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Culters around the WorldCulture is the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization. A way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time in History. That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. The tastes in art and manners that are favored by a social group. All the knowledge and values shared by a society. A highly developed state of perfection and having a flawless or impeccable quality.

Ethnic Groups - Diversity - Conservation

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Culture Types - Cultural Studies

Heritage is the practices that are handed down from the past by tradition. Any attribute or immaterial possession that is inherited from ancestors. That which is inherited; a title or property or estate that passes by law to the heir on the death of the owner. Hereditary succession to a title or an office or property. Conformity - Genealogy.

Customs are accepted or habitual practice. A specific practice of long standing. Habitual patronage. An action or way of behaving that is usual and traditional among the people in a particular group or place. Something that is done regularly by a person.

Traditions are an inherited pattern of thought or action. A specific practice of long standing. Clothing.

Holiday is a day set aside by custom or by law on which normal activities, especially business or work including school, are suspended or reduced. Generally, holidays are intended to allow individuals to celebrate or commemorate an event or tradition of cultural or religious significance. Holidays may be designated by governments, religious institutions, or other groups or organizations. The degree to which normal activities are reduced by a holiday may depend on local laws, customs, the type of job held or personal choices. Knowledge Preservation.

Public Holiday is a day in a year that coincides with a significant event in history, an anniversary to mark a day of celebration and remembrance. Holidays mean different things to different people. List of Holidays by Country (wiki).

Holidays are about family, food, and tradition, and the things that help bring us all together. The smells, tastes, and decorations help to bring memories flooding back. But a Holiday is not just about remembering something important, it's also about what you have learned because of this memory. To remember is to question something again, and not just to remember something. When a year or years have past, you have to acknowledge and say "this is what I think I know now, and that I will never forget this memory, because this memory is connected to so many things. To forget you would be like forgetting that I have memories, which is something I can not do, so thank you, thank you for the memories".

Gratitude - Standing on the Shoulders of Giants

Remembrance is the action of remembering something. The ability to recall past occurrences. Remembrance Day (wiki).

Culture of Remembrance is the interaction of an individual or a society with their past and history. Remembrance Culture is all the behavioral configurations and socially approved or acquired manners of a society or group used to keep parts of the past in their consciousness and thus deliberately make it present. The central theme is not the display of historical and objective knowledge but primarily collective and subjective perceptions of historical connections to the past from a current perspective. One can distinguish between private and public Remembrance Culture as well as their respective regular and event-based elements. The striking thing about a Culture of Remembrance is the fact that collective perceptions shape subjective ones. Social conflicts, relationships and problems influence a Remembrance Culture. In a pronounced Culture of Remembrance, less emphasized elements are likely to be forgotten. Family albums, genealogical research or anniversaries with personal or familial significance are examples of private or subjective forms of Remembrance Culture. Works from a Remembrance Culture can officially be designated as cultural artifacts or cultural monuments if there is a long-standing public interest.

Birthday is the anniversary of the birth of a person or the beginning of something important. Birthdays of people are celebrated in numerous cultures, often with birthday gifts, birthday cards, a birthday party, or a Rite of Passage. Many religions celebrate the birth of their founders or religious figures with special holidays. A person's golden or grand birthday, also referred to as their "lucky birthday", "champagne birthday", or "star birthday", occurs when they turn the age of their birth day, like when someone born on the 25th of the month turns 25 or when someone born on the ninth turns nine.

Anniversary is the date on which an event occurred in some previous year, and may also refer to the commemoration or celebration of that event.

Death Anniversary is the anniversary of the death of a person.

Memorialization refers to the process of preserving memories of people or events. It can be a form of address or petition, or a ceremony of remembrance or commemoration

Memorial is an object which serves as a focus for memory of something, usually a person (who has died) or an event. Popular forms of memorials include landmark objects or art objects such as sculptures, statues or fountains and parks.

Memorandum is honoring the memory of a person who died in the past.

Commemorative is an object made to memorialize something.

Ceremony is a formal religious or public occasion, typically one celebrating a particular event or anniversary. The ritual observances and procedures performed at grand and formal occasions. Weddings.

Festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or cultures. It is often marked as a local or national holiday, mela, or eid. Next to religion and folklore, a significant origin is agricultural. Food is such a vital resource that many festivals are associated with harvest time. Religious commemoration and thanksgiving for good harvests are blended in events that take place in autumn, such as Halloween in the northern hemisphere and Easter in the southern. Festivals often serve to fulfill specific communal purposes, especially in regard to commemoration or thanksgiving. The celebrations offer a sense of belonging for religious, social, or geographical groups, contributing to group cohesiveness. They may also provide entertainment, which was particularly important to local communities before the advent of mass-produced entertainment. Festivals that focus on cultural or ethnic topics also seek to inform community members of their traditions; the involvement of elders sharing stories and experience provides a means for unity among families. Festival Types (wiki) - Lists of Festivals (wiki).

Celebration is a joyful occasion for special festivities to mark some happy event. Any joyous diversion. The public performance of a sacrament or solemn ceremony with all appropriate ritual.

