particular social group
or organization. A way of life,
especially the general customs and
, of a
particular group of people at a particular time
. That complex
whole which includes knowledge
, belief, art,
, custom and any other capabilities and habits
acquired by man as a member of society. The
tastes in art
and manners that are favored by a
All the knowledge and values shared by a society
. A highly
state of perfection
and having a flawless or impeccable
quality. Ethnic Groups
- Cultural Studies
is the practices that are handed down from the past by tradition. Any
attribute or immaterial possession that is inherited from
That which is inherited
; a title or property or estate that
passes by law to the heir on the death of the owner.
Hereditary succession to a title or an office or property.
are accepted or habitual practice
. A specific practice of long
standing. Habitual patronage. An action or way of behaving that
is usual and traditional among the people in a particular group
or place. Something that is done regularly by a person.
of thought or action. A specific practice
of long standing.
is a day set aside by custom or by law on which normal activities,
especially business or work including school, are suspended or reduced.
Generally, holidays are intended to allow individuals to celebrate or
commemorate an event or tradition of cultural or religious significance.
Holidays may be designated by governments, religious institutions, or
other groups or organizations. The degree to which normal activities are
reduced by a holiday may depend on local laws, customs, the type of job
held or personal choices.
is a day in a year that coincides with a significant
event in history, an anniversary to mark a day of celebration and
remembrance. Holidays mean different things to different people.
List of Holidays by Country
Holidays are about family,
food, and tradition, and the things that help bring us all together. The
smells, tastes, and decorations help to bring memories flooding back. But
a Holiday is not just about
something important, it's also about what you have learned
because of this memory
. To remember is
to question something again, and not just to remember something. When a
year or years have past, you have to acknowledge and say "this is what I
think I know now, and that I will never forget this memory, because
this memory is connected to so many things. To forget you would be like
that I have memories, which is something I can not do, so thank you, thank you for
Standing on the Shoulders of GiantsRemembrance
action of remembering something. The ability to recall past occurrences.
is the interaction of an individual or a society with
their past and history. Remembrance Culture is all the behavioral
configurations and socially approved or acquired manners of a society or
group used to keep parts of the past in their consciousness and thus
deliberately make it present. The central theme is not the display of
historical and objective knowledge but primarily collective and
of historical connections
to the past from a
current perspective. One can distinguish between private and public
Remembrance Culture as well as their respective regular and event-based
elements. The striking thing about a Culture of Remembrance is the fact
that collective perceptions shape subjective ones. Social conflicts,
and problems influence a
Remembrance Culture. In a pronounced Culture of Remembrance, less
emphasized elements are likely to be forgotten. Family albums,
genealogical research or anniversaries with personal or familial
significance are examples of private or subjective forms of Remembrance
Culture. Works from a Remembrance Culture can officially be designated as
or cultural monuments if there is
a long-standing public interest.
is the anniversary of the birth of a
or the beginning of something important. Birthdays of people
are celebrated in numerous cultures, often with birthday gifts, birthday
cards, a birthday party, or a Rite
. Many religions celebrate the birth of their founders or
religious figures with special holidays. A person's golden or grand
birthday, also referred to as their "lucky birthday", "champagne
birthday", or "star birthday", occurs when they turn the age of their
birth day, like when someone born on the 25th of the month turns 25 or
when someone born on the ninth turns nine.
is the date on which an event occurred in some previous
year, and may also refer to the commemoration or celebration of that
is the anniversary of the death of a person.
refers to the process of preserving memories of people
or events. It can be a form of address or petition, or a ceremony of
remembrance or commemoration
is an object which serves as a focus for memory of something, usually a
person (who has died) or an event. Popular forms of memorials include
landmark objects or art objects such as sculptures, statues or fountains
and parks. Memorandum
the memory of a person who died in the past.
is an object made to
is a formal religious or public occasion, typically one celebrating a
particular event or anniversary. The ritual observances and procedures
performed at grand and formal occasions.
is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some
characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or cultures. It
is often marked as a local or national holiday, mela, or eid. Next to
religion and folklore
, a significant origin is
agricultural. Food is such a vital resource that many festivals are
associated with harvest time
commemoration and thanksgiving for good harvests are blended in events
that take place in autumn, such as Halloween in the northern hemisphere
and Easter in the southern. Festivals often serve to fulfill specific
especially in regard to commemoration or thanksgiving. The celebrations
offer a sense of belonging for religious, social, or geographical groups,
contributing to group cohesiveness. They may also provide entertainment,
which was particularly important to local communities before the advent of
mass-produced entertainment. Festivals
focus on cultural or ethnic topics also seek to inform community members
of their traditions; the involvement of elders sharing stories and
experience provides a means for unity among families.
Lists of Festivals
is a joyful occasion for special festivities to mark some happy event.
