or behaving in which people are more loyal to their tribe than to their friends, their country, or any other social group.

Tribe is viewed, developmentally or historically, as a social group existing before the development of, or outside, states. A tribe is a group of distinct people, dependent on their land for their livelihood, who are largely self-sufficient, and not integrated into the national society.


Culture Studies


Humanities are academic disciplines that study human culture. In the Middle Ages, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time. Today, the humanities are more frequently contrasted with natural, physical and sometimes social sciences as well as professional training. Humanities

National Humanities Medal is an American award that annually recognizes several individuals, groups, or institutions for work that has "deepened the nation's understanding of the humanities, broadened our citizens' engagement with the humanities, or helped preserve and expand Americans' access to important resources in the humanities.

Archaeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. Earth Timeline

Anthropology is the study of various aspects of humans within past and present societies. Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the norms and values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies how language affects social life. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of humans. Archaeology, which studies past human cultures through investigation of physical evidence, is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right, or grouped under other related disciplines such as history.

Paleoanthropology is the study of man or early humans. The combination and a sub-discipline of paleontology and biological anthropology, studies the formation and the development of the specific characteristics of humans (hominization) and the reconstruction of evolutionary kinship lines in the family Hominidae, by means of the study of fossils, such as petrified skeletal remains, bone fragments, footprints and associated evidence, stone tools, artifacts, and settlement localities. As technologies and methods advance, genetics plays an ever increasing role in paleoanthropology, in particular examining and comparing DNA structure as a vital tool of research of the evolutionary kinship lines of related species and genera.

Paleoecology uses data from fossils and subfossils to reconstruct the ecosystems of the past.

Ethnography is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group.

Salvage Ethnography is the recording of the practices and folklore of cultures threatened with extinction, including as a result of modernization.

Global Xplorer is a citizen science project using satellite imagery, we can fight the loss of our cultural heritage. On any given day, it's estimated that10,000+looted artifacts are for sale on the black market. Become a space archaeologist and document threats to ancient sites. Help authorities get there first. Eyes in the Sky (drones)
Help Discover Ancient Ruins — before it's too late: Sarah Parcak (video and interactive text)

Desecration is the act of depriving something of its sacred character, or the disrespectful, contemptuous, or destructive treatment of that which is held to be sacred or holy by a group or individual.
Bad Behavior - Hazing
Space Archaeology is the research-based study of various human-made items found in space, their interpretation as clues to the adventures mankind has experienced in space, and their preservation as cultural heritage.

Liberal Arts are those subjects or skills that in classical antiquity were considered essential for a free person. To take an active part in civic life, included participating in public debate, defending oneself in court, serving on juries, and most importantly, military service.

Antiquity is extreme oldness, the historic period preceding the Middle Ages in Europe, an artifact surviving from the past.

Cultural Artifact is anything created by humans which gives information about the culture of its creator and users.

Historical Places - Heritage - Cultural Websites

Articulation Sociology labels the process by which particular classes appropriate cultural forms and practices for their own use.

Legacy Family Tree is genealogy software for Windows that assists family historians in tracking, organizing, printing, and sharing family history. The standard edition is distributed as freeware, with no restrictions, only requiring registration on the company's web site to download the software. Users may pay a fee to do Product activation "unlock" the additional features in the deluxe edition.
Tips on Making a Family Tree Photo Album
Kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of most humans in most societies.
Relationships
Heredity

Naturalist intelligence
Society Intelligence
Intelligence
Self Smart - People Smart
Time Keeping

Expatriate is a person temporarily or permanently residing, as an immigrant, in a country other than that of their citizenship.
Culture Machine
Sunset Over Selungo (video)
American Indians
Appalachian Culture
Education Theater
Academic Commons
College News

Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by the horror of World War I. Modernism also rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief.

Bohemianism is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle, often in the company of like-minded people, with few permanent ties, involving musical, artistic, or literary pursuits. In this context, Bohemians may be wanderers, adventurers, or vagabonds
Conformity
Critical Thinking

Art
Music
Religion
Politics

There’s a big difference between Tradition and Repression. Especially when a tradition violates Human Rights and Civil Liberties. We don’t want to end Traditions or take away Culture. We want to preserve traditions and preserve cultures. Adjusting to the 21st century world in which we all live does not mean that we need to reject our History. It just means that some of those old traditions that violate Human Rights and Civil Liberties need to be preserved in our archives and not preserved in our everyday lives. Celebrating old traditions in Theatre or on a particular Holiday will always be popular as they have always been. We want to learn from our mistakes, not live with our mistakes. This is not to say that Traditional Knowledge is not important, because it is extremely important. Indigenous People have valuable knowledge, so we need more Social Learning opportunities.

Paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field. A standard or typical example. Systematic arrangement of all the inflected forms of a word. The generally accepted perspective of a particular discipline at a given time.

Manal Al-Sharif: A Saudi Woman who Dared to Drive (video)
US Institute of Peace 
Beliefs


"There is no society, we only have social groups that have little or no coherence with themselves or other groups that are within their own town or immediate area. There is no reason or logic in trying to separate ourselves from each other. Either we learn to live together or we will continue to tragically die together. And for whatever the selfish reasons are, to many of us are choosing to unnecessarily die together then to live together. And the deaths are not always immediate, so people are unaware that they are dying, and that they are also passing on these deaths to future generations. "




The Thinker Man