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Engineering - Design - Architecture


Engineering is the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems. Plan and direct a complex undertaking. Someone who can correctly calculate the load capacities of materials and assemble them correctly.
Engineering is the application of mathematics, empirical evidence and scientific, economic, social, and practical knowledge in order to invent, innovate, design, build, maintain, research, and improve structures, machines, tools, systems, components, materials, and processes. The discipline of engineering is extremely broad, and encompasses a range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied science, technology and types of application.

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Ruler - Protractor - Square Designing is Planning to create something for a specific role or purpose or effect. Create the design for; create or execute in an Artistic or highly skilled manner. Conceive or fashion in the mind; invent. 

Reverse Engineering is the processes of extracting knowledge or design information from anything man-made and re-producing it or re-producing anything based on the extracted information. The process often involves disassembling something (a mechanical device, electronic component, computer program, or biological, chemical, or organic matter) and analyzing its components and workings in detail.

Architecture is the discipline dealing with the principles of design, construction and ornamentation of fine buildings. Designing buildings and Environments with consideration for their Esthetic effect.

What are the differences between Design, Engineering and Art? Can all 3 disciplines be combined without sacrificing Health, Science and Sustainability?

Environmental Science

"There's pretty and then there's practicable, but if you can make practicable pretty, then that's even better."

Practicable is something usable for a specific purpose. Capable of being done with means at hand and circumstances as they are.


Engineering Types and BranchesTypes of Engineering

Engineer designs materials, structures, and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost.

Engineering Branches (wiki)

Electrical Engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.

Mechanical Engineering is the discipline that applies the principles of engineering, physics, and materials science for the design, analysis, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the design, production, and operation of machinery. It is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering disciplines.

Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering Body of Knowledge
Geotechnical Engineering
Green Building

Environmental Engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of scientific and engineering principles for protection of human populations from the effects of adverse environmental factors; protection of environments, both local and global, from potentially deleterious effects of natural and human activities; and improvement of environmental quality.
Peter Palchinsky was a Russian engineer who played a significant role in the introduction of scientific management into Russian industry. (1875–22 May 1929). The Ghost of the Executed Engineer.

Mechatronics is a multidisciplinary field of science that includes a combination of mechanical engineering, electronics, computer engineering, telecommunications engineering, systems engineering and control engineering. As technology advances, the subfields of engineering multiply and adapt. Mechatronics' aim is a design process that unifies these subfields. Originally, mechatronics just included the combination of mechanics and electronics, hence the word is a combination of mechanics and electronics; however, as technical systems have become more and more complex the definition has been broadened to include more technical areas.

Technologist is a specialist dedicated to the development, design, and implementation of engineering and technology. Engineering technology education is more of a broad specialized and applied engineering education.

Industrial Engineering is a branch of engineering which deals with the optimization of complex processes, systems or organizations. Industrial engineers work to eliminate waste of time, money, materials, man-hours, machine time, energy and other resources that do not generate value.

Mechanism is a device designed to transform input forces and movement into a desired set of output forces and the movement. Mechanisms generally consist of moving components such as gears and gear trains, belt and chain drives, cam and follower mechanisms, and linkages as well as friction devices such as brakes and clutches, and structural components such as the frame, fasteners, bearings, springs, lubricants and seals, as well as a variety of specialized machine elements such as splines, pins and key.

Reliability Engineering is engineering that emphasizes dependability in the lifecycle management of a product. Dependability, or reliability, describes the ability of a system or component to function under stated conditions for a specified period of time. Reliability may also describe the ability to function at a specified moment or interval of time (Availability). Reliability engineering represents a sub-discipline within systems engineering. Reliability is theoretically defined as the probability of success.

Safety Engineering is an engineering discipline which assures that engineered systems provide acceptable levels of safety. It is strongly related to industrial engineering/systems engineering, and the subset system safety engineering. Safety engineering assures that a life-critical system behaves as needed, even when components fail.

System Safety concept calls for a risk management strategy based on identification, analysis of hazards and application of remedial controls using a systems-based approach. This is different from traditional safety strategies which rely on control of conditions and causes of an accident based either on the Epidemiological analysis or as a result of investigation of individual past accidents. The concept of system safety is useful in demonstrating adequacy of technologies when difficulties are faced with probabilistic risk analysis. The underlying principle is one of synergy: a whole is more than sum of its parts. Systems-based approach to safety requires the application of scientific, technical and managerial skills to hazard identification, hazard analysis, and elimination, control, or management of hazards throughout the life-cycle of a system, program, project or an activity or a product. "Hazop" is one of several techniques available for identification of hazards.

Quality Control
Risk Management


Teaching Engineering
Teach Engineering
Try Engineering
Real Engineering (youtube)
Grady Hill House Practical Engineering (youtube channel)
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
National Academy of Engineering
Teenage Engineering
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Pritzker Architecture Prize
Arch 2o
Element 14 online community specifically for engineers
Center for Advanced Engineering


What Math Skills Are Needed to Become an Engineer?


How much you use these skills will depend on the type of engineering work that you will be doing. Reading, writing, communication and problem solving will always be your most used skills in every profession. In order to find an engineering position that you like, you may have to move to another state or country.

Basic Arithmetic
All math is based on the idea that 1 plus 1 equals 2, and 1 minus 1 equals 0. Multiplication and division --2 times 2 and 4 divided by 2 -- are variations used to avoid multiple iterations of either subtraction or addition. One example of an engineer's use of basic arithmetic is the civil engineer's calculations for describing water flow across an open basin. The flow is reckoned in cubic feet per second, or Q, where Q equals the runoff coefficient times the intensity of the rain for a specified period, times the area of the basin. If the runoff coefficient is 2, the intensity, in inches of rain, is 4 and the basin -- a specified area of land -- is 1/2 acre, the engineer's formula resembles this: (2x4)/(.5x43,560), or 8/21,780. The result, 0.0003673, is the volume of water, in cubic feet per second, flowing across the land.    Math Knowledge    Next Generation Science Standards
Algebra and Geometry
When several of the factors of a problem are known and one or more are unknown, engineers use Algebra, including differential equations in cases when there are several unknowns. Because engineers work to arrive at a solution to a physical problem, Geometry -- with its planes, circles and angles -- determines such diverse things as the torque used to turn a wheel, and reduces the design of a roadway's curve to an accurate engineering or construction drawing.   
Trigonometry
Trigonometry is the science of measuring triangles. Engineers may use plane trigonometry to determine the size of an irregularly shaped parcel of land. It may also be used or to determine the height of an object based solely on the distance to the object and the angle, up or down, from the observer. Spherical trigonometry is used by naval engineers in ship design and by mechanical engineers working on such arcane projects as the design of mechanical hand for an underwater robot.
Statistics
By statistical analysis of the design, the engineer can tell what percentage of a design will need armor or reinforcement or where any likely failures will occur. For the civil engineer, statistics appear as the concentration of rainfall, wind loads and bridge design. In many locations, engineers designing drainage systems must design for a 50- or 100-year storm in their calculations, a significant change from the normal rain concentration.
Calculus
Calculus is used by engineers to determine rates of change or rates by which factors, such as acceleration or weight, change. It might tell NASA scientists at what point the change in a satellite's orbit will cause the satellite to strike an object in space. A more mundane task for calculus might be determining how large a box must be to accommodate a specific number of things. An engineer who designs packaging, for example, might know that a product of a certain weight must be packaged in groups of no more than 10 because of their weight. Using calculus, he can calculate both the optimum number of objects per box, plus the optimum size of the box.

