Environmental Awareness - Naturalist Intelligence
is the area in which we live
thin layer of air that surrounds our planet
. Humans are the only kind of life
that we know
of that exists in our universe
If we did not have our environment we could not exist. This environmental space in
which we share
with other life forms is a
. Though our
environment can be an incredibly beautiful experience, the environment can
. Evidence of mass extinctions
in our past reveals
the vulnerabilities of our environment
. And today we have millions of
people and other living species dying every year from
and other pollution
. Humans have irresponsibly
infected the only living space
in our solar system. But we can recover,
because science has taught us about the laws of
and how everything is
Cause and Effect
. So we have a lot of work to do,
and we have a lot to learn
. Our lives depend on it. We will have to
globally in order to solve these problems that we are faced with, like
with the problem of increased amounts of
. We have been given a
beautiful gift. So let us preserve this gift for future generations and
the trillions of people who will need to depend on this environment to live.
like us and millions of other life forms
is when Humankind benefits
in a multitude of ways from
by providing clean drinking water
production of food
decomposition of wastes
regulating the control of climate
and crop pollination
, spiritual and
, and economic values. Trees
what the environment offers to the animal, what it provides or furnishes,
either for good or ill. This includes all transactions that are possible
between an individual and their environment. Affordances are clues about
how an object
should be used, typically provided by the object itself
or its context.
that exist without actions of
humankind. This includes all valued
characteristics such as magnetic,
gravitational, and electrical properties and forces. On
) along with all vegetation
that naturally subsists upon or within the
heretofore identified characteristics and substances.
Environment in Biophysical
is the biotic
surrounding of an
organism or population
, and consequently includes the factors that have an
influence in their survival, development
and evolution marine environment,
the atmospheric environment
and the terrestrial environment. All life that
has survived must have adapted
to conditions of its environment.
"There is no such thing as
, Nothing is Free, so please don't
, especially from the Future". Environmental Sayings
Managing our surroundings
and those responsibilities must be defined and
understood if we are ever going
to succeed. And now that
the world is flat again, means that our surroundings are
not just local, they're also global
form on planet earth has a particular responsibility to maintain life and
maintain the environment including all plant life. All humans have
responsibilities to maintain life and maintain the environment including
all plant life. But not every human is utilized and not every human is
fulfilling their responsibilities, thus some people are doing more harm
than good.Nature Smart
enables human beings to
, categorize and
draw upon certain features of the environment.
"The environment speaks in numbers and
math is the universal language
that gives us the
ability to have some form of communication with everything around us."
Cause and Effect
connects one process (the cause) with another
or state (the
effect), where the first is understood to be partly
second, and the second is dependent on the first.
is the source of a
originates from. Root-Cause
Man Made Cause
Causes of Death
that are not
. And there is hardly
anything in life that is
because something was here before you got here, that does not prove that it's
is anything that contributes
as a cause to a result. Something to consider as
when making a
is a contributory cause of a
Cofactor in biochemistry
is a substance other than the substrate,
whose presence is essential for the activity of an enzyme. Extenuating
Circumstances - Mitigating Factor.
is any factor,
or biotic, that influences living organisms. Abiotic factors
include ambient temperature
, amount of
in which an organism lives. Biotic factors
would include the availability
of food organisms and the presence of conspecifics, competitors,
predators, and parasites. Attribution
is assigning or giving some
quality or character to a person or thing. Assigning to a cause or
is to apply an action in a manner
that is consistent with its purpose
design, and in the observance of laws and
, that pursues a conclusion or brings something to an end. An
instrumentation or a piece of equipment
that is used to effect an end or a result.
is the result of an
happens because of the cause, which can be
that follows some event that was caused by some previous phenomenon.
is something that follows as a consequence
of a particular action
is the final consequence
of a sequence
of actions or events expressed qualitatively or
. Possible results include advantage,
, gain, injury, loss,
value and victory. There may be a range of possible outcomes associated
with an event depending on the point of view, historical distance or
relevance. Reaching no result can mean that actions are inefficient,
ineffective, meaningless or flawed
is a possible
occurrence or result and the conditions or
circumstances that follow
is to have an effect on someone or
something or to impact or influence something.
is something that happens at a given
. A special set of circumstances
is the set of
that surround a
situation or an event. A condition that accompanies or
some event or
that should be kept in mind when making a
is the general state of things
and the combination of circumstances at a given time. A condition or
position in which you find yourself in. A complex problem and a critical
moment or unusual difficulty that has happened that you must deal with and
learn to solve
to the surroundings.
is a fact or situation that is
to exist or
happen, especially one whose cause or
Phenomenon is any state or process
known through the
rather than by
. The object of a person's perception and what the
senses or the mind notice. A remarkable development that you can see
is a secondary phenomenon that occurs alongside or in parallel to a
Newtown's Third Law
- Thermo Dynamics
is an abstract model
that describes the causal mechanisms of a
. The model must
express more than correlation because correlation does not imply
causation. Problem Solving
is a mutual or reciprocal
action. Interaction in physics is the transfer of
between elementary particles
or between an elementary particle and a field or between fields; mediated
by gauge bosons.
relation between two or more things. A statistical relation
between two or
such that systematic changes in the value of one variable
are accompanied by systematic
changes in the other.
is when things are
and have a
relation that is
Correlation and Dependence
, whether causal or not, between two
or bivariate data.
In the broadest sense correlation is any statistical association, though
in common usage it most often refers to how close two
having a linear relationship with each other. Familiar
dependent phenomena include the correlation between the physical statures
of parents and their offspring, and the correlation between the demand for
a limited supply product and its price. Correlations are useful because
they can indicate a predictive relationship
that can be exploited in
practice. For example, an electrical utility may produce less power on a
mild day based on the correlation between electricity demand and weather.
In this example, there is a causal relationship
, because extreme weather
causes people to use more electricity for heating or cooling. However, in
general, the presence of a correlation is not sufficient to infer the
presence of a causal relationship
Bias in Research
Third Cause Fallacy
is giving a
deceiving false reason
for a cause
in order to try to discredit or ignore other logical causes.
Correlation does not necessarily prove Causation
because when two
found to be correlated
, it is tempting to
that this shows that one
variable causes the other. Saying that "correlation
," is considered a
. All because two events
together, you can not automatically
to have established a cause-and-effect relationship.
Sometimes Occam's Razor
but not always. Coincidence
that you have that would give a reason why something
happened, the less chance you will have at being 100 percent accurate.
Some events could have happened for a number of reasons, but you need to
have the most likely answer, with the understanding that other
answers exist. There are several
reasons that could explain why an event happened, and none of those
reasons stand alone because there can be several reasons that contributed
to the event, with some of those reasons being unknown to you.
the best way for something not to get noticed is to be visible and not
hidden. When people get use to seeing something most of the time, they
seem to notice less and less about that something. And when something
happens, people sometimes look for things that are hidden or unknown to
them, when in fact, the thing that they're looking for is right in front
of them. Seeing a
is one thing,
not being able to see something
because you lack the knowledge and information that's needed to see it, is
another thing. Just because you can see something, this doesn't mean that
you understand it, and just because you don't see something, this doesn't
mean that you can't understand it. The trick is
not to jump to
, because there is no end to learning. When people stop
becomes the devils
- Levels of Thinking
is capable of
being reproduced Reliably
Marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of
parts. The same throughout in structure or composition.
is logical coherence and
accordance with the facts. A harmonious
uniformity or agreement among things or parts
is always the same; showing a
single form or character in all occurrences. The same throughout in
structure or composition. Evenly spaced.
is a logical or
of separate elements.
(Mathematics - Life)
is the property of a system in which a
variable is actively regulated
to remain very nearly
. (for example,
the concentration of a substance in solution, or its temperature).
is a process where some form of overall order arises from
between parts of an initially disordered system. The process
is spontaneous, not needing
by any external
. It is often
triggered by random fluctuations, amplified by positive feedback. The
resulting organization is wholly decentralized, distributed over all the
components of the
. As such, the
is typically robust
and able to survive or self-repair substantial perturbation
. Chaos theory
discusses self-organization in terms of islands of predictability in a sea
of chaotic unpredictability. Self-organization occurs in many physical,
chemical, biological, robotic, and cognitive systems. Examples can be
found in crystallization, thermal convection of fluids, chemical
oscillation, animal swarming, and artificial and biological
(self-organization is also called
is a neurological phenomenon in which stimulation
of one sensory or
cognitive pathway leads to automatic
, involuntary experiences in a second
sensory or cognitive pathway.
is being Responsible
for the world by Maintaining
taking care of it. Green Schools
is something that is not
subject or susceptible to change or variation in form or quality or
states all actions are performed in accordance with some
underlying maxim or principle
, which are
deeply different from each other; it is according to this that the moral
worth of any action is judged.
sometimes referred to as Fate
predetermined course of events. It may be conceived as a predetermined
future, whether in general or of an individual.
is the philosophical doctrine that all events transpire in virtue of some
and are therefore inevitable. The philosophical position that
for every event there exist conditions that could cause no other event.
is an uninterrupted connection
. The property of a
and connected period of time.
is the quality of being
and free from change or
In psychology, constancy is the tendency for
perceived objects to give rise to very
similar perceptual experiences
spite of wide variations in the conditions of
is the relation that exists
when things occur at
the same time
something existing or occurring at the same time. Simultaneous
states that events are "meaningful
" if they occur with no causal relationship yet seem to be
occurs when outputs of a
are routed back as
inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or
loop. The system can then be said to
feed back into itself
. The notion of
cause-and-effect has to be handled carefully when applied to
or functioning or
allowing movement in two opposite directions.
is a process
that occurs in a
in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an
increase in the magnitude of the disturbance. The enhancement or
amplification of an effect by its own influence on the process that gives
rise to it. The return of part of an output
to the input, which is
in phase with it, so that the amplifier gain is increased and the output
is often distorted.
occurs when some function of the output of a system, process,
or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations
in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other
. Social Feedback
is a sequence
where a reactive product or
by-product causes additional reactions to take place. In a chain reaction,
positive feedback leads to a self-amplifying chain of events.
