Energy - Renewable Energy - Clean Energy - Alternative Energy
is any source of usable power or
that produces a change in a
physical quantity or physical system to do work.
Energy is a Transformation
, a qualitative change of
. Around 1.3 billion
people lack regular access to
describes energy as the rate of doing work
quantity equivalent to
the capacity of a physical system to do work,
= joules / second.
The units of
. Erg is CGS unit of work or energy; the work
done by a force
of one dyne acting over a distance of one centimeter. CGS
is a system of measurement based on centimeters and grams and seconds.
Dyne is a unit of force equal to the force that imparts an
1 cm/sec/sec to a mass of 1 gram. Erg is a unit of
equal to 10−7power
joules. Joules is a unit of electrical energy equal to the work done
when a current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for
one second. Joules is defined "mechanically
", being the energy transferred to
an object by the mechanical work of moving it a distance of 1 metre
against a force of 1 newton. Newton is a unit of force equal to the force
that imparts an acceleration of 1 m/sec/sec to a mass of 1 kilogram; equal
to 100,000 dynes.
quantum mechanical system
that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain
discrete values of energy. This contrasts with classical particles, which
can have any energy. These discrete values are called energy levels. The
term is commonly used for the energy levels of
electrons in atoms
, ions, or
molecules, which are bound by the electric field of the nucleus, but can
also refer to energy levels of nuclei or vibrational or rotational energy
levels in molecules. The energy spectrum of a system with such discrete
energy levels is said to be quantized.
describes the minimum energy which must be
with potential reactants to result in a
Conservation of Energy
process of changing energy
from one of
its forms into another. In physics, energy is a quantity that provides the
capacity to perform many actions
—some as simple as lifting or warming an
object. In addition to being convertible,
energy is transferable
different location or object, but it
cannot be created
. Energy in many of its forms may be used in natural
processes, or to provide some service to society such as heating,
refrigeration, lighting, or performing mechanical work to operate
. For example, in order to
your home, your furnace can burn
fuel, whose chemical potential energy
is thus converted into
, which is then transferred to
your home's air in order to raise its temperature. In another example, an
internal combustion engine
burns gasoline to cause pressure that pushes
the pistons, thus performing work in order to accelerate your vehicle,
ultimately converting the fuel's
your vehicle's additional kinetic energy
corresponding to its increase in speed.
is the conveyance of energy from one
(a donor) to another (a
receptor), at the same time that the class of energy changes.
of a photon, may follow the following paths: Be
released again as a photon of less energy; Be transferred to a recipient
with no change in class; Be dissipated as
; or Be transduced.
, this is an indirectly
observed quantity often understood as the ability of a physical system to
do work on other physical systems. Since work is defined as a force acting
through a distance (a length of space), energy is always equivalent to the
ability to exert force (a pull or a push) against an object that is moving
along a definite path of certain length.
Forms of Energy
- Solar Heat
- Fuel Cells
- Smart Grids
Energy from Waste
Thermal Electric EnergyGeo-Thermal-EnergyHydro-Power
- DamsOcean Wave Energy
- Electric Motors
- Physics LED
- Efficient LightingBio-Plastics
(piezo electricity from pressure or
Renewable Clean Energy
is defined as energy that is collected from
resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as
sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy
often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air
and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy
Renewable Energy World
countries could be powered by 100 percent wind, water, and solar energy by
Zero Point Energy
is the process by which energy is derived
from external sources (e.g., solar power, thermal energy, wind energy,
salinity gradients, and kinetic energy, also known as ambient energy),
captured, and stored for small, wireless autonomous devices, like those
used in wearable electronics and wireless sensor networks.
of a quantum mechanical system
is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the
of the system. An excited state is any state with energy
greater than the ground state. The ground state of a quantum field theory
is usually called the vacuum state or the vacuum.
is the field of activities focused on obtaining
sources of energy from natural resources. These activities include
production of conventional, alternative and renewable sources of energy,
and for the recovery and reuse of energy that would otherwise be wasted.
Energy conservation and efficiency measures reduce the demand for energy
development, and can have benefits to society with improvements to
Renewable Clean Energy should be Self Replicating and Perpetual.
Example: If you build
then the the energy that those wind turbines
produce should be used to produce more wind turbines, then so on
and so on until you have enough energy for all your needs, the
same with solar energy
is a type of autonomous
that is capable of
using raw materials found in the environment, thus exhibiting
self-replication in a way analogous to that found in nature.
is any behavior of a dynamical system
that yields construction of an
identical copy of itself
. Biological cells, given suitable environments,
reproduce by Cell Division
. During cell division,
is replicated and
can be transmitted to offspring during reproduction
Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources will not be effective alone
We need to learn how to
Use Our Energy Wisely and Effectively
without waste, while at the same time, use our
to manufacture products that consume less energy. Clean energy is just one step forward in helping us fully
understand how we see and use our energy. We have to learn not
to waste energy, we have to learn not to abuse energy or misuse
energy. Because in reality, energy is power, literally. And we
all know about the Corrupted influences of Power
and how power destroys the goodness in people and
distorts our understanding
of the world. So energy is just
another form of power that we need to be fully educated about,
otherwise power will continue to
hurt us more then it benefits us, and power will also continue
to destroy our environment, since it has from the beginning.
does not address these facts then the policy
is a lie, a scam and a waste of precious time, again.
National Renewable Energy
. Renewable energy is our fastest growing business
segment and represents half of our business. We have committed $12 billion
for our portfolio of renewable energy projects.
Renewable Energy Counsel
Sustainable Power Institute
New Energy Fund
Renewable Clean Fuel
New Energy Technologies
is a sustainable energy system bringing together projects, partners and
networks to work on the energy transition, based on three pillars:
education, research and innovation. Energy Academy Europe is located at
Zernike Campus Groningen in The Netherlands. Markets, technology,
policies, laws & regulations and society at large are part of the energy
system. Our energy future depends on the integration of the
system-elements. Through our projects we aim to move towards system
integration with the ultimate goal of transitioning to a sustainable
Soft Energy Path
is an alternative future where energy efficiency and appropriate renewable
energy sources steadily replace a centralized energy system based on
fossil and nuclear fuels.
is the small-scale generation of
by individuals, small businesses and communities to meet
their own needs, as alternatives or supplements to traditional centralized
Efficiency Turning every Home and
Building into Power Generators
instead of being energy slaves and
Energy Saving Tools and Methods
Conserve Energy and not Waste it
- Smart Grid
is that quantity of energy
(ability to do work) which, when used to construct and drive non-human
infrastructure (machines, roads, power grids, fuel, draft animals,
wind-driven pumps, etc.) replaces a unit of human labor (actual work). An
energy slave does the work of a person, through the consumption of energy
in the non-human infrastructure.
is lack of access to modern
energy services. It refers to the situation of large numbers of people in
developing countries whose well-being is negatively affected by very low
consumption of energy, use of dirty or polluting fuels, and excessive time
spent collecting fuel to meet basic needs.
Reserves to Production Ratio
remaining amount of a non-renewable resource, expressed in time. While
applicable to all natural resources, the RPR is most commonly applied to
fossil fuels, particularly petroleum and natural gas.
Energy Returned on Energy Invested
ratio of the amount of usable energy delivered from a particular energy
resource to the amount of energy used to obtain that energy resource. It
is a distinct measure from energy efficiency as it does not measure the
primary energy inputs to the system, only usable energy.
Bennett Acceptance Ratio
is an algorithm for estimating the difference
in free energy between two systems (usually the systems will be simulated
on the computer).
ElectricityEnergy Saving Methods
Energy Use Assessments
75 percent of our power comes from some form of
Natural Resources Defense Council
Energy Independent Towns, Cities and States
Renewable Energy Milestones and Statistics
is Running on 100 Percent Renewables. (2015).
Babcock Ranch Florida
generates more energy than the city consumes.
The town is approximately 17,000-acre (68.80 km2; 26.56 sq mi). A planned
community under development in Southwest Florida that was approved as part
of a public-private partnership strategy with the State of Florida and
local governments. The deal established the neighboring
. An on-site 75-megawatt solar photovoltaic array broke ground
in 2016 by Florida Power & Light Company, which will combine with a
network of solar rooftop arrays on commercial buildings to generate more
energy than the city consumes, making Babcock Ranch the
first solar-powered city in the United States
According to Florida Power & Light chief development officer Eric Silagy,
the photovoltaic solar plant
to be built at Babcock Ranch will occupy rooftops throughout the city plus
acres (1.62 km2; 0.63 sq mi) of land. Babcock Ranch's solar power
plant will connect to the main grid
consistent energy supply can be maintained by importing power on overcast
days and exporting it on sunny days. The objective in using a solar
generator to power the city is a reduction in carbon emissions and
dependence on oil, and to lower energy bills for residents, aided by
proposed "smart home
efficiency technology. Residents and businesses will utilize smart grid
technology to monitor and control their energy consumption. Approximately
ninety percent of Babcock Ranch's total land will remain undeveloped.
Long Island Solar Farm
is the largest photovoltaic array in
the eastern U.S (200 Acres) made up of 164,312
from BP Solar which provide enough electricity for
roughly 4,500 households.
Depends on Efficiency
has 50 acres of solar panels spread over about 90
acres of land at Pleasant View Farms.
Somers Solar Center
Kyocera Solar Panels
that will generate roughly 5 megawatt
(MW) of alternating current. On average, it produces enough
power for 1,500 to 5,000 homes per year?
In 2015, 313,000 Connecticut households still cannot afford
their monthly energy needs.
has invested an undisclosed amount in the Mesquite
in the sun-rich state, allowing for an expansion of the
facility that is anticipated to make it the world’s largest
solar farm. Located about 40 miles west of Phoenix, will provide
210 megawatts of direct power.
providing solar power for low-income families across the United
States while providing volunteers and job trainees with hands-on
solar installation experience. California's Single Family
Affordable Solar Homes program (SASH).
Community Choice Aggregation
Future of Energy
energy utility hasn’t burned any fossil fuel in
2015. 80 percent is from hydroelectric plants.
has so much solar energy that the price of solar
frequently drops to zero. Since 2013, Chile has quadrupled its solar
capacity in the central grid to 770 megawatts.
Solar Power By
Nicaragua's Renewable Energy Revolution Picks Up Steam
As of May 1, 2012, was producing 50% of their energy via renewables.
Produces More Energy than it Needs.
is creating the world’s largest solar farm. The country
announced that it will build a 750-megawatt plant on 1,500 acres
of barren, government-owned land in the northeastern Madhya
Pradesh state. Expected to be in operation until 2017.
is working on world’s largest
concentrated solar power
Ouarzazate Solar Power Station
is a 160 MW power plant
that will have a
final capacity of around 500 MW
, enough to power a million
Public Private Partnership
energy needs are amply met by
hydro and geothermal power
: Builds 4,000 new wind turbines
Produces more wind turbines and has more wind turbines in
operation then all of the top ten countries combined. China has
the largest wind farm in the world. (10 Gigawatt) Plans to build
7 more just like it.
China plans to build 100 million electric car charging stations
Other China Info
China already produces more solar
electricity than any other country, with an installed base of
over 30 gigawatts and plans to reach 43 gigawatts by the end of
2016. China will invest 2.5 trillion yuan ($361
) into renewable power generation by 2020.
(2010 - 2015), solar photovoltaic capacity grew from
130 megawatts to 4.7 gigawatts, an annual growth rate of 96%.
is forecasting a 9.5 percent increase in
green energy in 2016.
to create 1.2GW of green energy - enough to
power up to 750,000 homes. The same amount of power as a nuclear
power station. One-third of the UK's total electricity needs
could be met by Tidal
alone. Scotland is poised to generate more than 50
percent of its electricity from onshore wind power and other
renewable sources this year 2016.
generates virtually 100% of its electricity using renewable energy. The
Small Island in the Scottish Inner Hebrides lies to the south of the Skye
and to the north of the Ardnamurchan peninsula. Eigg is 9 kilometres (5.6
mi) long from north to south, and 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) east to west.
With an area of 12 square miles (31 km2), it is the second largest of the
Small Isles after Rùm.
Bankruptcy Looms for Spain's Clean Energy Giant Abengoa
Community Choice Aggregation
Enables local governments to aggregate electricity demand within
their jurisdictions in order to procure alternative energy
supplies while maintaining the existing electricity provider for
transmission and distribution services.
PS62: Net Zero Energy School
different types of Renewable Energy work?
Amory Lovins: A 50 year plan for Energy
600 million lack electricity access.
15 countries of operation 480 communities covered. 100,000 solar
street lamps. 1,200 solar micro-grids. 102,000 solar domestic
kits. 75,000$ per village on average, 5,500 indirect jobs
Portugal kept its lights on with renewable energy alone for four
. Electricity consumption in the country was
fully covered by solar, wind and hydro power in an extraordinary 107-hour run.