Math Skills needed to become an Engineer

Engineering Principles
Principles and Practice of Engineering Exam - PE Exam
Fundamentals of Engineering Exam


Building Codes - Rules for Building


Building Code is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. The main purpose of building codes is to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority.

City Development - Surveying

Zoning describes the control by authority which designates legal areas in a municipality to permit and prohibit land uses. Zoning may specify a variety of outright and conditional uses of land. It may also indicate the size and dimensions of land area as well as the form and scale of buildings. These guidelines are set in order to guide urban growth and development

Jay Austin's Beautiful, Illegal Tiny House (youtube) There are Cities that have no Zoning Rules
International Code Council
Public Codes
Housing Types
Location - Orientation
Design Guides
Construction Permit refers to the approval needed for construction or expansion (including significant renovation) in some jurisdictions.
Fire Safety (PDF)
Fire Code (PDF)

Home Inspection is a limited, non-invasive examination of the condition of a home, often in connection with the sale of that home. Home inspections are usually conducted by a home inspector who has the training and certifications to perform such inspections. The inspector prepares and delivers to the client a written report of findings. The client then uses the knowledge gained to make informed decisions about their pending real estate purchase. The home inspector describes the condition of the home at the time of inspection but does not guarantee future condition, efficiency, or life expectancy of systems or components. International Association of Certified Home Inspectors

Building Performance of a building or built environment is the efficiency of functioning of buildings and the construction industry, its impact on natural environment, urban environment and its users. It is achieved through means such as architectural design values, building science, architectural engineering, efficient energy use and sustainability.

Energy Monitoring

Building Science is the collection of scientific knowledge and experience that focuses on the analysis and control of the physical phenomena affecting buildings and architecture. It traditionally includes areas such as building materials, building envelope, heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, natural and electrical lighting, acoustic, indoor air quality, passive strategies, fire protection, and renewable energies in buildings.

Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.

Building is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory.

Scaffolding is a temporary Structure on the outside of a building, made usually of wooden planks and metal poles, used by workers while building, repairing, or cleaning the building. Scaffolding is also used in adapted forms for formwork and shoring, grandstand seating, concert stages, access/viewing towers, exhibition stands, ski ramps, half pipes and art projects.

Similitude Model is a concept applicable to the testing of engineering models

Transformation Design is a human-centered, interdisciplinary process that seeks to create desirable and sustainable changes in behavior and form – of individuals, systems and organizations – often for socially progressive ends.

Human Factors Ergonomics, comfort design, functional design, and systems, is the practice of designing products, systems, or processes to take proper account of the interaction between them and the people who use them.
Posture

10 Biggest Architecture Fails In The World (youtube)
10 Embarrassing Architectural Failures (youtube)
10 Biggest Architectural Fails (youtube)


Earthquakes


Earthquake Building Isolation Bearings Earthquake Resistant Structures are structures designed to withstand earthquakes. While no structure can be entirely immune to damage from earthquakes, the goal of earthquake-resistant construction is to erect structures that fare better during seismic activity than their conventional counterparts.

Build an Earthquake Proof Building
Earthquake News
Earthquake Engineering Research Center
Earthquake Resistant Building
World's Largest Earthquake Test (youtube)
Energy Absorbing Structure
NS Honeycombs Demonstration (youtube)
Tech 21

Seismic Isolation Floor Systems. There are two types, including the base-isolated foundations SKID for two dimensions and the base-isolated foundations KEEP for two / three dimensions. They can be installed into both new and existing buildings.

Server room with seismic isolation floor in East Japan Great Earthquake disaster (youtube)

Seismic Retrofit is the modification of existing structures to make them more resistant to seismic activity, ground motion, or soil failure due to earthquakes.

Earthquake Retrofitting

Strength of Materials


Architecture


Build Wood Frame House Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture" can mean: A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures. The art and science of designing buildings and (some) nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. Knowledge of art, science, technology, and humanity. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments. The design activity of the architect, from the macro-level (urban design, landscape architecture) to the micro-level (construction details and furniture).

Architectural Engineering is the application of engineering principles and technology to building design and construction. Definitions of an architectural engineer may refer to: An engineer in the structural, mechanical, electrical, construction or other engineering fields of building design and construction. A licensed engineering professional in parts of the United States. Architectural engineers are those who work with other engineers and architects for the designing and construction of buildings.

Architecture  Articulation is a method of styling the joints in the formal elements of architectural design. Through degrees of articulation, each part is united with the whole work by means of a joint in such a way that the joined parts are put together in styles ranging from exceptionally distinct jointing to the opposite of high articulation—fluidity and continuity of joining. In highly articulated works, each part is defined precisely and stands out clearly. The articulation of a building reveals how the parts fit into the whole by emphasizing each part separately.

Structural Engineering is mainly a sub-division of civil engineering where structural engineers are trained to understand, predict, and calculate the stability, strength and rigidity of built structures for buildings and non-building structures, to develop designs and integrate their design with that of other designers, and to supervise construction of projects on site. They can also be involved in the design of machinery, medical equipment, vehicles etc. where structural integrity affects functioning and safety. Structural engineering theory is based upon applied physical laws and empirical knowledge of the structural performance of different materials and geometries. Structural engineering design utilizes a number of relatively simple structural elements to build complex structural systems. Structural engineers are responsible for making creative and efficient use of funds, structural elements and materials to achieve these goals.

Architectural Theory is the act of thinking, discussing, and writing about architecture. Architectural theory is taught in most architecture schools and is practiced by the world's leading architects.

Outline of Architecture (PDF)

Proportion Architecture is a central principle of architectural theory and an important connection between mathematics and art. It is the visual effect of the relationships of the various objects and spaces that make up a structure to one another and to the whole. These relationships are often governed by multiples of a standard unit of length known as a "module".

Form Follows Function is a principle associated with modernist architecture and industrial design in the 20th century. The principle is that the shape of a building or object should be primarily based upon its intended function or purpose.

Deflection is the degree to which a structural element is displaced under a load. It may refer to an angle or a distance.

