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Energy - Renewable Energy - Clean Energy - Alternative Energy

Energy is any source of usable power or force that produces a change in a physical quantity or physical system to do work.
Some 1.3 billion people lack regular access to electricity.

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Physics describes energy as the rate of doing work; A Thermodynamic quantity equivalent to the capacity of a physical system to do work, measured in Watts = joules / second. The units of energy are Joules or Erg. Erg is CGS unit of work or energy; the work done by a force of one dyne acting over a distance of one centimeter. CGS is a system of measurement based on centimeters and grams and seconds. Dyne is a unit of force equal to the force that imparts an acceleration of 1 cm/sec/sec to a mass of 1 gram. Erg is a unit of work equal to 10−7power joules.  Joules is a unit of electrical energy equal to the work done when a current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second. Joules is defined "mechanically", being the energy transferred to an object by the mechanical work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton. Newton is a unit of force equal to the force that imparts an acceleration of 1 m/sec/sec to a mass of 1 kilogram; equal to 100,000 dynes.

Activation Energy describes the minimum energy which must be available to a chemical system with potential reactants to result in a chemical reaction.

Conservation of Energy

Outline of Energy in physics, this is an indirectly observed quantity often understood as the ability of a physical system to do work on other physical systems. Since work is defined as a force acting through a distance (a length of space), energy is always equivalent to the ability to exert force (a pull or a push) against an object that is moving along a definite path of certain length.

Forms of Energy (wiki)
Plug and Wall Electrical Outlet
Solar Energy - Solar Heat - Portable - Light Tubes
Wind Energy
Fuel Cells
Smart Grid - Electric Power
Energy from Waste - Bio-Gas
Steam Power
Thermal Electric Energy
Geo Thermal-Energy
Hydro-Power - Dams
Ocean Wave Energy
Nuclear Power (Thorium)
Electric Cars - Regenerative Braking
Engines - Electric Motors
Fuel Systems - Bio-Fuels
Wireless Electricity
Laser Power
Natural Gas
Cold Fusion - Fission - Physics 
LED - Efficient Lighting
Human Energy - Food Energy
Kinetic Energy

Energy Harvesting is the process by which energy is derived from external sources (e.g., solar power, thermal energy, wind energy, salinity gradients, and kinetic energy, also known as ambient energy), captured, and stored for small, wireless autonomous devices, like those used in wearable electronics and wireless sensor networks.

Zero-Point Energy is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have; it is the energy of its ground state.

Ground State of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system. An excited state is any state with energy greater than the ground state. The ground state of a quantum field theory is usually called the vacuum state or the vacuum.

Renewable Clean Energy

Renewable Energy is defined as energy that is collected from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.

Renewable Clean Energy should be Self Replicating and Perpetual. Example: If you build wind turbines then the the energy that those wind turbines produce should be used to produce more wind turbines, then so on and so on until you have enough energy for all your needs, the same with solar energy. Sustainable

Self-Replicating Machines is a type of autonomous robot that is capable of reproducing itself autonomously using raw materials found in the environment, thus exhibiting self-replication in a way analogous to that found in nature.

Self-Replication is any behavior of a dynamical system that yields construction of an identical copy of itself. Biological cells, given suitable environments, reproduce by cell division. During cell division, DNA is replicated and can be transmitted to offspring during reproduction.

Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources will not be effective alone. We need to learn how to Conserve Energy and Use Our Energy Wisely and Effectively without waste, while at the same time, use our Advanced Technologies to manufacture products that consume less energy. Clean energy is just one step forward in helping us fully understand how we see and use our energy. We have to learn not to waste energy, we have to learn not to abuse energy or misuse energy. Because in reality, energy is power, literally. And we all know about the Corrupted influences of Power and how power destroys the goodness in people and distorts our understanding of the world. So energy is just another form of power that we need to be fully educated about, otherwise power will continue to hurt us more then it benefits us, and power will also continue to destroy our environment, since it has from the beginning. If an Energy Policy does not address these facts then the policy is a lie, a scam and a waste of precious time, again.

National Renewable Energy
Renewable Incentives
Renewable Energy Counsel
Sustainable Power Institute
New Energy Fund
Renewable Clean Fuel
UTC Power
New Energy Technologies

Energy Academy is a sustainable energy system bringing together projects, partners and networks to work on the energy transition, based on three pillars: education, research and innovation. Energy Academy Europe is located at Zernike Campus Groningen in The Netherlands. Markets, technology, policies, laws & regulations and society at large are part of the energy system. Our energy future depends on the integration of the system-elements. Through our projects we aim to move towards system integration with the ultimate goal of transitioning to a sustainable energy system.

Soft Energy Path is an alternative future where energy efficiency and appropriate renewable energy sources steadily replace a centralized energy system based on fossil and nuclear fuels.

Micro Generation is the small-scale generation of heat and electric power by individuals, small businesses and communities to meet their own needs, as alternatives or supplements to traditional centralized grid-connected power. Efficiency

Electrical Generators

Green Building
Energy Saving Tools and Methods
Learning to Conserve Energy and not Waste it
Being Productive

Grids - Smart Grid

Energy Slave is that quantity of energy (ability to do work) which, when used to construct and drive non-human infrastructure (machines, roads, power grids, fuel, draft animals, wind-driven pumps, etc.) replaces a unit of human labor (actual work). An energy slave does the work of a person, through the consumption of energy in the non-human infrastructure.

Energy Poverty is lack of access to modern energy services. It refers to the situation of large numbers of people in developing countries whose well-being is negatively affected by very low consumption of energy, use of dirty or polluting fuels, and excessive time spent collecting fuel to meet basic needs.

Reserves to Production Ratio is the remaining amount of a non-renewable resource, expressed in time. While applicable to all natural resources, the RPR is most commonly applied to fossil fuels, particularly petroleum and natural gas.

Energy Returned on Energy Invested is the ratio of the amount of usable energy delivered from a particular energy resource to the amount of energy used to obtain that energy resource. It is a distinct measure from energy efficiency as it does not measure the primary energy inputs to the system, only usable energy.

Bennett Acceptance Ratio is an algorithm for estimating the difference in free energy between two systems (usually the systems will be simulated on the computer).

Energy Saving Methods
Energy Use Assessments
Energy Kids

75 percent of our power comes from some form of Combustion.
Natural Resources Defense Council

Renewable Energy Milestones and Statistics

Burlington Vermont is Running on 100 Percent Renewables. (2015)

Long Island Solar Farm is the largest photovoltaic array in the eastern U.S  (200 Acres) made up of 164,312 solar panels from BP Solar which provide enough electricity for roughly 4,500 households. Depends on Efficiency

Connecticut has 50 acres of solar panels spread over about 90 acres of land at Pleasant View Farms. Somers Solar Center
23,150 Kyocera Solar Panels that will generate roughly 5 megawatt (MW) of alternating current. On average, it produces enough power for 1,500 to 5,000 homes per year?  In 2015, 313,000 Connecticut households still cannot afford their monthly energy needs.  Foreclosures

Arizona, The U.S. Navy has invested an undisclosed amount in the Mesquite solar farm in the sun-rich state, allowing for an expansion of the facility that is anticipated to make it the world’s largest solar farm. Located about 40 miles west of Phoenix, will provide 210 megawatts of direct power.

Grid Alternatives providing solar power for low-income families across the United States while providing volunteers and job trainees with hands-on solar installation experience. California's Single Family Affordable Solar Homes program (SASH)

Community Choice Aggregation (wiki)
The Future of Energy

Costa Rica’s energy utility hasn’t burned any fossil fuel in 2015. 80 percent is from hydroelectric plants.

Chile has so much solar energy that the price of solar frequently drops to zero. Since 2013, Chile has quadrupled its solar capacity in the central grid to 770 megawatts. Solar Power By Country

Nicaragua's Renewable Energy Revolution Picks Up Steam

Germany As of May 1, 2012, was producing 50% of their energy via renewables.
German Village Produces More Energy than it Needs.

India is creating the world’s largest solar farm. The country announced that it will build a 750-megawatt plant on 1,500 acres of barren, government-owned land in the northeastern Madhya Pradesh state. Expected to be in operation until 2017.

Morocco is working on world’s largest concentrated solar power plant. Ouarzazate Solar Power Station is a 160 MW power plant that will have a final capacity of around 500 MW, enough to power a million homes.
Public Private Partnership   Noor I

Iceland's energy needs are amply met by hydro and geothermal power.