Energy Generation Under the Obama Administration
Data Visualizing Tools
Energy Conservation Resources and Information
Ecological Society of America
Energy Awareness Videos
Energy Independence Act
Department of Energy
Department of Energy
International Energy Agency
International Energy Assoc.
Advanced Research Projects Agency
Energy Information Administration
Energy Research, Maryland
Clean Energy Technologies
Toupe Phone App check prices what
you are being charged for Electricity
Clean Tech Companies
Bridge to Clean Energy
Free Gas Forever,
(youtube) - Using Saltwater and
Radio Frequency Generator
EPA Finds Oil and Gas Industries Are Spewing More Methane Than
sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.
Extensive research effort tackles methane leaks
information enables data-driven solutions to dangerous climate
Improved Safer Method
There is an Improved Method for
Nuclear Energy that does not create
bombs or Radio Active waste
. This method was introduced years ago but
was abandoned because criminals and war mongers
wanted to make nuclear
Integral Fast Reactor
is a design for a nuclear reactor
using fast neutrons and no neutron moderator (a "fast" reactor). IFR is
distinguished by a nuclear fuel cycle that uses reprocessing via
electrorefining at the reactor site.
is the name of a nuclear power plant design by GE
Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH). The S-PRISM represents GEH's Generation IV
reactor solution to closing the nuclear fuel cycle and is also part of its
Advanced Recycling Center (ARC) proposition to U.S. Congress to deal with
nuclear waste. S-PRISM is a commercial implementation of the Integral Fast
Reactor developed by Argonne National Laboratory between 1984 and 1994. It
is a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, based on the Experimental Breeder
Reactor II (EBR-II) design, scaled up by a factor of ten. The design
utilizes reactor modules, each having a power output of 311 MWe, to enable
factory fabrication at low cost. In an identical fashion to the EBR-II
that it is based on, the reactor would transition to a much lower power
level whenever temperatures rise significantly, moreover the reactor
vessel modules are pool type, as opposed to loop type, with the pool
conferring substantial thermal inertia and the final key safety feature
includes a "RVACS", which is a passive reactor vessel air cooling system
to remove decay heat. These safety systems are passive and therefore
always operate and are to prevent core damage when no other means of heat
removal are available.
Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor
is a type of molten salt
reactor. LFTRs use the thorium fuel cycle with a fluoride-based, molten,
liquid salt for fuel. Molten-salt-fueled reactors (MSRs) supply the
nuclear fuel in the form of a molten salt mixture. They should not be
confused with molten salt-cooled high temperature reactors (fluoride
high-temperature reactors, FHRs) that use a solid fuel. Molten salt
reactors, as a class, include both burners and breeders in fast or thermal
spectra, using fluoride or chloride salt-based fuels and a range of
fissile or fertile consumables. LFTRs are defined by the use of fluoride
fuel salts and the breeding of thorium into uranium-233 in the thermal
Kirk Sorensen Nuclear Fuel
Thorium Remix 2011
THORIUM REMIX 2016
(2 Hrs. 9 Mins.)
Taylor's Nuke Site
Molten Salt Reactor
is a class of generation IV nuclear fission reactor in which the
primary nuclear reactor coolant, or even the fuel itself, is a molten salt
mixture. MSRs can run at higher temperatures than water-cooled reactors
for a higher thermodynamic efficiency, while staying at low vapour
pressure. The nuclear fuel may be solid or dissolved in the coolant. In
many designs the nuclear fuel dissolved in the coolant is uranium
tetrafluoride (UF4). The fluid becomes critical in a graphite core that
serves as the moderator. Some solid-fuel designs propose ceramic fuel
dispersed in a graphite matrix, with the molten salt providing low
pressure, high temperature cooling. The salts are much more efficient than
compressed helium (another potential coolant in Generation IV reactor
designs) at removing heat from the core, reducing the need for pumping and
piping and reducing the core size. The concept was established in the
1950s. The early Aircraft Reactor Experiment (1954) was primarily
motivated by the small size that the design could provide, while the
Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment (1965–1969) was a prototype for a thorium
fuel cycle breeder reactor nuclear power plant. The increased research
into Generation IV reactor designs included a renewed interest in the
Thorium Fuel Cycle
is a nuclear fuel cycle that uses an
isotope of thorium, 232Th, as the fertile material. In the reactor, 232Th
is transmuted into the fissile artificial uranium isotope 233U which is
the nuclear fuel. Unlike natural uranium, natural thorium contains only
trace amounts of fissile material (such as 231Th), which are insufficient
to initiate a nuclear chain reaction. Additional fissile material or
another neutron source is necessary to initiate the fuel cycle. In a
thorium-fuelled reactor, 232Th absorbs neutrons to produce 233U. This
parallels the process in uranium breeder reactors whereby fertile 238U
absorbs neutrons to form fissile 239Pu. Depending on the design of the
reactor and fuel cycle, the generated 233U either fissions in situ or is
chemically separated from the used nuclear fuel and formed into new
nuclear fuel. The thorium fuel cycle has several potential advantages over
a uranium fuel cycle, including thorium's greater abundance, superior
physical and nuclear properties, reduced plutonium and actinide
production, and better resistance to nuclear weapons proliferation when
used in a traditional light water reactor though not in a molten salt
is a nuclear reactor that generates more
fissile material than it consumes. These devices achieve this because
their neutron economy is high enough to breed more fissile fuel than they
use from fertile material, such as uranium-238 or thorium-232. Breeders
were at first found attractive because their fuel economy was better than
light water reactors, but interest declined after the 1960s as more
uranium reserves were found, and new methods of uranium enrichment reduced
is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic
number 90. Thorium metal is silvery and tarnishes black when exposed to
air, forming the dioxide; it is moderately hard, malleable, and has a high
melting point. Thorium is an electropositive actinide, whose chemistry is
dominated by the +4 oxidation state; it is quite reactive, prone to
ignition on air when properly divided. Rare Earth Elements
One pound of
much power as 300 lbs. of
or 3.5 million lbs. of
Megatons to Megawatts Program
(completed in December 2013)
Energy from Thorium
Travelling Wave Reactor
Micro Nuclear Reactor
Small Modular Reactor
are a type of nuclear fission reactor
which are smaller than conventional reactors, and manufactured at a plant
and brought to a site to be fully constructed. Modular reactors allow for
less on-site construction, increased containment efficiency, and
heightened nuclear materials security. SMRs have been considered to be
less expensive than traditional nuclear reactors, although critics have
questioned the cost benefits when compared to solar energy, wind energy,
and natural gas. Small reactors are defined by the International Atomic
Energy Agency as those with an electricity output of less than 300 MW,
although general opinion is that anything with an output of less than 500
MWe counts as a small reactor.
Loop Reactor Design
Linear no-threshold Model
is a model used in radiation
protection to quantify radiation exposure and set regulatory limits. It
assumes that the long term, biological damage caused by ionizing radiation
(essentially the cancer risk) is directly proportional to the dose. This
allows the summation by dosimeters of all radiation exposure, without
taking into consideration dose levels or dose rates. In other words,
radiation is always considered harmful with no safety threshold, and the
sum of several very small exposures are considered to have the same effect
as one larger exposure (response linearity).
is the hypothesis that low doses of
(within the region
of and just above natural background levels) are beneficial, stimulating
the activation of repair mechanisms that protect against disease, that are
not activated in absence of ionizing radiation. The reserve repair
mechanisms are hypothesized to be sufficiently effective when stimulated
as to not only cancel the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation but
also inhibit disease not related to radiation exposure (see hormesis).
This counter-intuitive hypothesis has captured the attention of scientists
and public alike in recent years.
is a device used to initiate and control a sustained nuclear
occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an
average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the
possibility of a self-propagating series of these
specific nuclear reaction may be the fission of heavy isotopes (e.g.,
uranium-235, 235U). The nuclear chain reaction releases several million
times more energy per reaction than any
is either a nuclear reaction or a
process in which the
nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei). The fission
process often produces free neutrons and gamma photons, and releases a
very large amount of energy even by the energetic standards of radioactive
is a reaction in which two or more atomic
nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and
subatomic particles (neutrons or protons). The difference in mass between
the products and reactants is manifested as the release of large amounts
of energy. This difference in mass arises due to the difference in atomic
"binding energy" between the atomic nuclei before and after the reaction.
Fusion is the process that powers active or "main sequence" stars, or
other high magnitude stars.
Old Style Nuclear Reactors
The U.S. has 104 old style Nuclear
reactors operating at 65 sites
in 31 states. 440 in the world.
- Dangers of Old Style Nuclear
(Nuclear Energy) -
Generation III Reactor
is a development of Generation II
nuclear reactor designs incorporating evolutionary improvements in design
developed during the lifetime of the Generation II reactor designs. These
include improved fuel technology, superior thermal efficiency,
significantly enhanced safety systems (including passive nuclear safety),
and standardized designs for reduced maintenance and capital costs. The
first Generation III reactor to begin operation was Kashiwazaki 6 (an ABWR)
Atomic States of America (2012)
How fear of nuclear power is hurting the environment: Michael
(video and interactive text)
International Atomic Energy Agency
Chernobyl: Two Days in the Exclusion Zone
is a derived
unit of ionizing radiation dose in the
International System of Units
(SI) and is a measure of the health
effect of low levels of
on the human body. The sievert is of fundamental
, and is named after Rolf Maximilian Sievert, a
Swedish medical physicist renowned for work on radiation dose measurement
and research into the biological effects of
. Quantities that are measured in sieverts are intended to
represent the stochastic
health risk, which for radiation dose assessment
is defined as the probability of cancer induction and genetic damage. One sievert carries with it a 5.5% chance of eventually developing
based on the linear
no-threshold model. To enable consideration of stochastic health risk,
calculations are performed to convert the physical quantity
into equivalent and effective doses, the details of which depend on the
radiation type and biological context. For applications in radiation
protection and dosimetry assessment the
International Commission on
International Commission on Radiation
Units and Measurements
(ICRU) have published recommendations and data
which are used to calculate these. These are under continual review, and
changes are advised in the formal "Reports" of those bodies. The
sievert is used for radiation dose quantities such as
, which represent the risk of external radiation from
sources outside the body, and
which represents the risk of
internal irradiation due to inhaled or ingested radioactive substances.
Conventionally, the sievert is not used for high dose rates of radiation
that produce deterministic effects, which is the severity of acute tissue
damage that is certain to happen; such effects are compared to the
physical quantity absorbed dose measured by the unit gray (Gy). One
sievert equals 100 rem. The rem is an older, non-SI unit of measurement.
To enable a comprehensive view of the sievert this article deals with the
definition of the sievert as an SI unit, summarises the recommendations of
the ICRU and ICRP on how the sievert is calculated, includes a guide to
the effects of ionizing radiation as measured in sieverts, and gives
examples of approximate figures of dose uptake in certain situations.
is a device that extracts thermal energy
from pressurized steam and uses
it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.
(image) - Geothermal
is a heat engine
that performs mechanical work
using steam as its working fluid. Steam engines are external
, where the working fluid is separate from the combustion products.
Non-combustion heat sources such as
, nuclear power or
may be used. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to
analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. In the cycle, water is
heated and transforms into steam within a boiler operating at a high
pressure. When expanded through pistons or turbines, mechanical work is
done. The reduced-pressure steam is then condensed and pumped back into
is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and
converts it into useful work. The work produced by a turbine can be used
for generating electrical power when combined with a generator or
producing thrust, as in the case of jet engines. A turbine is a
turbomachine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, which
is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades
so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine
examples are windmills and waterwheels.
Engine - How Does It Work
ENGINE made of GLASS
Model Vertical Steam Engine
Combined Gas and Steam
is the name given to marine compound powerplants comprising gas and steam
turbines, the latter being driven by steam generated using the heat from
the exhaust of the gas turbines. In this way, some of the otherwise lost
energy can be reclaimed and the specific fuel
of the plant can be decreased. Large (land-based) electric
powerplants built using this combined cycle can reach conversion
efficiencies of over 60%.
is an assembly of heat
engines that work in tandem from the same source of heat, converting it
into mechanical energy, which in turn usually drives
. The principle is that after completing its
cycle (in the first engine), the working fluid of the first
is still low enough in its
that a second subsequent heat
engine may extract energy from the waste heat (energy) of the working
fluid of the first engine. By combining these multiple streams of work
upon a single mechanical shaft turning an electric generator, the overall
net efficiency of the system may be increased by 50–60%. That is, from an
overall efficiency of say 34% (in a single cycle) to possibly an overall
efficiency of 51% (in a mechanical combination of two cycles) in net
Carnot thermodynamic efficiency. This can be done because heat engines are
only able to use a portion of the energy their fuel generates (usually
less than 50%). In an ordinary (non combined cycle) heat engine the
remaining heat (e.g., hot exhaust fumes) from combustion is generally
is a heat rejection device that rejects
waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a
lower temperature. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water
to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air
temperature or, in the case of closed circuit dry cooling towers, rely
solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air
of thermal engines is the relationship
between the total energy contained in the fuel, and the amount of energy
used to perform useful work.
is an idealized thermodynamic cycle that
describes the functioning of a typical spark ignition piston engine. It is
the thermodynamic cycle most commonly found in automobile engines.