Chain of Events
is a number of actions and their effects that are contiguous and
that results in a particular outcome. Something's that happen
are a combination
different things happening at the same time or near the same time
that are all contributing
to a cause or a failure. So you can't
just blame one thing
point your finger at a single cause.
. In the
chain reactions are a primary example.
is the cumulative effect
one event sets off a chain of similar events. The environment is kind of
it's all fun and games until that one crucial mistake brings the whole
system crashing down.
is a process that starts from an initial state of small significance and
builds upon itself, becoming larger, graver, more serious, and also
perhaps potentially dangerous
is a failure
in a system of interconnected parts in
which the failure of a part can trigger the failure of successive parts.
is something that will happen again and come into being and
be a reality.
Tipping Point in physics
is an example of
in which the point
at which an object is displaced from a state of stable equilibrium into a
new equilibrium state
that is qualitatively dissimilar from the first.
(transient state). -
is the value of the parameter in which the set of
abruptly change in
Tipping Point in climatology
is when global climate changes from one
stable state to another possible stable or unstable state.
is an inevitable and sometimes unforeseen chain of events due to an act
affecting a system. If there is a possibility that the cascade effect will
have a negative impact on the system, it is possible to analyze the
effects with a consequence/impact analysis. Cascade effects are commonly
visualized in tree structures, also called
, which is a top down, deductive
an undesired state of a system
is analyzed using Boolean logic
a series of lower-level events. This analysis method is mainly used in the
fields of safety engineering
reliability engineering to understand how systems can fail, to identify
the best ways to reduce risk or to determine (or get a feeling for) event
rates of a safety accident or a particular system level (functional)
failure. Mobile Sculpture
occurs in situations where an increase in temperature changes the
conditions in a way that causes a further increase in temperature, often
leading to a destructive result. It is a kind of uncontrolled positive
is an undesired
or harmful chemicals
which result in morbidity or particular disease or unhealthy state of
mind, mortality, alteration in body weight, levels of enzymes, loss of
function, or as a pathological change detected at the microscopic,
macroscopic or physiological level. Adverse effects may cause a reversible
or irreversible change, including an increase or decrease in the
susceptibility of the individual to other
, foods, or
procedures, such as drug
. Food Safety
List of Effects
is an effect that is secondary
to the one intended,
which can be
in (bio-)chemical sciences generally refers to the process whereby
something is prepared or excited for a subsequent reaction.
is a formal system which describes the
computational effects of computer programs, such as side effects. An
effect system can be used to provide a compile-time check of the possible
effects of the program.
is a functional relationship between two quantities, where a
relative change in one quantity results in a proportional relative change
in the other quantity, independent of the initial size of those
quantities: one quantity varies as a power of another. For instance,
considering the area of a square in terms of the length of its side, if
the length is doubled, the area is multiplied by a factor of four.
Rate of Change
Causal Loop Diagram
visualizing how different variables in a system
are interrelated. Feedback Loop
is a sequence
(actions, information, objects, people) in which an event is among the
causes of another event, which in turn is among the causes of the
first-mentioned event. Such causally-looped events then exist in
, but their origin cannot be
determined. Time Loop
is when the
action from the
controller is independent of the "process output
", which is the process
variable that is being controlled. It does not use feedback to determine
if its output has achieved the desired goal of the input or process "set
point". An open-loop system cannot engage in
and also cannot correct any
that it could make. It
will not compensate for disturbances in the process being controlled.
connected) - CoexistPandora's Box
means to perform an action that may seem small or innocent, but that turns
out to have severely detrimental and far-reaching
. The action
cannot be reversed, only repaired
. Progress Trap
- Social Trap
is a perceived dilemma or difficult
circumstance from which there is no escape because of mutually
conditions that interfere with
Logical Decision Making
. But one choice
is always going to be better than the other choice, so
don't make up excuses
. "Dammed if you do
and dammed if you don't
, but only if you can
." "What goes around comes around
is a type of
in which something is falsely claimed to be an
"either / or
" situation, when in fact there is at least one additional
Choose Your Poison
is used to say that
someone has to make a choice between two unpleasant choices.
Two Party System
is a state of uncertainty or perplexity, especially on
requiring a choice between two or more equally unfavorable options.
Between a Rock and a Hard Place
you have to make a choice between two unpleasant choices, or when you're
faced with a situation offering at least two unacceptable possibilities.
The origin of the idiom
can be found
in ancient Greek mythology.Tough
something that is very difficult that severely tests your
, an event that
makes great mental demands that are hard to comprehend or solve or
believe. Something unfortunate or hard to bear.
is a dilemma you
may face when choosing between options. Should you choose what you know
and get something close to what you expect (‘exploit’) or choose something
you aren’t sure about and possibly learn more (‘explore’)?
Setting up to Fail
is a phrase denoting a no-win situation designed in
such a way that the person in the situation cannot succeed at the task
which they have been assigned.
is a process
whereby larger entities arise through
interactions among smaller or simpler entities
such that the larger
entities exhibit properties the smaller/simpler entities do not exhibit.
is a causal relationship
from higher levels of a system
to lower-level parts of that system.
states that, for many events, roughly 80%
of the effects come from 20% of the causes. (80–20 rule).
is strict standards of
of cause and effect . (c. 460 – c. 400 BC).
is the extensive damage and
of a given territory, whether by
or by other, to
such an extent that healthy
enjoyment by the inhabitants of that
territory has been or will be severely diminished.
You Don't Know What
You Got Till It's Gone - Cinderella
Virtuous Circle and Vicious Circle
refers to complex chains of events
that reinforce themselves through a feedback loop. A virtuous circle has
favorable results, while a vicious circle has detrimental results. Both
circles are complex chains of events with no tendency toward equilibrium
(social, economic, ecological, etc.) - at least in the short run. Both
systems of events have feedback loops in which each iteration of the cycle
reinforces the previous one (positive feedback). These cycles will
continue in the direction of their momentum until an external factor
intervenes and breaks the cycle.
Input - Output
between an information
system, such as a
, and the outside world,
possibly a human or another information
processing system. Inputs are the signals or
by the system
and outputs are the signals or data sent from it. The term can also be
used as part of an action
to "perform I/O" is to perform an input or output operation.
are used by a human
(or other system)
to communicate with a computer. For instance, a
keyboard or mouse
input device for a computer, while monitors and printers are output
devices. Devices for communication between computers, such as modems and
network cards, typically perform both input and output operations.
is the behavior of an electronic, software, or other
system where the output is dependent on the sequence or timing of other
uncontrollable events. It becomes a bug when events do not happen in the
order the programmer intended. The term originates with the idea of two
signals racing each other to influence the output first. Race conditions
can occur in electronics systems, especially logic circuits, and in
computer software, especially multithreaded or distributed programs.
are patterns of behavior of a
expressed by circles of causality have therefore similar
or Paradigm Shift
is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices
of a scientific discipline.
is when cognition arises through a dynamic interaction between an acting
organism and its environment.
Fixx - One Thing Leads To Another
You Reap what you Sow
, Give and Receive, or what
goes around comes around, is only accurate when you measure the value of
the input and the output. Just the facts, and not the perceived facts or assumed facts.
is the outcome of an event that
to an individual or group of people. Having important effects
is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences
of one's conduct
ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or
of that conduct.
Thus, from a consequentialist standpoint, a morally right act (or omission
from acting) is one that will produce a good outcome, or consequence.
inevitable consequence of a preceding occurrence or cause or event.
are outcomes that are not the ones
and intended by a
purposeful action. Mistake
consequence of an action or event, especially when complex or unwelcome.
is a remote or indirect
consequence of some action.
is concerned with the
action. It might also be posed as how to represent what happens implicitly
due to an action or how to control the secondary and tertiary effects of
an action. It is strongly connected to, and is opposite the
qualification side of
, describes an issue with using
(FOL) to express
facts about a robot in the world.
We should Remake these game shows to be more reality based -
Truth or Consequences
Truth or Dare?
is our preference to judge decisions based on the outcome,
rather than how we made the decision. We weigh a one-time result more
heavily than the decision-making process itself.
is our tendency to see past
events as much more predictable than they actually were. While it’s often
hard or impossible to actually predict certain things, after the fact we
get an “I knew it all along
” feeling. This
leads to us misjudging our own and others’ abilities.
Hindsight is 20/20
describes the fact that
it is easy for one to be knowledgeable about an event after it has
is a deduction
implication, that is, something that follows logically from or is implied
by something else. In logic, an entailment is the relationship between
sentences whereby one sentence will be true if all the others are also
true. Something involved as a necessary part or consequence of something.
An entailment can also mean a situation where the owner of property has
limited power over his own property.
Coincidences - Randomness
is a remarkable concurrence of events or circumstances
which have no apparent causal connection
with each other.
Freak of Nature
is a deviation from the normal or common order or
form or rule. Mutations
- Uncertainty Principle
Anomaly in natural sciences
is the deviation in a quantity from its
expected value. A deviation from the normal or common order or form or
rule, e.g., the difference between a measurement and a
or a model prediction. Similarly,
a standardized anomaly equals an anomaly divided by a
. A group of
anomalies can be analyzed spatially, as a map, or temporally, as a time
series. There are examples in atmospheric sciences and in geophysics.
Coincidence helps with quantum measurements
. Through randomly selected
measurements, physicists can determine the
of many-particle systems.
is being or having a random
is when you are not sure that
something will happen because you lack information and knowledge, or when
you don't want to commit
action. Having a perceived possibility or chance of happening.