Tuned Mass Damper is a device mounted in structures to reduce the amplitude of mechanical vibrations. Their application can prevent discomfort, damage, or outright structural failure. They are frequently used in power transmission, automobiles, and buildings.

Building Model demonstrates and promotes buildings before they are constructed.

Scale Model is most generally a physical representation of an object, which maintains accurate relationships between all important aspects of the model, although absolute values of the original properties need not be preserved. This enables it to demonstrate some behavior or property of the original object without examining the original object itself. The most familiar scale models represent the physical appearance of an object in miniature, but there are many other kinds.

Architectural Model Building Kits

Architectural Model is a type of scale model - a physical representation of a structure - built to study aspects of an architectural design or to communicate design ideas.

3D Printing Technology

Origamic Architecture involves the three-dimensional reproduction of architecture, geometric patterns, everyday objects, or other images, on various scales, using cut-out and folded paper, usually thin paperboard.

Building Blocks

Building Information Modeling is a process involving the generation and management of digital representations of physical and functional characteristics of places.

Design

Building Commissioning is the process of verifying, in new construction, all (or some, depending on scope) of the subsystems for mechanical (HVAC), plumbing, electrical, fire/life safety, building envelopes, interior systems (example laboratory units), co-generation, utility plants, sustainable systems, lighting, wastewater, controls, and building security to achieve the owner's project requirements as intended by the building owner and as designed by the building architects and engineers. Recommissioning is the methodical process of testing and adjusting the aforementioned systems in existing buildings.

General Contractors
Management
Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.
Energy
City Planning
Green Building
Hakerspace
Architecture-Engineering-Construction (ACE)
ACE Mentor

Engineering Process Outsourcing for the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry is a resource for the industries of the built environment. The EPO industry supports architecture, engineering and construction industries worldwide.

Architecture and Vision

Passivity Engineering is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems. A passive component, depending on field, may be either a component that consumes (but does not produce) energy (thermodynamic passivity), or a component that is incapable of power gain (incremental passivity).

American Institute of Architects
National Professional Association of Architects
Arch Kidecture



Stone Working


Stone Work Rock Wall and Stairs Bricklayer is a craftsman who lays bricks to construct brickwork.

Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; The common materials of masonry construction are brick, building stone such as marble, granite, travertine, and limestone, cast stone, concrete block, glass block, and cob.

Stonemasonry is creating buildings, structures, and sculpture using stone from the earth.

Professions - Vocational Training
Guastavino Arches (youtube)
Guastavino Tile
Masonry Institute
Union of Bricklayers
Construction Craft Worker Foundations Program (youtube)
Architectural Display Glass (youtube)
Matrix
She's a Brick House

How "Stonehenge" Was Built? (youtube)
Wally Wallington from Flint Michigan has demonstrated that he can lift a Stonehenge-sized pillar weighing 22,000 lbs and moved a barn over 300 ft. What makes this so special is that he does it using only himself, gravity, and his incredible ingenuity.
Leverage is a force compounded by means of a lever rotating around a pivot, which is the point of rotation in a lever system; Torque. A Lever is a machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or fulcrum, which is the support about which a lever pivots. A lever is a rigid body capable of rotating on a point on itself. On the basis of the location of fulcrum, load and effort, the lever is divided into three types. It is one of the six simple machines identified by Renaissance scientists. A lever amplifies an input force to provide a greater output force, which is said to provide leverage. The ratio of the output force to the input force is the mechanical advantage of the lever. Mechanical Advantage is the ratio of the output force produced by a machine (especially a simple machine) to the applied input force.

Mechanical Advantage Device (wiki)

Scaffolding is a temporary structure used to support a work crew and materials to aid in the construction, maintenance and repair of buildings, bridges and all other man made structures. Scaffolding is also used in adapted forms for formwork and shoring, grandstand seating, concert stages, access/viewing towers, exhibition stands, ski ramps, half pipes and art projects.

Building the Pyramids of Egypt ...a detailed step by step guide.
Water shaft theory, limestone is soft when quarried, and when added to water it can be easily shaped using the water as a constant level. Water Lift Shafts and causeways and canal linking and high pressure water springs.

Archimedes' Principle indicates that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces and it acts in the upward direction at the centre of mass of the displaced fluid.



Wood Working


"Measure twice, cut once"
"Think Twice"
Wood Working Carpentry is a skilled trade in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges, concrete formwork, etc. Carpenters traditionally worked with natural wood and did the rougher work such as framing, but today many other materials are also used and sometimes the finer trades of cabinetmaking and furniture building are considered carpentry.

Joinery involves joining together pieces of timber or lumber, to produce more complex items. Some wood joints employ fasteners, bindings, or adhesives, while others use only wood elements. The characteristics of wooden joints - strength, flexibility, toughness, appearance, etc. - derive from the properties of the materials involved and the purpose of the joint. Therefore, different joinery techniques are used to meet differing requirements. For example, the joinery used to construct a house can be different from that used to make puzzle toys, although some concepts overlap.

Woodworking is the activity or skill of making items from wood, and includes cabinet making (Cabinetry and Furniture), wood carving, joinery, and carpentry.

Framing is the fitting together of pieces to give a structure support and shape. Framing materials are usually wood, engineered wood, or structural steel. Building framing is divided into two broad categories, heavy-frame construction (heavy framing) if the vertical supports are few and heavy such as in timber framing, pole building framing, or steel framing or many and smaller called light-frame construction (light framing) including balloon, platform and light-steel framing. Light-frame construction using standardized dimensional lumber has become the dominant construction method in North America and Australia because of its economy. Use of minimal structural material allows builders to enclose a large area with minimal cost, while achieving a wide variety of architectural styles.

Timber Framing are methods of building with heavy timbers (posts and beams) rather than dimensional lumber such as 2x4s. Traditional timber framing is the method of creating structures using heavy squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs (larger versions of the mortise and tenon joints in furniture). It is commonplace in wooden buildings from the 19th century and earlier. The method comes from making things out of logs and tree trunks without modern high tech saws to cut lumber from the starting material stock. Hewing with broadaxes, adzes, and draw knives and using hand-powered braces and augers (brace and bit) and other laborious woodworking, artisans or farmers could gradually assemble a building capable of bearing heavy weight without excessive use of interior space given over to vertical support posts. Since this building method has been used for thousands of years in many parts of the world, many styles of historic framing have developed. These styles are often categorized by the type of foundation, walls, how and where the beams intersect, the use of curved timbers, and the roof framing details. Three basic types of timber frames in English-speaking countries are the box frame, cruck frame, and aisled frame.

Home Building

Boat Building is one of the oldest branches of engineering, is concerned with constructing the hulls of boats and, for sailboats, the masts, spars and rigging.