Combustion Engine Power GenerationEngines
is the direct conversion of temperature
differences to electric
voltage and vice versa.
A thermoelectric device creates voltage when there is a different
temperature on each side. Conversely, when a voltage is applied to it, it
creates a temperature difference. At the atomic scale, an applied
temperature gradient causes charge carriers in the material to diffuse
from the hot side to the cold side.
Solar Thermal Energy
uses the Peltier effect to create a
junction of two different types of materials.
is the presence of heating or cooling at an electrified
junction of two different
of a material is a measure of the magnitude of an
induced thermoelectric voltage in response to a temperature difference
across that material, as induced by the Seebeck effect. The SI unit of the
Seebeck coefficient is volts per kelvin (V/K), although it is more often
given in microvolts per kelvin (μV/K).
solid state device
(temperature differences) directly into electrical energy through a
phenomenon called the Seebeck effect (a form of thermoelectric effect
phenomenon in which a temperature difference between two dissimilar
electrical conductors or semiconductors produces a voltage difference
between the two substances.).
Wood Burning Stoves
Johnson Thermoelectric Energy Converter
or JTEC is a type of
solid-state heat engine that uses the photodecomposition and recombination
of hydrogen in a fuel cell via an approximate Ericsson cycle. It is under
investigation as a viable alternative to conventional photovoltaic cells.
invented it and claims the converter exhibits an energy conversion
efficiency of as much as 60% compared to the 30% efficiency typical of the
best photovoltaic cells; however, this claim is at a theoretical level
based on comparison with a Carnot cycle and assumes a temperature gradient
of 600C. It was originally proposed for funding to the Office of Naval
Research but was refused. Johnson obtained later funding by framing the
engine as a hydrogen fuel cell. Johnson is collaborating with PARC on
development of the engine.
System draws Power from daily Temperature Swings
. Technology can
harness temperature fluctuations of many kinds to produce electricity. A
new device can draw power out of the daily cycle of temperature swings to
power remote sensors
Researchers Report New Thermoelectric Material with High Power Factor
The majority of industrial energy input is lost as
," the researchers wrote. "Converting some of the waste heat into
useful electrical power will lead to the reduction of fossil fuel
consumption and CO2
Metal with Law-Breaking Property lets Electricity Flow But Not the Heat
that could lead to applications in thermoelectrics,
Solid-State Devices that Convert Heat into Electricity
Composite material yields
10 times—or higher—voltage output.
MATRIX PowerWatch Advanced thermoelectric technology Smartwatch Powered by
You - You Never Have to Charge
MATRIX PowerWatch Smartwatch Powered by You
You Never Have to Charge.
Wearable Solar Thermoelectric Generator Created
Novel Circuit Design Boosts Wearable Thermoelectric Generators
Thermoelectric Power Generation at Room Temperature
. The ideal TE
material combines high electrical conductivity, allowing the current to
flow, with low thermal conductivity, which prevents the temperature
gradient from evening out. The power generation performance mainly depends
on the “power factor,” which is proportional to both electrical
conductivity and a term called the
. we combined silicon – which is common in TE
materials – with ytterbium, to create ytterbium silicide [YbSi2].
is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the
generated by an
electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid
coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing
regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels. In computers,
heat sinks are used to cool central processing units or graphics
processors. Heat sinks are used with high-power semiconductor devices such
as power transistors and optoelectronics such as lasers and light emitting
diodes (LEDs), where the heat dissipation ability of the component itself
is insufficient to moderate its
is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Heat transfer occurs at a lower rate across materials of low thermal
conductivity than across materials of high thermal conductivity.
Correspondingly, materials of high thermal conductivity are widely used in
heat sink applications and materials of low
conductivity are used as thermal insulation. The thermal
conductivity of a material may depend on temperature. The reciprocal of
thermal conductivity is called thermal resistivity. Thermal conductivity
is actually a tensor, which means it is possible to have different values
in different directions.
List of thermal conductivities
is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the
heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature
, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical
reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons. It is
defined as the interaction of one or more photons with one target
molecule. Photodissociation is not limited to visible light. Any photon
with sufficient energy can affect the chemical bonds of a chemical
compound. Since a photon's energy is inversely proportional to its
wavelength, electromagnetic waves
with the energy of visible light or
higher, such as ultraviolet light, x-rays and gamma rays are usually
involved in such reactions.
is a system that converts heat or thermal energy
, which can then be used to do
mechanical work. it does this by bringing a working substance from a
higher state temperature to a lower state temperature. A
generates thermal energy that brings the working substance to the high
temperature state. The working substance generates work in the
"working body" of the engine while transferring heat to the colder "sink"
until it reaches a low temperature state. During this process some of the
thermal energy is converted into work by exploiting the properties of the
working substance. The working substance can be any system with a non-zero
heat capacity, but it usually is a gas or liquid. During this process, a
lot of heat is lost to the surroundings, i.e. it cannot be used. In
general an engine converts energy to mechanical work. Heat engines
distinguish themselves from other types of engines by the fact that their
efficiency is fundamentally limited by
. Although this efficiency limitation can be a
drawback, an advantage of heat engines is that most forms of energy can be
easily converted to heat by processes like exothermic reactions (such as
combustion), absorption of light or energetic particles, friction,
dissipation and resistance. Since the heat source that supplies thermal
energy to the engine can thus be powered by virtually any kind of energy,
heat engines are very versatile and have a wide range of applicability.
Closed Brayton Cycle
is driven in reverse, via net work input, and
when air is the working fluid, is the gas refrigeration cycle or Bell
Coleman cycle. Its purpose is to move heat, rather than produce work. This
air cooling technique is used widely in jet aircraft for air conditioning
systems utilizing air tapped from the engine compressors. It is also used
in the LNG industry where the largest reverse brayton cycle is for
subcooling LNG using 86 MW of power from a gas turbine driven compressor
and nitrogen refrigerant.
Thermal Metamaterial innovation
could help bring waste-heat harvesting
technology to power plants, factories
to recapture a portion of the
energy wasted as heat.
is electromagnetic radiation generated by the
thermal motion of charged particles in matter. All matter with a
temperature greater than absolute zero emits thermal radiation. When the
temperature of a body is greater than absolute zero, inter-atomic
collisions cause the kinetic energy of the atoms
This results in charge-acceleration and/or dipole oscillation which
produces electromagnetic radiation, and the wide spectrum of radiation
reflects the wide spectrum of energies and accelerations that occur even
at a single temperature.
is a direct conversion process from heat to
electricity via photons. A basic thermophotovoltaic system
a thermal emitter and a photovoltaic diode cell.The Hollow (Thermoelectric)
Using four Peltier tiles and the
temperature difference between the
palm of the hand and ambient air,
only needs a five degree temperature
difference to work and produce up to
5.4 mW at 5 foot candles of brightness.
Outgoing Longwave Radiation
is the energy radiating from the
Earth as infrared radiation at low energy to Space.
Thermoelectric Wood Stove Generator
refers to the internal energy present in a
system due to its temperature.
Lumen - Eternal Flashlight That Doesn't Need Batteries
of an object is the energy that it possesses
due to its motion
It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from
rest to its stated velocity. Having gained this energy during its
acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed
changes. The same amount of work is done by the body in decelerating from
its current speed to a state of rest. Hot and
for production of a particle is the minimum kinetic
energy a pair of traveling particles
must have when they collide. The threshold energy is always greater than
or equal to the
of the desired particle. In most cases, since
conserved, the threshold energy is significantly greater than the rest
energy of the desired particle - and thus there will still be considerable
kinetic energy in the final particles.
Threshold Displacement Energy
is the minimum kinetic energy that an
atom in a solid needs to be permanently displaced
from its lattice
site to a defect position. It is also known as "displacement threshold
energy" or just "displacement energy".
Theory of Gases
describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic
particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid
randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the
walls of the container. Kinetic theory explains macroscopic properties of
gases, such as pressure, temperature
volume, by considering their molecular composition and motion. The theory
posits that gas pressure is due to the impacts, on the walls of a
container, of molecules or atoms moving at different velocities. Kinetic
theory defines temperature in its own way, in contrast with the
thermodynamic definition. Under a microscope, the molecules making up a
liquid are too small to be visible, but the jittery motion of pollen
grains or dust particles can be seen. Known as Brownian motion, it results
directly from collisions between the grains or particles and liquid
molecules. As analyzed by Albert Einstein in 1907, this experimental
evidence for kinetic theory is generally seen as having confirmed the
concrete material existence of atoms and molecules.Regenerative Braking
- Potential Energy
is a spring that works by torsion or
twisting; that is, a flexible elastic object that stores mechanical energy
when it is twisted. When it is twisted, it exerts a force (actually
torque) in the opposite direction, proportional to the amount (angle) it
is the potential mechanical energy stored in the
configuration of a material or physical system as work is performed to
distort its volume or shape. Elastic energy occurs when
objects are compressed and stretched, or generally deformed in any manner.
Elasticity theory primarily develops formalisms for the mechanics of solid
bodies and materials. (Note however, the work done by a stretched rubber
band is not an example of elastic energy. It is an example of entropic
elasticity.) The elastic potential energy equation is used in calculations
of positions of mechanical equilibrium. The energy is potential as it will
be converted into the second form of energy, such as kinetic.
Energy-Harvesting Yarns Generate Electricity
. Coiled carbon nanotube
yarns generate electrical energy when stretched or twisted.
generates electricity from footsteps and captures data within the urban
is the electric charge that accumulates in certain
solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological
matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied
mechanical stress. The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting
Street is the World's first 'Smart Street' that generate electricity from
people just walking
Walking and Pedestrian Infrastructure.
City Walking Scores.
Ultrathin device harvests electricity from human motion
Frequency Electrochemical Mechanical Strain Energy Harvester using 2D
Triboelectric Nanogenerators and Power-Boards from Cellulose Nanofibrils
and Recycled Materials
The technology could be incorporated into
flooring and convert footsteps on the flooring into usable electricity.
Piezo Electric Materials
Shoe Charges Phone when Walking
New Fabric Uses Sun and Wind to Power Devices
generated from low-cost biomaterial biomolecule
glycine amino acid
, when tapped or squeezed, can generate enough
electricity to power electrical devices. It can be produced at less than
one per cent of the cost of currently used piezoelectric materials.
Quantum Mechanical/Effective Fragment Potential-Molecular Dynamics (QM/EFP–MD)
A Smart Sampling Technique in Condensed Phase.
is a type of technology that converts mechanical/thermal
energy as produced by small-scale physical change
has three typical approaches: piezoelectric, triboelectric,
and pyroelectric nanogenerators. Both the piezoelectric and triboelectric
nanogenerators can convert the mechanical energy into electricity.
However, the pyroelectric nanogenerators can be used to harvest thermal
energy from a time-dependent temperature fluctuation.
is a type of contact electrification in which
certain materials become electrically charged after they come into
frictional contact with a different material.
is the ability of certain materials to generate a
temporary voltage when they are heated or cooled.
from Evaporating Water
is thermal energy generated and stored in
the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of
is power generated by geothermal energy. Technologies in use
include dry steam power stations, flash steam power stations and binary
cycle power stations. Geothermal electricity generation is currently used
in 24 countries, while geothermal heating is in use in 70 countries.
is the physical processes and physical properties
of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of
quantitative methods for their analysis.
Enhanced Geothermal System
generates geothermal electricity
without the need for natural convective hydrothermal resources.
type of geothermal power plant that allows cooler geothermal reservoirs to
be used than is necessary for dry steam and flash steam
Flash Steam Plants
are the most common type of geothermal power
generation plants in operation in the world today. Fluid at temperatures
greater than 360°F (182°C) is pumped under high pressure into a tank at
the surface held at a much lower pressure, causing some of the fluid to
rapidly vaporize, or "flash." The vapor then drives a turbine, which
drives a generator. If any liquid remains in the tank, it can be flashed
again in a second tank to extract even more energy.
is the partial
that occurs when a saturated liquid stream undergoes a reduction
in pressure by passing through a throttling valve or other throttling
device. This process is one of the simplest unit operations. If the
throttling valve or device is located at the entry into a pressure vessel
so that the flash evaporation
within the vessel, then the vessel is often referred to as a flash drum.