China: Builds 4,000 new wind turbines a year. Produces more wind turbines and has more wind turbines in operation then all of the top ten countries combined. China has the largest wind farm in the world. (10 Gigawatt) Plans to build 7 more just like it.
China plans to build 100 million electric car charging stations by 2020.  Other China Info
China already produces more solar electricity than any other country, with an installed base of over 30 gigawatts and plans to reach 43 gigawatts by the end of 2016. China will invest 2.5 trillion yuan ($361 billion) into renewable power generation by 2020.

Australia (2010 - 2015), solar photovoltaic capacity grew from 130 megawatts to 4.7 gigawatts, an annual growth rate of 96%.

The Federal Energy Information Agency is forecasting a 9.5 percent increase in green energy in 2016.

Scotland uses Tidal Energy to create 1.2GW of green energy - enough to power up to 750,000 homes. The same amount of power as a nuclear power station. One-third of the UK's total electricity needs could be met by Tidal Power alone. Scotland is poised to generate more than 50 percent of its electricity from onshore wind power and other renewable sources this year 2016.

Eigg generates virtually 100% of its electricity using renewable energy. The Small Island in the Scottish Inner Hebrides lies to the south of the Skye and to the north of the Ardnamurchan peninsula. Eigg is 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) long from north to south, and 5
kilometres (3.1 mi) east to west. With an area of 12 square miles (31 km2), it is the second largest of the Small Isles after Rùm.

Bankruptcy Looms for Spain's Clean Energy Giant Abengoa

Climate Change

Community Choice Aggregation
Enables local governments to aggregate electricity demand within their jurisdictions in order to procure alternative energy supplies while maintaining the existing electricity provider for transmission and distribution services.

PS62: Net Zero Energy School
How do different types of Renewable Energy work? (youtube)
Amory Lovins: A 50 year plan for Energy (video)
Reinventing Fire

Akon Lighting Africa 600 million lack electricity access.
15 countries of operation 480 communities covered. 100,000 solar street lamps. 1,200 solar micro-grids. 102,000 solar domestic kits. 75,000$ per village on average, 5,500 indirect jobs created.

Portugal kept its lights on with renewable energy alone for four consecutive days. Electricity consumption in the country was fully covered by solar, wind and hydro power in an extraordinary 107-hour run.

Energy Generation Under the Obama Administration - Data Visualizing Tools

Energy Use by Country

Global Electricity Sources

Energy Conservation Resources and Information
Ecological Society of America 
Energy Awareness Videos

Zero-Point Energy
Energy Independence Act (wiki)
Rational Middle

Department of Energy
Department of Energy
Energy Efficiency
International Energy Agency
International Energy Assoc.
Advanced Research Projects Agency
Energy Information Administration
Synapse Energy

Energy Research, Maryland

Nuclear Fusion
Nano Technology
Clean Energy Technologies
Center for Energy Efficiency
Global Energy Network Institute
Get Energy Active
Native Energy
Energy Savers
North American Power
Energy Deregulation
Utility Credit  
Toupe Phone App check prices what you are being charged for Electricity
Clean Tech Companies
Science Fairs
Human Energy

Natural Gas

Natural Gas
Methane Clathrate
A Bridge to Clean Energy?
What is Hydraulic Fracturing?
Free Gas Forever, Tell Everyone! (youtube) - Using Saltwater and Radio Frequency Generator
Methane Hydrates
Bio Gas
EPA Finds Oil and Gas Industries Are Spewing More Methane Than Thought,
sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.
Extensive research effort tackles methane leaks. Better information enables data-driven solutions to dangerous climate risk
Green Products
Environmental Awareness

Nuclear Energy

Thee is a Improved Method for Nuclear Energy that does not create bombs or Radio Active waste. This method was introduced years ago but was abandoned because criminals and war mongers wanted to make nuclear bombs.

Integral Fast Reactor (IFR)
Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor
Molten Salt Reactor (MSR)
Thorium Fuel Cycle
Breeder Reactor
Rare Earth Element
One pound of Thorium produces as much power as 300 lbs. of Uranium or 3.5 million lbs. of Coal.
Megatons to Megawatts Program
Energy from Thorium
Travelling Wave Reactor
Micro Nuclear Reactor
Small Modular Reactor
Terra Power
Modular Nuclear
Nuclear Fission
Nuclear Fusion
Nuclear Reactor
Loop Reactor Design
Nuclear Association
S-PRISM (wiki)
Linear no-threshold Model
Radiation Hormesis
Kirk Sorensen Nuclear Fuel (video)
Thorium Remix 2011 (youtube)
"NASA" - THORIUM REMIX 2016 - 2 Hrs. 9 Mins.
Taylor's Nuke Site   Video

Old Style Nuclear Reactors
The U.S. has 104 old style Nuclear reactors operating at 65 sites in 31 states. 440 in the world.
Generation III Reactor
Atomic States of America (2012) (video)
Dangers of Old Style Nuclear Power
How fear of nuclear power is hurting the environment: Michael Shellenberger (video and interactive text)
Nuclear Files

Steam Power

Water Steam Circuit diagram Steam Turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. PurePower GTF (image)

Steam Engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Steam engines are external combustion engines, where the working fluid is separate from the combustion products. Non-combustion heat sources such as solar power, nuclear power or geothermal energy may be used. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. In the cycle, water is heated and transforms into steam within a boiler operating at a high pressure. When expanded through pistons or turbines, mechanical work is done. The reduced-pressure steam is then condensed and pumped back into the boiler.

Turbines is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. The work produced by a turbine can be used for generating electrical power when combined with a generator or producing thrust, as in the case of jet engines. A turbine is a turbomachine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are windmills and waterwheels.

Steam Engine - How Does It Work (video)
Built My Model Vertical Steam Engine

Combined Gas and Steam is the name given to marine compound powerplants comprising gas and steam turbines, the latter being driven by steam generated using the heat from the exhaust of the gas turbines. In this way, some of the otherwise lost energy can be reclaimed and the specific fuel consumption of the plant can be decreased. Large (land-based) electric powerplants built using this combined cycle can reach conversion efficiencies of over 60%.

Combined Cycle is an assembly of heat engines that work in tandem from the same source of heat, converting it into mechanical energy, which in turn usually drives electrical generators. The principle is that after completing its cycle (in the first engine), the working fluid of the first heat engine is still low enough in its entropy that a second subsequent heat engine may extract energy from the waste heat (energy) of the working fluid of the first engine. By combining these multiple streams of work upon a single mechanical shaft turning an electric generator, the overall net efficiency of the system may be increased by 50–60%. That is, from an overall efficiency of say 34% (in a single cycle) to possibly an overall efficiency of 51% (in a mechanical combination of two cycles) in net Carnot thermodynamic efficiency. This can be done because heat engines are only able to use a portion of the energy their fuel generates (usually less than 50%). In an ordinary (non combined cycle) heat engine the remaining heat (e.g., hot exhaust fumes) from combustion is generally wasted. Photo

Cooling Tower is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case of closed circuit dry cooling towers, rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature.

Engine Efficiency of thermal engines is the relationship between the total energy contained in the fuel, and the amount of energy used to perform useful work.

Otto Cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle that describes the functioning of a typical spark ignition piston engine. It is the thermodynamic cycle most commonly found in automobile engines.

Animated Engines
Combustion Engine Power Generation


Thermoelectric Generator Diagram Thermoelectric Effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice versa. A thermoelectric device creates voltage when there is a different temperature on each side. Conversely, when a voltage is applied to it, it creates a temperature difference. At the atomic scale, an applied temperature gradient causes charge carriers in the material to diffuse from the hot side to the cold side.

Thermoelectric Cooling uses the Peltier effect to create a heat flux between the junction of two different types of materials.