Party is a gathering of people who have been invited by a host for the purposes of socializing, conversation, recreation, or as part of a festival or other commemoration of a special occasion. A party will typically feature food and beverages, and often music and dancing or other forms of entertainment. In many Western countries, parties for teens and adults are associated with drinking alcohol such as beer, wine, or distilled spirits.

Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight. It can be an idea or a task, but is more likely to be one of the activities or events that have developed over thousands of years specifically for the purpose of keeping an audience's attention. Although people's attention is held by different things, because individuals have different preferences in entertainment, most forms are recognisable and familiar. Storytelling, music, drama, dance, and different kinds of performance exist in all cultures, were supported in royal courts, developed into sophisticated forms and over time became available to all citizens. The process has been accelerated in modern times by an entertainment industry that records and sells entertainment products. Entertainment evolves and can be adapted to suit any scale, ranging from an individual who chooses a private entertainment from a now enormous array of pre-recorded products; to a banquet adapted for two; to any size or type of party, with appropriate music and dance; to performances intended for thousands; and even for a global audience.

Amusement is the state of experiencing humorous and entertaining events or situations while the person or animal actively maintains the experience, and is associated with enjoyment, happiness, laughter and pleasure. It is an emotion with positive valence and high physiological arousal.

Parade is a procession of people, usually organized along a street, often in costume, and often accompanied by marching bands, floats, or sometimes large balloons. Parades are held for a wide range of reasons, but are usually celebrations of some kind.

Vacation is an extended period of recreation, especially one spent away from home or in traveling. Vacation is a period of suspension of work, study, or other activity, usually used for rest, recreation, or travel; recess or holiday. Vacation is a leave of absence from a regular occupation, or a specific trip or journey, usually for the purpose of recreation or tourism. People often take a vacation during specific holiday observances, or for specific festivals or celebrations. Vacations are often spent with friends or family.

Rituals are any customary observance or practice. The prescribed procedure for conducting religious ceremonies.

Habits are an established custom. In psychology habits are automatic patterns of behavior in reaction to a specific situation; may be inherited or acquired through frequent repetition. Routines.

Patterns are a customary way of operation or behavior. Something regarded as a normative example.

Traditional Values or social conservatism, is a group of political ideologies centered on preserving traditional beliefs, attitudes and philosophy, which are not clearly defined or debated on any level. The aims of social conservatism vary from person to person, and from country to country. Thus, there are really no policies or positions that could be considered universal among social conservatives.

Practice is a customary way of operation or behavior. Translating an idea into action. The exercise of a profession. Knowledge of how something is usually done. Engage in or perform.

Tribalism is the state of being organized in or an advocate for a tribe or tribes. In terms of conformity, tribalism may also refer in popular cultural terms to a way of thinking or behaving in which people are loyal to their own tribe or social group. Tribalism has been defined in as a 'way of being' based upon variable combinations of kinship-based organization, reciprocal exchange, manual production, oral communication and analogical enquiry. Ontologically, tribalism is oriented around the valences of analogy, genealogy and mythology. That means that customary tribes have their social foundations in some variation of these tribal orientations, while often taking on traditional practices (e.g. Abrahamic religions such as Christianity, Judaism, and Islam), and modern practices, including monetary exchange, mobile communications, and modern education. The social structure of a tribe can vary greatly from case to case, but the relatively small size of customary tribes makes social life in such of tribes usually involve a relatively undifferentiated role structure, with few significant political or economic distinctions between individuals. Tribalism implies the possession of a strong cultural or ethnic identity that separates one member of a group from the members of another group. Based on strong relations of proximity and kinship, members of a tribe tend to possess a strong feeling of identity. Objectively, for a customary tribal society to form there needs to be ongoing customary organization, enquiry and exchange. However, intense feelings of common identity can lead people to feel tribally connected. The distinction between these two definitions for tribalism, objective and subjective, is an important one because while tribal societies have been pushed to the edges of the Western world, tribalism, by the second definition, is arguably undiminished. A few writers have postulated that the human brain is hard-wired towards tribalism by its evolutionary advantages, but that claim is usually linked to equating original questions of sociality with tribalism. Many tribes refer to themselves with their language's word for "people" and referring to other, neighboring tribes with various epithets. For example, the term "Inuit" translates as "people," but they were known to the Ojibwe by a name 'Eskimo' translating roughly as "eaters of raw meat".

Tribe is viewed, developmentally or historically, as a social group existing before the development of, or outside, states. A tribe is a group of distinct people, dependent on their land for their livelihood, who are largely self-sufficient, and not integrated into the national society.

Civilization is a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations) The social process whereby societies achieve an advanced stage of development and organization. A particular society at a particular time and place. The quality of excellence in thought and manners and taste.

Symbols - Symbolism

Knowledge Passed On

Training (self directed learning)

Initiation is a rite of passage marking entrance or acceptance into a group or society. It could also be a formal admission to adulthood in a community or one of its formal components. In an extended sense it can also signify a transformation in which the initiate is 'reborn' into a new role.