Any joyous diversion
of a sacrament or
solemn ceremony with all appropriate ritual.
a gathering of people who have been invited by a host for the purposes of
socializing, conversation, recreation, or as part of a festival or other
commemoration of a special occasion. A party will typically feature food
and beverages, and often music and dancing or other forms of
entertainment. In many Western countries, parties for teens and adults are
associated with drinking alcohol such as beer, wine, or distilled spirits.
is a form of activity that holds the attention and
interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight. It can be an idea
or a task, but is more likely to be one of the activities or events that
have developed over thousands of years specifically for the purpose of
keeping an audience's attention. Although people's attention is held by
different things, because individuals have different preferences in
entertainment, most forms are recognisable and familiar. Storytelling,
music, drama, dance, and different kinds of performance exist in all
cultures, were supported in royal courts, developed into sophisticated
forms and over time became available to all citizens. The process has been
accelerated in modern times by an entertainment industry that records and
sells entertainment products. Entertainment evolves and can be adapted to
suit any scale, ranging from an individual who chooses a private
entertainment from a now enormous array of pre-recorded products; to a
banquet adapted for two; to any size or type of party, with appropriate
music and dance; to performances intended for thousands; and even for a
is the state of experiencing humorous and entertaining
events or situations while the person or animal actively maintains the
experience, and is associated with enjoyment, happiness, laughter and
pleasure. It is an emotion with positive valence and high physiological
is a procession of people, usually organized along a street, often in
costume, and often accompanied by marching bands, floats, or sometimes
large balloons. Parades are held for a wide range of reasons, but are
usually celebrations of some kind.
is an extended period of recreation, especially one spent away from home
or in traveling. Vacation is a period of suspension of work, study, or
other activity, usually used for
, recreation, or
travel; recess or holiday. Vacation is a leave of absence from a regular
occupation, or a specific trip or journey, usually for the purpose of
recreation or tourism. People often take a vacation during specific
holiday observances, or for specific festivals or celebrations. Vacations
are often spent with friends or family.
are any customary observance or practice. The prescribed procedure
for conducting religious
are an established custom.
In psychology habits are automatic
in reaction to a specific situation; may be
inherited or acquired through frequent repetition. Routines
are a customary way of operation or
Something regarded as a normative
, is a
group of political
centered on preserving traditional beliefs
, attitudes and
philosophy, which are not clearly defined or debated on any level. The aims of social conservatism vary from
person, and from country to country. Thus, there are really no
or positions that could be
considered universal among social conservatives.
is a customary way of
or behavior. Translating an idea
. The exercise of a
. Knowledge of how
something is usually done. Engage in or perform.
state of being organized in or an advocate
for a tribe or tribes. In terms
, tribalism may also
refer in popular cultural terms to a way of thinking or behaving in which
people are loyal to their own tribe or social
. Tribalism has been defined in as a 'way of being
' based upon
variable combinations of kinship-based
organization, reciprocal exchange, manual production, oral communication
and analogical enquiry. Ontologically, tribalism is oriented around the
valences of analogy, genealogy and mythology. That means that customary
tribes have their social foundations in some variation of these tribal
orientations, while often taking on traditional practices (e.g. Abrahamic
religions such as Christianity, Judaism, and Islam), and modern practices,
including monetary exchange, mobile communications, and modern education.
The social structure of a tribe can vary greatly from case to case, but
the relatively small size of customary tribes makes social life in such of
tribes usually involve a relatively undifferentiated role structure, with
few significant political or economic distinctions between individuals.
Tribalism implies the possession of a strong cultural or ethnic identity
that separates one member of a group from the members of another group.
Based on strong relations of proximity and kinship, members of a tribe
tend to possess a strong feeling of identity. Objectively, for a customary
tribal society to form there needs to be ongoing customary organization,
enquiry and exchange. However, intense feelings of common identity can
lead people to feel tribally connected. The distinction between these two
definitions for tribalism, objective and subjective, is an important one
because while tribal societies have been pushed to the edges of the
Western world, tribalism, by the second definition, is arguably
undiminished. A few writers have postulated that the human brain is
hard-wired towards tribalism by its evolutionary advantages, but that
claim is usually linked to equating original questions of sociality with
tribalism. Many tribes refer to themselves with their language's word for
"people" and referring to other, neighboring tribes with various epithets.
For example, the term "Inuit" translates as "people," but they were known
to the Ojibwe by a name 'Eskimo' translating roughly as "eaters of raw
is viewed, developmentally or historically, as a social group existing
before the development of, or outside, states. A tribe is a group of
distinct people, dependent on their land for their livelihood, who are
, and not integrated into the
is a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with
complex legal and political and religious organizations)
The social process whereby societies achieve an advanced stage
of development and organization.
A particular society at a particular time and place. The quality
of excellence in thought and manners and taste.