Woodworking Joints is a part of woodworking that involves joining together pieces of timber or lumber, to produce more complex items. Some wood joints employ fasteners, bindings, or adhesives, while others use only wood elements. The characteristics of wooden joints - strength, flexibility, toughness, appearance, etc. - derive from the properties of the materials involved and the purpose of the joint. Therefore, different joinery techniques are used to meet differing requirements. For example, the joinery used to construct a house can be different from that used to make puzzle toys, although some concepts overlap.

Bridle Joint is a woodworking joint, similar to a mortise and tenon, in that a tenon is cut on the end of one member and a mortise is cut into the other to accept it. The distinguishing feature is that the tenon and the mortise are cut to the full width of the tenon member. The corner bridle joint (also known as a slot mortise and tenon) joins two members at their respective ends, forming a corner. This form of the joint is commonly used to house a rail in uprights, such as legs. It provides good strength in compression and is fairly resistant to Stacking, although a mechanical fastener or pin is often required. The bridle joint is very popular in workbench construction. Corner bridles are often used to join frame components when the frame is to be shaped. Material can be removed from the joined members after assembly without sacrificing joint integrity. A variation of the bridle joint is the T-bridle, which joins the end of one member to the middle of another. The tee bridle joint is very strong and good for joining 2 pieces together.

Traditional Joints (youtube)

Oak tree is turned into a traditional post and rung stool (video)
Wooden Wheel making, wheelwrights (youtube)
Woodworking Tips & Techniques: Joinery - Strength of Glue Joints (youtube)
Wood Saw
Behold! The Samurai Workbench (youtube)
Samurai Carpenter
Make A Bow And Arrow (youtube)
SPYNDI Sticks Furniture Invention



Metal Working


Steel Frame is a building technique with a "skeleton frame" of vertical steel columns and horizontal I-beams, constructed in a rectangular grid to support the floors, roof and walls of a building which are all attached to the frame. The development of this technique made the construction of the skyscraper possible.

Metal Working - Metallurgy

Welding - Check List

Screw Thread is a helical structure used to convert between rotational and linear movement or force. A screw thread is a ridge wrapped around a cylinder or cone in the form of a helix, with the former being called a straight thread and the latter called a tapered thread. A screw thread is the essential feature of the screw as a simple machine and also as a fastener.

Tools 

Skyscrapers around the World
Metal and Plastic Machine Workers
Foundry Mold and Coremakers

Winding Machine is a machine for wrapping string, twine, cord, thread, yarn, rope, wire, ribbon, tape, etc. onto a spool, bobbin, reel, etc.

Textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread). Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, hemp, or other material to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or felting.

Conveyor System is a common piece of mechanical handling equipment that moves materials from one location to another. Conveyors are especially useful in applications involving the transportation of heavy or bulky materials. Conveyor systems allow quick and efficient transportation for a wide variety of materials, which make them very popular in the material handling and packaging industries. Many kinds of conveying systems are available and are used according to the various needs of different industries. There are chain conveyors (floor and overhead) as well. Chain conveyors consist of enclosed tracks, I-Beam, towline, power & free, and hand pushed trolleys.

Composites (Bioplastics)

TRUMPF Lasersysteme: TruLaser Cell 3000 - Hochflexibles Schneiden und Schweißen (youtube)
Electron Beam Can Sculpt Textured Surfaces In Seconds  (Surfi-Sculpt on youtube)

Product Finishing Electroplaters, anodizers, liquid and powder coaters have all come to rely on Products Finishing magazine as their No. 1 source for surface finishing news and technology for more than 80 years.


Molding


Iinjection Molding Machine Diagram Molding (process) is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix. This itself may have been made using a pattern or model of the final object.

Injection Molding is a manufacturing process for producing parts by injecting material into a mould. Injection moulding can be performed with a host of materials mainly including metals, (for which the process is called die-casting), glasses, elastomers, confections, and most commonly thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. Material for the part is fed into a heated barrel, mixed, and forced into a mould cavity, where it cools and hardens to the configuration of the cavity. Plastic Injection Molding (youtube, Bill Hammack, UI).

Resin Casting is a method of plastic casting where a mold is filled with a liquid synthetic resin, which then hardens. It is primarily used for small-scale production like industrial prototypes and dentistry. It can be done by amateur hobbyists with little initial investment, and is used in the production of collectible toys, models and figures, as well as small-scale jewelry production. The synthetic resin for such processes is a monomer for making a plastic thermosetting polymer. During the setting process, the liquid monomer polymerizes into the polymer, thereby hardening into a solid.

Casting (metal working)

Plastic is a material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and can be molded into solid objects. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass, but they often contain other substances. They are usually synthetic, most commonly derived from petrochemicals, but many are made from renewable materials such as polylactic acid from corn or cellulosics from cotton linters. Plasticity is the general property of all materials that are able to irreversibly deform without breaking, but this occurs to such a degree with this class of moldable polymers that their name is an emphasis on this ability.

Bio-Plastics - Carbon Fiber

Thermoplastic is a plastic material, a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling. Most thermoplastics have a high molecular weight. The polymer chains associate through intermolecular forces, which weaken rapidly with increased temperature, yielding a viscous liquid. Thus, thermoplastics may be reshaped by heating and are typically used to produce parts by various polymer processing techniques such as injection molding, compression molding, calendering, and extrusion. Thermoplastics differ from thermosetting polymers, which form irreversible chemical bonds during the curing process. Thermosets do not melt, but decompose and do not reform upon cooling. Above its glass transition temperature and below its melting point, the physical properties of a thermoplastic change drastically without an associated phase change. Some thermoplastics do not fully crystallize below the glass transition temperature, retaining some or all of their amorphous characteristics. Amorphous and semi-amorphous plastics are used when high optical clarity is necessary, as light is scattered strongly by crystallites larger than its wavelength. Amorphous and semi-amorphous plastics are less resistant to chemical attack and environmental stress cracking because they lack a crystalline structure. Brittleness can be decreased with the addition of plasticizers, which increases the mobility of amorphous chain segments to effectively lowers the glass transition temperature. Modification of the polymer through copolymerization or through the addition of non-reactive side chains to monomers before polymerization can also lower it. Before these techniques were employed, plastic automobile parts would often crack when exposed to cold temperatures. These are linear or slightly branched long chain molecules capable of repeatedly softening on heating and hardening on cooling.

Thermosetting Polymer is a prepolymer in a soft solid or viscous liquid state that changes irreversibly into an infusible, insoluble polymer network by curing. Curing is induced by the action of heat or suitable radiation often under high pressure, or by mixing with a catalyst or crosslinking agent often under atmospheric conditions at ambient temperature.

Thermoset Polymer Matrix act as binder or matrix to secure in place incorporated particulates, fibres or other reinforcements, can be formulated with a diversity of properties for a wide variety of structural end uses.