Hazing refers to the practice of rituals, challenges, and other activities involving harassment, abuse or humiliation used as a way of initiating a person into a group including a new fraternity, sorority, team, or club. Hazing is seen in many different types of social groups, including gangs, sports teams, schools, military units, and fraternities and sororities. The initiation rites can range from relatively benign pranks to protracted patterns of behavior that rise to the level of abuse or criminal misconduct. Hazing is often prohibited by law or prohibited by institutions such as colleges and universities because it may include either physical or psychological abuse.

Line-Crossing Ceremony s an initiation rite that commemorates a person's first crossing of the Equator. The tradition may have originated with ceremonies when passing headlands, and become a "folly" sanctioned as a boost to morale, or have been created as a test for seasoned sailors to ensure their new shipmates were capable of handling long rough times at sea. Equator-crossing ceremonies, typically featuring King Neptune, are common in the navy and are also sometimes carried out for passengers' entertainment on civilian ocean liners and cruise ships. They are also performed in the merchant navy and aboard sail training ships. Throughout history, line-crossing ceremonies have sometimes become dangerous hazing rituals. Most modern navies have instituted regulations that prohibit physical attacks on sailors undergoing the line-crossing ceremony.

Types of Culture

Counterculture is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, often in opposition to mainstream cultural mores.

Subculture is a social group within a national culture that has distinctive patterns of behavior and beliefs.

Cultural Bias occurs when people of a culture make assumptions about conventions, including conventions of language, notation, proof and evidence. They are then accused of mistaking these assumptions for laws of logic or nature. Numerous such biases exist, concerning cultural norms for color, location of body parts, mate selection, concepts of justice, linguistic and logical validity, acceptability of evidence, and taboos.

Cultural Communication

Multiculturalism describes the existence, acceptance, and/or promotion of multiple cultural traditions within a single jurisdiction, usually considered in terms of the culture associated with an aboriginal ethnic group and foreigner ethnic groups. Diversity.

Cultural Imperialism refers to the creation and maintenance of unequal relationships between civilizations, favoring the more powerful civilization. Thus, cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting and imposing a culture, usually that of a politically powerful nation, over a less powerful society; in other words, the cultural hegemony of industrialized or economically influential countries which determine general cultural values and standardize civilizations throughout the world.

Cultural Anthropology is the study of cultural variation among humans and is in contrast to social anthropology which perceives cultural variation as a subset of the anthropological constant.

We need to Conserve our Roots, Conserve our Cultures, and Conserve our Languages.

Architectural Conservation describes the process through which the material, historical, and design integrity of humanity's built heritage are prolonged through carefully planned interventions. The individual engaged in this pursuit is known as an architectural conservator-restorer. Decisions of when and how to engage in an intervention are critical to the ultimate conservation-restoration of cultural heritage. Ultimately, the decision is value based: a combination of artistic, contextual, and informational values is normally considered. In some cases, a decision to not intervene may be the most appropriate choice.

Conservator-Restorer is a professional responsible for the preservation of artistic and cultural artifacts, also known as cultural heritage. Conservators possess the expertise to preserve cultural heritage in a way that retains the integrity of the object, building or site, including its historical significance, context and aesthetic or visual aspects. This kind of preservation is done by analyzing and assessing the condition of cultural property, understanding processes and evidence of deterioration, planning collections care or site management strategies that prevent damage, carrying out conservation treatments, and conducting research. A conservators job is to ensure that art object's cultural heritage in a museum's collection are kept in the best possible condition, while at the same time, serving the museum's mission to bring art before the public.

Cultural Conservation - Knowledge Preservation - Language Conservation

Cultural Heritage Management is the moulder and practice of managing cultural heritage. It is a branch of cultural resources management (CRM), although it also draws on the practices of cultural conservation, restoration, museology, archaeology, history and architecture.

Cultural Industry combines the creation, production, and distribution of goods and services that are cultural in nature and usually protected by intellectual property rights.

Cognitive-Cultural Economy is characterized by digital technologies combined with high levels of cognitive and cultural labor.

Pachamama Alliance
Indigenous Environmental Network - IEN
Alliance of Small Island States - AOSIS

Intercultural Competence is the ability to communicate effectively and appropriately with people of other cultures.

Cultural Diversity

Cultural identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group. It is part of a person's self-conception and self-perception and is related to nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation, locality or any kind of social group that has its own distinct culture. In this way, cultural identity is both characteristic of the individual but also of the culturally identical group of members sharing the same cultural identity.

Cultural Heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. Cultural heritage includes tangible culture (such as buildings, monuments, landscapes, books, works of art, and artifacts), intangible culture (such as folklore, traditions, language, and knowledge), and natural heritage (including culturally significant landscapes, and biodiversity).

Transformation of Culture is the dynamic process whereby the living cultures of the world are changing and adapting to external or internal forces. This process is occurring within Western culture as well as non-Western and indigenous cultures and cultures of the world. Forces which contribute to the cultural change described in this article include: colonization, globalization, advances in communication, transport and infrastructure improvements.