Knowledge Passed On
(self directed learning)
is a rite of passage
marking entrance or acceptance into a
group or society. It could also be a formal admission to adulthood in a
community or one of its formal components. In an extended sense it can
also signify a transformation in which the initiate is 'reborn' into a new
refers to the practice of rituals, challenges, and other activities
, abuse or humiliation
used as a way of initiating a person into a group including a new
fraternity, sorority, team, or club. Hazing is seen in many different
types of social groups, including gangs, sports teams, schools, military
units, and fraternities and sororities. The initiation rites can range
from relatively benign pranks to protracted patterns of behavior that rise
to the level of abuse or criminal misconduct. Hazing is often prohibited
by law or prohibited by institutions such as colleges and universities
because it may include either physical or
s an initiation rite that commemorates a
person's first crossing of the Equator. The tradition may have originated
with ceremonies when passing headlands, and become a "folly" sanctioned as
a boost to morale, or have been created as a test for seasoned sailors to
ensure their new shipmates were capable of handling long rough times at
sea. Equator-crossing ceremonies, typically featuring King Neptune, are
common in the navy and are also sometimes carried out for passengers'
entertainment on civilian ocean liners and cruise ships. They are also
performed in the merchant navy and aboard sail training ships. Throughout
history, line-crossing ceremonies have sometimes become dangerous hazing
rituals. Most modern navies have instituted regulations that prohibit
physical attacks on sailors undergoing the line-crossing ceremony.
Types of Culture
is a subculture whose values and norms of
behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, often in
opposition to mainstream cultural mores.
is a social group within a national
that has distinctive
patterns of behavior and beliefs.
occurs when people of a culture make
about conventions, including conventions of language,
notation, proof and evidence. They are then accused of mistaking these
assumptions for laws of logic or nature. Numerous such biases exist,
concerning cultural norms for color, location of body parts, mate
selection, concepts of justice, linguistic and logical validity,
acceptability of evidence, and taboos.
describes the existence, acceptance, and/or
promotion of multiple cultural traditions within a single jurisdiction,
usually considered in terms of the culture associated with an aboriginal
ethnic group and foreigner ethnic groups. Diversity
refers to the creation and maintenance
of unequal relationships between civilizations, favoring the more powerful
civilization. Thus, cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting and
imposing a culture, usually that of a politically powerful nation, over a
less powerful society; in other words, the cultural hegemony of
industrialized or economically influential countries which determine
general cultural values and standardize civilizations throughout the
is the study of cultural variation
among humans and is in contrast to social anthropology which perceives
cultural variation as a subset of the anthropological constant.
We need to
Conserve our Roots, Conserve our Cultures, and Conserve our Languages
describes the process through which the
material, historical, and design integrity of humanity's built
heritage are prolonged through carefully planned interventions. The
individual engaged in this pursuit is known as an architectural
conservator-restorer. Decisions of when and how to engage in an
intervention are critical to the ultimate conservation-restoration of
cultural heritage. Ultimately, the decision is value based: a combination
of artistic, contextual, and informational values is normally considered.
In some cases, a decision to not intervene may be the most appropriate
is a professional responsible for the
preservation of artistic and cultural artifacts, also known as cultural
heritage. Conservators possess the expertise to preserve cultural heritage
in a way that retains the integrity of the object, building or site,
including its historical significance, context and aesthetic or visual
aspects. This kind of preservation is done by analyzing and assessing the
condition of cultural property, understanding processes and evidence of
deterioration, planning collections care or site management strategies
that prevent damage, carrying out conservation treatments, and conducting
research. A conservators job is to ensure that art object's cultural
heritage in a museum's collection are kept in the best possible condition,
while at the same time, serving the museum's mission to bring art before
- Language Conservation
Cultural Heritage Management
is the moulder and practice of
managing cultural heritage. It is a branch of cultural resources
management (CRM), although it also draws on the practices of cultural
conservation, restoration, museology, archaeology, history and
combines the creation, production, and distribution of goods
and services that are cultural in nature and usually protected by
intellectual property rights.
is characterized by digital technologies combined with high levels of
cognitive and cultural labor.
Environmental Network - IEN
Alliance of Small Island
States - AOSIS
is the ability to communicate
effectively and appropriately with people of other cultures.
is the identity or feeling of belonging to
a group. It is part of a person's self-conception and self-perception and
is related to nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation,
locality or any kind of social group that has its own distinct culture. In
this way, cultural identity is both characteristic of the individual but
also of the culturally identical group of members sharing the same
is the legacy of physical artifacts and
intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past
generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of
future generations. Cultural heritage includes tangible culture (such as
buildings, monuments, landscapes, books, works of art, and artifacts),
intangible culture (such as folklore, traditions, language, and
knowledge), and natural heritage (including culturally significant
landscapes, and biodiversity).