Exception to the Rule
. A case may appear at
first sight to be an exception to the rule. However, sometimes when the
situation is examined more closely, it is observed that the
rule does not apply to this case
, and thus the rule may be shown to be
valid after all.
is something lacking any
predictable order or plan. Haphazardness.Random
is a perceived
in events. A
random sequence of events
, symbols or steps has no order and does not
follow an intelligible pattern or combination. Individual random events
are by definition unpredictable
, but in many cases the frequency of
different outcomes over a large number of events (or "trials") is
predictable. For example, when throwing two dice, the outcome of any
particular roll is unpredictable, but a sum of 7 will occur twice as often
as 4. In this view, randomness is a measure of uncertainty of an outcome,
rather than haphazardness, and applies to concepts of chance,
and information entropy
is the quality of being determined by chance, whim, or
, and not by necessity,
, or principle.
is something based on random
choice or personal whim, rather than any reason or system.
Random Number Generator
is a device that generates random numbers from
a physical process, rather than a computer program. Such devices are often
based on microscopic phenomena that generate low-level,
"noise" signals, such as thermal
photoelectric effect, involving a beam splitter
, and other quantum
phenomena. These stochastic processes are, in theory, completely
unpredictable, and the theory's assertions of unpredictability are subject
to experimental test. A hardware random number generator typically
consists of a transducer to convert some aspect of the physical phenomena
to an electrical signal, an amplifier and other electronic circuitry to
increase the amplitude of the random fluctuations to a measurable level,
and some type of analog to digital converter to convert the output into a
digital number, often a simple binary digit 0 or 1. By repeatedly sampling
the randomly varying signal, a series of random numbers is attained. The
main application for electronic hardware random number generators is in
cryptography, where they are used to generate random cryptographic keys to
transmit data securely. They are widely used in Internet encryption
protocols such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Random number generators can
also be built from "random" macroscopic processes, using devices such as
coin flipping, dice, roulette wheels and lottery machines. The presence of
unpredictability in these phenomena can be justified by the theory of
unstable dynamical systems and chaos theory. Even though macroscopic
processes are deterministic under Newtonian mechanics, the output of a
well-designed device like a roulette wheel cannot be predicted in
practice, because it depends on the sensitive, micro-details of the
initial conditions of each use.Spontaneous
is something happening
or arising without apparent external cause.
is something recurring in
scattered and irregular or
is something that stops and starts at irregular intervals
is an event not explicable by natural or scientific
. Such an event may be attributed to a supernatural being (a
deity), magic, a miracle worker, a saint or a religious leader.
Reason for Everything
Truth is Debatable
It's All Relative
Exact Process by which Chaotic Systems Synchronize
is a system
in which the
output is not directly proportional to the input. Nonlinear problems are
of interest to engineers, physicists and mathematicians and many other
scientists because most systems are inherently nonlinear in nature.
Nonlinear systems may appear chaotic, unpredictable or counterintuitive,
contrasting with the much simpler linear systems.
is a form of
in which observational data are modeled by a
function which is a nonlinear combination of the model parameters and
depends on one or more independent
The data are fitted by a method of successive
the concept that events (certain events, or events of certain types) are
not caused, or not caused deterministically (cf. causality) by prior
events. It is the opposite of determinism and related to chance. It is
highly relevant to the philosophical problem of free will, particularly in
the form of metaphysical libertarianism.
is a state of extreme confusion
is a phenomenon in which (infinitesimally) small
fluctuations acting on a system crossing a critical point decide the
system's fate, by determining which branch of a bifurcation is taken. To
an outside observer
unaware of the fluctuations (or "noise"), the choice
will appear arbitrary. This process is called symmetry "breaking", because
such transitions usually bring the system from a
state into one or more definite states. Symmetry breaking is thought to
play a major role in
branch of mathematics
focused on the behavior of
dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions—a
response popularly referred to as the
. Small differences
in initial conditions (such as those due to rounding errors in numerical
computation) yield widely diverging outcomes for such dynamical systems,
rendering long-term prediction
of their behavior impossible in general. This happens even though these
systems are deterministic, meaning that their future behavior is fully
determined by their initial conditions, with no random elements involved.
In other words, the deterministic nature of these systems does not make
them predictable. This behavior is known as deterministic
, or simply
is the sensitive dependence on initial conditions in
which a small change in one state of a deterministic nonlinear system can
result in large differences in a later state.
ascribes cause where none exists. The flaw is
failing to account for natural fluctuations. It is frequently a special
kind of the
post hoc fallacy
. Since event Y followed event X, event Y must have
been caused by event X. Fallacies
"the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between
intelligent rational decision-makers."
a mathematical representation of a situation in which each participant's
gain or loss of utility is exactly balanced by the losses or gains of the
utility of the other participants. If the total gains of the participants
are added up and the total losses are subtracted, they will sum to zero.
Thus, cutting a cake, where taking a larger piece reduces the amount of
cake available for others, is a zero-sum game if all participants value
each unit of cake equally. Marginal utility
Non Zero Sum Game
is a situation where one
maker's gain (or loss) does not necessarily result in the other
decision makers' loss (or gain). In other words, where the winnings and
losses of all players do not add up to zero and everyone can gain: a
states that if an
action or policy
suspected risk of causing harm to the public
, or to the environment, in
the absence of scientific consensus
(that the action or policy is not
harmful), the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those taking
an action that may or may not be a Risk
Human Impact on the Environment
includes impacts on biophysical
environments, biodiversity, and other resources.
Habitat DestructionEveryone needs to
see the whole picture
. We need to see things from the beginning,
and we need to see to the very end, or years from now. We need to
understand all the different things that influence our actions and our
decisions. And we need to see all the effects that are the result of our
actions, even if the results from our actions happen years later. These
are just some of the responsibilities that every human shares on this
beautiful planet earth. You cannot ignore these
, and you
these responsibilities to someone else, unless, there is
an agreement or a contract that explains that this
have with other people, states that this is the most logical, the most
efficient, and the most effective way to fulfill these
responsibilities that we all share to live. Everyone needs to be
for their actions, and accountable for all the results that
come from their actions. Everyone also needs to be open and honest. It
doesn't seem like a lot to ask, but it means a lot, it means a lot to
everyone, and to every single thing that we hold dear.
You should always know the answers to these
two questions, What would Earth do?
What natural processes
have been working for
millions of years? What would Life do?
How has life adapted
in order to survive over the last 500 million years?
encompasses all living and non-living things occurring
naturally on Earth or some region thereof. It is an environment that
encompasses the interaction of all living species. Climate, weather, and
natural resources that affect human survival and economic activity. The
concept of the natural environment can be distinguished by components:
Complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive
civilized human intervention, including all vegetation, microorganisms,
soil, rocks, atmosphere, and natural phenomena that occur within their
boundaries and their nature. Universal natural resources and physical
phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries, such as air, water, and climate,
as well as energy, radiation, electric charge, and magnetism, not
originating from civilized human activity. Naturalist Education
is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "Nature" can
refer to the phenomena
of the physical world,
and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large part of
science. Although humans are part of nature, human activity is often
understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena.
scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their
environment. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes biology,
geography, and Earth science
is a community of living organisms in
with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water
and mineral soil
), interacting as a system. These
biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through
nutrient cycles and energy flows. As ecosystems are defined by the
, and between organisms and their
environment, they can be of any size but usually encompass specific,
limited spaces (although some scientists say that the entire planet is an
is the regions of the surface and
of the Earth where living
organisms exist. Biosphere is also known as the ecosphere
, is the
worldwide sum of all ecosystems. Biosphere 2
.Biomass Distribution on Earth
- Biomass is the total mass of organisms in a given area or volume.
Wild birds: 0.002 gigatonne
Wild mammals: 0.007 gigatonnes
(roundworms): 0.02 gigatonnes
Humans: 0.06 gigatonnes
Cnidarians (jellyfish, anemones, etc.): 0.1 gigatonnes
Annelids (segmented worms): 0.2 gigatonnes
Molluscs (snails, squid,
etc.): 0.2 gigatonnes
Arthropods, terrestrial (insects, spiders, etc):
Fish: 0.7 gigatonnes
Arthropods, marine (crabs,
lobsters, etc.): 1 gigatonne
Protists (amoebas, single-celled algae,
etc.): 4 gigatonnes
Archaea (bacteria-like organisms): 7 gigatonnes
Fungi: 12 gigatonnes
Bacteria: 70 gigatonnes
Plants: 450 gigatonnes
All weights are measured in carbon mass and are independent of water mass.
1 gigatonne of carbon = 10^15 grams of carbon. Gigatonne is
1,000,000,000 tonnes or 1 Billion tonnes.
is also a unit of explosive force equal to one billion (109) tons of
is also a term
for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
is a planetary closed ecological system
. In this global
ecosystem, the various forms of energy and matter that constitute a given
planet interact on a continual basis. The forces of the four fundamental
interactions cause the various forms of matter to settle into identifiable
layers. These layers are referred to as component spheres with the type
and extent of each component sphere varying significantly from one
particular ecosphere to another. Component spheres that represent a
significant portion of an ecosphere are referred to as a primary component
spheres. For instance, Earth's ecosphere consists of five primary
component spheres which are the Geosphere, Hydrosphere, Biosphere,
the collective name for the lithosphere, the hydrosphere,
the cryosphere, and the atmosphere.
is those portions of Earth's surface where water is in
solid form, including sea ice, lake ice, river ice, snow cover, glaciers,
ice caps, ice sheets, and frozen ground (which includes permafrost).
is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet
or natural satellite that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above
the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite. It's estimated
that there are 1386 million cubic kilometers of water
on Earth. Deserts
is a community of plants
that have common characteristics for the environment they
exist in. They can be found over a range of continents. Biomes are
distinct biological communities that have formed in response to a shared
physical climate. "Biome" is a broader term than "habitat"; any biome can
comprise a variety of habitats
is the branches of epidemiology concerned
with the discovery of the environmental exposures that contribute to or
protect against injuries, illnesses, developmental conditions,
disabilities, and deaths; and identification of public health and health
care actions to manage the risks associated with harmful exposures.
is the branch of public health that is concerned
with all aspects of the natural and built environment that may affect
human health. Other terms referring to or concerning environmental health
are environmental public health, and public health protection /
environmental health protection.
is a set of properties and characteristics of
the environment, either generalized or local, as they impinge on human
beings and other organisms. It is a measure of the condition of an
environment relative to the requirements of one or more species and or to
any human need or purpose.
regarding concerns for environmental
protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly
as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the concerns of
is a practice of protecting the
on individual, organizational or governmental levels,
for the benefit of both the environment and humans. Due to the pressures
of overconsumption, population and technology, the biophysical environment
is being degraded, sometimes permanently. Consent to Operate
is an ethic of resource use, allocation, and
protection. Its primary focus is upon maintaining the health of the
natural world, its fisheries, habitats, and biological diversity.