Peltier Effect is the presence of heating or cooling at an electrified junction of two different conductors.
Thermoelectric Material

Thermoelectric Generator is a solid state device that converts Heat (temperature differences) directly into electrical energy through a phenomenon called the Seebeck effect (a form of thermoelectric effect phenomenon in which a temperature difference between two dissimilar electrical conductors or semiconductors produces a voltage difference between the two substances.).
Teg mart
Wood Burning Stoves

Johnson Thermoelectric Energy Converter or JTEC is a type of solid-state heat engine that uses the photodecomposition and recombination of hydrogen in a fuel cell via an approximate Ericsson cycle. It is under investigation as a viable alternative to conventional photovoltaic cells. Lonnie Johnson invented it and claims the converter exhibits an energy conversion efficiency of as much as 60% compared to the 30% efficiency typical of the best photovoltaic cells; however, this claim is at a theoretical level based on comparison with a Carnot cycle and assumes a temperature gradient of 600C. It was originally proposed for funding to the Office of Naval Research but was refused. Johnson obtained later funding by framing the engine as a hydrogen fuel cell. Johnson is collaborating with PARC on development of the engine.

Researchers Report New Thermoelectric Material with High Power Factor The majority of industrial energy input is lost as Waste Heat," the researchers wrote. "Converting some of the waste heat into useful electrical power will lead to the reduction of fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emission."

Metal with Law-Breaking Property lets Electricity Flow But Not the Heat, Vanadium Dioxide that could lead to applications in thermoelectrics, window coatings.

Solid-State Devices that Convert Heat into Electricity Composite material yields 10 times—or higher—voltage output.
MATRIX PowerWatch Advanced thermoelectric technology Smartwatch Powered by You - You Never Have to Charge

Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons. It is defined as the interaction of one or more photons with one target molecule. Photodissociation is not limited to visible light. Any photon with sufficient energy can affect the chemical bonds of a chemical compound. Since a photon's energy is inversely proportional to its wavelength, electromagnetic waves with the energy of visible light or higher, such as ultraviolet light, x-rays and gamma rays are usually involved in such reactions.
Ericsson Cycle (wiki)

Heat Engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work. it does this by bringing a working substance from a higher state temperature to a lower state temperature. A heat "source" generates thermal energy that brings the working substance to the high temperature state. The working substance generates work in the "working body" of the engine while transferring heat to the colder "sink" until it reaches a low temperature state. During this process some of the thermal energy is converted into work by exploiting the properties of the working substance. The working substance can be any system with a non-zero heat capacity, but it usually is a gas or liquid. During this process, a lot of heat is lost to the surroundings, i.e. it cannot be used. In general an engine converts energy to mechanical work. Heat engines distinguish themselves from other types of engines by the fact that their efficiency is fundamentally limited by Carnot's theorem. Although this efficiency limitation can be a drawback, an advantage of heat engines is that most forms of energy can be easily converted to heat by processes like exothermic reactions (such as combustion), absorption of light or energetic particles, friction, dissipation and resistance. Since the heat source that supplies thermal energy to the engine can thus be powered by virtually any kind of energy, heat engines are very versatile and have a wide range of applicability.

Closed Brayton Cycle is driven in reverse, via net work input, and when air is the working fluid, is the gas refrigeration cycle or Bell Coleman cycle. Its purpose is to move heat, rather than produce work. This air cooling technique is used widely in jet aircraft for air conditioning systems utilizing air tapped from the engine compressors. It is also used in the LNG industry where the largest reverse brayton cycle is for subcooling LNG using 86 MW of power from a gas turbine driven compressor and nitrogen refrigerant.

Thermal Metamaterial innovation could help bring waste-heat harvesting technology to power plants, factories
to recapture a portion of the energy wasted as heat.

Thermal Radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter. All matter with a temperature greater than absolute zero emits thermal radiation. When the temperature of a body is greater than absolute zero, inter-atomic collisions cause the kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules to change. This results in charge-acceleration and/or dipole oscillation which produces electromagnetic radiation, and the wide spectrum of radiation reflects the wide spectrum of energies and accelerations that occur even at a single temperature.

Thermophotovoltaic is a direct conversion process from heat to electricity via photons. A basic thermophotovoltaic system
consists of a thermal emitter and a photovoltaic diode cell.

The Hollow (Thermoelectric) Flashlight Using four Peltier tiles and the temperature difference between the palm of the hand and ambient air, only needs a five degree temperature difference to work and produce up to 5.4 mW at 5 foot candles of brightness.

Outgoing Longwave Radiation is the energy radiating from the Earth as infrared radiation at low energy to Space.

Thermoelectric Wood Stove Generator (youtube)
Stower Energy

Thermal Energy refers to the internal energy present in a system due to its temperature.

Lumen - Eternal Flashlight That Doesn't Need Batteries

Kinetic Energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.

Regenerative Braking
Potential Energy

Torsion Spring is a spring that works by torsion or twisting; that is, a flexible elastic object that stores mechanical energy when it is twisted. When it is twisted, it exerts a force (actually torque) in the opposite direction, proportional to the amount (angle) it is twisted. Mousetrap

Elastic Energy is the potential mechanical energy stored in the configuration of a material or physical system as work is performed to distort its volume or shape.[citation needed] Elastic energy occurs when objects are compressed and stretched, or generally deformed in any manner. Elasticity theory primarily develops formalisms for the mechanics of solid bodies and materials. (Note however, the work done by a stretched rubber band is not an example of elastic energy. It is an example of entropic elasticity.) The elastic potential energy equation is used in calculations of positions of mechanical equilibrium. The energy is potential as it will be converted into the second form of energy, such as kinetic.

Human Energy

Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and
biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress. The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from pressure.

Triboelectric Nanogenerators and Power-Boards from Cellulose Nanofibrils and Recycled Materials The technology could be incorporated into flooring and convert footsteps on the flooring into usable electricity.

Piezo Electric Materials
Shoe Charges Phone when Walking
New Fabric Uses Sun and Wind to Power Devices

Nanogenerator is a type of technology that converts mechanical/thermal energy as produced by small-scale physical change
into electricity. Nano-Generator has three typical approaches: piezoelectric, triboelectric, and pyroelectric nanogenerators. Both the piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerators can convert the mechanical energy into electricity. However, the pyroelectric nanogenerators can be used to harvest thermal energy from a time-dependent temperature fluctuation.

Electric Generator

Triboelectric Effect is a type of contact electrification in which certain materials become electrically charged after they come
into frictional contact with a different material.

Pyroelectricity is the ability of certain materials to generate a temporary voltage when they are heated or cooled.

Dark Matter

Energy from Evaporating Water (youtube)

Geothermal Energy

Geothermal Energy Diagram Geothermal Energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter.
Geothermal Energy

Geothermal Electricity is power generated by geothermal energy. Technologies in use include dry steam power stations, flash steam power stations and binary cycle power stations. Geothermal electricity generation is currently used in 24 countries, while geothermal heating is in use in 70 countries. Geothermal

Geophysics is the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.

Enhanced Geothermal System
Geothermal Heating & Cooling (youtube)
Air Conditioning

Geothermal Heat Pump is a central heating and/or cooling system that transfers heat to or from the ground. It uses the earth as a heat source (in the winter) or a heat sink (in the summer). This design takes advantage of the moderate temperatures in the ground to boost efficiency and reduce the operational costs of heating and cooling systems, and may be combined with solar heating to form a geosolar system with even greater efficiency. They are also known by other names, including geoexchange, earth-coupled, earth energy systems.
Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems

GeoExchange Heating and Cooling System (open loop and closed loop) (youtube)
Geothermal Heating (youtube)
What is Geothermal? (youtube)
Water Furnace
Smart Energy Now

Thermal Banking
Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage is the storage of heat or cold for periods of up to several months. The thermal energy can be collected whenever it is available and be used whenever needed, such as in the opposing season. For example, heat from solar collectors or waste heat from air conditioning equipment can be gathered in hot months for space heating use when needed, including during winter months. Waste heat from industrial process can similarly be stored and be used much later. Or the natural cold of winter air can be stored for summertime air conditioning.

Renewable Solar Fuel

Ocean Thermal
Electric Conversion (youtube)

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion uses the temperature difference between cooler deep and warmer shallow or surface seawaters to run a heat engine and produce useful work, usually in the form of electricity. OTEC is a base load electricity generation system.