Transformation of Culture
is the dynamic process whereby the
living cultures of the world are changing and adapting to external or
internal forces. This process is occurring within Western culture as well
as non-Western and indigenous cultures and cultures of the world. Forces
which contribute to the cultural change described in this article include:
colonization, globalization, advances in communication, transport and
is the adoption of elements of a minority
culture by members of the dominant culture. Because of the presence of
power imbalances that are a byproduct of colonialism and oppression,
cultural appropriation is distinct from equal cultural exchange.
cultural appropriation is often considered harmful, and to be a violation
of the collective intellectual property rights of the originating,
minority cultures, notably indigenous cultures and those living under
colonial rule. Often unavoidable when multiple cultures come together,
cultural appropriation can include using other cultures' cultural and
religious traditions, fashion, symbols, language, and songs.
Separation of Church and State
Five major types of cultural diffusion have
been defined: Expansion diffusion:
innovation or idea that develops in a source area and remains strong
there, while also spreading outward to other areas. This can include
hierarchical, stimulus, and contagious diffusion.
an idea or innovation that migrates into new
areas, leaving behind its origin or source of the cultural trait.
an idea or
innovation that spreads by moving from larger to smaller places, often
with little regard to the distance between places, and often influenced by
social elites. Contagious diffusion:
idea or innovation that spreads based on person-to-person contact within a
given population. Stimulus diffusion:
idea or innovation that spreads based on its attachment to another
is an experience a person may have when one
moves to a cultural environment which is different from one's own; it is
also the personal disorientation a person may feel when experiencing an
unfamiliar way of life due to immigration or a visit to a new country, a
move between social environments, or simply transition to another type of
life. One of the most common causes of culture shock involves individuals
in a foreign environment. Culture shock can be described as consisting of
at least one of four distinct phases: honeymoon, negotiation, adjustment,
and adaptation. Common problems include: information overload, language
barrier, generation gap, technology gap, skill interdependence,
formulation dependency, homesickness (cultural), infinite regress
(homesickness), boredom (job dependency), response ability (cultural skill
set). There is no true way to entirely prevent culture shock, as
individuals in any society are personally affected by cultural contrasts
is the process of forcibly inculcating ideas,
attitudes, cognitive strategies or a professional methodology (see
doctrine) by coercion. Conspiring institutions such as police and mental
health institutions have been widely used as a modus operandi of
is the process by which a person or a group's language and/or culture come
to resemble those of another group.
is the domination of a culturally diverse society, by the
who manipulate the culture of that
society—the beliefs, explanations, perceptions, values, and mores—so that
their imposed, ruling-class worldview becomes the accepted cultural norm;
the universally valid dominant ideology, which justifies the social,
political, and economic status quo as natural and inevitable, perpetual
and beneficial for everyone, rather than as artificial social constructs
that benefit only the ruling class.
is a category of people who identify with each
other based on similarities, such as common language
, ancestral, social,
cultural, or national experiences. Unlike other social groups (wealth,
age, hobbies), ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society
in which a person lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person
moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be
defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history,
homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion,
mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art, and physical
List of Contemporary Ethnic Groups
Race and Ethnicity in the United States
. The United States Census
officially recognizes six Racial
categories: White American, Black or
African American, Native American and Alaska Native, Asian American,
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and people of two or more
races; a category called "some other race" is also used in the census and
other surveys, but is not official.
Ethnic Groups in Europe
has 87 distinct peoples of Europe, of which 33
form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while
the remaining 54 constitute ethnic
which refers to a category of people differentiated from the social
majority, those who hold the majority of positions of
in a society, and it may be defined by law.
is "the formation and development of an ethnic
group." This can originate through a process of self-identification as
well as come about as the result of outside identification.
is a specialization in anthropology
and sister sciences (sociology, psychology, economics, political science)
that uses field data from many societies to examine the scope of human
behavior and test hypotheses about human behavior and culture. Sometimes
called holocultural studies or comparative studies.
Cross Cultural Training and Intercultural Awareness
is the interdisciplinary study of
difference—chiefly race, ethnicity, and nation, but also sexuality,
gender, and other such markings—and power, as expressed by the state, by
civil society, and by individuals.
Sociology of Race and Ethnic Relations
is the study of
social, political, and economic relations between races and ethnicities at
all levels of society. This area encompasses the study of racism,
residential segregation, and other complex social processes between
different racial and ethnic groups. The sociological analysis of race and
ethnicity frequently interacts with other areas of sociology such as
stratification and social psychology, as well as with postcolonial theory.
are ethnic groups who are descended from and identify with the original
inhabitants of a given region.
refers to a society characterized by an
orientation to the past, not the future, with a predominant role for
custom and habit. Such societies are marked by a lack of distinction
between family and business, with the division of labor influenced
primarily by age, gender, and status.
a comparative tendency in various fields of
entirety of ideas
, perspectives, attitudes, images, and other
phenomena that are within the mainstream of a given culture, especially
Western culture of the early to mid 20th century and the emerging global
mainstream of the late 20th and early 21st century.
refers to a society believed to lack
cultural, technological, or economic sophistication or development.
is the body of works dealing with information and
communication technologies (ICT) and their application to cultural
heritage, such as virtual archaeology. Virtual heritage and cultural
heritage have independent meanings: cultural heritage refers to sites,
monuments, buildings and objects "with historical, aesthetic,
archaeological, scientific, ethnological or anthropological value",
whereas virtual heritage refers to instances of these within a
technological domain, usually involving computer visualization of
artifacts or Virtual Reality environments.
is a term used in social science to describe traditions, value systems,
myths and symbols that are common in a given society.