Secondary focus is on materials conservation, including non-renewable
resources such as metals, minerals and fossil fuels, and energy
conservation, which is important to protect the natural world. Those who
follow the conservation ethic and, especially, those who advocate or work
toward conservation goals are termed conservationists.
involves the management and modification of natural environment or
wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural
habitats such as arable fields, pastures, and managed woods. It also has
been defined as "the total of arrangements, activities, and inputs that
people undertake in a certain land cover type.
is an interdisciplinary field that focused on
the interplay between individuals and their surroundings.
studies the relationship between human beings and the natural world
through ecological and psychological principles. The field seeks to
develop and understand ways of expanding the emotional connection between
individuals and the natural world, thereby assisting individuals with
developing sustainable lifestyles
remedying alienation from nature
(wiki) - Naturalist
refers to the manmade surroundings that provide the
setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings and parks
or green space to neighborhoods and cities that can often include their
supporting infrastructure, such as water supply or energy networks. The
built environment is a material, spatial and cultural product of human
labor that combines physical elements and energy in forms for living,
working and playing. It has been defined as "the humanitarian-made space
in which people live, work, and recreate on a day-to-day basis.
is a diverse scientific, social, and political
movement for addressing environmental issues.
refers to the commitment
of an organization to the laws,
regulations, and other policy mechanisms concerning environmental
issues. These issues generally include air and water pollution, solid
waste management, ecosystem management, maintenance of biodiversity, the
protection of natural resources, wildlife and endangered species. Policies
concerning energy or regulation of toxic substances including pesticides
and many types of industrial waste are part of the topic of environmental
policy. This policy can be deliberately taken to direct and oversee human
activities and thereby prevent harmful effects on the biophysical
environment and natural resources, as well as to make sure that changes in
the environment do not have harmful effects on humans.
is a law that gives the President of the United States
the authority to, by presidential proclamation, create national monuments
from public lands to protect significant natural, cultural, or scientific
features. The Act has been used over a hundred times since its passage.
Its use occasionally creates significant controversy. Act passed by the
United States Congress and signed into law by Theodore Roosevelt on June
refers to the immediate physical and social setting in
which people live or in which something happens or develops. It
includes the culture that the individual was educated or lives in, and the
people and institutions with whom they interact.
is an interdisciplinary academic field that
integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including
ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology,
limnology, soil science, geology, atmospheric science, and geodesy) to the
study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
Environment in systems
is the part of the universe that is being
studied, while the environment is the remainder of the universe that
lies outside the boundaries of the system. It is also known as the
surroundings or neighborhood, and in thermodynamics, as the reservoir.
Depending on the type of system, it may interact with the environment by
exchanging mass, energy (including heat and work), linear momentum,
angular momentum, electric charge, or other conserved properties. In some
disciplines, such as information theory, information may also be
exchanged. The environment is ignored in analysis of the system, except in
regard to these interactions.
refers to organized
efforts to teach how natural environments function, and particularly, how
human beings can manage behavior and ecosystems to live sustainably.
Environmental Impact Assessment
assessment of the
environmental consequences (positive and negative) of a plan, policy,
program, or concrete projects prior to the decision to move forward with
the proposed action.
measures that tell us what
is happening in the environment.
Environmental Performance Index
is a method of quantifying
and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's
Conservation Management System
is a procedure for
maintaining a species or habitat in a particular state.
deals with the removal of pollution
from environmental media such as soil
groundwater, sediment, or surface water. This would mean that once
requested by the government or a land remediation authority, immediate
action should be taken as this can impact negatively on human health and
the environment. Damage
IU scientists discover 'supramolecule' that could help reduce nuclear,
First evidence for new molecular structure could open doors to chemical
solutions for environmental problems
People enhanced the environment, not degraded it, over past 13,000 years
is the process of restoring something to its former good
condition. The Power of "RE"
is a process-oriented systems theory based
approach to design. The term "regenerative" describes processes that
restore, renew or revitalize their own sources of energy and materials,
creating sustainable systems that integrate the needs of society with the
integrity of nature. Biomimicry
is a sub-sector practice of organic farming
designed to build soil health or to regenerate unhealthy soils. The
practices associated with regenerative agriculture are those identified
with other approaches to organic farming
, including maintaining a high
percentage of organic matter in soils, minimum tillage, biodiversity,
, cover crops, and green manures.
Regeneration in ecology
states that not only are single organisms capable of
regeneration but Ecosystems are regenerative as well, although not on a
cellular level but rather - as a complex system composed of myriads of
organisms and their habitat - on the level of interactions of whole
populations and their environment. Resilience to minor disturbances is one
characteristic feature of healthy ecosystems. Following major (lethal)
disturbances, such as a fire or pest outbreak in a forest, an immediate
return to the previous dynamic equilibrium will not be possible. Instead,
pioneering species will occupy, compete for space, and establish
themselves in the newly opened habitat. The new growth of seedlings and
community assembly process is known as regeneration in ecology. As
ecological succession sets in, a forest will slowly regenerate towards its
former state within the succession (climax or any intermediate stage),
provided that all outer parameters (climate, soil fertility availability
of nutrients, animal migration paths, air pollution or the absence
thereof, etc.) remain unchanged.
the practice of renewing and restoring degraded,
damaged, or destroyed ecosystems and habitats
in the environment by active
human intervention and action.
Justice Governance and Environmental Action
Catastrophic Loss Reduction
Rewilding in conservation biology
conservation aimed at restoring and protecting natural processes and core
wilderness areas, providing connectivity between such areas, and
protecting or reintroducing apex predators and keystone species.
Re-Wilding in anarchism
means to return to a more wild
or natural state; it is the process of undoing domestication.
World's Largest Reforestation Program Overlooks Wildlife
Forest for the Trees: After years of environmental destruction, China has
spent billions of dollars on the world's largest reforestation program,
converting a combined area nearly the size of New York and Pennsylvania
back to forest. (69.2 million acres) Must avoid
Grain for Green
program in 1999 as an ambitious conservation program designed to mitigate
and prevent soil erosion. It is an example of Payment for ecosystem
services which is helping to solve Environmental issues in China. The
program is designed to retire farmland that is susceptible to soil
erosion, although some farmers may go back to farming the land after the
Payment for Ecosystem Services
are incentives offered to farmers or
landowners in exchange for managing their land to provide some sort of
ecological service. They have been defined as "a transparent system for
the additional provision of environmental services through conditional
payments to voluntary providers." These programmes promote the
conservation of natural resources in the marketplace.
Consent to Operate -Consent to Establish
is a management practice
that seeks to conserve, protect and restore habitat areas for wild plants
and animals, especially conservation reliant species, and prevent their
extinction, fragmentation or reduction in range.
Conservation Reliant Species
are animal or plant species
that require continuing species-specific wildlife management intervention
such as predator control, habitat management and parasite control to
survive, even when a self-sustainable recovery in population is achieved.
Creating and Restoring Wildlife Habitat
The Ecology Global Network
Damage - Destruction
is the deterioration
environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil;
the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of wildlife.
people who are forced to leave their home region due to sudden or
long-term changes to their local environment which compromise their well
being or secure livelihood, such changes are held to include increased
droughts, desertification, sea level rise, and disruption of seasonal
weather patterns such as monsoons.
Nature Deficit Disorder
is when human beings, especially children, are spending less time outdoors
resulting in a wide range of behavioral problems.
Learning Outside the Classroom
is the world's stock of natural resources,
which includes geology, soils, air, water and all living organisms.
Natural capital assets provide people with a wide range of free goods and
services, often called ecosystem services, which underpin our economy and
society and some of which even make human life possible.
is a measure of human impact on Earth's ecosystems. It's typically
measured in area of wilderness or amount of natural capital consumed each
year. A common way of estimating footprint is, the area of wilderness of
both land and sea needed to supply resources to a human population; This
includes the area of wilderness needed to assimilate human waste.
is any form of design that minimizes environmentally destructive impacts
by integrating itself with living processes." Ecological design is an
integrative ecologically responsible design discipline.
refers to altering the landscape in any
number of ways such as: Changing landforms from a natural or semi-natural
state for a purpose such as agriculture or housing. Subdividing real
estate into lots, typically for the purpose of building homes. Real estate
development or changing its purpose, for example by converting an unused
factory complex into condominia.
is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features
of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for
conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
Open Source Ecology
is a network of farmers,
engineers, architects and supporters, whose main goal is the eventual
manufacturing of the Global Village
is to do more and more with less and less
until eventually you can do everything with nothing.
is the concept of things being transitory,
existing only briefly.
is the maximum population size
the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food,
habitat, water, and other necessities available in the environment.
Overshoot in population
occurs when a population
temporarily exceeds the long term carrying capacity of its environment.