Engineering Geology is the study for the purpose of assuring that the geological factors regarding the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and accounted for. Engineering geologists provide geological and geotechnical recommendations, analysis, and design associated with human development and various types of structures. The realm of the engineering geologist is essentially in the area of earth-structure interactions, or investigation of how the earth or earth processes impact human made structures and human activities.
Geo Engineering (wiki)

Geotechnical Engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials. Geotechnical engineering is important in civil engineering, but also has applications in military, mining, petroleum and other engineering disciplines that are concerned with construction occurring on the surface or within the ground. Geotechnical engineering uses principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics to investigate subsurface conditions and materials; determine the relevant physical/mechanical and chemical properties of these materials; evaluate stability of natural slopes and man-made soil deposits; assess risks posed by site conditions; design earthworks and structure foundations; and monitor site conditions, earthwork and foundation construction.
Geo-Professions (wiki)

Storing compressed air in sealed tunnels and mines could be a way of storing energy in the future. Compress air, which is stored in caverns in solid bedrock. When air is compressed, it heats up, so a separate underground heat store stockpiles the heat generated by the compression process. When the energy is needed, the air is released through a gas turbine, which generates electricity.

Energy from Solar Heat


Justin Hall (youtube)Perpetual Motion gif
Perpetual Motion Machines (youtube)
Energy Digital
Infinite Energy Mag (wiki)
Perpetual Motion (wiki)
Free Energy (Tesla) (youtube)
Energy-Frequency-Vibration  3,6,9
Race to Zero Point (youtube)
Fuel Saving System
Zero-Point Energy

Thermodynamic System
Potential Well
Maxwell's Demon
Action Physics

Supreme Skills! Miracle Tops: May They Spin Forever! (youtube)
See-Saw Balance. Perpetual Motion Machine (youtube)
Energy by Motion EBM Magnetic Self Perpetuating Power Plant (youtube)

How to Assemble a HHO Generator and why it works The Brown gas generator uses electrolysis to split water (H2O) into it´s base molecules, 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen molecule. This is why it is often referred to as an HHO gas generator

Hydro Water Power

Steorn is a small, private technology development company based in Dublin, Ireland. It announced in August 2006 it had developed a technology which provides "free, clean, and constant energy".
What are the differences between H2O and HHO (youtube)
The Hutchison Effect & Free Energy - LightworksAV Documentary (Part 2 of 2) (youtube)  Light Works AV
DePalma N-machine 11/18 (youtube)  Depalma


Engine is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines burn a fuel to create heat, which then creates a force. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion; pneumatic motors use compressed air and clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and eventually motion.

External Combustion Engine is a heat engine where a working fluid, contained internally, is heated by combustion in an external source, through the engine wall or a heat exchanger.

Steam Engine

Internal Combustion Engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy.

Heat Engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work. It does this by bringing a working substance from a higher state temperature to a lower state temperature. A heat "source" generates thermal energy that brings the working substance to the high temperature state. The working substance generates work in the "working body" of the engine while transferring heat to the colder "sink" until it reaches a low temperature state. During this process some of the thermal energy is converted into work by exploiting the properties of the working substance. The working substance can be any system with a non-zero heat capacity, but it usually is a gas or liquid. During this process, a lot of heat is lost to the surroundings, i.e. it cannot be used.

Reciprocating Engine also often known as a piston engine, is a heat engine (usually, although there are also pneumatic and hydraulic reciprocating engines) that uses one or more reciprocating pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion.

Small revving single-cylinder engine from paper (youtube)

Electric Motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The reverse of this would be the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy and is done by an electric generator.

Electric Generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy for use in an external circuit. The source of mechanical energy may vary widely from a hand crank to an internal combustion engine. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids.

Induction Generator

Mechanical Energy is the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy. It is the energy associated with the motion and position of an object.

Dynamo is an electrical generator that produces direct current with the use of a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry, and the foundation upon which many other later electric-power conversion devices were based, including the electric motor, the alternating-current alternator, and the rotary converter.

Commutator is a moving part of a rotary electrical switch in certain types of electric motors and electrical generators that periodically reverses the current direction between the rotor and the external circuit. It consists of a cylinder composed of multiple metal contact segments on the rotating armature of the machine. Two or more electrical contacts called "brushes" made of a soft conductive material like carbon press against the commutator, making sliding contact with successive segments
of the commutator as it rotates. The windings (coils of wire) on the armature are connected to the commutator segments.

Magnetic Current a current composed of fictitious moving magnetic monopoles. It has the dimensions of volts.

Electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current. The magnetic field disappears when the current is turned off. Electromagnets usually consist of a large number of closely spaced turns of wire that create the magnetic field. The wire turns are often wound around a magnetic core made from a ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic material such as iron; the magnetic core concentrates the magnetic flux and makes a more powerful magnet.

Electric Power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt, one joule per second. Electric power is usually produced by electric generators, but can also be supplied by sources such as electric batteries. It is usually supplied to businesses and homes by the electric power industry through an electric power grid. Electric power is usually sold by the kilowatt hour (3.6 MJ) which is the product of power in kilowatts multiplied by running time in hours. Electric utilities measure power using an electricity meter, which keeps a running total of the electric energy delivered to a customer. Electrical power provides a low entropy form of energy and can be carried long distances and converted into other forms of energy such as motion, light or heat with high energy efficiency.

Electric Power Industry is the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electric power to the general public. The electrical industry started with introduction of electric lighting in 1882. Throughout the 1880s and 1890s, growing economic and safety concerns lead to the regulation of the industry. Once an expensive novelty limited to the most densely populated areas, reliable and economical electric power has become a requirement for normal operation of all elements of developed economies.

Dielectric and Magnetic Discharges in Electrical Windings (complete OCR remake) (PDF)
Magnetic Generator
Magnetic Generator

Nanogenerator is a type of technology that converts mechanical-thermal energy as produced by small-scale physical change into electricity. Nano-generator has three typical approaches: piezoelectric, triboelectric, and pyroelectric nanogenerators.

Stirling Engine is a heat engine that operates by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas (the working fluid) at different temperatures, such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work. More specifically, the Stirling engine is a closed-cycle regenerative heat engine with a permanently gaseous working fluid. Closed-cycle, in this context, means a thermodynamic system in which the working fluid is permanently contained within the system, and regenerative describes the use of a specific type of internal heat exchanger and thermal store, known as the regenerator. The inclusion of a regenerator differentiates the Stirling engine from other closed cycle hot air engines. Video

Thermoelectric Generator

Automation Machines

Pantone Engine (youtube)
Aluka (youtube channel)
Hydronica Blogspot
Fuel Systems

EcoMotors is an American company developing and commercializing an opposed-piston opposed-cylinder (OPOC) engine for use in cars, light trucks, commercial vehicles, aerospace, marine, agriculture, auxiliary power units, generators, etc. This engine was promoted to significantly improve fuel efficiency, and substantially reduce production costs when compared to convententional internal combustion engines. Ecomotors 

Wireless Electricity

wireless electricity Contactless Energy Transfer is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load, such as an electrical power grid or a consuming device, without the use of discrete human-made conductors.

Wireless Power is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load, such as an electrical power grid or a consuming device, without the use of discrete human-made conductors.

Power over Wi-Fi System

Resonant Inductive Coupling is the near field wireless transmission of electrical energy between two magnetically coupled coils that are part of resonant circuits tuned to resonate at the same frequency. This process occurs in a resonant transformer, an electrical component which consists of two high Q coils wound on the same core with capacitors connected across the windings to make two coupled LC circuits.

Electromagnetic Induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor due to its dynamic interaction with a magnetic field.

Linear induction Motor asynchronous linear motor that works by the same general principles as other induction motors but is typically designed to directly produce motion in a straight line. Characteristically, linear induction motors have a finite primary or secondary length, which generates end-effects, whereas a conventional induction motor is arranged in an endless loop.

Induction Motor is an AC electric motor in which the electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained by electromagnetic induction from the magnetic field of the stator winding. An induction motor can therefore be made without electrical connections to the rotor as are found in universal, DC and synchronous motors. An asynchronous motor's rotor can be either wound type or squirrel-cage type.

Electrostatics is a branch of physics that deals with the phenomena and properties of stationary or slow-moving electric charges.

Electrostatic induction is a redistribution of electrical charge in an object, caused by the influence of nearby charges. In the presence of a charged body, an insulated conductor develops a positive charge on one end and a negative charge on the other end.