International Culture and Cognition Institute
should have one foot in the old world and one foot in the new
world, and live in the middle."
were the children of Australian
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent who were removed from their
families by the Australian Federal and State government agencies and
church missions, under acts of their respective parliaments. The removals
of those referred to as "half-caste" children were conducted in the period
between approximately 1900 and 1969, although in some places mixed-race
children were still being taken into the 1970s. Documentary evidence, such
as newspaper articles and reports to parliamentary committees, suggest a
range of rationales. Apparent motivations include child protection, the
belief that the Aboriginal people would die out, given their catastrophic
population decline after white contact, and the belief that full-blooded
Aboriginal people resented miscegenation and the mixed-race children
fathered and abandoned by white men.
Generation Fund for Indian Development
is any information or knowledge that is
known within a tribe but often unknown outside of it. A tribe may be a
group or subgroup of people that share a common knowledge. With a
corporate perspective, "Tribal Knowledge or know-how is the
organization. It is the sum of all the
knowledge and capabilities
of all the people".
"knowledge", are a large body of texts originating in
the ancient Indian subcontinent.
indigenous knowledge (IK), and local
knowledge generally refer to knowledge systems embedded in the cultural
traditions of regional, indigenous, or local communities. Traditional
knowledge includes types of knowledge about traditional technologies of
subsistence (e.g. tools and techniques for hunting or
midwifery, ethnobotany and ecological knowledge
celestial navigation, ethnoastronomy, the climate, and others. These kinds
of knowledge, crucial for subsistence and survival, are generally based on
accumulations of empirical observation and on interaction with the
environment. In many cases, traditional knowledge has been orally passed
for generations from person to
. Some forms of traditional knowledge find expression in
, legends, folklore, rituals,
, and laws. Other forms of
traditional knowledge are expressed through different means.
How Africa can use its Traditional Knowledge to make Progress
and interactive text)
Homing Pigeons share our Human Ability to build Knowledge Across
. When people share and pass knowledge down through
generations, it increases efficiency, progressively improves performance,
and increases necessary innovations. (cross-generational knowledge,
cumulative culture, collective intelligence, accumulation of knowledge
Environmental ‘Memories’ Passed on for 14 Generations
is the study
of how people in the past "have understood the phenomena in
the sky, how they used these phenomena and what role the sky played in
their cultures. (ethnoastronomy).
of the traditional knowledge and customs of a people
their medical, religious, and other uses. The relationships that exist
between people and plants.
is a name given to many ancient Egyptian texts supposed to
have been written by Thoth, the Egyptian god of writing and knowledge.
They include many texts that were claimed to exist by ancient authors, and
a magical book that appears in an Egyptian work of fiction.
Earth Peoples United
is traditional art, literature, knowledge, and practices that are
in large part through oral
and example. The information thus transmitted expresses the
shared ideas and values
of a particular group.
is a body of traditions and
a subject or held by a particular group, typically passed from
person to person by word of mouth
. Knowledge gained through
tradition or anecdote.
Value (personal and cultural)
is a conceptual process by which general rules and concepts are derived
from the usage and classification
of specific examples, literal (Real or
) signifiers, first principles, or other methods. "An
abstraction" is the product of this process — a concept that acts as a
super-categorical noun for all subordinate concepts, and connects any
related concepts as a group, field, or category.
maintains that human development is socially situated and knowledge is
constructed through interaction with others
. It is a sociological theory
of knowledge that applies the general philosophical constructivism into the social.
focuses on teaching
indigenous knowledge, models, methods, and content within formal or
non-formal educational systems. The growing recognition and use of
indigenous education methods can be a response to the erosion and loss of
indigenous knowledge through the processes of colonialism, globalization,
and modernity. Indigenous communities are able to “reclaim and revalue
their languages and [traditions], and in so doing, improve the educational
success of indigenous students,” thus ensuring their survival as a culture.
Squatter Man - Plasma Discharge
The "squatter" or "stickman" figure is a ubiquitous symbol found in nearly
every culture. They are stylized derivations of a plasma discharge
configuration seen in the ancient sky. Kanaga symbol
is actually a very
strangely recurring symbol found all over the world. The image of Kanaga
is an archetype from the very ancient times. it is known also as squatter
man. The word ”Kanaga” comes from the Dogon Tribe in Mali.
It is a mask which have a secret meaning and only truly known by the group
that wears them. The masks are worn during the Dama dancing ceremonies The
Dogon believe that the Dama dance creates a bridge into the supernatural
are an ethnic group living in the central plateau region of Mali, in West
Africa, south of the Niger bend, near the city of Bandiagara, in the Mopti region.
are academic disciplines that study human culture. In the Middle
Ages, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called
classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time.