Cultural Appropriation is the adoption of elements of a minority culture by members of the dominant culture. Because of the presence of power imbalances that are a byproduct of colonialism and oppression, cultural appropriation is distinct from equal cultural exchange. cultural appropriation is often considered harmful, and to be a violation of the collective intellectual property rights of the originating, minority cultures, notably indigenous cultures and those living under colonial rule. Often unavoidable when multiple cultures come together, cultural appropriation can include using other cultures' cultural and religious traditions, fashion, symbols, language, and songs. Separation of Church and State.

Trans-Cultural Diffusion Five major types of cultural diffusion have been defined: Expansion diffusion: an innovation or idea that develops in a source area and remains strong there, while also spreading outward to other areas. This can include hierarchical, stimulus, and contagious diffusion. Relocation diffusion: an idea or innovation that migrates into new areas, leaving behind its origin or source of the cultural trait. Hierarchical diffusion: an idea or innovation that spreads by moving from larger to smaller places, often with little regard to the distance between places, and often influenced by social elites. Contagious diffusion: an idea or innovation that spreads based on person-to-person contact within a given population. Stimulus diffusion: an idea or innovation that spreads based on its attachment to another concept.


Culture Shock is an experience a person may have when one moves to a cultural environment which is different from one's own; it is also the personal disorientation a person may feel when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life due to immigration or a visit to a new country, a move between social environments, or simply transition to another type of life. One of the most common causes of culture shock involves individuals in a foreign environment. Culture shock can be described as consisting of at least one of four distinct phases: honeymoon, negotiation, adjustment, and adaptation. Common problems include: information overload, language barrier, generation gap, technology gap, skill interdependence, formulation dependency, homesickness (cultural), infinite regress (homesickness), boredom (job dependency), response ability (cultural skill set). There is no true way to entirely prevent culture shock, as individuals in any society are personally affected by cultural contrasts differently.

Indoctrination is the process of forcibly inculcating ideas, attitudes, cognitive strategies or a professional methodology (see doctrine) by coercion. Conspiring institutions such as police and mental health institutions have been widely used as a modus operandi of indoctrinators.

Cultural Assimilation is the process by which a person or a group's language and/or culture come to resemble those of another group.

Cumulative Culture

Cultural Hegemony is the domination of a culturally diverse society, by the ruling class who manipulate the culture of that society—the beliefs, explanations, perceptions, values, and mores—so that their imposed, ruling-class worldview becomes the accepted cultural norm; the universally valid dominant ideology, which justifies the social, political, and economic status quo as natural and inevitable, perpetual and beneficial for everyone, rather than as artificial social constructs that benefit only the ruling class.

Ethnic Groups is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities, such as common language, ancestral, social, cultural, or national experiences. Unlike other social groups (wealth, age, hobbies), ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which a person lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art, and physical appearance.

List of Contemporary Ethnic Groups (wiki) - Ethnic Group (wiki)

Race and Ethnicity in the United States. The United States Census officially recognizes six Racial categories: White American, Black or African American, Native American and Alaska Native, Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and people of two or more races; a category called "some other race" is also used in the census and other surveys, but is not official.

Ethnic Groups in Europe has 87 distinct peoples of Europe, of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities, which refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold the majority of positions of social power in a society, and it may be defined by law.

Ethnogenesis is "the formation and development of an ethnic group." This can originate through a process of self-identification as well as come about as the result of outside identification.

Cross-Cultural Studies is a specialization in anthropology and sister sciences (sociology, psychology, economics, political science) that uses field data from many societies to examine the scope of human behavior and test hypotheses about human behavior and culture. Sometimes called holocultural studies or comparative studies.

Cross Cultural Training and Intercultural Awareness

Ethnic Studies is the interdisciplinary study of difference—chiefly race, ethnicity, and nation, but also sexuality, gender, and other such markings—and power, as expressed by the state, by civil society, and by individuals.

Sociology of Race and Ethnic Relations is the study of social, political, and economic relations between races and ethnicities at all levels of society. This area encompasses the study of racism, residential segregation, and other complex social processes between different racial and ethnic groups. The sociological analysis of race and ethnicity frequently interacts with other areas of sociology such as stratification and social psychology, as well as with postcolonial theory.

Ancestor - Genealogy

Indigenous People are ethnic groups who are descended from and identify with the original inhabitants of a given region.

Traditional Society refers to a society characterized by an orientation to the past, not the future, with a predominant role for custom and habit. Such societies are marked by a lack of distinction between family and business, with the division of labor influenced primarily by age, gender, and status.

Cross-Cultural a comparative tendency in various fields of cultural analysis.

Popular Culture is the entirety of ideas, perspectives, attitudes, images, and other phenomena that are within the mainstream of a given culture, especially Western culture of the early to mid 20th century and the emerging global mainstream of the late 20th and early 21st century.

Primitive Culture refers to a society believed to lack cultural, technological, or economic sophistication or development.
Is a Primitive Culture Really Primitive?

Virtual Heritage is the body of works dealing with information and communication technologies (ICT) and their application to cultural heritage, such as virtual archaeology. Virtual heritage and cultural heritage have independent meanings: cultural heritage refers to sites, monuments, buildings and objects "with historical, aesthetic, archaeological, scientific, ethnological or anthropological value", whereas virtual heritage refers to instances of these within a technological domain, usually involving computer visualization of artifacts or Virtual Reality environments.