OLV Technology
Tesla's Wireless Energy Charging of jumping droplets
Free Electricity (youtube)

"Electric power is everywhere present in unlimited quantities and can drive the world's machinery without the need of coal, oil, gas, or any other fuels."  - Nikola Tesla believed there could be a global network of wireless Electricity that would use an electromagnetic wave that reverberated between the ionosphere (a layer of the Earth’s atmosphere filled with ions and free electrons) and the ground.

Nikola Tesla (youtube)
Tesla's Little Secret (Original) (youtube)
Atmospheric electricity. Free energy (youtube)

Atmospheric Electricity is the study of electrical charges in the Earth's atmosphere (or that of another planet). The movement of charge between the Earth's surface, the atmosphere, and the ionosphere is known as the global atmospheric electrical circuit. Atmospheric electricity is an interdisciplinary topic, involving concepts from electrostatics, atmospheric physics, meteorology and Earth science. Electricity

Radiant Energy is the energy of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation. The SI unit of radiant energy is the joule (J). The quantity of radiant energy may be calculated by integrating radiant flux (or power) with respect to time.

13 year old Invents Free Energy Device for 14 bucks! (youtube)
Electromagnetic harvester conducts radio waves, thermal and static energy, and turns into electricity.

Wireless Charging
Physics of Wireless Charging
Galvanometer (wiki) 
Wireless Data (Li-Fi)
Qi inductive Power Standard

Quasistatic Cavity Resonance for Ubiquitous Wireless Power Transfer Wireless power delivery has the potential to seamlessly power our electrical devices as easily as data is transmitted through the air. Generate quasistatic magnetic fields that safely deliver kilowatts of power to mobile receivers contained nearly anywhere within a short distance. Safety analysis shows that up to 1900 watts can be transmitted to a coil receiver enabling safe and ubiquitous
wireless power.

Tiny chip powers itself from radio waves. Dutch specialists have developed a minor sensor that measures temperature, light, and air, without needing a battery. The sensor contains a receiving wire that gets commands from a remote switch.

Efficient Lighting

LED Lamp is a light-emitting diode (LED) product which is assembled into a lamp (or light bulb) for use in lighting fixtures. LED lamps have a lifespan and electrical efficiency which are several times greater than incandescent lamps, and are significantly more efficient than most fluorescent lamps, with some chips able to emit more than 300 lumens per watt (as claimed by Cree and some other LED manufacturers). The first LEDs were developed in the early 1960s.

Light Emitting DiodesLED Diagram
LED Lights
LED Lighting
LED 60W Bulb Replacement (amazon)
Motion-Sensitive LED Light (amazon)
RV Sensor & Receiver (amazon)
Energy Monitoring
Lemnis Lighting
LED Lights - UK
Lights for Growing Food
Kichler Lighting Experts

Lighting Prize
Energy Saving LED Street Light Design (PDF)

Energy Efficient Appliances

Gratify Light (vimeo)
Gravitylight 2 made in Africa
Free Electricity from Gravity and Perpetual Motion by Daniel Bentea! (video)
M Powerd Luci Solar Lights
Gravity Light 360 Degree Magnetic LED

LED Lamp Powered by Water 

Wireless Lighting System: verve

ZOBO: Brilliant Full-Color LED Spot-Lighting


Ellum Solar - Light Different

U.S. Lighting Energy Policy
Saving Electricity

Brighten up a Dark Room
Choose the Perfect Light Bulbfor Your Lighting Fixture

Wi-Fi Smart Bulb
ilumi Bluetooth Control LED

SmartCharge 2.0 LED light bulb integrated with a rechargeable lithium ion battery, works even during a power outage.

LitraTorch versatile adventure LED light - photo, video, underwater, bike, camp, drone & fun.

Color Rendering index is a quantitative measure of the ability of a light source to reveal the colors of various objects faithfully in comparison with an ideal or natural light source. Light sources with a high CRI are desirable in color-critical applications such as neonatal care, photography and cinematography. It is defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) as follows: Color rendering: Effect of an illuminant on the color appearance of objects by conscious or subconscious comparison with their color appearance under a reference illuminant.

Artificial Skylight (youtube)

Solar Light Tubes

Smart Grid

Smart Grid is an electrical grid which includes a variety of operational and energy measures including smart meters, smart appliances, renewable energy resources, and energy efficiency resources. Electronic power conditioning and control of the production and distribution of electricity are important aspects of the Smart Grid.

Smart Grid Diagram Grid Parity occurs when an alternative energy source can generate power at a levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) that is less than or equal to the price of purchasing power from the electricity grid.

Electrical Grid (Looped not Linear) is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers. It consists of generating stations that produce electrical power, high-voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant sources to demand centers, and distribution lines that connect individual customers.

Energy Storage

Overhead Power Line is a structure used in electric power transmission and distribution to transmit electrical energy along large distances. It consists of one or more conductors (commonly multiples of three) suspended by towers or poles. Since most of the insulation is provided by air, overhead power lines are generally the lowest-cost method of power transmission for large quantities of electric energy.

Base Load on a grid is the minimum level of demand on an electrical grid over 24 hours. Base load power sources are power stations which can consistently generate the electrical power needed to satisfy this minimum demand. Historically, large power grids have used base load power plants exclusively. However, there is no specific technical requirement for this to be so. The base load requirement can equally well be met by the appropriate mix of intermittent power sources, peaking power plants, hydroelectric power and other sources.

Grid Wise
Beacon Power

Fault Current Limiter is a device which limits the prospective fault current when a fault occurs (e.g. in a power transmission network) without complete disconnection. The term includes superconducting, solid-state and inductive devices.

Distributed Generation is generated or stored by a variety of small, grid-connected devices referred to as distributed energy resources (DER) or distributed energy resource systems.

Solar Panels work at night because the Sun is always shining some where in the world. So one side of the planet shares some of its energy during the day for the other side of the planet that is in the dark, and vise versa.

Solar Grid Storage
Smart Inverters
Electric Power Transmission
Transmission Loss from 7% - 30%

Harmonics  (electrical power) voltages and currents in an electric power system are a result of non-linear electric loads. Harmonic frequencies in the power grid are a frequent cause of power quality problems. Harmonics in power systems result in increased heating in the equipment and conductors, misfiring in variable speed drives, and torque pulsations in motors. Reduction of harmonics is considered desirable.

Principles of Grid Generation is a small-sized geometrical shape that covers the physical domain, whose objective is to identify the discrete volumes or elements where conservation laws can be applied. Grid generation is the first process involved in computing numerical solutions to the equations that describe a physical process. The result of the solution depends upon the quality of grid. A well-constructed grid can improve the quality of solution whereas, deviations from the numerical solution can be observed with poorly constructed grid. Techniques for creating the cell forms the basis of grid generation. Various methods to generate grids are discussed below.

Ancillary Services Electric Power defines the ancillary services as: "those services necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system."

Analytic Research Foundations workshop for the Next Generation Electric Grid
Peer-to-Peer Energy Transaction & Distributed Energy Resource Control
LO3 Energy and ConsenSys
Brooklyn Micro-Grid

Fuel Cells

Fuel Cell Diagram Fuel Cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction of positively charged hydrogen ions with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Fuel cells are different from batteries in requiring a continuous source of fuel and oxygen or air to sustain the chemical reaction, whereas in a battery the chemicals present in the battery react with each other to generate an electromotive force (emf). Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as these inputs are supplied.

Fuel Cells
Bloom Energy Fuel Cells

Microbial Fuel Cell is a bio-electrochemical system that drives an electric current by using bacteria and mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature. MFCs can be grouped into two general categories: mediated and unmediated.

3-D Paper-Based Microbial Fuel Cell
Building a better microbial fuel cell—using paper
Schematic illustration of a bioelectrochemical cell incorporating carbon paste paper electrodes.

Urine Power (youtube)
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Horizon Fuel Cell
Fire Activated Fuel Cell
OWI's Salt Water Fuel Cell Car - ABC

Sun + CO2 + Water = New Liquid Fuel
CO2 to make fuel

Photoelectrochemical Process are processes in photoelectrochemistry; they usually involve transforming light into other forms of energy. These processes apply to photochemistry, optically pumped lasers, sensitized solar cells, luminescence, and photochromism.