Geothermal Heating & Cooling
Geothermal Heat Pump
is a central heating and/or cooling
system that transfers heat to or from the ground. It uses the earth as a
heat source (in the winter) or a heat sink (in the summer). This design
takes advantage of the moderate temperatures in the ground to boost
efficiency and reduce the operational costs of heating and cooling
systems, and may be combined with solar heating to form a geosolar system
with even greater efficiency. They are also known by other names,
including geoexchange, earth-coupled, earth energy systems.
on latitude, the temperature beneath the upper 6 metres (20
) of Earth's surface maintains a nearly constant temperature
between 10 and 16 °C (50 and 60 °F), if the temperature is undisturbed by
the presence of a heat pump.
Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems
is a device that transfers heat energy from a source of heat to a
destination called a "heat sink". Heat pumps are designed to move thermal
energy in the opposite direction of spontaneous heat transfer by absorbing
heat from a cold space and releasing it to a warmer one. A heat pump uses
a small amount of external power to accomplish the work of transferring
energy from the heat source to the heat sink.
is a secondary heat exchanger
that transfers heat from the earth in the winter, and from your home in
the summer, into your domestic hot water tank. The desuperheater is part
of the geothermal heat pump's domestic hot water generating system (HWG).
is a physical structure used for the purpose of
storing and releasing thermal energy—see also thermal energy storage. Such
a thermal battery (a.k.a. TBat) allows energy available at one time to be
temporarily stored and then released at another time. The basic principles
involved in a thermal battery occur at the atomic level of matter, with
energy being added
to or taken from either a solid mass or a liquid
volume which causes the substance's temperature to change. Some thermal
batteries also involve causing a substance to transition thermally through
a phase transition which causes even more energy to be stored and released
due to the delta enthalpy of fusion or delta enthalpy of
A new way to store thermal energy a kind of thermal battery
is a substance with a high heat of fusion which,
melting and solidifying at a certain temperature, is capable of storing
and releasing large amounts of energy. Heat is absorbed or released when
the material changes from solid to liquid and vice versa; thus, PCMs are
classified as latent heat storage (LHS) units.
and Cooling System (open loop and closed loop)
is now a zero-emissions plant that turns a greenhouse gas
Hellisheidi Geothermal Power Plant
, Iceland’s largest, just outside
the capital Reykjavik. Since 2014, the plant has been extracting heat from
the carbon dioxide
released in the process, mixing it with water, and
injecting it back down beneath the earth, about 700 meters (2,300 ft)
deep. The carbon dioxide in the water reacts with the minerals at that
depth to form rock, where it stays trapped.Thermal Banking
Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage
is the storage of heat or cold for
periods of up to several months. The thermal energy can be collected
whenever it is available and be used whenever needed, such as in the
opposing season. For example, heat from solar collectors or waste heat
from air conditioning equipment can be gathered in hot months for space
heating use when needed, including during winter months. Waste heat from
industrial process can similarly be stored and be used much later. Or the
natural cold of winter air can be stored for summertime air conditioning.
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
uses the temperature
difference between cooler deep and warmer shallow or surface seawaters to
run a heat engine and produce useful work, usually in the form of
electricity. OTEC is a base load electricity generation system.
is the study for the purpose of assuring that the
geological factors regarding the location, design, construction, operation
and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and accounted for.
Engineering geologists provide geological and geotechnical
recommendations, analysis, and design associated with human development
and various types of structures. The realm of the engineering geologist is
essentially in the area of earth-structure interactions, or investigation
of how the earth or earth processes impact human made structures and human
is the branch of civil engineering concerned
with the engineering behavior of earth materials. Geotechnical engineering
is important in civil engineering, but also has applications in military,
mining, petroleum and other engineering disciplines that are concerned
with construction occurring on the surface or within the ground.
Geotechnical engineering uses principles of soil mechanics and rock
mechanics to investigate subsurface conditions and materials; determine
the relevant physical/mechanical and chemical properties of these
materials; evaluate stability of natural slopes and man-made soil
deposits; assess risks posed by site conditions; design earthworks and
structure foundations; and monitor site conditions, earthwork and
Storing compressed air in sealed tunnels and mines could be a way of
storing energy in the future
. Compress air, which is stored in caverns
in solid bedrock. When air is compressed, it heats up, so a separate
underground heat store stockpiles the heat generated by the compression
process. When the energy is needed, the air is released through a gas
turbine, which generates electricity.
Energy from Solar Heat
is motion of bodies that continues
(free energy)Atoms are
, so how do atoms spin forever?
Perpetual Motion Machines
Perpetual motion is
useless if it does not produce energy
. But it can help people design more
Infinite Energy Mag
is a bi-monthly magazine published in
New Hampshire that details theories and experiments concerning alternative
energy, new science and new physics.
is a thought experiment created by the physicist James Clerk
Maxwell in which he suggested how the second law of thermodynamics might
hypothetically be violate.
Skills! Miracle Tops:
May They Spin Forever!
Balance. Perpetual Motion Machine
Motion EBM Magnetic Self Perpetuating Power Plant
How to Assemble a HHO Generator and why it works
The Brown gas
generator uses electrolysis to split water (H2O) into it´s base molecules,
2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen molecule. This is why it is often referred to as
an HHO gas generator.Hydro
is a small, private technology development company based in Dublin,
Ireland. It announced in August 2006 it had developed a technology which
provides "free, clean, and constant energy".
What are the
differences between H2O and HHO
Effect & Free Energy - LightworksAV Documentary (Part 2 of 2)
Light Works AV
Contactless Energy Transfer
is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an
electrical load, such as an electrical power grid or a consuming device,
without the use of discrete human-made conductors.
is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an
electrical load, such as an electrical power grid or a consuming device,
without the use of discrete human-made conductors.
over Wi-Fi System
Resonant Inductive Coupling
is the near field wireless transmission of electrical energy between two
magnetically coupled coils that are part of resonant circuits tuned to
resonate at the same frequency. This process occurs in a resonant
transformer, an electrical component which consists of two high Q coils
wound on the same core with capacitors connected across the windings to
make two coupled LC circuits.
First Battery-Free Cellphone makes calls by Harvesting Ambient Power
Engineers have designed the first battery-free cellphone that can send and
receive calls using only a few
of power, which it harvests from ambient
the surrounding area or environment that is close by.
is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an
electrical conductor due to its dynamic interaction with a magnetic field.
Linear induction Motor
asynchronous linear motor that
works by the same general principles as other induction motors but is
typically designed to directly produce motion in a straight line.
Characteristically, linear induction motors have a finite primary or
secondary length, which generates end-effects, whereas a conventional
induction motor is arranged in an endless loop.
is an AC electric motor in which the
electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained by
electromagnetic induction from the magnetic field of the stator winding.
An induction motor can therefore be made without electrical connections to
the rotor as are found in universal, DC and synchronous motors. An
asynchronous motor's rotor can be either wound type or squirrel-cage type.
is a branch of physics that deals with
the phenomena and properties of stationary or slow-moving electric
is a redistribution of
electrical charge in an object, caused by the influence of nearby charges.
In the presence of a charged body, an insulated conductor develops a
positive charge on one end and a negative charge on the other end.
Charging of jumping droplets
"Electric power is everywhere
present in unlimited quantities and can drive the world's
machinery without the need of coal, oil, gas, or any other
believed there could be a global network of wireless
that would use an electromagnetic wave that reverberated between
the ionosphere (a layer of the Earth’s atmosphere filled with ions and
free electrons) and the ground.
Atmospheric electricity. Free energy
is the study of electrical charges
in the Earth's atmosphere (or that of another planet). The movement of
charge between the Earth's surface, the atmosphere, and the ionosphere is
known as the global atmospheric electrical circuit. Atmospheric
electricity is an interdisciplinary topic, involving concepts from
electrostatics, atmospheric physics, meteorology and Earth science.
is the energy of electromagnetic
and gravitational radiation. The SI unit
of radiant energy is the joule (J). The quantity of radiant energy may be
calculated by integrating
(or power) with respect to time.
13 year old Invents
Free Energy Device for 14 bucks!
conducts radio waves
, thermal and static energy, and turns into
Physics of Wireless Charging
Wireless Data (Li-Fi)
Qi inductive Power Standard
Quasistatic Cavity Resonance for Ubiquitous Wireless Power Transfer
Wireless power delivery has the potential to seamlessly power our
electrical devices as easily as data is transmitted through the air.
Generate quasistatic magnetic fields that safely deliver kilowatts of
power to mobile receivers contained nearly anywhere within a short
distance. Safety analysis shows that up to 1900 watts can be transmitted
to a coil receiver enabling safe and ubiquitous
Tiny chip powers itself from radio waves.
have developed a minor sensor that
measures temperature, light, and air, without needing a battery.
The sensor contains a receiving wire that gets commands from a
is a machine
designed to convert one form of energy
into mechanical energy. Heat engines burn a fuel to create heat, which
then creates a force. Electric motors
; pneumatic motors use
motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy
. In biological systems,
, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create
forces and eventually
External Combustion Engine
is a heat engine where a working fluid,
contained internally, is heated by combustion in an external source,
through the engine wall or a heat exchanger. Steam Engine
Internal Combustion Engine
is a heat engine where the combustion of a
fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is
an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal
combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure
gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the
engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor
or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming
chemical energy into useful mechanical energy.
is a system that converts heat or thermal energy
—to mechanical energy
, which can then be used to do mechanical
. It does this by
bringing a working substance from a higher state temperature to a lower
state temperature. A heat "source" generates thermal energy that brings
the working substance to the high temperature state. The working substance
generates work in the "working body" of the engine while transferring heat
to the colder "sink" until it reaches a low temperature state. During this
process some of the thermal energy is converted into work by exploiting
the properties of the working substance. The working substance can be any
system with a non-zero heat capacity, but it usually is a gas or liquid.
During this process, a lot of heat is lost to the surroundings, i.e. it
cannot be used.
also often known as a piston engine, is
a heat engine (usually, although there are also pneumatic and hydraulic
reciprocating engines) that uses one or more reciprocating pistons to
convert pressure into a rotating motion.
single-cylinder engine from paper
electrical energy into mechanical energy. The reverse of this would be the
conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy and is done by an
is a device that converts mechanical
energy to electrical energy for use in an external circuit. The
source of mechanical energy may vary widely from a hand crank to
an internal combustion engine. Generators provide nearly all of
the power for electric power grids.
is any of a
class of rotary electrical machines that converts direct current
electrical energy into mechanical energy. The most common types rely on
the forces produced by magnetic fields
Nearly all types of DC motors have some internal mechanism, either
electromechanical or electronic, to periodically change the direction of
current flow in part of the motor.Shunt DC
connects the armature and field windings in parallel or shunt
with a common D.C. power source.Series DC
connects the armature and field windings in
with a common
D.C. power source.
Brushless DC Electric Motor
are synchronous motors powered by DC
electricity via an inverter or switching power supply which produces an AC
electric current to drive each phase of the motor via a closed loop
controller. The controller provides pulses of current to the motor
windings that control the speed and torque of the motor. The construction
of a brushless motor system is typically similar to a permanent magnet
synchronous motor (PMSM), but can also be a switched reluctance motor, or
an induction (asynchronous) motor. The advantages of a brushless motor
over brushed motors are high power to weight ratio, high speed, and
electronic control. Brushless motors find applications in such places as
computer peripherals (disk drives, printers), hand-held power tools, and
vehicles ranging from model aircraft to automobiles. (also known as
Brushless DC electric motor (BLDC motors, BL motors) electronically
commutated motors (ECMs, EC motors), or synchronous DC motors).
Brushless DC Motor,
How it works
is a direct current electric motor with two magnetic
poles, the conductors of which always cut unidirectional lines of magnetic
flux by rotating a conductor around a fixed axis so that the conductor is
at right angles to a static magnetic field. The resulting EMF
(Electromotive Force) being continuous in one direction, the homopolar
motor needs no commutator but still requires slip rings. The name
homopolar indicates that the electrical polarity of the conductor and the
magnetic field poles do not change (i.e., that it does not require
is a DC electrical generator comprising an
electrically conductive disc or cylinder rotating in a plane perpendicular
to a uniform static magnetic field. A potential difference is created
between the center of the disc and the rim (or ends of the cylinder) with
an electrical polarity that depends on the direction of rotation and the
orientation of the field. It is also known as a unipolar generator,
acyclic generator, disk dynamo, or Faraday disc. The voltage is typically
low, on the order of a few volts in the case of small demonstration
models, but large research generators can produce hundreds of volts, and
some systems have multiple generators in series to produce an even larger
voltage. They are unusual in that they can source tremendous electric
current, some more than a million amperes, because the homopolar generator
can be made to have very low internal resistance.