Today, the humanities are more frequently contrasted with natural,
physical and sometimes social sciences
as well as professional training.
National Humanities Medal
is an American award that annually recognizes several individuals, groups,
or institutions for work that has "deepened the nation's understanding of
the humanities, broadened our citizens' engagement with the humanities, or
helped preserve and expand Americans' access to important resources in the humanities.
is the study of human activity through the recovery and
analysis of material culture
. The archaeological record consists of artifacts,
architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes. Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities.
Association in Archaeology
is the close relationship between objects or contexts.
the study of various aspects of humans within past and present
Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the
norms and values
of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies how language affects social
life. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological
development of humans. Archaeology, which studies past human cultures
through investigation of physical evidence, is thought of as a branch of
anthropology in the United States, while in Europe, it is viewed as a
discipline in its own right, or grouped under other related disciplines such as history.
is the dominant constituent of
anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of
Europe (France in particular), where it is distinguished from cultural
anthropology. In the USA, social anthropology is commonly subsumed within
cultural anthropology (or under the relatively new designation of
Department of Anthropology
is the study of man or early humans. The combination
and a sub-discipline of paleontology and biological anthropology, studies
the formation and the development of the specific
humans (hominization) and the reconstruction of evolutionary kinship lines
in the family Hominidae
means of the study of fossils, such as petrified skeletal remains, bone
fragments, footprints and associated evidence, stone tools, artifacts, and
settlement localities. As technologies and methods advance, genetics plays
an ever increasing role in paleoanthropology, in particular examining and
comparing DNA structure as a vital tool of research of the evolutionary
kinship lines of related species and genera.
is the study of the relationship between culture and
the brain. Neuroanthropology explores how the brain gives rise to culture,
how culture influences brain development, structure and function, and the
pathways followed by the co-evolution of brain and culture. Moreover,
neuroanthropologists consider how new findings in the brain sciences help
us understand the interactive effects of culture and biology on human
development and behavior. In one way or another, neuroanthropologists
ground their research and explanations in how the human brain develops,
how it is structured and how it functions within the genetic and cultural
limits of its biology.
is a scientific discipline concerned with the
biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human
primates and their extinct hominin ancestors. It is a subfield of
anthropology that provides a biological perspective to the systematic
study of human beings.
data from fossils and subfossils to reconstruct the
of the past.
the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore
cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of
view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is a means to represent
graphically and in writing the culture of a group.
is the recording of the practices and folklore
of cultures threatened with
extinction, including as a result of modernization.
is an object made by a human
being, typically an item of cultural or historical interest. Artifact can
also mean something observed in a scientific investigation or experiment
that is not naturally present but occurs as a result of the preparative or
Artifact in archaeology
is something made or given shape by humans,
such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological
is the physical aspect of
in the objects and
that surround people. It includes usage, consumption,
creation, and trade of objects as well as the behaviors, norms, and
rituals that the objects create or take part in. Some scholars also
include other intangible phenomena that include sound
smell and events, while some even consider
as part of it. The term is commonly used in archaeological
and anthropological studies, specifically focusing on the material
evidence that can be attributed to culture in the past or present. It is
usually synonymous with artifacts, which humans use to cope with the
physical world, facilitate social intercourse, and benefit
man's state of mind
is anything created by humans which gives information about
the culture of its creator and users.
includes a broad array of techniques and styles in
archaeology, which are used to produce usable tools from various types of
stone. The earliest stone tools
recovered from modern Ethiopia and were dated to between two-million and
three-million years old. The archaeological record of lithic technology is
divided into three major time periods: the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age),
Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age), and Neolithic (New Stone Age). Not all
cultures in all parts of the world exhibit the same pattern of lithic
technological development, and stone tool technology continues to be used
to this day, but these three time periods represent the span of the
archaeological record when lithic technology was paramount. By analysing
modern stone tool usage within an ethnoarchaeological context insight into
the breadth of factors influencing lithic technologies in general may be
studied. See: Stone tool. For example, for the Gamo of Southern Ethiopia,
political, environmental, and social factors influence the patterns of
technology variation in different subgroups of the Gamo culture; through
understanding the relationship between these different factors in a modern
context, archaeologists can better understand the ways that these factors
could have shaped the technological variation that is present in the
archaeological record. Antiquity
oldness, the historic period preceding the Middle Ages in Europe, an
artifact surviving from the past.
is an antiquity that has survived
from the distant past. Something of sentimental value.
Biofact in archaeology
is organic material found at an archaeological
site that carries archaeological significance. Biofacts are natural
objects found alongside artifacts or features, such as animal bones,
charcoal, plants, and pollen. Biofacts are passively consumed or handled
by humans; as opposed to artefacts, which are purposefully manipulated.