Cultural Framework is a term used in social science to describe traditions, value systems, myths and symbols that are common in a given society.

International Culture and Cognition Institute

"Everyone should have one foot in the old world and one foot in the new world, and live in the middle."

Stolen Generations were the children of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent who were removed from their families by the Australian Federal and State government agencies and church missions, under acts of their respective parliaments. The removals of those referred to as "half-caste" children were conducted in the period between approximately 1900 and 1969, although in some places mixed-race children were still being taken into the 1970s. Documentary evidence, such as newspaper articles and reports to parliamentary committees, suggest a range of rationales. Apparent motivations include child protection, the belief that the Aboriginal people would die out, given their catastrophic population decline after white contact, and the belief that full-blooded Aboriginal people resented miscegenation and the mixed-race children fathered and abandoned by white men.

Documentaries (films)

Seventh Generation Fund for Indian Development
Generation One
Honour Indigenous Sovereignty

Sacred Knowledge

indigenous knowledge within us Tribal Knowledge is any information or knowledge that is known within a tribe but often unknown outside of it. A tribe may be a group or subgroup of people that share a common knowledge. With a corporate perspective, "Tribal Knowledge or know-how is the collective wisdom of the organization. It is the sum of all the knowledge and capabilities of all the people". Base Knowledge.

Vedas "knowledge", are a large body of texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.

Sacred Texts - Ancient Wisdom

Ancient Knowledge (religion)

Traditional Knowledge indigenous knowledge (IK), and local knowledge generally refer to knowledge systems embedded in the cultural traditions of regional, indigenous, or local communities. Traditional knowledge includes types of knowledge about traditional technologies of subsistence (e.g. tools and techniques for hunting or agriculture), midwifery, ethnobotany and ecological knowledge, traditional medicine, celestial navigation, ethnoastronomy, the climate, and others. These kinds of knowledge, crucial for subsistence and survival, are generally based on accumulations of empirical observation and on interaction with the environment. In many cases, traditional knowledge has been orally passed for generations from person to person. Some forms of traditional knowledge find expression in stories, legends, folklore, rituals, songs, and laws. Other forms of traditional knowledge are expressed through different means.

How Africa can use its Traditional Knowledge to make Progress (video and interactive text)

Homing Pigeons share our Human Ability to build Knowledge Across Generations. When people share and pass knowledge down through generations, it increases efficiency, progressively improves performance, and increases necessary innovations. (cross-generational knowledge, cumulative culture, collective intelligence, accumulation of knowledge over time).

Environmental ‘Memories’ Passed on for 14 Generations

Archaeoastronomy is the study of how people in the past "have understood the phenomena in the sky, how they used these phenomena and what role the sky played in their cultures. (ethnoastronomy).

Ethnobotany is the scientific study of the traditional knowledge and customs of a people concerning plants and their medical, religious, and other uses. The relationships that exist between people and plants.

Book of Thoth is a name given to many ancient Egyptian texts supposed to have been written by Thoth, the Egyptian god of writing and knowledge. They include many texts that were claimed to exist by ancient authors, and a magical book that appears in an Egyptian work of fiction.

Heaven Earth (vimeo)
Wisdom Keepers Project
Earth Peoples United
Earth Alive

Folklore is traditional art, literature, knowledge, and practices that are passed on in large part through oral communication and example. The information thus transmitted expresses the shared ideas and values of a particular group.

Lore is a body of traditions and knowledge on a subject or held by a particular group, typically passed from person to person by word of mouth. Knowledge gained through tradition or anecdote.  

Value (personal and cultural)

Abstraction is a conceptual process by which general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal (Real or Concrete) signifiers, first principles, or other methods. "An abstraction" is the product of this process — a concept that acts as a super-categorical noun for all subordinate concepts, and connects any related concepts as a group, field, or category.

Social Constructivism maintains that human development is socially situated and knowledge is constructed through interaction with others. It is a sociological theory of knowledge that applies the general philosophical constructivism into the social.

Squatter Man Indigenous Education focuses on teaching indigenous knowledge, models, methods, and content within formal or non-formal educational systems. The growing recognition and use of indigenous education methods can be a response to the erosion and loss of indigenous knowledge through the processes of colonialism, globalization, and modernity. Indigenous communities are able to “reclaim and revalue their languages and [traditions], and in so doing, improve the educational success of indigenous students,” thus ensuring their survival as a culture.

Squatter Man - Plasma Discharge. The "squatter" or "stickman" figure is a ubiquitous symbol found in nearly every culture. They are stylized derivations of a plasma discharge configuration seen in the ancient sky. Kanaga symbol is actually a very strangely recurring symbol found all over the world. The image of Kanaga is an archetype from the very ancient times. it is known also as squatter man. The word ”Kanaga” comes from the Dogon Tribe in Mali. It is a mask which have a secret meaning and only truly known by the group that wears them. The masks are worn during the Dama dancing ceremonies The Dogon believe that the Dama dance creates a bridge into the supernatural world. Dogon People are an ethnic group living in the central plateau region of Mali, in West Africa, south of the Niger bend, near the city of Bandiagara, in the Mopti region.