The consequence of overshoot is called a collapse
, a crash or a
which there is a decline in population density. The entire sequence or
trajectory undergone by the population and its environment is often termed
is a system of stimuli and response
correlated to population density.
is a proposed
that begins when human
activities started to have a significant global impact on Earth's geology and ecosystems.
is a species that has a disproportionately
large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.
Gap Minder Trends and Stats
Resource Efficiency Experts
is the way two organisms of different
species exist in a relationship
in which each individual
s from the
activity of the other. Similar interactions within a species are known as
co-operation. Mutualism can be contrasted with
in which each species experiences reduced fitness, and
, in which
one species benefits at the "expense" of the other. Symbiosis involves two
species living in close proximity and includes relationships that are
mutualistic, parasitic, and commensal.
(PDF) - Balance
Co-operation in evolution
is the process where groups of organisms work
or act together for common or mutual benefits
. It is commonly defined as
any adaptation that has evolved, at least in part, to increase the
reproductive success of the actor’s social partners.
defines a situation in which the existence or identity of a
thing (or situation) depends on the co-existence of at least two
conditions which are opposite to each other, yet dependent on each other
and presupposing each other, within a field of tension.
the state of two or more things
existing together, usually in a temporal or spatial sense, with or without
mutual interaction. Connected
. A back-and-forth
interaction, doing something in return.
is able to exist and perform in
or agreeable combination.
Capable of forming a homogeneous mixture that neither separates nor is
altered by chemical interaction. Capable of being used with or connected
to other devices or components without modification.
- Microbes and Humans
is a bond that is formed between animals of different species.
is the mutual reliance
between two or more groups. This concept differs
from the reliance in a dependent relationship, where some members are
and some are not. There
can be various degrees of interdependence.
is a close and often long-term interaction
between two different biological species. "if you help me to stay alive
then I will help you to stay alive, for if one of us dies, we both die."
Symbiotic Relationships List
List of Symbiotic Organisms
Transcriptome analysis illuminates the nature of the intracellular
interaction in a vertebrate-algal symbiosis
holds that the organelles distinguishing eukaryote
evolved through symbiosis of individual single-celled prokaryotes
(bacteria and archaea).
is a sustained multi-generational
one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the
reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply
of resources from that second group.
is defined as the process of bringing
together the component subsystems into one
and ensuring that the
subsystems function together as a system.
is the empirical study of systems in
transformation, with an emphasis on total system behavior unpredicted by
the behavior of any isolated components, including humanity's role as both
participant and observer.
is a system in which the output is not
directly proportional to the input.
is a mathematical function having an "S" shaped
curve (sigmoid curve).
Biodiversity Indicators Partnership
Union for Conservation of Nature
The Limits to Growth
Ecological Observatories Network
National Ecological Observatory Network
STReam Experimental Observatory Network (STREON)
Goldman Environmental Prize
environmental activists "There is no Planet B"
Monitoring - Observing - Eyes in the Sky
describes the processes
and activities that
need to take place to monitor the quality
environment. Environmental monitoring
is used in the preparation of
environmental impact assessments
, as well as in many circumstances in
which human activities carry a
of Harmful Effects
on the natural environment
is the act of observing
keeping a record
of any changes. To
keep an eye on something important and keep track of any
is the regular collection of measurements or
other kinds of data monitoring, usually of natural resources and
biodiversity, undertaken by local people
who live in the area being
, who rely on local natural
resources, and consequently have great local knowledge of those resources.
The people involved usually live in communities with considerable
where they regularly
on shared projects. (also known as
, locally based
or volunteer monitoring).
- Pollution Monitoring
Machine Learning to aid Environmental Monitoring
Artificial Intelligent Machine Learning
Environmental Analysis - Research and Monitoring - R&M
Environmental analysis is a strategic tool. It is a process to identify
all the external and internal elements, which can affect the
organization's performance. The analysis entails assessing the level of
threat or opportunity the factors might present.
environmental changes and trends.
Detecting meaning through ongoing observations
of environmental changes
and trends. Sound
of anticipated outcomes based on monitored changes and trends.
Determining the timing and
importance of environmental changes and trends for strategies and their
Using Drones to tackle Climate Change
is a measurable indicator of some biological state or
condition. Biomarkers are often measured and evaluated to examine normal
biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to
a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers are used in many scientific fields.
is any species (an indicator species) or group of species
whose function, population, or status can reveal the qualitative status of
the environment. Bioindicators can tell us about the cumulative effects of
different pollutants in the ecosystem and about how long a problem may
have been present, which physical and chemical testing cannot. A
biological monitor or biomonitor is an organism that provides quantitative
information on the quality of the environment around it. Therefore, a good
biomonitor will indicate the presence of the pollutant and also attempt to
provide additional information about the amount and intensity of the
exposure. A biological indicator is also the name given to a process for
assessing the sterility of an environment through the use of resistant
microorganism strains (eg. Bacillus or Geobacillus). Biological indicators
can be described as the introduction of a highly resistant microorganisms
to a given environment before sterilization, tests are conducted to
measure the effectiveness of the sterilization processes. As biological
indicators use highly resistant microorganisms, you can be assured that
any sterilization process that renders them inactive will have also killed
off more common, weaker pathogens.
is any substance – such as an element, isotope, or
molecule – or phenomenon that provides scientific evidence of past or
present life. Measurable attributes of life include its complex physical
and chemical structures and also its utilization of free energy and the
production of biomass and wastes. Due to its unique characteristics, a
biosignature can be interpreted as having been produced by living
organisms; however, it is important that they not be considered definitive
because there is no way of knowing in advance which ones are universal to
life and which ones are unique to the peculiar circumstances of life on
Earth. Nonetheless, life forms are known to shed unique chemicals,
including DNA, into the environment as evidence of their presence in a
are used to communicate information about
ecosystems and the impact human activity has on ecosystems to groups such
as the public or government policy makers. Ecosystems are complex and
ecological indicators can help describe them in simpler terms that can be
understood and used by non-scientists to make management decisions. For
example, the number of different beetle taxa found in a field can be used
as an indicator of biodiversity.
are simple measures that tell us what is
happening in the environment. Since the environment is very complex,
indicators provide a more practical and economical way to track the state
of the environment than if we attempted to record every possible variable
in the environment. For example, concentrations of ozone depleting
substances (ODS) in the atmosphere, tracked over time, is a good indicator
with respect to the environmental issue of stratospheric ozone depletion.
How we're saving one of Earth's last wild places: Steve Boyes
The mission to create a searchable database of Earth's surface: Will
(video and text)Planet
- Transform daily satellite imagery
into intelligent analytic feeds to index objects and change.
is the acquisition of information about an object or
phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in
contrast to on-site observation. Remote sensing is used in numerous
fields, including geography, land surveying and most Earth Science
is a global array
of 3,800 free-drifting profiling floats that measures the temperature and
salinity of the upper 2000 m of the ocean. This allows, for the first
time, continuous monitoring of the temperature, salinity, and velocity of
the upper ocean, with all data being relayed and made publicly available
Wildlife Enforcement Monitoring System
assists in monitoring the
effectiveness of enforcement and compliance of wildlife law at a national
level. Risk Management
someone responsible for maintaining buildings or grounds or animals.
is someone who manages property or
other affairs for someone else.
3-D spectral and laser imaging
High Resolution Cameras
Thermal Imaging Systems
to see at night. Se we can monitor almost
everything, even Poachers
Flir Night Vision Systems
Graphene and Quantum Dots
put in motion a CMOS-integrated camera that
can see the invisible capable of imaging visible and
Radio Controlled Drones
- UAV- Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.
Tiny Jedi drone
is an unmanned (UAV) surveillance aircraft. Provides a
broad overview and systematic surveillance using high-resolution synthetic
aperture radar (SAR) and long-range electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR)
sensors with long loiter times over target areas. It can survey as much as
40,000 square miles (100,000 km2) of terrain a day.Zip Line
deliveries by drone. More than two billion people lack adequate access to
essential medical products, such as blood and vaccines, due to challenging
terrain and gaps in infrastructure. Zipline improves access to these
supplies by flying over impassable mountains and washed-out roads,
delivering directly to clinics. All on its own.
Photos of Africa, taken from a flying lawn chair: George Steinmetz 2017
(video and text) -
Monitoring Birds by Drone
Protection Using Satellites and Citizen Scientists
Unmanned Port Security Vessel
Autonomously surveys the seabed and is a sensor
platform for other optical, chemical and environmental sensors,
including real-time video.
provide High Resolution Ocean Data
Ocean Protection and Monitoring
Eyes on the Seas
Gladius Submersible Underwater Drone
is the most affordable, easy to
use underwater photography drone w 4k camera, 100m depth & 500m range.
RangerBot underwater Drone
helps protect the Great Barrier Reef.
Underwater Drone Flies AND Swims
MantaDroid is a Manta Ray Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Robot
swims 0.7m per second and operates up to 10
surveillance turbulent seas.