Helioculture is a company that produces alternative energy technologies based in Bedford, Massachusetts. The company developed a process to generate hydrocarbon-based fuel by combining non-fresh water, nutrients, cyanobacteria, carbon dioxide, and sunlight. The company planned to break ground in October 2011 on a facility to produce more than 20,000 gallons of fuel per acre per year (19,000 m3/km2·a).
Joule Unlimited

Double Heterostructure is formed when two semiconductor materials are grown into a "sandwich". One material (such as AlGaAs) is used for the outer layers (or cladding), and another of smaller band gap (such as GaAs) is used for the inner layer. In our example, there are two AlGaAs-GaAs junctions (or boundaries), one at each side of the inner layer. There must be two boundaries for the device to be a double heterostructure. If there was only one side of cladding material, the device would be a simple heterostructure.

Towards effective small scale microbial fuel cells for energy generation from urine

Stanley Meyer's Water Fuel Cell The fuel cell purportedly split water into its component elements, hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen gas was then burned to generate energy, a process that reconstituted the water molecules. According to Meyer, the device required less energy to perform electrolysis than the minimum energy requirement predicted or measured by conventional science. The mechanism of action was alleged to involve "Brown's gas", a mixture of oxyhydrogen with a ratio of 2:1, the same composition as liquid water; which would then be mixed with ambient air (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, chloroflourocarbons, free radicals/electrons, radiation, among others. If the device worked as specified, it would violate both the first and second laws of thermodynamics, allowing operation as a perpetual motion machine.

Tiny Probe Could Produce Big Improvements in Batteries and Fuel Cells

Squeezing a Platinum Catalyst a fraction of a nanometer nearly doubles its Catalytic Activity, finding that could lead to better fuel cells and other clean energy technologies.

Energy from Heat


Hydrogen Fuel is a zero-emission fuel when burned with oxygen, often uses electrochemical cells, or combustion in internal engines, to power vehicles and electric devices. It is also used in the propulsion of spacecraft and might potentially be mass-produced and commercialized for passenger vehicles and aircraft.

Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass. Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state. The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons.

Water Splitting is the general term for a chemical reaction in which water is separated into oxygen and hydrogen. Efficient and economical water splitting would be a key technological component of a hydrogen economy. Various techniques for water splitting have been issued in water splitting patents in the United States. In photosynthesis, water splitting donates electrons to the electron transport chain in photosystem II.

Electrolysis of Water is the decomposition of water (H2O) into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen gas (H2) due to an electric current being passed through the water. The reaction has a standard potential of −1.23 V, meaning it ideally requires a potential difference of 1.23 volts to split water. This technique can be used to make hydrogen fuel (hydrogen gas) and breathable oxygen; though currently most industrial methods make hydrogen fuel from natural gas instead.

Electrocatalyst is a catalyst that participates in electrochemical reactions. Catalyst materials modify and increase the rate of chemical reactions without being consumed in the process. Electrocatalysts are a specific form of catalysts that function at electrode surfaces or may be the electrode surface itself. An electrocatalyst can be heterogeneous such as a platinum surface or nanoparticles, or homogeneous like a coordination complex or enzyme. The electrocatalyst assists in transferring electrons between the electrode and reactants, and/or facilitates an intermediate chemical transformation described by an overall half-reaction.

Scientists have just found a way to make metallic solid hydrogen in the lab, by compressing it at ultrahigh pressure between two diamond anvils. Metallic Hydrogen is a kind of degenerate matter, a phase of hydrogen in which it behaves like an electrical conductor. At high pressure and temperatures, metallic hydrogen might exist as a liquid rather than a solid, and researchers think it is present in large amounts in the hot and gravitationally compressed interiors of Jupiter, Saturn, and in some extrasolar planets.

New Materials Could Turn Water into the Fuel of the Future Solar fuels are created using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide (CO2). Researchers are exploring a range of target fuels, from hydrogen gas to liquid hydrocarbons, and producing any of these fuels involves splitting water. Each water molecule is comprised of an oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. The hydrogen atoms are extracted, and then can be reunited to create highly flammable hydrogen gas or combined with CO2 to create hydrocarbon fuels, creating a plentiful and renewable energy source. The problem, however, is that water molecules do not simply break down when sunlight shines on them—if they did, the oceans would not cover most of the planet. They need a little help from a solar-powered catalyst. 16 Photoanode Materials.

Photoelectrochemical Cell are solar cells that produce electrical energy or hydrogen in a process similar to the electrolysis of

Cold Fusion

Researchers find cheaper way to produce hydrogen from water Electrocatalytic water splitting using a monolayered double hydroxide involving nickel and vanadium.

A public hydrogen filling station opens in London that creates the gas on site from tap water and renewable energy.

Hydro Water Energy

Hydro Electricity the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.
Hydroelectric Generating Station
Dam (wiki)

DamNation (2014) (video)

America has 75,000 Dams or 87,000?
Nearly 3,000 dams across the U.S. predate the 20th century. 65% of dams in the country are privately owned.

Dam Safety   PDF
Water Management

Hydro Power
Micro Hydro
The Microhydro Plant
Transforming modern power production through Micro-Scale Hydropower
Small Hydro (wiki)
Plastic bottle water wheel generator experiment (youtube)

Moriah Hydro Corp. to develop the unique, 260-MW Mineville pumped-storage project to be located completely underground in an abandoned mine complex in New York, west of Lake Champlain. Engineers would drain roughly half of the water from the shafts and pump the remainder into an upper chamber. The water would then be released into a lower chamber, powering turbines and creating electricity. The turbines would be reversed to pump the water back up to repeat the process.
the pumped water is considered stored energy, to be released strategically when power is needed.

Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity is a type of hydroelectric energy storage used by electric power systems for load balancing. The method stores energy in the form of gravitational potential energy of water, pumped from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation. Low-cost surplus off-peak electric power is typically used to run the pumps. During periods of high electrical demand, the stored water is released through turbines to produce electric power. Although the losses of the pumping process makes the plant a net consumer of energy overall, the system increases revenue by selling more electricity during periods of peak demand. Unsustainable unless it's a natural process. Time Shift Energy involves storing energy during low price times, and discharging during high price times.

Water Turbine Generators - Water Turbine
A single PowerSpout at a site good enough to generate 1 kW can produce enough electricity for a typical house for a year (8,000 kWh/yr).

Low Head Hydro Power applications use tidal flows or rivers with a head of 20 metres (66 ft) or less to produce energy. These applications may not need to dam or retain water to create hydraulic head. Using the drop in a river or tidal flows to create electricity may provide a renewable energy source that will have a minimal impact on the environment.

Turgo Turbine is an impulse water turbine designed for medium head applications. Operational Turgo Turbines achieve
efficiencies of about 87%. In factory and lab tests Turgo Turbines perform with efficiencies of up to 90%. It works with net heads between 15 and 300 m.

Hydraulic Head is a measurement of the total mechanical energy per weight of the groundwater flow system. In other words, it is the fluid potential for flow through porous media. It is predominantly comprised of pressure and elevation heads.

Piezometric head is a specific measurement of liquid pressure above a geodetic datum. It is usually measured as a liquid surface elevation, expressed in units of length, at the entrance (or bottom) of a piezometer. In an aquifer, it can be calculated from the depth to water in a piezometric well (a specialized water well), and given information of the piezometer's elevation and screen depth. Hydraulic head can similarly be measured in a column of water using a standpipe piezometer by measuring the height of the water surface in the tube relative to a common datum. The hydraulic head can be used to determine a hydraulic gradient between two or more points.

Pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure (also spelled gage pressure)[a] is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure.

Pressure Measurement are instruments used to measure and display pressure in an integral unit are called pressure gauges or vacuum gauges. A manometer is a good example as it uses a column of liquid to both measure and indicate pressure. Likewise the widely used Bourdon gauge is a mechanical device which both measures and indicates, and is probably the best known type of gauge. A vacuum gauge is an absolute pressure gauge used to measure the pressures lower than the ambient atmospheric pressure. Other methods of pressure measurement involve sensors which can transmit the pressure reading to a remote indicator or control system like telemetry, which is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.

Ocean Wave Current Energy

Tidal Energy GraphicWave Power is the transport of energy by wind waves, and the capture of that energy to do useful work – for example, electricity generation, water desalination, or the pumping of water (into reservoirs). A machine able to exploit wave power is generally known as a wave energy converter (WEC). Wave power is distinct from the diurnal flux of tidal power and the steady gyre of ocean currents. Wave-power generation is not currently a widely employed commercial technology, although there have been attempts to use it since at least 1890. In 2008, the first experimental wave farm was opened in Portugal, at the Aguçadoura Wave Park.