Acyclic DC Machine
is the electromotive force or "voltage"
that opposes the change in current which induced it. CEMF is the EMF
caused by magnetic induction
(see Faraday's law of induction,
electromagnetic induction, Lenz's Law). (abbreviated counter EMF or simply
CEMF), also known as back electromotive force (or back EMF).
is the sum of
and kinetic energy
. It is the energy associated
with the motion and position of an object.
is an electrical generator that produces direct
current with the use of a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical
generators capable of delivering power for industry, and the foundation
upon which many other later electric-power conversion devices were based,
including the electric motor, the alternating-current alternator, and the
is a moving part of a rotary electrical switch in certain
types of electric motors and electrical generators that periodically
reverses the current direction between the rotor and the external circuit.
It consists of a cylinder composed of multiple metal contact segments on
the rotating armature of the machine. Two or more electrical contacts
called "brushes" made of a soft conductive material like carbon press
against the commutator, making sliding contact with successive segments of the commutator as it rotates. The windings (coils of wire) on the
armature are connected to the commutator segments.
a current composed of fictitious moving
. It has the dimensions of
a type of magnet in which the magnetic
is produced by an electric current. The magnetic field
disappears when the current is turned off. Electromagnets usually consist
of a large number of closely spaced turns of wire that create the magnetic
field. The wire turns are often wound around a magnetic core made from a
ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic material such as iron; the magnetic core
concentrates the magnetic flux and makes a more powerful magnet.
is the rate, per unit time, at which
electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of
power is the watt, one joule per second. Electric power is usually
produced by electric generators, but can also be supplied by sources such
as electric batteries
. It is
usually supplied to businesses and homes by the electric power industry
through an electric power grid
. Electric power is
usually sold by the kilowatt hour (3.6 MJ) which is the product of power
in kilowatts multiplied by running time in hours. Electric utilities
measure power using an electricity meter, which keeps a running total of
the electric energy delivered to a customer. Electrical power provides a
low entropy form of energy and can be carried long
and converted into other forms of energy such as motion,
light or heat with high energy efficiency.
Electric Power Industry
is the generation, transmission, distribution
and sale of electric power to the general public. The electrical industry
started with introduction of electric lighting in 1882. Throughout the
1880s and 1890s, growing economic and safety concerns lead to the
regulation of the industry. Once an expensive novelty limited to the most
densely populated areas, reliable and economical electric power has become
a requirement for normal operation of all elements of developed economies.
Dielectric and Magnetic Discharges in Electrical Windings (complete OCR
is a type of technology that converts
as produced by small-scale physical change into
-generator has three typical approaches: piezoelectric,
triboelectric, and pyroelectric nanogenerators.
is a heat engine that operates by cyclic
compression and expansion of air or other gas (the working fluid) at
different temperatures, such that there is a net conversion of heat energy
to mechanical work. More specifically, the Stirling engine is a
closed-cycle regenerative heat engine with a permanently gaseous working
fluid. Closed-cycle, in this context, means a thermodynamic system in
which the working fluid is permanently contained within the system, and
regenerative describes the use of a specific type of internal heat
exchanger and thermal store, known as the regenerator. The inclusion of a
regenerator differentiates the Stirling engine from other closed cycle hot
Hydronica BlogspotFuel Systems
is an American company developing and
commercializing an opposed-piston opposed-cylinder (OPOC) engine for use
in cars, light trucks, commercial vehicles, aerospace, marine,
agriculture, auxiliary power units, generators, etc. This engine was
promoted to significantly improve fuel efficiency, and substantially
reduce production costs when compared to convententional internal
is a light-emitting diode (LED) product which is
assembled into a lamp (or light bulb) for use in lighting fixtures. LED
lamps have a lifespan and electrical efficiency which are several times
greater than incandescent lamps, and are significantly more efficient than
most fluorescent lamps, with some chips able to emit more than 300 lumens
per watt (as claimed by
and some other LED manufacturers). The first LEDs were
developed in the early 1960s.
LED 60W Bulb Replacement
Motion-Sensitive LED Light
RV Sensor & Receiver
LED Lights - UK
Lights for Growing
Kichler Lighting Experts
Energy Saving LED Street Light Design
Materials Research Team Lights the Way for More Efficient LEDs
Nanocrystals made of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3), is the first
discovered material which the ground exciton state is "bright,” making it
an attractive candidate
for more efficient solid-state lasers and
light emitting diodes (LEDs).
Quantum Dot Display
is a display
that uses quantum dots (QD), semiconductor nanocrystals which
can produce pure monochromatic red, green, and blue light. Photo-emissive
quantum dot particles are used in LED-backlit LCDs, where a QD layer
converts the backlight to emit pure basic colors; this improves display
brightness and color gamut by reducing light losses and color crosstalk in
RGB color filters.
are very small
particles, only several nanometres
in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from
those of larger particles. They are a central theme in nanotechnology.
Many types of quantum dot will emit light of specific frequencies if
electricity or light is applied to them, and these frequencies can be
precisely tuned by changing the dots' size, shape and material, giving
rise to many applications.
is a display technology
smartwatches, mobile devices, laptops, and televisions. OLED describes a
specific type of thin-film-display technology in which organic compounds
form the electroluminescent material, and active matrix refers to the
technology behind the addressing of pixels.
Energy Efficient Appliances
Gravitylight 2 made in Africa
Electricity from Gravity and Perpetual
Motion by Daniel Bentea!
M Powerd Luci
Gravity Light 360 Degree Magnetic LED
LED Lamp Powered by Water
Wireless Lighting System: verve
ZOBO: Brilliant Full-Color LED Spot-Lighting
Ellum Solar - Light Different
U.S. Lighting Energy Policy
Brighten up a Dark Room
Choose the Perfect Light Bulbfor Your Lighting Fixture
Wi-Fi Smart Bulb
SmartCharge 2.0 LED light bulb
integrated with a
rechargeable lithium ion battery, works even during a power
versatile adventure LED light - photo, video, underwater,
bike, camp, drone & fun.
Color Rendering index
is a quantitative measure of the
ability of a light source to reveal the
of various objects faithfully in comparison with an ideal or
natural light source. Light sources with a high CRI are desirable in
color-critical applications such as neonatal care, photography and
cinematography. It is defined by the International Commission on
Illumination (CIE) as follows: Color rendering: Effect of an illuminant on
the color appearance of objects by conscious or subconscious comparison
with their color appearance under a reference illuminant.
Does Dim Light make us Dumber?
Spending too much time in dimly lit
rooms and offices may actually change the brain's
structure and hurt
one's ability to remember and learn, indicates groundbreaking research by
Michigan State University neuroscientists.
Solar Light Tubes
is an electrical grid which includes a
variety of operational and
including smart meters, smart
appliances, renewable energy resources
, and energy efficiency resources.
conditioning and control of the production and
distribution of electricity are important aspects of the
is a local, independent power grid that can run without
electricity from the main network.
is a change in the power consumption of an electric utility customer to
better match the
demand for power with the supply.
is when the output of renewable
energy like wind power is curtailed or reduced at certain times because
it's making more power then people can use. But when batteries become more
available then the extra energy produced can be saved an stored for a
later time when people need more energy.
Electric Power Transmission
is the bulk movement of
electrical energy from a generating site, such as a
, to an
. The interconnected lines which facilitate this
movement are known as a transmission network. This is distinct from the
local wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, which is
typically referred to as
electric power distribution
. The combined transmission and
distribution network is known as the "power grid" in North America, or
just "the grid". In the United Kingdom, India, Malaysia and New Zealand,
the network is known as the "National Grid".
Transmission Loss from 7% - 30%
Man-Shaped Electrical Towers Titled "The Land of Giants," these polygon
shapes are both eerie and functional
occurs when an alternative energy source
can generate power at a levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) that is less
than or equal to the price of purchasing power from the electricity grid.
(Looped not Linear)
is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to
consumers. It consists of generating stations that produce
, high-voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant
sources to demand centers, and distribution lines that connect individual
customers. Energy Storage
Overhead Power Line
is a structure used in electric
power transmission and distribution to transmit electrical energy along
large distances. It consists of one or more conductors (commonly multiples
of three) suspended by towers or poles. Since most of the insulation is
provided by air, overhead power lines are generally the lowest-cost method
of power transmission for large quantities of electric energy.
on a grid
is the minimum level of demand on an electrical grid over 24 hours. Base
load power sources are power stations which can consistently generate the
electrical power needed to satisfy this minimum demand. Historically,
large power grids have used base load power plants exclusively. However,
there is no specific technical requirement for this to be so. The base
load requirement can equally well be met by the appropriate mix of
intermittent power sources, peaking power plants, hydroelectric power and
Engineers Develop Tools to Share Power from Renewable Energy Sources
. The algorithms allow homes to draw on power from
renewable energy sources while they're disconnected from the grid.
Fault Current Limiter
is a device which limits the
prospective fault current when a fault occurs (e.g. in a power
transmission network) without complete disconnection. The term includes
superconducting, solid-state and inductive devices.
is generated or stored by a
variety of small, grid-connected devices referred to as distributed energy
resources (DER) or distributed energy resource systems.
Solar Panels work at night
because the Sun is always shining
some where in the world. So one side of the planet shares some
of its energy during the day for the other side of the planet that is in
the dark, and vise versa.
Harmonics (electrical power)
voltages and currents in an
electric power system are a result of non-linear electric loads. Harmonic
frequencies in the power grid are a frequent cause of power quality
problems. Harmonics in power systems result in increased heating in the
equipment and conductors, misfiring in variable speed drives, and torque
pulsations in motors. Reduction of harmonics is considered desirable.
Principles of Grid Generation
is a small-sized geometrical shape that covers the physical domain, whose
objective is to identify the discrete volumes or elements where
conservation laws can be applied. Grid generation is the first process
involved in computing numerical solutions to the equations that describe a
physical process. The result of the solution depends upon the quality of
grid. A well-constructed grid can improve the quality of solution whereas,
deviations from the numerical solution can be observed with poorly
constructed grid. Techniques for creating the cell forms the basis of grid
generation. Various methods to generate grids are discussed below.
Ancillary Services Electric Power
ancillary services as: "those services necessary to support the
transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the
obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those
control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected
Analytic Research Foundations
workshop for the Next
Generation Electric Grid
Peer-to-Peer Energy Transaction
& Distributed Energy
LO3 Energy and ConsenSys
is a device that converts the chemical energy from
a fuel into electricity through a
of positively charged
ions with oxygen
or another oxidizing agent. Fuel cells are
different from Batteries
in requiring a continuous source of fuel and
oxygen or air to sustain the chemical reaction, whereas in a battery the
chemicals present in the battery react with each other to generate an
electromotive force (emf). Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously
for as long as these inputs are supplied.
Bloom Energy Fuel Cells
Microbial Fuel Cell
that drives an electric current by using bacteria and mimicking
bacterial interactions found in nature. MFCs can be grouped into two
general categories: mediated and unmediated.
New battery is activated by your spit
. Saliva-powered battery could be
helpful in extreme conditions.
Urine as Fuel
3-D Paper-Based Microbial Fuel Cell
Building a better microbial fuel cell—using paper
of a bioelectrochemical cell incorporating carbon paste
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Activated Fuel Cell
Salt Water Fuel Cell Car - ABC
Sun + CO2 + Water = New Liquid Fuel
CO2 to make fuel
are processes in
; they usually involve
transforming light into other forms of energy. These processes apply to
photochemistry, optically pumped lasers, sensitized solar cells,
luminescence, and photochromism.
is a company that produces alternative energy
technologies based in Bedford, Massachusetts. The company developed a
process to generate hydrocarbon-based fuel by combining non-fresh water,
nutrients, cyanobacteria, carbon dioxide, and sunlight. The company
planned to break ground in October 2011 on a facility to produce more than
20,000 gallons of fuel per acre per year (19,000 m3/km2·a).
is formed when two semiconductor
materials are grown into a "sandwich". One material (such as AlGaAs) is
used for the outer layers (or cladding), and another of smaller band gap
(such as GaAs) is used for the inner layer. In our example, there are two
AlGaAs-GaAs junctions (or boundaries), one at each side of the inner
layer. There must be two boundaries for the device to be a double
heterostructure. If there was only one side of cladding material, the
device would be a simple heterostructure.