PowerRay underwater robot
combines fishfinder, mobile app, and VR
goggle which provides real-time visualization of finding and catching
SoFi Soft Robotic Fish
Kayaks with Underwater Environmental Sensors and Speakers
have rigged kayaks with underwater environmental sensors and speakers to
create an environmental monitoring tool suitable for
. Instructions for the
hardware and open-source software for making the 'Sonic Kayak' are
Human Flying Drone
is Powerful enough to Lift a Human
Ecosystem Studies Units
Trailer 1 (2014) - Netflix Documentary HD
is an automated
process by which
are collected at remote or inaccessible points
and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring. The word is derived
from Greek roots: tele = remote, and metron = measure. Systems that need
external instructions and data to operate require the counterpart of
telemetry, telecommand. Although the term commonly refers to
(e.g., using radio, ultrasonic, or infrared systems),
it also encompasses data transferred over other media such as a telephone
or computer network, optical link or other wired communications like power
line carriers. Many modern telemetry systems take advantage of the low
cost and ubiquity of GSM networks
by using SMS to receive and transmit
telemetry data. A telemeter is a device used to remotely measure any
quantity. It consists of a sensor, a transmission path, and a display,
recording, or control device. Telemeters are the physical devices used in
telemetry. Electronic devices are widely used in telemetry and can be
wireless or hard-wired, analog or digital. Other technologies are also
possible, such as mechanical, hydraulic and optical. Telemetry may be
commutated to allow the transmission of multiple data streams in a fixed
is the automatic
transmission and measurement of data from remote sources
by wire or radio
or other means. Tele-Robotics
delivered immediately after collection. There is no delay in the
timeliness of the information provided. Real-time data is often used for
navigation or tracking. Such data is usually processed using real-time
computing although it can also be stored for later or off-line data
analysis. Some uses of the term "real-time data" confuse it with the term
dynamic data. The presence of real-time data is actually
irrelevant to whether it is dynamic or static.
is an electronic device that
over time or
in relation to location either with a built in instrument or
via external instruments and sensors. Increasingly, but not entirely, they
are based on a digital processor (or computer). They generally are small,
battery powered, portable, and equipped with a microprocessor, internal
memory for data storage, and sensors. Some data loggers interface with a
personal computer, and use software to activate the data logger and view
and analyze the collected data, while others have a local interface device
(keypad, LCD) and can be used as a stand-alone device.
Want more efficient simulators? Store time in a quantum superposition
Approach could cut resources required for simulations of processes such as
traffic flow and neuron firing.
a network web
using technologies and
practices that enable users to receive
as soon as
it is published by its authors, rather than requiring that they or their
software check a source periodically for updates.
refers to online streaming media simultaneously recorded and broadcast in
real time to the viewer. It is often simply referred to as streaming.
Real-Time Locating System
are used to automatically identify and track
the location of objects or people in real time, usually within a building
or other contained area. Wireless RTLS tags are attached to objects or
worn by people, and in most RTLS, fixed reference points receive wireless
signals from tags to determine their location. Examples of real-time
locating systems include tracking automobiles through an assembly line,
locating pallets of merchandise in a warehouse, or finding medical
equipment in a hospital. The physical layer of RTLS technology is usually
some form of radio frequency (RF) communication, but some systems use
optical (usually infrared) or acoustic (usually ultrasound) technology
instead of or in addition to RF. Tags and fixed reference points can be
transmitters, receivers, or both, resulting in numerous possible
technology combinations. RTLS are a form of local positioning system, and
do not usually refer to GPS or to mobile phone tracking. Location
information usually does not include speed, direction, or spatial
positioning is a satellite navigation technique used to
enhance the precision of position data derived from satellite-based
positioning systems (global navigation satellite systems, GNSS) such as
GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou. It uses measurements of the phase of
the signal's carrier wave in addition to the information content of the
signal, and relies on a single reference station or interpolated virtual
station to provide real-time corrections, providing up to centimetre-level
accuracy. With reference to GPS in particular, the system is commonly
referred to as Carrier-Phase Enhancement, or CPGPS. It has applications in
land survey, hydrographic survey, and in consumer unmanned aerial vehicle
describes hardware and software systems subject to a
"real-time constraint", for example from event to system response.
Real-time programs must guarantee response within specified time
constraints, often referred to as "deadlines". The correctness of these
types of systems depends on their temporal aspects as well as their
functional aspects. Real-time responses are often understood to be in the
order of milliseconds, and sometimes microseconds. A system not specified
as operating in real time cannot usually guarantee a response within any
timeframe, although typical or expected response times may be given. A
real-time system has been described as one which "controls an environment
by receiving data, processing them, and returning the results sufficiently
quickly to affect the environment at that time". The term "real-time" is
also used in simulation
mean that the simulation's clock runs at the same speed as a real clock,
and in process control and enterprise systems to mean "without significant
delay". Real-time software may use one or more of the following:
synchronous programming languages, real-time operating systems, and
real-time networks, each of which provide essential frameworks on which to
build a real-time software application. Systems used for many mission
critical applications must be real-time, such as for control of
fly-by-wire aircraft, or anti-lock brakes on a vehicle, which must produce
maximum deceleration but intermittently stop braking to prevent skidding.
Real-time processing fails if not completed within a specified deadline
relative to an event; deadlines must always be met, regardless of system
Geographic Information Science
is the scientific discipline that
studies data structures and computational techniques to capture,
represent, process, and analyze geographic information. It can be
contrasted with geographic information systems, which are software tools.
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
is both a combat support
agency, under the United States Department of Defense, and an intelligence
agency of the United States Intelligence Community
, with the primary
mission of collecting, analyzing, and distributing geospatial intelligence
(GEOINT) in support of national security. NGA was known as the National
Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) until 2003.
is intelligence about the human activity on
earth derived from the exploitation and analysis of imagery and geospatial
information that describes, assesses, and visually depicts physical
features and geographically
referenced activities on the Earth. GEOINT, as
defined in US Code, consists of imagery, imagery intelligence (IMINT) and
is an approach to applying statistical analysis
and other analytic techniques to data
which has a geographical or spatial
aspect. Such analysis would typically employ software capable of rendering
maps processing spatial data, and applying analytical methods to
terrestrial or geographic
datasets, including the use of geographic
information systems and geomatics.
Geographic Information System
is a system designed to capture, store,
, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.
The acronym GIS is sometimes used for geographic
information science (GIScience)
to refer to the academic discipline that studies geographic information
systems and is a large domain within the broader academic discipline of
geoinformatics. What goes beyond a GIS is a spatial data infrastructure, a
concept that has no such restrictive boundaries.
is the science and the technology which develops and
uses information science infrastructure
to address the problems of
geography, cartography, geosciences locations and related branches of
Science to quickly and accurately identify fish species in streams
using new environmental DNA (eDNA).
is collected from a variety of environmental samples such as soil,
seawater, or even air rather than directly sampled from an individual
organism. As various organisms interact with the environment, DNA is
expelled and accumulates in their surroundings. Example sources of eDNA
include, but are not limited to, feces, mucus, gametes, shed skin,
carcasses and hair. Such samples can be analyzed by high-throughput
methods, known as metagenomics, for rapid measurement and
monitoring of biodiversity. In order to better differentiate between
organisms within a sample, DNA metabarcoding is used in which the sample
is analyzed and uses previously studied
libraries to determine what organisms are present (e.g. BLAST. The
analysis of eDNA has great potential, not only for monitoring common
species, but to genetically detect and identify other extant species that
could influence conservation efforts. This method allows for
without requiring collection of the living organism, creating the ability
to study organisms that are invasive, elusive, or endangered without
introducing anthropogenic stress on the
. Access to this genetic
information makes a critical contribution to the understanding of
population size, species distribution, and population dynamics for species
not well documented. The integrity of eDNA samples is dependent upon its
preservation within the environment. Soil, permafrost, freshwater and
seawater are well-studied macro environments from which eDNA samples have
been extracted, each of which include many more conditioned
subenvironments. Because of its versatility, eDNA is applied in many
subenvironments such as freshwater sampling, seawater sampling,
terrestrial soil sampling (tundra permafrost), aquatic soil sampling
(river, lake, pond, and ocean sediment), or other environments where
normal sampling procedures can become problematic.
the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental
samples. The broad field may also be referred to as environmental
genomics, ecogenomics or community genomics. While traditional
and microbial genome sequencing and genomics rely upon
cultivated clonal cultures, early environmental gene sequencing cloned
specific genes (often the 16S rRNA gene) to produce a profile of diversity
in a natural sample. Such work revealed that the vast majority of
had been missed by cultivation-based methods.
Recent studies use either "shotgun" or PCR directed sequencing to get
largely unbiased samples of all genes from all the members of the sampled
communities. Because of its ability to reveal the previously hidden
diversity of microscopic life, metagenomics offers a powerful lens for
viewing the microbial world that has the potential to revolutionize
understanding of the entire living world. As the price of
continues to fall, metagenomics now allows microbial ecology to be
investigated at a much greater scale and detail than before.
is a technique for constructing ordered, genome-wide, high-resolution
restriction maps from single, stained molecules of DNA, called "optical
maps". By mapping the location of restriction enzyme sites along the
unknown DNA of an organism, the spectrum of resulting DNA fragments
collectively serves as a unique "fingerprint" or "barcode" for that
Ultra-Thin Camera Creates Images Without Lenses
. New design
substitutes an array of light receivers for a lens, making cameras thin,
light, cheap, and flexible.
is the technology of controlling the phase of
light waves transmitting or reflecting from a two-dimensional surface by
means of adjustable surface elements. It is the optical analogue of phased
. By dynamically controlling the optical properties of a
surface on a microscopic scale, it is possible to steer the direction of
light beams, or the view direction of sensors, without any moving parts.
Hardware associated with beam steering applications is commonly called an
optical phased array (OPA). Phased array beam steering is used for optical
switching and multiplexing in optoelectronic devices, and for aiming laser
beams on a macroscopic scale. Complicated patterns of phase variation can
be used to produce diffractive optical elements, such as dynamic virtual
lenses, for beam focusing or splitting in addition to aiming. Dynamic
phase variation can also produce real-time holograms. Devices permitting
detailed addressable phase control over two dimensions are a type of
spatial light modulator (SLM). In nanotechnology, phased array optics
refers to arrays of lasers or SLMs with addressable phase and amplitude
elements smaller than a wavelength of light. While still theoretical, such
high resolution arrays would permit extremely realistic three-dimensional
image display by dynamic holography with no unwanted orders of
diffraction. Applications for weapons, space communications, and
invisibility by optical camouflage have also been suggested.
is the study and application of photonic systems
which use silicon as an optical medium. The silicon is usually patterned
with sub-micrometre precision, into microphotonic components. These
operate in the infrared, most commonly at the 1.55 micrometre wavelength
used by most fiber optic telecommunication systems. The silicon typically
lies on top of a layer of silica in what (by analogy with a similar
construction in microelectronics) is known as silicon on insulator (SOI).