Thermoforming is a manufacturing process where a plastic sheet is heated to a pliable forming temperature, formed to a specific shape in a mold, and trimmed to create a usable product. The sheet, or "film" when referring to thinner gauges and certain material types, is heated in an oven to a high-enough temperature that permits it to be stretched into or onto a mold and cooled to a finished shape. Its simplified version is vacuum forming.

Vacuum Forming is a simplified version of thermoforming, where a sheet of plastic is heated to a forming temperature, stretched onto a single-surface mold, and forced against the mold by a vacuum. This process can be used to form plastic into permanent objects such as turnpike signs and protective covers. Normally draft angles are present in the design of the mold (a recommended minimum of 3°) to ease removal of the formed plastic part from the mold. Relatively deep parts can be formed if the formable sheet is mechanically or pneumatically stretched prior to bringing it into contact with the mold surface and applying vacuum. Suitable materials for use in vacuum forming are conventionally thermoplastics. The most common and easiest to use thermoplastic is high impact polystyrene sheeting (HIPS). This is molded around a wood, structural foam or cast or machined aluminium mold, and can form to almost any shape. Vacuum forming is also appropriate for transparent materials such as acrylic, which are widely used in applications for aerospace such as passenger cabin window canopies for military fixed wing aircraft and compartments for rotary wing aircraft. Vacuum forming is often used in low-level technology classes for an easy way to mold.

Metal - Iron - Steel

Materials Science involves the discovery and design of new materials, with an emphasis on solids.

Chemistry - Thermodynamics

Recyclable, Strong Thermosets and Organogels via Paraformaldehyde Condensation with Diamines

Graphene (nano)

Resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers. They are often mixtures of organic compounds, principally terpenes. Many plants, particularly woody plants, produce resin in response to injury. The resin acts as a bandage protecting the plant from invading insects and pathogens.

Synthetic Resin are materials with properties similar to natural plant resins. They are viscous liquids capable of hardening permanently. Chemically they are very different from resinous compounds secreted by plants (see resin for discussion of the natural products).

3-D Printing



Strength of Materials


Stress Types in Strength of MaterialsStructural Load are forces, deformations, or accelerations applied to a structure or its components. Loads cause stresses, deformations, and displacements in structures. Assessment of their effects is carried out by the methods of structural analysis. Excess load or overloading may cause structural failure, and hence such possibility should be either considered in the design or strictly controlled. Mechanical structures, such as aircraft, satellites, rockets, space stations, ships, and submarines, have their own particular structural loads and actions. Engineers often evaluate structural loads based upon published regulations, contracts, or specifications. Accepted technical standards are used for acceptance testing and inspection.

Span Limits Calculator

Ultimate Tensile Strength is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.

Strength of Materials is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains.

Vehicle Payload Capacities
Tensile Strength Calculator

Parameter is any factor that defines a system and determines (or limits) its performance. In computer science, parameter is a reference or value that is passed to a function, procedure, subroutine, command, or program. A quantity (such as the mean or variance) that characterizes a statistical population and that can be estimated by calculations from sample data.

Tensiometer (surface tension) as it applies to physics is an instrument used to measure the surface tension ( γ {\displaystyle \scriptstyle \gamma } \scriptstyle\gamma) of liquids or surfaces. Tensiometers are used in research and development laboratories to determine the surface tension of liquids like coatings, lacquers or adhesives. A further application field of tensiometers is the monitoring of industrial production processes like parts cleaning or electroplating.

Torque Wrench is a tool used to apply precisely a specific torque to a fastener such as a nut or bolt. It is usually in the form of a socket wrench with special internal mechanisms. It was designed to prevent overtightening bolts on water main and steam pipe repairs underground. A torque wrench is used where the tightness of screws and bolts is crucial. It allows the operator to measure the torque applied to the fastener so it can be matched to the specifications for a particular application. This permits proper tension and loading of all parts. A torque wrench measures torque as a proxy for bolt tension. The technique suffers from inaccuracy due to inconsistent or uncalibrated friction between the fastener and its mating hole. Measuring bolt tension (indirectly via bolt stretch) is actually what is desired, but often torque is the only practical measurement which can be made. Torque screwdrivers and torque wrenches have similar purposes and mechanisms.

Tension (physics) describes the pulling force transmitted axially by means of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-dimensional continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three-dimensional object; tension can also be described as the action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements. Tension is the opposite of compression.

Young's Modulus also known as the elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a solid material. It is a mechanical property of linear elastic solid materials. It defines the relationship between stress (force per unit area) and strain (proportional deformation) in a material.

Engineering Tolerance is the permissible limit or limits of variation in: A physical dimension, a measured value or physical property of a material manufactured object, system, or service, other measured values (such as temperature, humidity, etc.). In engineering and safety, a physical distance or space (tolerance), as in a truck (lorry), train or boat under a bridge as well as a train in a tunnel (see structure gauge and loading gauge). In mechanical engineering the space between a bolt and a nut or a hole, etc.. Dimensions, properties, or conditions may have some variation without significantly affecting functioning of systems, machines, structures, etc. A variation beyond the tolerance (for example, a temperature that is too hot or too cold) is said to be noncompliant, rejected, or exceeding the tolerance, which is the capacity of an organism or material to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions.

Specification (technical standard). A requirement specification is a set of documented requirements to be satisfied by a material, design, product, or service. A functional specification is closely related to the requirement specification and may show functional block diagrams. A design or product specification describes the features of the solutions for the Requirement Specification, referring to the designed solution or final produced solution. Sometimes the term specification is here used in connection with a data sheet (or spec sheet). This may be confusing. A data sheet describes the technical characteristics of an item or product as designed and/or produced. It can be published by a manufacturer to help people choose products or to help use the products. A data sheet is not a technical specification as described in this article. A "in-service" or "maintained as" specification, specifies the conditions of a system or object after years of operation, including the effects of wear and
maintenance (configuration changes).

Shapes (geography)

Honeycomb Structure are natural or man-made structures that have the geometry of a honeycomb to allow the minimization of the amount of used material to reach minimal weight and minimal material cost.

Disaster Proof Architecture Structures
Strong Structure Shapes

Earthquakes

Structural Health Monitoring is the process of implementing a damage detection and characterization strategy for engineering structures, referred to as structural health monitoring (SHM). Here damage is defined as changes to the material and/or geometric properties of a structural system, including changes to the boundary conditions and system connectivity, which adversely affect the system's performance. The SHM process involves the observation of a system over time using periodically sampled dynamic response measurements from an array of sensors, the extraction of damage-sensitive features from these measurements, and the statistical analysis of these features to determine the current state of system health. For long term SHM, the output of this process is periodically updated information regarding the ability of the structure to perform its intended function in light of the inevitable aging and degradation resulting from operational environments. After extreme events, such as earthquakes or blast loading, SHM is used for rapid condition screening and aims to provide, in near real time, reliable information regarding the integrity of the structure.