Biofacts reveal how people respond to their surroundings. A common
type of biofact is a [plant
]. Plant remains, often referred to as macrobotanicals, provide a variety of information ranging from diet to
medicine to textile production. Pollen preserved on archaeological sites
informs researchers about the ancient environment, and the foods processed
and/or grown by prehistoric people. Pollen, when examined over time, also
informs on environmental and dietary changes. A seed can be linked to the
species of plant that produced it; if massive numbers of seeds of a
cultivated species are found at a site, it may be inferred that the
species may have been grown for food or other products that are useful to
humans, such as clothing, bedding or building materials. Another type of
biofact is wood. Wood is made up cellulose, carbohydrates, and lignin.
Every year that passes, a new ring is added to the trunk of tree, allowing
for dendrochronological dating. Charcoal is burned wood that archaeologist
are able to extract. It can be dated using carbon-14, and through other
methods, information such as local environment and human adaptation
can be revealed from the charcoal. To help determine the date during which
a site was occupied, dendrochronological analysis can be used on wood
samples. Wood that has been altered by humans is properly an artifact, not
Biofact in biology
is dead material of a once-living organism.
describes how cultural traits, such as "beliefs, values,
ideas", take on a life of their own spanning over generations, and are
conceivable as objects in themselves. This concept has been useful to
anthropologists in refining the definition of culture.
describes how cultural traits take on a life of their own,
spanning over generations.
is the study of information
culture as an approach to evolutionary models of cultural information
using satellite imagery
, we can fight
the loss of our cultural heritage. On any given day, it's estimated
that 10,000+looted artifacts are for sale on the black market. Become a
space archaeologist and document threats to ancient sites. Help
authorities get there first.
Eyes in the Sky
Help Discover Ancient Ruins — before it's too late: Sarah Parcak
(video and interactive text)
is the act of depriving something of its sacred
character, or the disrespectful, contemptuous, or destructive treatment of
that which is held to be sacred or holy by a group or individual.
is the research-based study of various human-made items
found in space, their interpretation as clues to the adventures mankind
has experienced in space, and their preservation as cultural heritage.
are those subjects or skills that in classical
antiquity were considered essential for a free person. To take an active
part in civic life, included participating in public debate, defending
oneself in court, serving on juries, and most importantly, military
labels the process by which
particular classes appropriate cultural forms and practices for their own use.
also known as family history, is the study of
and the tracing of their
lineages and history
. Genealogists use oral
interviews, historical records, genetic analysis, and other records to
obtain information about a family and to demonstrate kinship and pedigrees
of its members. The results are often displayed in charts or written as
narratives. The pursuit of family history and origins tends to be shaped
by several motives, including the desire to carve out a place for one's
family in the larger historical picture, a sense of responsibility to
preserve the past for future generations, and a sense of self-satisfaction
in accurate storytelling.
- Blood Line
Legacy Family Tree
is genealogy software for Windows that
assists family historians in tracking, organizing, printing, and sharing
family history. The standard edition is distributed as freeware, with no
restrictions, only requiring registration on the company's web site to
download the software. Users may pay a fee to do Product activation
"unlock" the additional features in the deluxe edition. "A Family Tree is
like backtracking a Chain Reaction".
Tips on Making a Family Tree Photo Album
It took two
people to make you
. But, it also took four people to make the two people that made
you. Then it took 8 people to make the four people to make the two people that
made you. Then it took 16 people to make the 8 people who made the four people
who made the two people that made you. So your parents are the combination
of thousands of people over thousands of generations. In the family tree,
the roots of a family tree are a thousand times
bigger then the tree itself
. Even when you see a real tree, the
roots of that tree go back millions of years. And you just got here like it's
your first time.
is the web of social relationships that form an
important part of the lives of most humans in most societies.
is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an
ancestor (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent,
and so forth). Ancestor is "any person from whom one is descended. In law
the person from whom an estate has been inherited.
is a descendent or heir. Connected by a relationship of
blood. A person considered as descended from some ancestor or race.
, is a chart representing family relationships in a
. The more detailed family trees used in medicine and social
work are known as
which is a pictorial
of a person's family relationships and medical history.
Priscilla Renea -
Crowd Sourced Personal Genomes Database slowly gains momentum
linked genealogical information from 13 million people into a single
is a person temporarily or permanently residing,
as an immigrant, in a country other than that of their
high-quality cultural & educational media.
Europeana Historic Photography Collections
is a philosophical movement that, along with
cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching
transformations in Western society in the late 19th and early 20th
centuries. Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of
modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then
by the horror of World War I. Modernism also rejected the certainty of
Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief.
is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle,
often in the company of like-minded people, with few permanent ties,
involving musical, artistic, or literary pursuits. In this context,
Bohemians may be wanderers, adventurers, or vagabonds.