Towards effective small scale microbial fuel cells for energy
generation from urine
Stanley Meyer's Water Fuel Cell
The fuel cell purportedly split water
into its component elements, hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen gas was
then burned to generate energy, a process that reconstituted the water
molecules. According to Meyer, the device required less energy to perform
electrolysis than the minimum energy requirement predicted or measured by
conventional science. The mechanism of action was alleged to involve
"Brown's gas", a mixture of oxyhydrogen with a ratio of 2:1, the same
composition as liquid water; which would then be mixed with ambient air
(nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane,
chloroflourocarbons, free radicals/electrons, radiation, among others. If
the device worked as specified, it would violate both the first and second
laws of thermodynamics, allowing operation as a
perpetual motion machine
Tiny Probe Could Produce Big Improvements in Batteries and Fuel
Squeezing a Platinum Catalyst a fraction of a nanometer nearly doubles its
, finding that could lead to better fuel cells and
other clean energy technologies.
Nano-Alloys are ten times as effective as pure platinum in fuel cells
Cheap and Safe Non-Metal Electro-Catalysts for Fuel Cells
Fuel Cells for a
Fraction of the Cost
. The development of an inexpensive, efficient
catalyst material for a type of fuel cell
called a polymer electrolyte
membrane fuel cell, which turns the chemical energy of hydrogen into
electricity and is among the most promising fuel cell types to power cars
Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
are a type of fuel cell being
developed mainly for transport applications, as well as for
fuel-cell applications and portable fuel-cell applications. Their
distinguishing features include lower temperature/pressure ranges (50 to
100 °C) and a special proton-conducting polymer electrolyte membrane.
PEMFCs generate electricity and operate on the opposite principle to PEM
electrolysis, which consumes electricity. They are a leading candidate to
replace the aging alkaline fuel-cell technology, which was used in the
was a fuel cell company based in South Windsor,
Connecticut. It was part of United Technologies Corporation; it was
purchased by ClearEdge Power in February 2013. The company specialized in
fuel cells for buildings, buses and automobiles. It has also developed
fuel cells for space and submarine applications in the past.
Energy from Heat
when burned with oxygen, often uses
or combustion in internal engines, to power vehicles and electric devices.
It is also used in the propulsion of spacecraft and might potentially be
mass-produced and commercialized for passenger vehicles and aircraft.
Hydrogen Future Fuel
is a chemical element
with chemical symbol H and
atomic number 1. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen is the
lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the
abundant chemical substance in the Universe
, constituting roughly 75% of
all baryonic mass. Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in
the plasma state. The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium
(name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton
counterpart of hydrogen.
Whereas the common hydrogen atom is composed of an electron and
proton, the antihydrogen atom is made up of a positron and antiproton.
Scientists hope studying antihydrogen may shed light on the question of
why there is more matter than antimatter in the universe, known as the
baryon asymmetry problem.
is the general term for a chemical reaction
in which water
is separated into oxygen and hydrogen. Efficient and
economical water splitting would be a key technological component of a
hydrogen economy. Various techniques for water splitting have been issued
in water splitting patents in the United States. In photosynthesis, water
splitting donates electrons to the electron transport chain in photosystem
Electrolysis of Water
is the decomposition of water
(H2O) into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen gas (H2)
due to an electric current
being passed through the water. The reaction
has a standard potential of −1.23 V, meaning it ideally requires a
potential difference of 1.23 volts to split water. This technique can be
used to make hydrogen fuel (hydrogen gas) and breathable oxygen; though
currently most industrial methods make hydrogen fuel from natural gas
is a technique that uses a
direct electric current
to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous
. Electrolysis is commercially important as a stage
in the separation of elements from naturally occurring sources such as
ores using an electrolytic cell
. The voltage that is needed for
electrolysis to occur is called the decomposition potential. The key
process of electrolysis is the interchange of
by the removal or
addition of electrons from the external circuit. The desired products of
electrolysis are often in a different physical state from the electrolyte
and can be removed by some physical processes.
that participates in
Catalyst materials modify and increase the rate of chemical reactions
without being consumed in the process. Electrocatalysts are a specific
form of catalysts that function at electrode surfaces or may be the
electrode surface itself. An electrocatalyst can be heterogeneous such as
a platinum surface or nanoparticles, or homogeneous like a coordination
complex or enzyme
. The electrocatalyst assists in
between the electrode and reactants, and/or facilitates an intermediate
chemical transformation described by an overall half-reaction.
Hydrogen Fuel Enhancement
is the process of using a mixture of
hydrogen and conventional hydrocarbon fuel
internal combustion engine
, typically in a
car or truck, in an attempt to improve fuel economy, power output,
emissions, or a combination thereof. Methods include hydrogen produced
through an electrolysis, storing hydrogen on the vehicle as a second fuel,
or reforming conventional fuel into hydrogen with a
is a mixture of hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) gases. This
gaseous mixture is used for torches to process refractory materials and
was the first gaseous mixture used for
. Theoretically, a ratio
of 2:1 hydrogen:oxygen is enough to achieve maximum efficiency; in
practice a ratio 4:1 or 5:1 is needed to avoid an oxidizing flame.
Scientists have just found a way to make metallic solid hydrogen in the
, by compressing it at ultrahigh pressure between two diamond anvils.
is a kind of degenerate matter, a phase of hydrogen
in which it behaves like an electrical conductor. At high pressure and
temperatures, metallic hydrogen might exist as a liquid rather than a
solid, and researchers think it is present in large amounts in the hot and
gravitationally compressed interiors of Jupiter, Saturn, and in some
A New Strategy for Efficient Hydrogen Production
Electrolysis Cell (Hybrid-SOEC) system with highest reported
electrochemical performance in hydrogen production.
New Materials Could Turn Water into the Fuel of the Future
are created using only sunlight
, and carbon dioxide (CO2
Researchers are exploring a range of target fuels, from hydrogen gas to
liquid hydrocarbons, and producing any of these fuels involves splitting
water. Each water molecule is comprised of an oxygen atom and two hydrogen
atoms. The hydrogen atoms are extracted, and then can be reunited to
create highly flammable hydrogen gas or combined with CO2 to create
hydrocarbon fuels, creating a plentiful and renewable energy source. The
problem, however, is that water molecules do not simply break down when
sunlight shines on them—if they did, the oceans would not cover most of
the planet. They need a little help from a solar-powered catalyst. 16
Researcher’s Nanomaterial Can Extract Hydrogen Fuel from Seawater
that produce electrical energy or hydrogen in a process
similar to the electrolysis of water.
Researchers find cheaper way to produce hydrogen from water
Electrocatalytic water splitting using a monolayered double
hydroxide involving nickel and vanadium.
hydrogen filling station
opens in London that creates the
gas on site from tap water and renewable energy.
The trouble with Hydrogen
it’s expensive to harvest, store, and convert it. About 95 percent of
global hydrogen production is done through steam methane reforming (SMR),
blasting natural gas with high-temperature, high-pressure steam. This is
an energy-intensive process that requires fossil fuel inputs and leaves
behind a waste stream of carbon dioxide, so it is of limited use for
decarbonizing the energy system. But it is also possible to pry hydrogen
directly out of water via electrolysis — that’s the process of zapping
water (containing various “electrocatalysts”) with electricity,
stimulating a chemical reaction that splits hydrogen and oxygen. If
electrolysis is run by zero-carbon renewable electricity, the resulting
hydrogen is a zero-carbon fuel. That solves the carbon problem, but there
are others. The hydrogen in water doesn’t really want to let go of the
oxygen (they are “strongly bonded”), so cracking them apart takes quite a
bit of energy. The resulting hydrogen has to be stored, either by
compressing it as a gas with big pumps or by (weakly) bonding it to
something else and storing it as a liquid. That gas or liquid will require
a distribution infrastructure. Finally, the hydrogen has to be extracted
from storage and converted back to energy, either by burning it or putting
it through a fuel cell. By that time, the amount of energy invested in the
process exceeds what can be gotten back out by a wide margin. That’s been
the barrier. When all the costs of the energy conversions are added up,
“mining” hydrogen for use in a zero-carbon energy system has generally
been a money-losing business. The useful services hydrogen provides cannot
compensate for the energy (and money) it takes to produce and use it. At
least not to date.
Hydro Water Energy
the production of electrical power
through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.
In 2015 hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and
70% of all renewable electricity, and was expected to increase about 3.1%
each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries,
with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in
2013. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of
production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use.
is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground
streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but also
provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption,
industrial use, aquaculture, and navigability. Hydropower is often used in
conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can also be used to
collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed
between locations. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining
water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees (also known as
dikes) are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land
America has 75,000 Dams
Nearly 3,000 dams across the U.S. predate the 20th century. 65%
of dams in the country are privately owned.
is a type of hydroelectric power that typically
produces from 5 kW to 100 kW of electricity using the natural flow of
water. Installations below 5 kW are called pico
hydro. These installations can provide power to an isolated home or small
community, or are sometimes connected to electric power networks,
particularly where net metering is offered. There are many of these
installations around the world, particularly in developing nations as they
can provide an economical source of energy without the purchase of fuel.
Micro hydro systems complement solar PV power systems because in many
areas, water flow, and thus available hydro power, is highest in the
winter when solar energy is at a minimum. Micro hydro is frequently
accomplished with a pelton wheel for high head, low flow water supply. The
installation is often just a small dammed pool, at the top of a waterfall,
with several hundred feet of pipe leading to a small generator housing. In
low head sites, generally water wheels and Archimedes screws are used.
The Micro-Hydro Plant
Transforming modern power production through Micro-Scale
Turbulent Hydro Power
high level of efficiency on rivers and canals with a low height difference
thanks to a new technology based on the vortex
. It generates electricity in the form of a single turbine or
a network of multiple turbines. Fish friendly, Long operating life, No
flood risk, Low maintenance, Turn key and mobile Remote monitoring.
is the development of hydroelectric power on a scale suitable
for local community and industry, or to contribute to distributed
generation in a regional electricity grid. The definition of a small hydro
project varies, but a generating capacity of 1 to 20 megawatts (MW) is
common. In contrast many hydroelectric projects are of enormous size, such
as the generating plant at the Three Gorges Dam at 22,500 megawatts or the
vast multiple projects of the Tennessee Valley Authority. Small hydro
projects may be built in isolated areas that would be uneconomic to serve
from a national electricity grid, or in areas where a national grid does
not exist. Micro-Grid
bottle water wheel generator experiment
Moriah Hydro Corp. to develop the unique, 260-MW Mineville pumped-storage
to be located completely underground in an abandoned mine
complex in New York, west of Lake Champlain. Engineers would drain roughly
half of the water from the shafts and pump the remainder into an upper
chamber. The water would then be released into a lower chamber, powering
turbines and creating electricity. The turbines would be reversed to pump
the water back up to repeat the process. the pumped water is
considered stored energy, to be released strategically when power is
Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity
is a type of hydroelectric
energy storage used by electric power systems for load balancing. The
method stores energy in the form of gravitational potential energy of
water, pumped from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation.
Low-cost surplus off-peak electric power is typically used to run the
pumps. During periods of high electrical demand, the stored water is
released through turbines to produce electric power. Although the losses
of the pumping process makes the plant a net consumer of energy overall,
the system increases revenue
by selling more
electricity during periods of peak demand.
unless it's a natural process.
Time Shift Energy
involves storing energy during low price times,
and discharging during high price times.
at a site good enough to generate 1 kW can produce enough electricity for
a typical house for a year (8,000 kWh/yr).
Low Head Hydro Power
applications use tidal flows or rivers with a
head of 20 metres (66 ft) or less to produce energy. These applications
may not need to dam or retain water to create hydraulic head. Using the
drop in a river or tidal flows to create electricity may provide a
renewable energy source that will have a minimal impact on the
is an impulse
designed for medium head applications. Operational
achieve efficiencies of about 87%. In factory and lab tests Turgo
Turbines perform with efficiencies of up to 90%. It works with net heads
between 15 and 300 m.
is a measurement of the total mechanical energy per
weight of the groundwater flow system. In other words, it is the fluid
potential for flow through porous media. It is predominantly comprised of
pressure and elevation heads.
is a specific measurement of liquid
pressure above a geodetic datum. It is usually measured as a liquid
surface elevation, expressed in units of length, at the entrance (or
bottom) of a piezometer. In an aquifer, it can be calculated from the
depth to water in a piezometric well (a specialized water well), and given
information of the piezometer's elevation and screen depth. Hydraulic head
can similarly be measured in a column of water using a standpipe
piezometer by measuring the height of the water surface in the tube
relative to a common datum. The hydraulic head can be used to determine a
hydraulic gradient between two or more points.
is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit
area over which that
is distributed. Gauge pressure (also spelled gage pressure)[a]
is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure.
are instruments used to measure and display pressure in an
integral unit are called pressure gauges or vacuum gauges. A manometer is
a good example as it uses a column of liquid to both measure and indicate
pressure. Likewise the widely used Bourdon gauge is a mechanical device
which both measures and indicates, and is probably the best known type of
gauge. A vacuum gauge is an absolute pressure gauge used to measure the
pressures lower than the ambient atmospheric pressure. Other methods of
pressure measurement involve sensors which can transmit the pressure
reading to a remote indicator or control system like
, which is an automated communications process by which
measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points
and transmitted to receiving equipment for
Harvested from Evaporation could Power much of US
. US lakes and
reservoirs could generate 325 gigawatts of power, nearly 70 percent of
what the United States currently produces.