Magnifying Motion (youtube)

Goethite is an iron bearing hydroxide mineral of the diaspore group. It is found in soil and other low-temperature environments. Goethite has been well known since ancient times for its use as a pigment (brown ochre). Evidence has been found of its use in paint pigment samples taken from the caves of Lascaux in France.

Force (Action Physics)


Automation


Automation Factory Automation is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention.

Do Robots take Jobs?

Automaton - Autonomous

Machine is a tool containing one or more parts that uses Energy to perform an intended action. Machines are usually powered by mechanical, chemical, thermal, or electrical means, and are often motorized. Historically, a power tool also required moving parts to classify as a machine. However, the advent of electronics has led to the development of power tools without moving parts that are considered machines. Machine is any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of human tasks. An intricate organization that accomplishes its goals efficiently. A device for overcoming resistance at one point by applying force at some other point.

Mechanics is an area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

Mechanization is the process of changing from working largely or exclusively by hand or with animals to doing that work with machinery. Every machine is constructed for the purpose of performing certain mechanical operations, each of which supposes the existence of two other things besides the machine in question, namely, a moving power, and an object subject to the operation, which may be termed the work to be done. Machines, in fact, are interposed between the power and the work, for the purpose of adapting the one to the other.

Engines - Generators

Robotics - Robot Building

Sountrive Industrial JP (youtube)

Industrial Technology is the use of engineering and manufacturing technology to make production faster, simpler and more efficient. The industrial technology field employs creative and technically proficient individuals who can help a company achieve efficient and profitable Productivity.

Machine to Machine refers to direct communication between devices using any communications channel, including wired and wireless. Machine to machine communication can include industrial instrumentation, enabling a sensor or meter to communicate the data it records (such as temperature, inventory level, etc.) to application software that can use it (for example, adjusting an industrial process based on temperature or placing orders to replenish inventory). Such communication was originally accomplished by having a remote network of machines relay information back to a central hub for analysis, which would then be rerouted into a system like a personal computer.

Pneumatics makes use of gas or pressurized air.

Hydraulic Machinery are machinery and tools that use liquid fluid power to do simple work. Heavy equipment is a common example.
Hydraulic Cylinder is a mechanical actuator that is used to give a unidirectional force through a unidirectional stroke. It has many applications, notably in construction equipment (engineering vehicles), manufacturing machinery, and civil engineering.

Fluid Power is the use of fluids under pressure to generate, control, and transmit power.

CarsGears
Computers
Electrical

Manufacturing is the value added Production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.

Technology

Product Lifecycle is the process of managing the entire lifecycle of a product from inception, through engineering design and manufacture, to service and disposal of manufactured products.

Development Mistakes
Quality Control (QC)


Drawing - Blueprints - Design Software


Blueprint House Construction Plans Technical Drawing composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is to be constructed.

Architectural Drawing is a technical Drawing of a building used to develop a design idea into a coherent proposal, to communicate ideas and concepts, to convince clients of the merits of a design, to enable a building contractor to construct it, as a record of the completed work, and to make a record of a building that already exists.

Engineering Drawing is a type of technical drawing, is used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items.

Hand Drawing

Drawing Board is a kind of multipurpose desk which can be used for any kind of drawing, writing or impromptu sketching on a large sheet of paper or for reading a large format book or other oversized document or for drafting precise technical illustrations (such as engineering drawings or architectural drawings). The drawing table used to be a frequent companion to a pedestal desk in a gentleman's study or private library, during the pre-industrial and early industrial era.

Blueprint is a reproduction of a technical drawing, documenting an architecture or an engineering design, using a contact print process on light-sensitive sheets.

Visual Maps
Graphs - Plots
Computer Simulation - VR

Prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from. A prototype is generally used to evaluate a new design to enhance precision by system analysts and users. Prototyping serves to provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a theoretical one.

Rapid Prototyping is a group of techniques used to quickly fabricate a scale model of a physical part or assembly using three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) data. Construction of the part or assembly is usually done using 3D printing or "additive layer manufacturing" technology.

Building Kits - 3D-Printing

Conceptual Model is a representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents. Some models are physical objects; for example, a toy model which may be assembled, and may be made to work like the object it represents.

Physical Model allow visualization, from examining the model, of information about the thing the model represents.

Scale Model a physical representation of an object which enables it to demonstrate some behavior or property of the original object without examining the original object itself.

Sizes
Scale (ratio)

3D Modeling Software 3D Modeling is the process of developing a mathematically representation of any three-dimensional surface of an object (either inanimate or living) via specialized software.

Solid Modeling is a consistent set of principles for mathematical and computer modeling of three-dimensional solids. Solid modeling is distinguished from related areas of geometric modeling and computer graphics by its emphasis on physical fidelity.Together, the principles of geometric and solid modeling form the foundation of computer-aided design and in general support the creation, exchange, visualization, animation, interrogation, and annotation of digital models of physical objects.

Digital Mockup is a concept that allows the description of a product, usually in 3D, for its entire life cycle. Digital Mockup is enriched by all the activities that contribute to describing the product. The product design engineers, the manufacturing engineers, and the support engineers work together to create and manage the DMU. One of the objectives is to have an important knowledge of the future or the supported product to replace any physical prototypes with virtual ones, using 3D computer graphics techniques.

Computer-Aided Design is the use of computer systems (or workstations) to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, and to create a database for manufacturing. CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print, machining, or other manufacturing operations. The term CADD (for Computer Aided Design and Drafting) is also used.
List of Computer-Aided Design Software (wiki)

Design Engineer is a general term for a person who may be involved in any of various engineering disciplines including electrical, mechanical, chemical, textiles, aerospace, nuclear, manufacturing, civil, systems, and structural /building/architectural. Design engineers tend to work on products and systems that involve the use and adaption of complex scientific and mathematical techniques. The emphasis tends to be on utilizing engineering physics and sciences to develop solutions for society.

CAD or Computer-aided design, is the use of computer systems (or workstations) to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, and to create a database for manufacturing. CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print, machining, or other manufacturing operations. The term CADD (for Computer Aided Design and Drafting) is also used. Auto-Cad

Pro-E or PTC Creo, formerly known as Pro/ENGINEER, is a 3D CAD/CAM/CAE feature-based, associative solid modeling software. It is one of a suite of 10 collaborative applications that provide solid modeling, assembly modelling, 2D orthographic views, finite element analysis, direct and parametric modelling, sub-divisional and NURBS surfacing, and NC and tooling functionality for mechanical designers. Creo Elements/Parametric compete directly with Solidworks, CATIA, and NX/Solid Edge. It was created by Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) and was the first of its kind to market.

Micro-Station is a CAD software product for two and three dimensional design and drafting, developed and sold by Bentley Systems. The latest versions of the software are released solely for Microsoft Windows operating systems, but historically MicroStation was available for Macintosh platforms and a number of Unix-like operating systems.