There’s a big difference between
. Especially when a tradition violates
. We don’t want to end
or take away
. We want to
preserve traditions and preserve cultures
. Adjusting to the 21st century
world in which we all live does not mean that we need to reject
. It just means that some of
those old traditions that violate
need to be preserved in our archives and not
preserved in our everyday lives.
old traditions in
or on a particular
will always be popular as they have always been.
want to learn from our mistakes, not live with our mistakes.
This is not to say that
is not important, because it is
have valuable knowledge, so we need more
is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns,
including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what
constitutes legitimate contributions to a field. A standard or typical
example. Systematic arrangement of all the inflected forms of a word. The
generally accepted perspective of a particular discipline at a given time.
Manal Al-Sharif: A Saudi Woman who Dared to Drive
US Institute of Peace
is the condition or result of being
is having many and different. Distinctly
is a collection
a variety of sorts of things. Choice
is having great diversity or
in many areas and able to turn with ease from one thing to
another. Able to move freely in all directions. A category of things
distinguished by some common characteristic or quality.
is having or involving or consisting of more than one
part or entity or individual.Plurality
is composed of more than one member, set, or kind.
is the quality of diverse or different cultures, as
opposed to monoculture, the global monoculture, or a homogenization of
cultures, akin to cultural decay. The phrase cultural diversity can also
refer to having different cultures respect each other's differences. The
phrase "cultural diversity" is also sometimes used to mean the variety of
human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a
whole. Globalization is often said to have a negative effect on the
world's cultural diversity.
Cultural Diversity Day
can be defined as any program designed to
facilitate positive intergroup interaction,
discrimination, and generally teach individuals who are different from
others how to work together effectively
. From the broad corporate
perspective, diversity training is defined as raising personal awareness
about individual differences in the workplace and how those differences
inhibit or enhance the way people work together
and get work done.
Diversity in politics
is used to describe political entities
(neighborhoods, student bodies, etc.) with members who have
in their cultural backgrounds or lifestyles. The term
describes differences in racial or ethnic classifications, age, gender,
, philosophy, physical abilities, socioeconomic background,
, gender identity, intelligence, mental health, physical
health, genetic attributes
, behavior, attractiveness, or other identifying
features. In measuring human diversity, a diversity index measures the
probability that any two residents, chosen at random, would be of
different ethnicities. If all residents are of the same ethnic group it's
zero. The diversity index does not take into account the willingness of
individuals to cooperate
with those of other ethnicities. If half are from
one group and half from another, it's 50.
Morris Milgram Multiracial Suburbs
(Concord Park, Pennsylvania, in
1954) 55%-45% Ratio of whites to African Americans.
1970 and continues to be developed as an experiential learning center,
walk-through demonstration of how to pursue efficient “lean” alternatives
to urban sprawl. Cooperative Housing
is equitable or fair representation between genders.
Gender diversity most commonly refers to an equitable ratio of men and
women, but may also include non-binary gender categories.
in a group of people does not say anything about the
people themselves. It only says that some people are slightly different in appearance
and that they may have beliefs that are unique to their particular
culture. Diversity says nothing about the abilities or the intelligence of
a particular group of people. Just having many different people doesn't
guarantee good communication or community, or effectiveness or increased
productivity. And having no diversity at all also does not guarantee good
communication or community, or effectiveness or increased productivity.
Diversity in skills would have to depend on the work involved. One of the
good things about having many different people is it can help avoid
. And you certainly don't
want any type of forced segregation, or prejudices or
still, it all depends on that particular group of people. Can they
communication effectively? Can they be a community and
they progress? Diversity in the minds of people is powerful. That is why
diversity among people is powerful. Any place where you can have people
sharing new ways of thinking
, is a place where you will have the most
potential and the most advancements. Just look at America. Diversity
works. But our work is far from over and we have a lot of work to do. And
we can't afford to be distracted by our own ignorance and
differences divide us
. We are all humans, so let's get on with this.
is the total number of
genetic makeup of a species. It is distinguished from
, which describes the tendency of genetic
characteristics to vary. Genetic diversity serves as a way for populations
to adapt to changing environments. With more variation, it is more likely
that some individuals in a population will possess variations of alleles
that are suited for the environment. Those individuals are more likely to
survive to produce offspring bearing that allele. The population will
continue for more generations because of the success of these individuals.
Diversity is Life
thousand languages, millions of different personalities, 100's of
different religions, thousands of different types of food, thousands of
different types of plants and animals, millions of different sizes of stars,
planets and galaxies, many different ethnic groups
from many different countries. We even have Diversity in Atoms
Without all the different types of atoms, there would be no life as we
At this time in human history, there is no society
, we only have
social groups that have little or
or other groups that are within their own town or immediate
area. People are just beginning to realize that there is no reason or logic in trying to
from each other. Either we
learn to live together
we will continue to tragically die together
. And for whatever
the selfish reasons are, to many of us are choosing to
unnecessarily die together then to live together. And the deaths
are not always immediate. So most people are unaware that they
are killing life and that they are
also killing themselves. And that they are also passing on these deaths to future