Tidal Stream Generator is a machine that extracts energy from moving masses of water, in particular tides, although the term is often used in reference to machines designed to extract energy from run of river or tidal estuarine sites. Certain types of these machines function very much like underwater wind turbines, and are thus often referred to as tidal turbines. They were first conceived in the 1970s during the oil crisis. Tidal stream generators are the cheapest and the least ecologically damaging among the three main forms of tidal power generation.

Oscillating Water Column are a type of Wave Energy Converter (WEC)  that harness energy from the oscillation of the seawater inside a chamber or hollow caused by the action of waves. OWCs have shown promise as a renewable energy source with low environmental impact. Because of this, multiple companies have been working to design increasingly efficient OWC models.

Underwater Turbines
Tidal Lagoon Power Plant
Wind and Current Combo 
Sea Generation
Open Hydro

CETO Wave-Energy & Desalinates Water
Carnegie Wave
Perth Project
Bombora Wavepower
Bunbury Wave Energy Trial
Unique Hydropower System uses
Gravity Fed Water Pipes to
Produce Low Cost Electricity

OWC Generator (image)

Between Eb and Flow is 20 minutes


Laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

Most Powerful Laser
Lawrence Berkeley Nat. Laboratory
Plasma Acceleration
Homemade 40W Laser Shotgun (youtube)

Fiber Laser is a laser in which the active gain medium is an optical fiber doped with rare-earth elements such as erbium, ytterbium, neodymium, dysprosium, praseodymium, thulium and holmium. They are related to doped fiber amplifiers, which provide light amplification without lasing. Fiber nonlinearities, such as stimulated Raman scattering or four-wave mixing can also provide gain and thus serve as gain media for a fiber laser.

Natural Resources
Defense Council

Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser is a type of semiconductor laser diode with laser beam emission perpendicular from the top surface, contrary to conventional edge-emitting semiconductor lasers (also in-plane lasers) which emit from surfaces formed by cleaving the individual chip out of a wafer.

We Gather Here Today to Join Lasers and Anti-Lasers
Coherent Perfect Absorber is a device which absorbs coherent light and converts it to some form of internal energy such as heat or electrical energy. It is the time reversed counterpart of a laser.

Energy Justice Network
Power & Energy Society
Energy Leadership
World Energy Summit
Oak Ridge Laboratory
National Energy Lab The Laser: A Light Fantastic - 1967 Documentary - WDTVLIVE42 (youtube)

First Random Laser Made of Paper-based Ceramics

Laserium Laser Light Shows

Water Power

Water Fuel Cell
Water 4 Gas
Water Powered Car

Water Spark Plugs (youtube)
Inventor Jailed for making this video?
Water car inventor murdered after turning down a billion dollars to sell patent.

Ogle Fuel System
Vapor Fuel System

Pantone Engine (youtube)
Hydronica Blogspot   Aluka

Stirling Engine   Youtube

Build a Gas Vaporizer
Fuel Vaporizers (youtube)
Fuel Vaporizing System
Gas Engine Vaporizer
Opel Test Car
Fuel Vaporizer for Lawn Mower (youtube)
Engines (types)


Zero Emissions

Biodiesel Fuels

Biodiesel Advancements
Biodiesel Research
WVO Designs
Waste Vegetable Oil Fuel (wiki)
Largest Populus single nucleotide polymorphism SNP dataset holds promise for biofuels, materials, metabolites
Bio Fuels
Bio Diesel
Bio-Based Motor Oil
EZ Biodiesel
Biodiesel Alliance
Biochemical Engineering (wiki)
Grease Recycling
Mobile Biofuel
Diesel Cycle (wiki)
Bio Energy
Cerium Oxide 
‘Super yeast’ has the power to improve economics of Biofuels

Turning biofuel waste into wealth in a single step adding formaldehyde to Lignin could convert up to 80% of it into valuable molecules for biofuel and plastics.

Synthetic Fuel is a liquid fuel, or sometimes gaseous fuel, obtained from syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, in which the syngas was derived from gasification of solid feedstocks such as coal or biomass or by reforming of natural gas.
Common methods for manufacturing synthetic fuels include the Fischer Tropsch conversion, methanol to gasoline conversion, or direct coal liquefaction.

A better view of synthetic fuel production

Dual-purpose biofuel crops could produce both ethanol and biodiesel for nine months of the year

Diesel HPR is refined from recycled fats & oils, but does not contain biodiesel.

Home Ethanol Fuel
HP 2 G

Waste to Energy

It takes 50,000 lbs. of Raw Material to make a 3,000 lb. Car.

Every Gallon of Gas Burned Creates 19 lbs. of CO2.

Gas Engine Inefficiency of thermal engines is the relationship between the total energy contained in the fuel, and the amount of energy used to perform useful work. There are two classifications of thermal engines-Internal combustion (gasoline, diesel and gas turbine, i.e., Brayton cycle engines) and External combustion engines (steam piston, steam turbine, and the Stirling cycle engine).

Fossil Fuel are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum, coal, and natural gas. Other commonly used derivatives include kerosene and propane. Fossil fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon: hydrogen ratios like methane, to liquids like petroleum, to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields either alone, associated with oil, or in the form of methane clathrates.

Revolution Green 2.0 (Film)
Fuel (Documentary)
Freedom Fuels (Film)

Diesel Conversion
Diesel to Vegetable Oil

Green Auto Blog
Goin Green
Fuel Economy
Green Car Congress

Energy Efficiency &Renewable Energy
Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Defense

Tree Hugger

Megawatt Motor Works

Learn Car Mechanics (ehow)

Car Racing 
List of Fastest Production Cars 

Yokohama Tire Avid Ascend
Lubri-Check Measures Oil Viscosity
Eco Touch Waterless Carwash

Eco-Modder Fuel Economy Tips
Green Ideas

Green Products
Green Building
Green Jobs
Green News
Science Websites

Wireless Energy

Plastics - Materials

Bioplastic are plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, or microbiota. Bioplastic can be made from agricultural by-products and also from used plastic bottles and other containers using microorganisms. Common plastics, such as fossil-fuel plastics (also called petrobased polymers), are derived from petroleum or natural gas. Production of such plastics tends to require more fossil fuels and to produce more greenhouse gases than the production of biobased polymers (bioplastics). Some, but not all, bioplastics are designed to biodegrade. Biodegradable bioplastics can break down in either anaerobic or aerobic environments, depending on how they are manufactured. Bioplastics can be composed of starches, cellulose, biopolymers, and a variety of other materials.

Biodegradable Plastic are plastics that decompose by the action of living organisms, usually bacteria.

Aircarbon Thermoplastic

Plastic Dangers

Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Polymer is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers. CFRPs can be expensive to produce but are commonly used wherever high strength-to-weight ratio and rigidity are required, such as aerospace, automotive, civil engineering, sports goods and an increasing number of other consumer and technical applications.
The binding polymer is often a thermoset resin such as epoxy, but other thermoset or thermoplastic polymers, such as polyester, vinyl ester or nylon, are sometimes used. The composite may contain other fibers, such as an aramid (e.g. Kevlar, Twaron), aluminium, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) or glass fibers, as well as carbon fiber. The properties of the final CFRP product can also be affected by the type of additives introduced to the binding matrix (the resin). The most frequent additive is silica, but other additives such as rubber and carbon nanotubes can be used. The material is also referred to as graphite-reinforced polymer or graphite fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP is less common, as it clashes with glass-(fiber)-reinforced polymer). In product advertisements, it is sometimes referred to simply as graphite fiber for short

Fibre-Reinforced Plastic is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. The fibres are usually glass, carbon, aramid, or basalt. Rarely, other fibres such as paper or wood or asbestos have been used. The polymer is usually an epoxy, vinylester or polyester thermosetting plastic; and phenol formaldehyde resins are still in use.

Carbon (fiber) are fibers about 5–10 micrometres in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms.

Carbon Fibers
Carbon Nano-Tubes
Carbon Fiber Recycle

Composite Material is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.

Graphene - Nano-Graphene
Making Carbon-fiber
Make Your Own Carbon Fiber Parts (youtube)
How to make a two-part Mold (youtube)
Injection Molding - Tools

Bakelite is an early plastic. It is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from a condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde.