About 50% of the solar energy absorbed at the Earth’s surface drives
, fueling the water cycle that affects various renewable
energy resources, such as wind and
Ocean Wave Current Energy
is the transport of energy by wind waves, and the capture of that energy
to do useful work – for example, electricity generation, water
desalination, or the pumping of water (into reservoirs). A machine able to
exploit wave power is generally known as a wave energy converter (WEC).
Wave power is distinct from the diurnal flux of tidal power and the steady
gyre of ocean currents. Wave-power generation is not currently a widely
employed commercial technology, although there have been attempts to use
it since at least 1890. In 2008, the first experimental wave farm was
opened in Portugal, at the Aguçadoura Wave Park.
Tidal Stream Generator
is a machine that extracts energy
from moving masses of water, in particular tides, although the term is
often used in reference to machines designed to extract energy from run of
river or tidal estuarine sites. Certain types of these machines function
very much like underwater wind turbines, and are thus often referred to as
tidal turbines. They were first conceived in the 1970s during the oil
crisis. Tidal stream generators are the cheapest and the least
ecologically damaging among the three main forms of tidal power
Oscillating Water Column
are a type of Wave Energy Converter
(WEC) that harness energy from the oscillation of the seawater
inside a chamber or hollow caused by the action of waves. OWCs have shown
promise as a renewable energy source with low environmental impact.
Because of this, multiple companies have been working to design
increasingly efficient OWC models.
Tidal Lagoon Power Plant
Wind and Current Combo
Wave-Energy & Desalinates
Bunbury Wave Energy Trial
Hydropower System uses
Gravity Fed Water Pipes to
Produce Low Cost Electricity
and Hydrokinetic Technology Ocean Renewable Wave Energy
National Marine Renewable Energy Center
Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology
near tetrapods, which are concrete structures placed along the shore to
weaken the force of incoming waves and prevent erosion. Robotics
principles help Sandia wave energy converters better absorb power of ocean
Eb and Flow
is 20 minutes.
Ebb is the outgoing phase, when the tide drains away from the shore; and
the flow is the incoming phase when water rises again.
Sustainable Future Powered by Sea
. Five-blade turbine are made of a
soft material and they rotate on their axis when influenced by ocean
waves. The axis is attached to a permanent magnet electric generator,
which is the part of the turbine that transforms the ocean wave energy
into usable electricity. The ceramic mechanical seal protects the
electrical components inside of the body from any saltwater leakage. This
design allows the turbine to function for ten years before it need
replacing. Submerged turbines anchored to the sea floor through mooring
cables that convert the kinetic energy of sustained natural currents in
the Kuroshio into usable electricity, which is then delivered by cables to
the land. 1% of the seashore of mainland japan can [generate] about 10
gigawats [of energy], which is equivalent to 10 nuclear power plants.
The Wave Energy Converter
New technology could generate 40% of the world’s electricity where
seawater and freshwater meet
. Researchers at Penn State University
have developed a new technology that they believe will be capable of
producing large amounts of energy – possibly more than one-third the
amount needed to meet global energy demands – in coastal areas where
seawater and freshwater meet. “The goal of this technology,” assistant
environmental engineering professor Christopher Gorski explained earlier
this month in a statement, “is to generate electricity from where the
rivers meet the ocean. It's based on the difference in the salt
concentrations between the two water sources.” According to Gorski and his
colleagues, that difference in salinity levels could potentially create
enough energy to meet nearly 40 percent of the world’s electricity needs.
However, methods that experts currently use to harness that power have
failed to fully capitalize on that potential.
is a device that emits light through a process of
optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of
Most Powerful Laser
The Sharpest Laser
in the World
40W Laser Shotgun
is a laser in which the active gain medium is an
doped with rare-earth elements such as erbium, ytterbium, neodymium,
dysprosium, praseodymium, thulium and holmium. They are related to doped
fiber amplifiers, which provide light amplification without lasing. Fiber
nonlinearities, such as stimulated Raman scattering or four-wave mixing
can also provide gain and thus serve as gain media for a fiber laser.
Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser
is a type of semiconductor
laser diode with laser beam emission perpendicular from the top surface,
contrary to conventional edge-emitting semiconductor lasers (also in-plane
lasers) which emit from surfaces formed by cleaving the individual chip
out of a wafer.
We Gather Here Today to Join Lasers and Anti-Lasers
is a device which absorbs coherent light and converts
it to some form of internal energy such as heat or electrical energy. It
is the time reversed counterpart of a laser.
Energy Justice Network
World Energy Summit
Oak Ridge Laboratory
National Energy Lab
Laser: A Light Fantastic - 1967 Documentary - WDTVLIVE42
is an arrangement of mirrors that forms a standing wave
cavity resonator for light waves. Optical cavities are a major component
of lasers, surrounding the gain medium and providing feedback of the laser
light. They are also used in optical parametric oscillators and some
interferometers. Light confined in the cavity reflects multiple times
producing standing waves for certain resonance frequencies. The standing
wave patterns produced are called modes; longitudinal modes differ only in
frequency while transverse modes differ for different frequencies and have
different intensity patterns across the cross section of the beam. (also
called an resonating cavity or optical resonator).
First Random Laser Made of Paper-based Ceramics
Laser Light Shows
Water Fuel Cell
Water 4 Gas
Water Powered Car
Water Spark Plugs
Inventor Jailed for making this video
Water car inventor murdered
after turning down a
billion dollars to sell patent.
Ogle Fuel System
Vapor Fuel System
Build a Gas Vaporizer
Fuel Vaporizing System
Gas Engine Vaporizer
Opel Test Car
Fuel Vaporizer for Lawn Mower
Waste Vegetable Oil Fuel
Largest Populus single nucleotide polymorphism SNP dataset holds promise
for biofuels, materials, metabolites
Bio-Based Motor Oil
‘Super yeast’ has the power to improve economics of Biofuels
Turning biofuel waste into wealth in a single step
could convert up to 80% of it into valuable molecules for biofuel and
is a liquid fuel, or sometimes gaseous fuel, obtained from syngas, a
mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, in which the
was derived from
gasification of solid feedstocks such as coal or biomass or by reforming
of natural gas. Common methods for manufacturing synthetic fuels
include the Fischer Tropsch conversion, methanol to gasoline conversion,
or direct coal liquefaction.
A better view of synthetic fuel production
biofuel crops could produce both ethanol and biodiesel for nine months of
is refined from recycled fats & oils, but does not contain
HP 2 G
Waste to Energy
It takes 50,000 lbs. of Raw Material to make a 3,000 lb. Car.
Every Gallon of Gas Burned Creates 19 lbs. of
Gas Engine Inefficiency
of thermal engines is the
relationship between the total energy contained in the fuel, and the
amount of energy used to perform useful work. There are two
classifications of thermal engines-Internal combustion (gasoline, diesel
and gas turbine, i.e., Brayton cycle engines) and External combustion
engines (steam piston, steam turbine, and the Stirling cycle engine).
are fuels formed by natural processes such as
anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy
originating in ancient photosynthesis. The age of the organisms and their
resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes
exceeds 650 million years. Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon
and include petroleum, coal, and natural gas. Other commonly used
derivatives include kerosene and propane. Fossil fuels range from volatile
materials with low carbon: hydrogen ratios like methane, to liquids like
petroleum, to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like
anthracite coal. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields either alone,
associated with oil, or in the form of methane clathrates.
Revolution Green 2.0
Diesel to Vegetable Oil
Green Auto Blog
Green Car Congress
Energy Efficiency &Renewable Energy
Environmental Protection Agency
Megawatt Motor Works
Learn Car Mechanics
List of Fastest Production Cars
Yokohama Tire Avid Ascend
Lubri-Check Measures Oil Viscosity
Eco-Modder Fuel Economy Tips
Plastics - Materials
are plastics derived from renewable
biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, or
microbiota. Bioplastic can be made from agricultural by-products and also
from used plastic bottles and other containers using microorganisms.
Common plastics, such as fossil-fuel plastics (also called petrobased
polymers), are derived from petroleum or natural gas. Production of such
plastics tends to require more fossil fuels and to produce more greenhouse
gases than the production of biobased polymers (bioplastics). Some, but
not all, bioplastics are designed to biodegrade. Biodegradable bioplastics
can break down in either anaerobic or aerobic environments, depending on
how they are manufactured. Bioplastics can be composed of starches,
cellulose, biopolymers, and a variety of other materials.
are plastics that decompose by the
action of living organisms, usually bacteria.
(garbage waste pollution)
Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Polymer
is an extremely
strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.
CFRPs can be expensive to produce but are commonly used wherever high
strength-to-weight ratio and rigidity are required, such as aerospace,
automotive, civil engineering, sports goods and an increasing number of
other consumer and technical applications. The binding polymer is often
a thermoset resin such as epoxy, but other thermoset or thermoplastic
polymers, such as polyester, vinyl ester or nylon, are sometimes used. The
composite may contain other fibers, such as an aramid (e.g. Kevlar, Twaron),
aluminium, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) or glass
fibers, as well as carbon fiber. The properties of the final CFRP product
can also be affected by the type of additives introduced to the binding
matrix (the resin). The most frequent additive is silica, but other
additives such as rubber and carbon nanotubes can be used. The material is
also referred to as graphite-reinforced polymer or graphite
fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP is less common, as it clashes with
glass-(fiber)-reinforced polymer). In product advertisements, it is
sometimes referred to simply as graphite fiber for short
is a composite material
made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. The fibres are usually
glass, carbon, aramid, or basalt. Rarely, other fibres such as paper or
wood or asbestos have been used. The polymer is usually an epoxy,
vinylester or polyester thermosetting plastic; and phenol formaldehyde
resins are still in use.
are fibers about 5–10 micrometres in diameter and
composed mostly of carbon atoms
Carbon Fiber Recycle
is a material made from two or
more constituent materials with significantly different physical or
chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with
characteristics different from the individual components.
Make Your Own Carbon Fiber Parts
How to make a two-part Mold
is an early plastic. It is a thermosetting
phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from a condensation reaction of phenol
is an allotrope of carbon that is
ferromagnetic, electrically conductive, and glows when exposed to low
levels of energy. It is relatively inexpensive to make, and some news
reports claim that it has replaced diamond as the world's hardest
substance. Discovered in 2015.
A Team At MIT Has
Developed A Super Light Weight Material Ten Times Stronger Than Steel
Carbon fiber technology that extracts CO2 from the air
and turns it into cars and other industrial products.
Paint made from
coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles
makes tough self-cleaning surfaces.
are composite materials synthesized
by filling a metal, polymer, or ceramic matrix with hollow particles
called microballoons. In this context, "syntactic" means "put together".