Magnetic Survey in archaeology
is one of a number of methods used in
that makes it
possible to see formations underground by measuring fluctuations in
earth's magnetic field. Magnetic surveys record spatial variation in the
Earth's magnetic field
archaeology, magnetic surveys are used to detect and map
Magnetic surveys are used in both terrestrial and marine archaeology.
used in geophysical survey may use a single sensor to
measure the total magnetic field strength, or may use two (sometimes more)
spatially separated sensors to measure the gradient of the magnetic field
(the difference between the sensors).
is an electronic instrument which detects the presence
of metal nearby. Metal detectors are useful for finding metal inclusions
hidden within objects, or metal objects buried underground. They often
consist of a handheld unit with a sensor probe which can be swept over the
ground or other objects.
is the science of making measurements from photographs,
especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points.
Photogrammetry is as old as modern photography, dating to the mid-19th
century and in the simplest example, the distance between two points that
lie on a plane parallel to the photographic image plane, can be determined
by measuring their distance on the image, if the scale (s) of the image is
known. Photogrammetric analysis may be applied to one photograph, or may
use high-speed photography
sensing to detect, measure and record complex 2-D and 3-D motion fields by
feeding measurements and imagery analysis into computational models in an
attempt to successively estimate, with increasing accuracy, the actual,
3-D relative motions
its beginning with the stereoplotters used to plot contour lines on
topographic maps, it now has a very wide range of uses.See also
is extraction of valuable minerals
geological materials from the earth, which are
that do not renew and are there for
. But if theses extractions
were to be used effectively and efficiently our resources would benefit
mankind, instead of poisoning the environment
and killing people and other
Mineral Policy Institute
specializes in preventing
environmentally and socially destructive mining, minerals and energy
projects in Australia, Asia and the Pacific.
(Consent to Operate) -
is a situation where resource use has
outpaced the sustainable capacity of the ecosystem. A prolonged pattern of
overconsumption leads to environmental degradation and the eventual loss
of resource bases.
is a resource that does
not renew itself
at a sufficient rate for
economic extraction in
meaningful human time-frames. An example is carbon-based,
organically-derived fuel. The original organic material, with the aid of
heat and pressure, becomes a fuel such as oil or gas. Earth minerals and
metal ores, fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, natural gas) and groundwater in
certain aquifers are all considered non-renewable resources, though
individual elements are almost always conserved. Subterranean
below ground or underground or beneath the surface of the earth.
works with communities facing environmental pollution
issues and health problems. who suffer Human Rights violations, especially
linked to extractive industries. Any processes that involve the extraction
of raw materials from the earth to be used by consumers. The extractive
industry consists of any operations that remove metals, mineral and
aggregates from the earth. Examples of extractive processes include oil
and gas extraction, mining, dredging and quarrying.
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative
is a global standard to
promote the open and accountable management of extractive resources. It
seeks to address the key governance issues in the oil, gas and mining
public awareness about how countries manage their oil, gas and mineral resources.
is an action involving deliberate destruction of
or damage to public
is an illegal act which directly harms
are the materials left over after the process of separating the
valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction (gangue) of an ore.
Tailings are distinct from overburden, which is the waste rock or other
material that overlies an ore or mineral body and is displaced during
mining without being processed.
Toxics Release Inventory
is a publicly available database
containing information on toxic chemical releases and other waste
management activities in the United States.
Toxics Release Inventory Tri-Program
Waste Materials from Mines
Toxic Mine Waste Threatens Worlds Waters
The Shocking Danger of Mountaintop Removal — and why it Must End: Michael
(video and text)
Mountaintop Removal Mining
is a form of
at the summit or summit ridge of a mountain.
are natural resources extracted in a conflict zone
and sold to perpetuate the fighting. Conflict Free
does not mean free from other problems.
Congo Conflict Minerals
Indigenous People are Left Poor as Tech World takes Lithium from under
Mineral Resource Classification
is the classification of mineral
resources based on an increasing level of geological knowledge and
confidence. Mineral deposits can be classified as: Mineral resources that
are potentially valuable, and for which reasonable prospects exist for
eventual economic extraction. Mineral reserves or Ore reserves that are
valuable and legally and economically and technically feasible to extract.
- Actual Cost
is the extraction of useful materials (elements or compounds)
which are naturally dissolved in brine. The brine may be seawater, other
surface water, or groundwater. It differs from solution mining or in-situ
leaching in that those methods inject water or chemicals to dissolve
materials which are in a solid state; in brine mining, the materials are
already dissolved. Brines are important sources of salt, iodine, lithium,
magnesium, potassium, bromine, and other materials, and potentially
important sources of a number of others.
Huge supply of Rare-Earth Elements from Mining Waste
. Researchers have
examined a method to extract rare-earth
from mining waste that could provide the world with a
reliable supply of the valuable materials.
Investigating BHP's $5bn Mining Disaster In Brazil
Damian Palin: Mining Minerals from
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon
The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels
Hambach Surface Mine
Metals used in high-tech products face future supply risks
Bunker Hill Mine in North Idaho deposited 75 million tons of toxic sludge
in Lake Coeur d’Alene
, and the lead and zinc are still flowing.
Children in the Silver Valley in the 1970s registered some of the highest
levels of lead in their bloodstreams recorded anywhere. Today, after 35
years and almost $900 million in cleanup costs, Bunker Hill’s tailings
heap still oozes 400 pounds of toxic metals a day into the South Fork of
the Coeur d’Alene River. The pollution is a ticking time bomb. Bunker Hill
closed in 1981 because it couldn’t comply with U.S. clean air and water
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of
work-related injury and illness. NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC) within the U.S. Department of Health and
Progressive Massive Fibrosis
is the disease arises firstly through the
deposition of silica or coal dust (or other dust) within the lung, and
then through the body's immunological reactions to the dust.
Coal worker's Pneumoconiosis
is also known as
black lung disease
or black lung, is caused by long exposure to
coal dust. Similar to both silicosis from inhaling silica dust and to the
long-term effects of tobacco smoking
Inhaled coal dust progressively builds up in the lungs and cannot be
removed by the body; this leads to inflammation, fibrosis, and in worse
is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation
of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in
the form of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs. It is a type
of pneumoconiosis. Silicosis resulted in 46,000 deaths globally in 2013
down from 55,000 deaths in 1990.
Exploitation of Natural Resources
is the use of natural resources for
economic growth, sometimes with a negative connotation of accompanying
is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock
and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A
pipeline is not a tunnel, though some recent tunnels have used immersed
tube construction techniques rather than traditional
tunnel boring methods
Why Tunnels Don't
. Rock bolts are a type of reinforcement for stabilizing rock
excavations, usually made from steel bars or bolts.
is the material that lies above an area such as the rock,
soil, and ecosystem. Rare Earth
- Precious Metals
Edward Burtynsky Photographs of Mines
should never be a reason to commit
or as a reason to
is to rid oneself of
something that one no longer wants or
, like stopping a
is getting rid of stocks, bonds, or investment funds that
are unethically unjustifiable
is the withdrawal of capital
from a country or corporation. Activism
Energy Returned on Energy Invested
is the ratio of the
amount of usable energy delivered from a particular energy resource to the
amount of energy used to obtain that energy resource. It is a distinct
measure from energy efficiency as it does not measure the primary energy
inputs to the system, only usable energy
from companies related to fossil fuel abuses
We just don't want to
, we need to correctly measure the resources
the world has
so that we can then use them effectively and
waste and abuse
. Resources belong to
the people of the earth, and not to individuals, governments or
Stop Being An Enabler
is the consumption of a resource faster than it can be replenished.
Natural resources are commonly divided between renewable resources and
non-renewable resources (see also mineral resource classification). Use of
either of these forms of resources beyond their rate of replacement is
considered to be resource depletion. Damage
Tradable Energy Quotas
is a proposal for a national emissions and
energy trading scheme that includes personal carbon trading as a central
element. It is the subject of significant interest from the UK Government,
and is explicitly designed to address both climate change and peak oil.Habitat
Go Fossil Free: Divestment Day
February 13 and 14:
Divest from fossil fuels
In the valuation of companies dependent on
fossil-fuel-based energy production, because the true costs of carbon
dioxide in intensifying global warming are not yet taken into account in a
company's stock market valuation. Currently the price of fossil fuels
companies' shares is calculated under the assumption that all fossil fuel
reserves will be consumed. An estimate made by Kepler Chevreux puts the
loss in value of the fossil fuel companies due to the impact of the
growing renewables industry at $ 28 trillion over the next two
decades-long. A more recent analysis made by Citi puts that figure at $100
trillion. Analysts in both the petroleum and financial industries are
concluding that the "age of oil" has already reached a new stage where the
excess supply that appeared in late 2014 may continue to prevail in the
future. A consensus appears to be emerging that an international agreement
will be reached to introduce measures to constrain the combustion of
hydrocarbons in an effort to limit global temperature rise to the nominal
2 °C that is consensually predicted to limit environmental harm to
tolerable levels.Investors managing $32
trillion in assets call for action on climate change.
A total of
415 investors from across the world including UBS Asset Management and
Aberdeen Standard Investments signed the 2018 Global Investor Statement to
Governments on Climate Change demanding urgent action.