Q-carbon is an allotrope of carbon that is ferromagnetic, electrically conductive, and glows when exposed to low levels of energy. It is relatively inexpensive to make, and some news reports claim that it has replaced diamond as the world's hardest substance. Discovered in 2015.

Action Physics

A Team At MIT Has Developed A Super Light Weight Material Ten Times Stronger Than Steel (youtube)

Carbon fiber technology that extracts CO2 from the air and turns it into cars and other industrial products.

Polyvinylidene Fluoride (wiki) 

Paint made from coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles makes tough self-cleaning surfaces. Nano-Technology

Syntactic Foam are composite materials synthesized by filling a metal, polymer, or ceramic matrix with hollow particles called microballoons. In this context, "syntactic" means "put together". The presence of hollow particles results in lower density, higher specific strength (strength divided by density), lower coefficient of thermal expansion, and, in some cases, radar or sonar transparency.

Glass Microsphere are microscopic spheres of glass manufactured for a wide variety of uses in research, medicine, consumer goods and various industries. Glass microspheres are usually between 1 and 1000 micrometers in diameter, although the sizes can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. Hollow glass microspheres, sometimes termed microballoons or glass bubbles, have diameters ranging from 10 to 300 micrometers.

Viscoelasticity is the property of materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing deformation.
Viscous materials, like honey, resist shear flow and strain linearly with time when a stress is applied. Elastic materials strain when stretched and quickly return to their original state once the stress is removed. Viscoelastic materials have elements of both of these properties and, as such, exhibit time-dependent strain. Whereas elasticity is usually the result of bond stretching along crystallographic planes in an ordered solid, viscosity is the result of the diffusion of atoms or molecules inside an amorphous material.

Aquatherm polypropylene (PP-R) pipe for use in pressurized plumbing and mechanical systems of all sizes. Our products are reliable, competitively priced, and environmentally friendly.

Polypropylene is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications including packaging and labeling, textiles (e.g., ropes, thermal underwear and carpets), stationery, plastic parts and reusable containers of various types, laboratory equipment, loudspeakers, automotive components, and polymer banknotes. An addition polymer made from the monomer propylene, it is
rugged and unusually resistant to many chemical solvents, bases and acids. Polypropylene has a relatively slippery "low energy surface" that means that many common glues will not form adequate joints. Joining of polypropylene is often done using welding processes. In 2013, the global market for polypropylene was about 55 million tonnes. Polypropylene is the world's second-most widely produced synthetic plastic, after polyethylene.

Fuel Cells

Rubber Tires made from Dandelions

Cold Fusion

Fire from Water

Cold Fusion Diagram Cold Fusion is a hypothesized type of nuclear reaction that would occur at, or near, room temperature. This is compared with the "hot" fusion which takes place naturally within stars, under immense pressure and at temperatures of millions of degrees, and distinguished from muon-catalyzed fusion. There is currently no accepted theoretical model that would allow cold fusion to occur.

Cold Fusion: Fire From Water 1/6 (youtube)
Cold Fusion Infinite Energy
Cold Fusion Energy Science

Energy Catalyzer is claimed to be a cold fusion reactor. E Cat

Fusion Power is energy generated by nuclear fusion. Fusion reactions fuse two lighter atomic nuclei to form a heavier nucleus. It is a major area of plasma physics research that attempts to harness such reactions as a source of large scale sustainable energy. Fusion reactions are how stars transmute matter into energy.

Nuclear Fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons and/or protons). The difference in mass between the products and reactants is manifested as the release of large amounts of energy. This difference in mass arises due to the difference in atomic "binding energy" between the atomic nuclei before and after the reaction. Fusion is the process that powers active or "main sequence" stars, or other high magnitude stars.

Sonoluminescence is the emission of short bursts of light from imploding bubbles in a liquid when excited by sound.

Photo Electrochemical Water Split
Thermonuclear Fusion

Nuclear Fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei). The fission process often produces free neutrons and gamma photons, and releases a very large amount of energy even by the energetic standards of radioactive decay.

Isotopes of Hydrogen has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted 1H, 2H, and 3H. The first two of these are stable while 3H has a half-life of 12.32 years. All heavier isotopes are synthetic and have a half-life less than one zeptosecond (10−21 second). Of these, 5H is the most stable, and 7H is the least.

Hydrogen Energy

Magnetic Confinement Fusion is an approach to generating fusion power that uses magnetic fields (which is a magnetic influence of electric currents and magnetic materials) to confine the hot fusion fuel in the form of a plasma. Magnetic confinement is one of two major branches of fusion energy research, the other being inertial confinement fusion. The magnetic approach is more highly developed and is usually considered more promising for energy production.

Plasma Physics is one of the four fundamental states of matter, the others being solid, liquid, and gas. A plasma has properties unlike those of the other states.

Coulter Smithing
Developing Nuclear Fusion in a Basement with a Reclusive Gunsmith (youtube)

Magnetized Target Fusion combines features of magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Like the magnetic approach, the fusion fuel is confined at lower density by magnetic fields while it is heated into a plasma. As with the inertial approach, fusion is initiated by rapidly squeezing the target to greatly increase fuel density and temperature. Although the resulting density is far lower than in ICF, it is thought that the combination of longer confinement times and better heat retention will let MTF operate, yet be easier to build. The term magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is similar, but encompasses a wider variety of arrangements. The two terms are often applied interchangeably to experiments.

Steven Cowley: Fusion is Energy's Future (video)

Perpetual Motion

Joint European Torus
ITER Project "The Way"
Culham Centre Fusion Energy

Water Splitting is the general term for a chemical reaction in which water is separated into oxygen and hydrogen. Efficient and economical water splitting would be a key technological component of a hydrogen economy. Various techniques for water splitting have been issued in water splitting patents in the United States. In photosynthesis, water splitting donates electrons to the electron transport chain in photosystem II.

Z Machine
K Star
BBC Horizon: Can we Make a Star on Earth (youtube)
Focus Fusion

Nuclear Testing

All people who were born since 1951 have received some exposure to radiation from Weapons Testing-Related Fallout.
An equivalent of 29,000 of the bombs dropped on Hiroshima—428 megatons—were added to the air through Nuclear Testing. Radioactive Caesium-137, which is produced when uranium and plutonium absorb neutrons and undergo fission, has a
half-life of about 30 years. The largest source of caesium-137 remains fall-out from those nuclear weapons tests in the 50s and 60s. But 6-30 miles above the Earth’s surface, in the Stratosphere, the concentrations remain 1,000 to 1,500 levels higher than in the Troposphere.   

There's still fall out from Nuclear Weapons out there
Absorbed Dose
Rad Unit
Effects of Nuclear Explosions

Nuclear Reactors, Old Style
Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster
Facts about Ocean Radiation and the Fukushima Disaster
Fukushimas Nuclear Disaster has put Americas West Coast in Danger
Next Generation Nuclear Reactors

High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository Project at Yucca Mountain
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

Depleted Uranium is uranium with a lower content of the fissile isotope U-235 than natural uranium. (Natural uranium contains about 0.72% of its fissile isotope U-235, while the DU used by the U.S. Department of Defense contain 0.3% U-235 or less). Uses of DU take advantage of its very high density of 19.1 g/cm3 (68.4% denser than lead). Civilian uses include counterweights in aircraft, radiation shielding in medical radiation therapy and industrial radiography equipment, and containers for transporting radioactive materials. Military uses include armor plating and armor-piercing projectiles.

Veterans Exposed
Born at the Burnt Land (youtube)

Forgotten Bomb  Hulu  02/07/2015 | 1 hr. 34 min. 
The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb and the Architecture of an American Myth
Gar Alperovitz

United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research
An Illusion of Safety

Sandia National Laboratories mission responsibilities in the nuclear weapons (NW) program create a foundation from which we leverage capabilities, enabling us to solve complex national security problems.

USSR secretly conducted over 400 nuclear tests in a region of Kazakhstan called "The Polygon", exposing hundreds of thousands of people to dangerous levels of radiation. Now over 200,000 people are believed to have suffered directly from the tests.

The Fogging of Photographic Film by Radioactive Contaminants in Cardboard Packaging Materials.

High Tension Power Lines

Man-Shaped Electrical Towers Titled "The Land of Giants," these polygon shapes are both eerie and functional

The Thinker Man