Autodesk
Sketch Up

Tellart consist of designers, architects, filmmakers, and technologists deeply experienced in shaping ideas from concept
to execution. interactive prototypes.

Proto.io creates fully-interactive high-fidelity prototypes that look and work exactly like your app should. No coding required.

Mach 3 - Lazy-Cam

G-Code is the common name for the most widely used numerical control (NC) programming language. It is used mainly in computer-aided manufacturing to control automated machine tools. G-code is sometimes called G programming language, not to be confused with LabVIEW's G programming language.

Project-Wise is a suite of engineering project collaboration software from Bentley Systems designed for the architecture, engineering, construction (AEC) industries.

Industrial Design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production. Its key characteristic is that design is separated from manufacture: the creative act of determining and defining a product's form and features takes place in advance of the physical act of making a product, which consists purely of repeated, often automated, replication. This distinguishes industrial design from craft-based design, where the form of the product is determined by the product's creator at the time of its creation.

Engineers Without Borders is used by a number of non-governmental organizations in various countries to describe their activity based on engineering and oriented to international development work. All of these groups work worldwide to serve the needs of disadvantaged communities and people through engineering projects Many EWB national groups are developed independently from each other, and so they are not all formally affiliated with each other, and their level of collaboration and organizational development varies. The majority of the EWB/ISF (French, Ingénieurs Sans Frontières) organizations are strongly linked to academia and to students, with many of them being student-led.

Design Controls designates the application of a formal methodology to the conduct of product development activities. It is often mandatory (by regulation) to implement such practice when designing and developing products within regulated industries (e.g. medical devices).

Engineering
Harvard
Math Works

Quality Assurance (Quality Control)



Tools


Hand Tools Tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process. Tool use by humans dates back millions of years, and other animals are also known to employ simple tools, such as "instrument", "utensil", "implement", "machine", "device," or "apparatus". The set of tools needed to achieve a goal is "equipment".

Instrument is a device that requires skill for proper use. The means whereby some act is accomplished. Equip with instruments for measuring, recording, or controlling. A tool or implement, especially one for delicate or scientific work.

Machine Tool is a machine for shaping or machining metal or other rigid materials, usually by cutting, boring, grinding, shearing, or other forms of deformation. Machine tools employ some sort of tool that does the cutting or shaping. All machine tools have some means of constraining the workpiece and provide a guided movement of the parts of the machine. Thus the relative movement between the workpiece and the cutting tool (which is called the toolpath) is controlled or constrained by the machine to at least some extent, rather than being entirely "offhand" or "freehand".

Machining is any of various processes in which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process. The processes that have this common theme, controlled material removal, are today collectively known as subtractive manufacturing, in distinction from processes of controlled material addition, which are known as additive manufacturing. Exactly what the "controlled" part of the definition implies can vary, but it almost always implies the use of machine tools (in addition to just power tools and hand tools). Machine Shop Equipment

Machinist is a person who uses machine tools to make or modify parts, primarily metal parts. This process of machining is accomplished by using machine tools to cut away excess material much as a woodcarver cuts away excess wood to produce his work. In addition to metal, the parts may be made of many other kinds of materials, such as plastic or wood products. The goal of these cutting operations is to produce a part that conforms to a set of specifications, or tolerances, usually in the form of engineering drawings commonly known as blueprints.

Lathe is a tool that rotates the workpiece on its axis to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, or deformation, facing, turning, with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object with symmetry about an axis of rotation. Lathes are used in woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, thermal spraying, parts reclamation, and glass-working. Lathes can be used to shape pottery, the best-known design being the potter's wheel.
Building a Lathe from Scratch (youtube)
Matthias Wandel (youtube channel)

Metal Fabrication is the building of metal structures by cutting, bending, and assembling processes. It is a value added process that involves the construction of machines and structures from various raw materials.

Prefabrication (houses)

Forging - Casting - Molding

Zero Waste is a philosophy that encourages the redesign of resource life cycles so that all products are reused.

Milling Machine is the machining process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece by advancing (or feeding) in a direction at an angle with the axis of the tool. It covers a wide variety of different operations and machines, on scales from small individual parts to large, heavy-duty gang milling operations. It is one of the most commonly used processes in industry and machine shops today for machining parts to precise sizes and shapes. Heavy Tool Arm

Multiaxis Machining is a manufacturing process where computer numerically controlled tools that move in 4 or more ways are used to manufacture parts out of metal or other materials by milling away excess material, by water jet cutting or by laser cutting. Typical CNC tools support translation in 3 axis; multiaxis machines also support rotation around one or multiple axis. There are now many CAM (computer aided manufacturing) software systems available to support multiaxis machining including software that can automatically convert 3-axis toolpaths into 5-axis toolpaths. Five-axis machine tools are known to have 41 basic geometric errors,The way you want the machine to move (when making a large part) is different than the way it actually moves due to inherent geometric errors." Because of these errors, manufacturers must make adjustments in calibrating their CNC machines. Researchers develop ways to improve machining, milling processes

Computer Numerical Control or CNC, is the automation of machine tools by means of computers executing pre-programmed sequences of machine control commands. This is in contrast to machines that are manually controlled by hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated by cams alone. Taig CNC Mills

Math (mathematics)

Technology Interactivity - Interfaces

Laser Cutting is a technology that uses a Laser to cut materials, and is typically used for industrial manufacturing applications, but is also starting to be used by schools, small businesses, and hobbyists. Laser cutting works by directing the output of a high-power laser most commonly through optics. The laser optics and CNC (computer numerical control) are used to direct the material or the laser beam generated. A typical commercial laser for cutting materials would involve a motion control system to follow a CNC or G-code of the pattern to be cut onto the material. The focused Laser beam is directed at the material, which then either melts, burns, vaporizes away, or is blown away by a jet of gas, leaving an edge with a high-quality surface finish. Industrial laser cutters are used to cut flat-sheet material as well as structural and piping materials.

Plasma Cutting Machine
Plasma Cutting Pantograph (youtube)

Water Jet Cutter also known as a water jet or waterjet, is an industrial tool capable of cutting a wide variety of materials using a very high-pressure jet of water, or a mixture of water and an abrasive substance. The term abrasive jet refers specifically to the use of a mixture of water and abrasive to cut hard materials such as metal or granite, while the terms pure waterjet and water-only cutting refer to waterjet cutting without the use of added abrasives, often used for softer materials such as wood or rubber. Waterjet cutting is often used during fabrication of machine parts. It is the preferred method when the materials being cut are sensitive to the high temperatures generated by other methods. Waterjet cutting is used in various industries, including mining and aerospace, for cutting, shaping, and reaming.