Social Learning

Culture Studies

Humanities are academic disciplines that study human culture. In the Middle Ages, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time. Today, the humanities are more frequently contrasted with natural, physical and sometimes social sciences as well as professional training. Humanities.

National Humanities Medal is an American award that annually recognizes several individuals, groups, or institutions for work that has "deepened the nation's understanding of the humanities, broadened our citizens' engagement with the humanities, or helped preserve and expand Americans' access to important resources in the humanities.

Archaeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. Association in Archaeology is the close relationship between objects or contexts.

Earth Timeline - Evolution

Anthropology is the study of various aspects of humans within past and present societies. Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the norms and values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies how language affects social life. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of humans. Archaeology, which studies past human cultures through investigation of physical evidence, is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right, or grouped under other related disciplines such as history.

Social Anthropology is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of Europe (France in particular), where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology. In the USA, social anthropology is commonly subsumed within cultural anthropology (or under the relatively new designation of sociocultural anthropology).

UCLA Department of Anthropology

Paleoanthropology is the study of man or early humans. The combination and a sub-discipline of paleontology and biological anthropology, studies the formation and the development of the specific characteristics of humans (hominization) and the reconstruction of evolutionary kinship lines in the family Hominidae, by means of the study of fossils, such as petrified skeletal remains, bone fragments, footprints and associated evidence, stone tools, artifacts, and settlement localities. As technologies and methods advance, genetics plays an ever increasing role in paleoanthropology, in particular examining and comparing DNA structure as a vital tool of research of the evolutionary kinship lines of related species and genera.

Human Body

Neuroanthropology is the study of the relationship between culture and the brain. Neuroanthropology explores how the brain gives rise to culture, how culture influences brain development, structure and function, and the pathways followed by the co-evolution of brain and culture. Moreover, neuroanthropologists consider how new findings in the brain sciences help us understand the interactive effects of culture and biology on human development and behavior. In one way or another, neuroanthropologists ground their research and explanations in how the human brain develops, how it is structured and how it functions within the genetic and cultural limits of its biology.

Biological Anthropology is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors. It is a subfield of anthropology that provides a biological perspective to the systematic study of human beings.

Paleoecology uses data from fossils and subfossils to reconstruct the ecosystems of the past. Carbon Dating.

Ethnography is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group.

Salvage Ethnography is the recording of the practices and folklore of cultures threatened with extinction, including as a result of modernization.

Artifact is an object made by a human being, typically an item of cultural or historical interest. Artifact can also mean something observed in a scientific investigation or experiment that is not naturally present but occurs as a result of the preparative or investigative procedure.

Artifact in archaeology is something made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.

Material Culture is the physical aspect of culture in the objects and architecture that surround people. It includes usage, consumption, creation, and trade of objects as well as the behaviors, norms, and rituals that the objects create or take part in. Some scholars also include other intangible phenomena that include sound, smell and events, while some even consider language as part of it. The term is commonly used in archaeological and anthropological studies, specifically focusing on the material evidence that can be attributed to culture in the past or present. It is usually synonymous with artifacts, which humans use to cope with the physical world, facilitate social intercourse, and benefit man's state of mind.

Cultural Artifact is anything created by humans which gives information about the culture of its creator and users.

Lithic Technology includes a broad array of techniques and styles in archaeology, which are used to produce usable tools from various types of stone. The earliest stone tools were recovered from modern Ethiopia and were dated to between two-million and three-million years old. The archaeological record of lithic technology is divided into three major time periods: the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age), Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age), and Neolithic (New Stone Age). Not all cultures in all parts of the world exhibit the same pattern of lithic technological development, and stone tool technology continues to be used to this day, but these three time periods represent the span of the archaeological record when lithic technology was paramount. By analysing modern stone tool usage within an ethnoarchaeological context insight into the breadth of factors influencing lithic technologies in general may be studied. See: Stone tool. For example, for the Gamo of Southern Ethiopia, political, environmental, and social factors influence the patterns of technology variation in different subgroups of the Gamo culture; through understanding the relationship between these different factors in a modern context, archaeologists can better understand the ways that these factors could have shaped the technological variation that is present in the archaeological record.

Antiquity is extreme oldness, the historic period preceding the Middle Ages in Europe, an artifact surviving from the past.

Relic is an antiquity that has survived from the distant past. Something of sentimental value.

Biofact in archaeology is organic material found at an archaeological site that carries archaeological significance. Biofacts are natural objects found alongside artifacts or features, such as animal bones, charcoal, plants, and pollen. Biofacts are passively consumed or handled by humans; as opposed to artefacts, which are purposefully manipulated. Biofacts reveal how people respond to their surroundings. A common type of biofact is a [plant] [seed]. Plant remains, often referred to as macrobotanicals, provide a variety of information ranging from diet to medicine to textile production. Pollen preserved on archaeological sites informs researchers about the ancient environment, and the foods processed and/or grown by prehistoric people. Pollen, when examined over time, also informs on environmental and dietary changes. A seed can be linked to the species of plant that produced it; if massive numbers of seeds of a cultivated species are found at a site, it may be inferred that the species may have been grown for food or other products that are useful to humans, such as clothing, bedding or building materials. Another type of biofact is wood. Wood is made up cellulose, carbohydrates, and lignin. Every year that passes, a new ring is added to the trunk of tree, allowing for dendrochronological dating. Charcoal is burned wood that archaeologist are able to extract. It can be dated using carbon-14, and through other methods, information such as local environment and human adaptation can be revealed from the charcoal. To help determine the date during which a site was occupied, dendrochronological analysis can be used on wood samples. Wood that has been altered by humans is properly an artifact, not a biofact.