The presence of hollow particles results in lower density, higher specific
strength (strength divided by density), lower coefficient of thermal
expansion, and, in some cases, radar or sonar transparency.
are microscopic spheres of glass
manufactured for a wide variety of uses in research, medicine, consumer
goods and various industries. Glass microspheres are usually between 1 and
1000 micrometers in diameter, although the sizes can range from 100
nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. Hollow glass microspheres,
sometimes termed microballoons or glass bubbles, have diameters ranging
from 10 to 300 micrometers.
is the property of materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic
characteristics when undergoing deformation. Viscous materials, like
honey, resist shear flow and strain linearly with time when a stress is
applied. Elastic materials strain when stretched and quickly return to
their original state once the stress is removed. Viscoelastic materials
have elements of both of these properties and, as such, exhibit
time-dependent strain. Whereas elasticity is usually the result of bond
stretching along crystallographic planes in an ordered solid, viscosity is
the result of the diffusion of atoms or molecules inside an amorphous
polypropylene (PP-R) pipe for use in pressurized plumbing
and mechanical systems of all sizes. Our products are reliable,
competitively priced, and environmentally friendly.
is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of
applications including packaging and labeling, textiles (e.g., ropes,
thermal underwear and carpets), stationery, plastic parts and reusable
containers of various types, laboratory equipment, loudspeakers,
automotive components, and polymer banknotes. An addition polymer made
from the monomer propylene, it is rugged and unusually resistant to
many chemical solvents, bases and acids. Polypropylene has a relatively
slippery "low energy surface" that means that many common glues will not
form adequate joints. Joining of polypropylene is often done using welding
processes. In 2013, the global market for polypropylene was about 55
million tonnes. Polypropylene is the world's second-most widely produced
synthetic plastic, after polyethylene.Fuel Cells
Rubber Tires made from Dandelions
Fire from Water
is a hypothesized type of nuclear reaction that
would occur at, or near, room temperature. This is compared with the "hot
fusion which takes place naturally within stars, under immense pressure
and at temperatures
of millions of degrees, and distinguished from muon-catalyzed
fusion. There is currently no accepted theoretical model that would allow
cold fusion to occur. Quantum Mechanics
Cold Fusion: Fire
From Water 1/6
Fusion Infinite Energy
Cold Fusion Energy Science
is claimed to be a cold fusion reactor.
is energy generated by nuclear fusion. Fusion
reactions fuse two lighter atomic nuclei to form a heavier nucleus. It is
a major area of plasma physics research that attempts to harness such
reactions as a source of large scale sustainable energy. Fusion reactions
are how stars transmute matter into energy.
more than 50 scientists and engineers are world leaders in fusion
technology, with expertise across plasma physics
, computer simulation and
engineering. Hydrogen atoms fused together using extreme high temperatures
from compressing plasma. Creating clean, safe, sustainable energy.
is a nuclear reaction in which
nuclei combine to form more massive nuclei with the simultaneous release
of energy. The state of being combined into one body.
is a nuclear reaction in which a
massive nucleus splits into smaller nuclei with the simultaneous release
is a reaction in which two or more
come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and
subatomic particles (neutrons and/or protons). The difference in mass
between the products and reactants is manifested as the release of large
amounts of energy. This difference in mass arises due to the difference in
atomic "binding energy" between the atomic nuclei before and after the
reaction. Fusion is the process that powers active or "main sequence"
, or other high magnitude stars. Nuclear
fusion converts hydrogen atoms into helium.
is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from
pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
is the process by which the natural abundances
of the chemical elements within stars change due to nuclear fusion
reactions in the cores and their overlying mantles. Stars are said to
evolve (age) with changes in the abundances of the elements within. Core
fusion increases the atomic weight of elements and reduces the number of
particles, which would lead to a pressure loss except that gravitation
leads to contraction, an increase of temperature, and a balance of forces.
A star loses most of its mass when it is ejected late in the star's
stellar lifetimes, thereby increasing the abundance of elements heavier
than helium in the interstellar medium. The term
is used to describe the creation of elements
during the evolution and explosion of a presupernova star.
Primordial black holes may have helped to forge heavy elements
Mass can Neither be Created nor
is the emission of short bursts of
from imploding bubbles in a
when excited by
Photo Electrochemical Water Split
is a way to achieve nuclear fusion by using extremely high temperatures.
There are two forms of thermonuclear fusion: uncontrolled, in which the
resulting energy is released in an uncontrolled manner, as it is in
thermonuclear weapons such as the "hydrogen bomb" and in stars and brown
dwarves (not sub-brown dwarves) and controlled, where the fusion reactions
take place in an environment allowing some of the resulting energy to be
harnessed for constructive purposes. This article focuses on the latter.
is either a nuclear reaction or a
radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into
smaller parts (lighter nuclei). The fission process often produces free
neutrons and gamma photons, and releases a very large amount of energy
even by the energetic standards of radioactive decay.
New model considers an extra factor to improve our prediction of nuclear
. An improved model for predicting the generation of thermal
energy from nuclear fission processes, by focusing on Uranium-236. This
model can help improve efficiency in nuclear power generation.
fission of a U-235 nucleus, some of the energy of the color fields inside
its protons and neutrons is released, with potentially explosive
consequences. In the proton–proton chain involving the fusion of four
protons, the conversion of two up quarks into two down quarks, forming two
neutrons in the process, results in the release of a little excess energy
from its color fields. Mass does not convert to energy. Energy is instead
passed from one kind of quantum field to another.
Isotopes of Hydrogen
has three naturally occurring isotopes,
sometimes denoted 1H, 2H, and 3H. The first two of these are stable while
3H has a half-life of 12.32 years. All heavier isotopes are synthetic and
have a half-life less than one zeptosecond (10−21 second). Of these, 5H is
the most stable, and 7H is the least.Hydrogen
Magnetic Confinement Fusion
is an approach to generating
fusion power that uses magnetic fields
(which is a magnetic influence of electric currents and magnetic
materials) to confine the hot fusion fuel in the form of a plasma.
Magnetic confinement is one of two major branches of fusion energy
research, the other being inertial confinement fusion. The magnetic
approach is more highly developed and is usually considered more promising
for energy production.
is one of the four
fundamental states of matter
, the others being solid, liquid, and gas.
A plasma has properties unlike those of the other states.
Developing Nuclear Fusion in a Basement with a Reclusive
Magnetized Target Fusion
combines features of magnetic
confinement fusion (MCF) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Like the
magnetic approach, the fusion fuel is confined at lower density by
magnetic fields while it is heated into a plasma. As with the inertial
approach, fusion is initiated by rapidly squeezing the target to greatly
increase fuel density and temperature. Although the resulting density is
far lower than in ICF, it is thought that the combination of longer
confinement times and better heat retention will let MTF operate, yet be
easier to build. The term magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is similar, but
encompasses a wider variety of arrangements. The two terms are often
applied interchangeably to experiments.
Steven Cowley: Fusion is Energy's Future
Centre Fusion Energy
is the general term for a chemical reaction
in which water is separated into oxygen
. Efficient and
economical water splitting would be a key technological component of a
hydrogen economy. Various techniques for water splitting have been issued
in water splitting patents in the United States. In
splitting donates electrons to the electron transport chain in photosystem
Horizon: Can we Make a Star on Earth
All people who were born since 1951
have received some exposure to
Weapons Testing-Related Fallout
An equivalent of 29,000 of the bombs dropped on Hiroshima—428
megatons—were added to the air through
Radiological Weapons Program
sprayed, injected and fed radiation and
other dangerous materials to Innocent Americans in secret. They also
worked to develop radiological weapons and later "combination weapons"
using radioactive materials along with chemical or biological weapons.
, which is produced when uranium and
plutonium absorb neutrons and undergo fission, has a
half-life of about 30 years. The largest source of caesium-137
remains fall-out from those nuclear weapons tests in the 50s and
60s. But 6-30 miles above the Earth’s surface, in the
, the concentrations remain 1,000 to 1,500
levels higher than in the
is a radioactive isotope of caesium which is formed as one
of the more common fission products by the nuclear fission of
and other fissionable isotopes in nuclear reactors and
nuclear weapons. It is among the most problematic of the
short-to-medium-lifetime fission products because it easily moves and
spreads in nature due to the high water solubility of caesium's most
common chemical compounds, which are salts.
There's still fall out from Nuclear Weapons out there
is a physical dose quantity D representing the
mean energy imparted to matter per unit mass by ionizing radiation. In the
SI system of units, the unit of measure is joules per kilogram, and its
special name is gray (Gy). The non-SI CGS unit rad is sometimes also used,
predominantly in the USA.
is a deprecated unit of absorbed
dose, defined as 1 rad = 0.01
Gy = 0.01 J/kg. It was originally defined in CGS units in 1953 as the dose
causing 100 ergs of energy to be absorbed by one gram of matter. It has
been replaced by the gray in SI but is still used in the United States,
though "strongly discouraged" in the chapter 5.2 of style guide for U.S.
National Institute of Standards and Technology authors. A related unit,
the roentgen, is used to quantify the radiation exposure. The F-factor can
be used to convert between rads and roentgens. The material absorbing the
radiation can be human tissue or silicon microchips or any other medium
(for example, air, water, lead shielding, etc.).
a radioactive isotope of strontium produced by nuclear fission, with a
half-life of 28.8 years. It undergoes β− decay into yttrium-90, with a
decay energy of 0.546 MeV. Strontium-90 has applications in medicine and
industry and is an isotope of concern in fallout from nuclear weapons and
is an important radioisotope of iodine discovered
by Glenn Seaborg and John Livingood in 1938 at the University of
California, Berkeley. It has a radioactive decay half-life of about eight
days. It is associated with nuclear energy, medical diagnostic and
treatment procedures, and natural gas production. It also plays a major
role as a radioactive isotope present in nuclear fission products, and was
a significant contributor to the health hazards from open-air atomic bomb
testing in the 1950s, and from the Chernobyl disaster, as well as being a
large fraction of the contamination hazard in the first weeks in the
Fukushima nuclear crisis. This is because I-131 is a major fission product
of uranium and plutonium, comprising nearly 3% of the total products of
fission (by weight). See fission product yield for a comparison with other
radioactive fission products. I-131 is also a major fission product of
uranium-233, produced from thorium
Isotopes of Ruthenium
(44Ru) is composed of seven stable isotopes.
Additionally, 27 radioactive isotopes have been discovered. Of these
radioisotopes, the most stable are 106Ru, with a half-life of 373.59 days;
103Ru, with a half-life of 39.26 days and 97Ru, with a half-life of 2.9
days. Twenty-four other radioisotopes have been characterized with atomic
weights ranging from 86.95 u (87Ru) to 119.95 u (120Ru). Most of these
have half-lives that are less than five minutes, excepting 95Ru
(half-life: 1.643 hours) and 105Ru (half-life: 4.44 hours). The primary
decay mode before the most abundant isotope, 102Ru, is electron capture
and the primary mode after is beta emission. The primary decay product
before 102Ru is technetium and the primary product after is rhodium.
Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster
was an energy accident at
the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Fukushima, initiated
primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.
Immediately after the earthquake, the active reactors automatically shut
down their sustained fission reactions. However, the tsunami disabled the
emergency generators that would have provided power to control and operate
the pumps necessary to cool the reactors. The insufficient cooling led to
three nuclear meltdowns, hydrogen-air explosions, and the release of
radioactive material in Units 1, 2, and 3 from 12 March to 15 March. Loss
of cooling also caused the pool for storing spent fuel from Reactor 4 to
overheat on 15 March due to the decay heat from the fuel rods.
Facts about Ocean Radiation and the Fukushima Disaster
Fukushimas Nuclear Disaster has put Americas West Coast in
DangerNext Generation Nuclear
High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository Project at Yucca Mountain
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
is uranium with a lower content of the
fissile isotope U-235 than natural uranium. (Natural uranium contains
about 0.72% of its fissile isotope U-235, while the DU used by the U.S.
Department of Defense contain 0.3% U-235 or less). Uses of DU take
advantage of its very high density of 19.1 g/cm3 (68.4% denser than lead).
Civilian uses include counterweights in aircraft, radiation shielding in
medical radiation therapy and industrial radiography equipment, and
containers for transporting radioactive materials. Military uses include
armor plating and armor-piercing
the Burnt Land
Open Burns = Open Wounds
40,000,000 Total acres of land — an area larger than the state of Florida
— the EPA estimates has been contaminated by the Pentagon or its
contractors in the U.S. open burns. 42 billion
dollars spent cleaning up its 39,400 polluted site
s by the Pentagon
so far in the U.S.. ProPublica reviewed records for the 51 active burn
sites and more than 145 others the Pentagon, its contractors, and other
private companies operated in the past, and found they had violated their
hazardous waste handling permits thousands of times over the past 37
years, often for improperly storing and disposing of toxic material, and
sometimes for exceeding pollution thresholds.
02/07/2015 | 1 hr. 34 min.
The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb and the Architecture of an
United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research
Illusion of Safety
mission responsibilities in the nuclear weapons (NW)
program create a foundation from which we leverage capabilities, enabling
us to solve complex national security problems.
Effects of Nuclear Explosions
The energy released from a nuclear weapon detonated in the troposphere can
be divided into four basic categories: Blast—40–50% of total energy.
Thermal radiation—30–50% of total energy. Ionizing radiation—5% of total
energy (more in a neutron bomb). Residual radiation—5–10% of total energy
with the mass of the explosion.
This Concrete Dome
holds a Leaking Toxic Timebomb
(youtube) - Thousands of cubic metres
of radioactive waste lies buried under a concrete dome on the Enewetak
Atoll in the Marshall Islands, the legacy of over a decade of US nuclear tests in the Pacific.
USSR secretly conducted over 400 nuclear tests
in a region of
Kazakhstan called "The Polygon", exposing hundreds of thousands
of people to dangerous levels of radiation. Now over 200,000
people are believed to have suffered directly from the tests.
The Fogging of Photographic Film by Radioactive Contaminants in
Cardboard Packaging Materials
..Safer Nuclear Energy
(Older Safer Design hidden from the