Pascal is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength. It is defined as one newton per square metre. It is named after the French polymath Blaise Pascal. Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal (1 hPa = 100 Pa) which is equal to one millibar, and the kilopascal (1 kPa = 1000 Pa) which is equal to one centibar. The unit of measurement called standard atmosphere (atm) is defined as 101,325 Pa and approximates to the average pressure at sea-level at the latitude 45° N. Meteorological reports typically state atmospheric pressure in hectopascals.

Science Tools


Measuring Tools

Ruler Inch and Millimeter Calibrated Lines Ruler is an instrument used in geometry, technical drawing, printing, engineering and building to measure distances or to rule straight lines. The ruler is a straightedge which may also contain calibrated lines to measure distances.

Tape Measure is a flexible ruler. It consists of a ribbon of cloth, plastic, fibre glass, or metal strip with linear-measurement markings. It is a common measuring tool. Its design allows for a measure of great length to be easily carried in pocket or toolkit and permits one to measure around curves or corners. Today it is ubiquitous, even appearing in miniature form as a keychain fob, or novelty item. Surveyors use tape measures in lengths of over 100 m (300+ ft).
Easy Way to Read a Tape Measure (youtube)

Units of Measurement (standards)

Conversion of Units is the conversion between different units of measurement for the same quantity, typically through multiplicative conversion factors.

Conversion Calculator
Metric Conversions
Liquid Conversions (recipes)

1 Inch" = 25.4 Millimeters-MM (12 Inches in 1 Foot).
1 Foot' = 0.3048 Meters  (3.28084 Feet in 1 Meter).
1 Mile = 1.60934 Kilometers (1 Mile is 5,280 Feet).

Steel Square is a long-armed square that has additional uses for measurement, especially of angles, as well as simple right-angles. Today the steel square is more commonly referred to as the framing square. It consists of a long arm and a shorter one, which meet at an angle of 90 degrees (a right angle). It can also be made of metals like aluminum, which is light and resistant to rust.

Protractor is for measuring angles. Most protractors measure angles in degrees (°). Radian-scale protractors measure angles in radians. Most protractors are divided into 180 equal parts.

Gauge is a device used to make measurements or in order to display certain information, like time.

Micrometer is a device incorporating a calibrated screw widely used for precise measurement of components in mechanical engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with other metrological instruments such as dial, vernier, and digital calipers.

Calipers is a device used to measure the distance between two opposite sides of an object. A caliper can be as simple as a compass with inward or outward-facing points. The tips of the caliper are adjusted to fit across the points to be measured, the caliper is then removed and the distance read by measuring between the tips with a measuring tool, such as a ruler. It is used in many fields such as mechanical engineering, metalworking, forestry, woodworking, science and medicine.

Measuring Tools Vernier Caliper: Dial and digital calipers give a direct reading of the distance measured with high accuracy and precision. They are functionally identical, with different ways of reading the result. These calipers comprise a calibrated scale with a fixed jaw, and another jaw, with a pointer, that slides along the scale. The distance between the jaws is then read in different ways for the three types. The simplest method is to read the position of the pointer directly on the scale. When the pointer is between two markings, the user can mentally interpolate to improve the precision of the reading. This would be a simple calibrated caliper; but the addition of a vernier scale allows more accurate interpolation, and is the universal practice; this is the vernier caliper. Vernier, dial, and digital calipers can measure internal dimensions (using the uppermost jaws in the picture at right), external dimensions using the pictured lower jaws, and in many cases depth by the use of a probe that is attached to the movable head and slides along the centre of the body. This probe is slender and can get into deep grooves that may prove difficult for other measuring tools. The vernier scales may include metric measurements on the lower part of the scale and inch measurements on the upper, or vice versa, in countries that use inches. Vernier calipers commonly used in industry provide a precision to 0.01 mm (10 micrometres), or one thousandth of an inch. They are available in sizes that can measure up to 1,829 mm (72 in).
Dial Caliper: Instead of using a vernier mechanism, which requires some practice to use, the dial caliper reads the final fraction of a millimeter or inch on a simple dial. In this instrument, a small, precise rack and pinion drives a pointer on a circular dial, allowing direct reading without the need to read a vernier scale. Typically, the pointer rotates once every inch, tenth of an inch, or 1 millimeter. This measurement must be added to the coarse whole inches or centimeters read from the slide. The dial is usually arranged to be rotatable beneath the pointer, allowing for "differential" measurements (the measuring of the difference in size between two objects, or the setting of the dial using a master object and subsequently being able to read directly the plus-or-minus variance in size of subsequent objects relative to the master object). The slide of a dial caliper can usually be locked at a setting using a small lever or screw; this allows simple go/no-go checks of part sizes.
Digital Caliper: A refinement now popular is the replacement of the analog dial with an electronic digital display on which the reading is displayed as a single value. Rather than a rack and pinion, they have a linear encoder. Some digital calipers can be switched between centimeters or millimeters, and inches. All provide for zeroing the display at any point along the slide, allowing the same sort of differential measurements as with the dial caliper. Digital calipers may contain some sort of "reading hold" feature, allowing the reading of dimensions even in awkward locations where the display cannot be seen. Ordinary 6-in/150-mm digital calipers are made of stainless steel, have a rated accuracy of 0.001 in (0.02mm) and resolution of 0.0005 in (0.01 mm). [9] The same technology is used to make longer 8-in and 12-in calipers; the accuracy for bigger measurements declines to 0.001 in (0.03 mm) for 100–200 mm and 0.0015 in (0.04 mm) for 200–300 mm.

Pneumatic Tool is a type of power tool, driven by compressed air, supplied by an air compressor. Pneumatic tools can also be driven by compressed carbon dioxide (CO2) stored in small cylinders allowing for portability. Pneumatic tools are safer to run and maintain than their electric power tool equivalents, and have a higher power-to-weight ratio, allowing a smaller, lighter tool to accomplish the same task. General grade pneumatic tools with short life span are commonly cheaper and are also called disposable tools in tooling industries while industrial grade pneumatic tools with long life span are more expensive. In general, pneumatic tools are cheaper than the equivalent electric-powered tools.
Hand Tools List
Impact Wrench is a socket wrench power tool designed to deliver high torque output with minimal exertion by the user, by storing energy in a rotating mass, then delivering it suddenly to the output shaft. Compressed air is the most common power source, although electric or hydraulic power is also used, with cordless electric devices becoming increasingly popular since the mid-2000s. Employee Benefits: The Ultimate Guide For Small Business Owners.

Power Tool

Motor Controls
Vocabulary Tools

Welding - Construction

Wood Working

E Machine Shop Design and order Custom Parts. 
Failure Criteria

Communication

E Plans
Building Cost
Owner Builder 
Total Take Offs
Home Plans
FlatCAM: Free and Open-source PCB CAM, lets you take your designs to a CNC Router

Hand Tools List (wiki)
Metalworking Tools
Farm Tools and Equipment

Tools Info-Graph (image)




The Thinker Man