Biofact in biology is dead material of a once-living organism.

Mentifact describes how cultural traits, such as "beliefs, values, ideas", take on a life of their own spanning over generations, and are conceivable as objects in themselves. This concept has been useful to anthropologists in refining the definition of culture.

Sociofact describes how cultural traits take on a life of their own, spanning over generations.

Memetics is the study of information and culture as an approach to evolutionary models of cultural information transfer.

Global Xplorer is a citizen science project using satellite imagery, we can fight the loss of our cultural heritage. On any given day, it's estimated that 10,000+looted artifacts are for sale on the black market. Become a space archaeologist and document threats to ancient sites. Help authorities get there first.

Eyes in the Sky (drones)

Help Discover Ancient Ruins — before it's too late: Sarah Parcak (video and interactive text)

Desecration is the act of depriving something of its sacred character, or the disrespectful, contemptuous, or destructive treatment of that which is held to be sacred or holy by a group or individual.

Bad Behavior - Hazing

Space Archaeology is the research-based study of various human-made items found in space, their interpretation as clues to the adventures mankind has experienced in space, and their preservation as cultural heritage.

Liberal Arts are those subjects or skills that in classical antiquity were considered essential for a free person. To take an active part in civic life, included participating in public debate, defending oneself in court, serving on juries, and most importantly, military service.

Historical Places - Heritage - Cultural Websites

Articulation Sociology labels the process by which particular classes appropriate cultural forms and practices for their own use.


Genealogy also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history. Genealogists use oral interviews, historical records, genetic analysis, and other records to obtain information about a family and to demonstrate kinship and pedigrees of its members. The results are often displayed in charts or written as narratives. The pursuit of family history and origins tends to be shaped by several motives, including the desire to carve out a place for one's family in the larger historical picture, a sense of responsibility to preserve the past for future generations, and a sense of self-satisfaction in accurate storytelling.

Genetic Genealogy - Heredity - Blood Line

Legacy Family Tree is genealogy software for Windows that assists family historians in tracking, organizing, printing, and sharing family history. The standard edition is distributed as freeware, with no restrictions, only requiring registration on the company's web site to download the software. Users may pay a fee to do Product activation "unlock" the additional features in the deluxe edition. "A Family Tree is like backtracking a Chain Reaction".

Tips on Making a Family Tree Photo Album

It took two people to make you. But, it also took four people to make the two people that made you. Then it took 8 people to make the four people to make the two people that made you. Then it took 16 people to make the 8 people who made the four people who made the two people that made you. So your parents are the combination of thousands of people over thousands of generations. In the family tree, the roots of a family tree are a thousand times bigger then the tree itself. Even when you see a real tree, the roots of that tree go back millions of years. And you just got here like it's your first time.

Kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of most humans in most societies.

Ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth). Ancestor is "any person from whom one is descended. In law the person from whom an estate has been inherited. Scion is a descendent or heir. Connected by a relationship of blood. A person considered as descended from some ancestor or race.

Family Tree or pedigree chart, is a chart representing family relationships in a conventional tree structure. The more detailed family trees used in medicine and social work are known as genograms, which is a pictorial display of a person's family relationships and medical history. Priscilla Renea - Family Tree (youtube).

Bloodline - Genes - Genealogy - Family Tree


Crowd Sourced Personal Genomes Database slowly gains momentum with linked genealogical information from 13 million people into a single family tree.

Naturalist intelligence
Society Intelligence
Self Smart - People Smart
Time Keeping

Expatriate is a person temporarily or permanently residing, as an immigrant, in a country other than that of their citizenship.

Culture Machine
Open Culture high-quality cultural & educational media.
Europeana Historic Photography Collections
Sunset Over Selungo (video)
American Indians
Appalachian Culture
Education Theater
Academic Commons
College News

Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by the horror of World War I. Modernism also rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief.

Bohemianism is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle, often in the company of like-minded people, with few permanent ties, involving musical, artistic, or literary pursuits. In this context, Bohemians may be wanderers, adventurers, or vagabonds.

Conformity - Critical Thinking - Beliefs

Art - Music - History - Religion - Politics

There’s a big difference between Tradition and Repression. Especially when a tradition violates Human Rights and Civil Liberties. We don’t want to end Traditions or take away Culture. We want to preserve traditions and preserve cultures. Adjusting to the 21st century world in which we all live does not mean that we need to reject our History. It just means that some of those old traditions that violate Human Rights and Civil Liberties need to be preserved in our archives and not preserved in our everyday lives. Celebrating old traditions in Theatre or on a particular Holiday will always be popular as they have always been. We want to learn from our mistakes, not live with our mistakes. This is not to say that Traditional Knowledge is not important, because it is extremely important. Indigenous People have valuable knowledge, so we need more Social Learning opportunities.

Paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field. A standard or typical example. Systematic arrangement of all the inflected forms of a word. The generally accepted perspective of a particular discipline at a given time.

Manal Al-Sharif: A Saudi Woman who Dared to Drive (video)
US Institute of Peace


Diversity is the condition or result of being Changeable. Biodiversity - Balance.

Diverse is having many and different. Distinctly dissimilar or unlike. Interracial.

Variety is a collection containing a variety of sorts of things. Choice.

Versatile is having great diversity or variety. Changeable or inconstant. Competent in many areas and able to turn with ease from one thing to another. Able to move freely in all directions. A category of things distinguished by some common characteristic or quality.

Multiplicity is having or involving or consisting of more than one part or entity or individual.

Plurality is composed of more than one member, set, or kind.

Cultural Diversity is the quality of diverse or different cultures, as opposed to monoculture, the global monoculture, or a homogenization of cultures, akin to cultural decay. The phrase cultural diversity can also refer to having different cultures respect each other's differences. The phrase "cultural diversity" is also sometimes used to mean the variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a whole. Globalization is often said to have a negative effect on the world's cultural diversity.

Cultural Diversity Day -  - Cultural Appreciation (wiki)

Diversity Training can be defined as any program designed to facilitate positive intergroup interaction, reduce prejudice and discrimination, and generally teach individuals who are different from others how to work together effectively. From the broad corporate perspective, diversity training is defined as raising personal awareness about individual differences in the workplace and how those differences inhibit or enhance the way people work together and get work done. Collaboration.

Diversity in politics is used to describe political entities (neighborhoods, student bodies, etc.) with members who have identifiable differences in their cultural backgrounds or lifestyles. The term describes differences in racial or ethnic classifications, age, gender, religion, philosophy, physical abilities, socioeconomic background, sexual orientation, gender identity, intelligence, mental health, physical health, genetic attributes, behavior, attractiveness, or other identifying features. In measuring human diversity, a diversity index measures the probability that any two residents, chosen at random, would be of different ethnicities. If all residents are of the same ethnic group it's zero. The diversity index does not take into account the willingness of individuals to cooperate with those of other ethnicities. If half are from one group and half from another, it's 50. Racism

Morris Milgram Multiracial Suburbs (Concord Park, Pennsylvania, in 1954) 55%-45% Ratio of whites to African Americans.

Arcosanti begun in 1970 and continues to be developed as an experiential learning center, walk-through demonstration of how to pursue efficient “lean” alternatives to urban sprawl. Cooperative Housing.

Gender Diversity is equitable or fair representation between genders. Gender diversity most commonly refers to an equitable ratio of men and women, but may also include non-binary gender categories.

Diversity in a group of people does not say anything about the people themselves. It only says that some people are slightly different in appearance and that they may have beliefs that are unique to their particular culture. Diversity says nothing about the abilities or the intelligence of a particular group of people. Just having many different people doesn't guarantee good communication or community, or effectiveness or increased productivity. And having no diversity at all also does not guarantee good communication or community, or effectiveness or increased productivity. Diversity in skills would have to depend on the work involved. One of the good things about having many different people is it can help avoid herd mentality or conformity. And you certainly don't want any type of forced segregation, or prejudices or discriminations. But still, it all depends on that particular group of people. Can they communication effectively? Can they be a community and work together? Can they progress? Diversity in the minds of people is powerful. That is why diversity among people is powerful. Any place where you can have people sharing new ways of thinking, is a place where you will have the most potential and the most advancements. Just look at America. Diversity works. But our work is far from over and we have a lot of work to do. And we can't afford to be distracted by our own ignorance and let tiny differences divide us. We are all humans, so let's get on with this.

Genetic Diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. It is distinguished from genetic variability, which describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to vary. Genetic diversity serves as a way for populations to adapt to changing environments. With more variation, it is more likely that some individuals in a population will possess variations of alleles that are suited for the environment. Those individuals are more likely to survive to produce offspring bearing that allele. The population will continue for more generations because of the success of these individuals.

Diversity is Life

Several thousand languages, millions of different personalities, 100's of different religions, thousands of different types of food, thousands of different types of plants and animals, millions of different sizes of stars, planets and galaxies, many different ethnic groups from many different countries. We even have Diversity in Atoms. Without all the different types of atoms, there would be no life as we know it.


At this time in human history, there is no society, we only have social groups that have little or no coherence with themselves or other groups that are within their own town or immediate area. People are just beginning to realize that there is no reason or logic in trying to separate ourselves from each other. Either we learn to live together or we will continue to tragically die together. And for whatever the selfish reasons are, to many of us are choosing to unnecessarily die together then to live together. And the deaths are not always immediate. So most people are unaware that they are killing life and that they are also killing themselves. And that they are also passing on these deaths to future generations.

The Thinker Man