Films about Sustainable Resource Management
Ray Anderson: The Business Logic of Sustainability
Ecology of Commerce
Lovins: We Must Win the Oil Endgame
Oil End Game
Johan Rockstrom let the Environment
Guide our Development
James Hansen: Why I must Speak Out about Climate Change
Steve Howard: Lets Go All in on Selling Sustainability
38:20 (proposed coal exports)
Paul Gilding: The Earth is Full
Pavan Sukhdev: What is the Price of Nature
E. O. Wilson on Saving life on Earth
Encyclopedia of Life
Garth Lenz: The True Cost of Oil
To the Last Drop - Part 1
Stop Keystone XL
Dirty Oil Sands
Murder by Oil
(09/20/2014 - 1:35) This movie shows the
criminals, the murderers, the liars, the polluters, and the
thieves of the Keystone Pipeline. All who work for the Keystone
to these crimes.
List Of Corporate Crimes being Committed
Idle no More
Idle No More
Spirit Of Water
Land Conservation Websites
Ocean Protection Websites
River Protection Websites
Sounds of Nature around the world
Laws of Nature
or events in nature.
is a logical or comprehensible arrangement of
A condition of regular or proper arrangement.
relation between interdependent entities.
"Whatever we do to the Earth, we do to ourselves."
"It's not just our actions that do damage, it's also our
that do damage."
is not progressing
to slowly. Not exerting
influence or change. Lacking activity. Lacking in energy or will. Lying idle or
unused. Not active physically or mentally.
(botany) - Insects
Geology - Rocks - Dirt
is the study of
A science that deals with the history of the earth as recorded in rocks.
is the study of geology, the
and the large-scale structure of the Earth's interior
, as well as the
, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Typically, Earth scientists use
tools from geography
, biology, chronology, and
mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth system
works and evolves.
is a naturally
occurring chemical compound
of crystalline form and abiogenic in origin. A mineral has one specific
chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different
minerals or mineraloids. The study of minerals is called mineralogy.
subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of
, crystal structure, and physical
(including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
Specific studies within mineralogy include the processes of mineral origin
and formation, classification of minerals, their geographical
distribution, as well as their utilization. Soil
208 species of minerals exist today solely due to human
in locations around the world. These minerals
represent nearly 4 percent of the 5,200 mineral species recognized by the
, which is an international group of 38
national societies. The goal is to promote the science of mineralogy and
to standardize the nomenclature of the 4000 plus known mineral species.
The IMA is affiliated with the
International Union of Geological Sciences
, which is devoted to
international cooperation in the field of geology.
There are around 5,200 Minerals
is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates. Its chemical name is
zirconium silicate and its corresponding chemical formula is ZrSiO4.
Rocks, Minerals, & Gemstones
List of U.S. State Minerals, Rocks, Stones and Gemstones
are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They
are the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals and make
up approximately 90 percent of the Earth's crust. They are classified
based on the structure of their silicate groups, which contain different
ratios of silicon and oxygen.
is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or
mineraloids. For example, granite, a common rock, is a combination of the
minerals quartz, feldspar and biotite. The
Earth's outer solid layer
, the lithosphere, is made of rock. Three
major groups of rocks are defined: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, which is an essential
component of geology. Earth’s rocks contain more than 4,000 different
(the crystalline molecules
that make up rocks).
magmatic rock, is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma
or lava. The magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in
either a planet's mantle or crust. Typically, the melting is caused by one
or more of three processes: an increase in temperature, a decrease in
pressure, or a change in composition. Solidification into rock occurs
either below the surface as intrusive rocks or on the surface as extrusive
rocks. Igneous rock may form with crystallization to form granular,
crystalline rocks, or without crystallization to form natural glasses.
a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano. In other words, it
differs from other igneous rock by being of volcanic origin. Like all rock
types, the concept of volcanic rock is artificial, and in nature volcanic
rocks grade into hypabyssal and metamorphic rocks and constitute an
important element of some sediments and sedimentary rocks. For these
reasons, in geology, volcanics and shallow hypabyssal rocks are not always
treated as distinct. In the context of Precambrian shield geology, the
term "volcanic" is often applied to what are strictly metavolcanic rocks.
Volcanic rocks are among the most common rock types on Earth's surface,
particularly in the oceans. On land, they are very common at plate
boundaries and in flood basalt provinces. It has been estimated that
volcanic rocks cover about 8% of the Earth's
current land surface
arises from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called
metamorphism, which means "change in form". The original rock (protolith)
is subjected to heat (temperatures greater than 150 to 200 °C) and
pressure (1500 bars), causing profound physical and/or chemical change.
The protolith may be a sedimentary rock, an igneous rock or another older
is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct
arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the
protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change). The change
occurs primarily due to heat, pressure, and the introduction of chemically
active fluids. The chemical components and crystal structures of the
minerals making up the rock may change even though the rock remains a
solid. Changes at or just beneath Earth's surface due to weathering and/or
diagenesis are not classified as metamorphism.Metamorphism typically
occurs between diagenesis (max. 200°C), and melting (~850°C). Three types
of metamorphism exist: contact, dynamic, and regional. Metamorphism
produced with increasing pressure and temperature conditions is known as
prograde metamorphism. Conversely, decreasing temperatures and pressure
characterize retrograde metamorphism.
are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent
cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of
. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause
mineral and/or organic particles (detritus) to settle in place. The
particles that form a sedimentary rock by accumulating are called
sediment. Before being deposited, the sediment was formed by weathering
from the source area, and then transported to the place of
deposition by water, wind, ice, mass movement or glaciers, which are
called agents of denudation. Sedimentation may also occur as minerals
precipitate from water solution or shells of aquatic creatures settle out
is a loose aggregation of rock fragments
Gravel is classified by particle size range and includes size classes from
granule- to boulder-sized fragments. In the Udden-Wentworth scale gravel
is categorized into granular gravel (2 to 4 mm or
0.079 to 0.157 in
) and pebble gravel (4 to 64 mm or 0.2 to 2.5 in).
ISO 14688 grades gravels as fine, medium, and coarse with ranges 2 mm to
6.3 mm to 20 mm to 63 mm. One cubic metre of gravel typically weighs about
1,800 kg (or a cubic yard weighs about 3,000 pounds). Gravel is an
important commercial product, with a number of applications. Many roadways
are surfaced with gravel, especially in rural areas where there is little
traffic. Globally, far more roads are surfaced with gravel
or tarmac; Russia alone has over 400,000 km (250,000 mi) of
gravel roads. Both sand and small gravel are also important for the
manufacture of concrete.
Aggregate in geology
is a mass of mineral crystals, mineraloid
particles or rock particles. Cement
- Soil Science
is a tetravalent nonmetallic element
Next to oxygen
, Silicon is the most abundant
element in the earth's crust
and feldspar, rocks
and granite, and quartz and
. Silicon used as a
semiconductor in transistors
and atomic number 14. A hard and brittle crystalline solid with a
blue-grey metallic lustre. The vast majority of computing devices today
are made from silicon. And while it is not the best semiconducting
material that exists on the planet, it is by far the most readily
available. As such, silicon is the dominant material used in most
electronic devices, including
, and the
within our computers
are hard and strong because Diamonds carbon shares electrons
with four other carbon atoms
four single bonds operating in 3-dimensions making a
don't conduct electricity. All the electrons are held tightly between the
atoms, and aren't free to move.
has layers that leaves out the fourth electron in the bonding level,
making it soft and brittle.
branch of geology which studies rock layers (strata) and layering
(stratification). It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and
layered volcanic rocks. Stratigraphy has two related subfields: lithologic
stratigraphy or lithostratigraphy, and biologic stratigraphy or biostratigraphy.
is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes
the Earth as well as the processes and history that have shaped it.
is the combined mass of
found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet
or natural satellite.
is the area of geology that deals with the
distribution and movement of groundwater
and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers). The term
geohydrology is often used interchangeably. Some make the minor
distinction between a hydrologist or engineer applying themselves to
geology (geohydrology), and a geologist applying themselves to hydrology (hydrogeology).
is the study of physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean, especially the motions and physical
properties of ocean waters.
is a field of science devoted to the study of the
lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth
The True Size of Countries
(earth surface) -
U.S. Geological Survey
- "Geology Rocks but Geography is where it's at."
Geographic Information System
is a system designed to capture, store,
manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data. The
acronym GIS is sometimes used for geographic information science (GIScience)
to refer to the academic discipline that studies geographic information
systems and is a large domain within the broader academic discipline of
geoinformatics. What goes beyond a GIS is a
spatial data infrastructure
, a concept that has no such restrictive
is the science that uses the tools and
principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological
systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans. The realm of
geochemistry extends beyond the Earth, encompassing the entire Solar
System and has made important contributions to the understanding of a
number of processes including mantle convection, the formation of planets
and the origins of granite and basalt
is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic
bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes
operating at or near the Earth's surface.
is the branch of civil engineering concerned
with the engineering behavior of earth materials.
is a hybrid discipline that comprises elements
of civil engineering, mining engineering
, petroleum engineering, and earth
is the application of geophysics to the
engineering design of facilities including roads, tunnels, and mines.
was established on the eve of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit to
help tackle our planet’s most pressing environmental problems. Since then,
the GEF has provided over $17 billion in grants and mobilized an
additional $88 billion in financing for more than 4000 projects in 170
countries. Today, the GEF is an international partnership of 183
countries, international institutions, civil society organizations and the
private sector that addresses global environmental issues.
is the application of the geological sciences to
engineering study.We are already doing
, we polluted the air, land and water, we over fish,
we cut down too many trees, we raise too many farm animals just for meat,
and we added lots of CO2
into the air.
is a cylindrical section of (usually) a
naturally occurring substance. Most core samples are obtained by drilling
with special drills into the substance, for example sediment or rock, with
a hollow steel tube called a core drill. The hole made for the core sample
is called the "core bowling". A variety of core samplers exist to sample
different media under different conditions. More continue to be invented
on a regular basis. In the coring process, the sample is pushed more or
less intact into the tube. Removed from the tube in the laboratory, it is
inspected and analyzed by different techniques and equipment depending on
the type of data desired. Core samples can be taken to test the properties
of manmade materials, such as concrete, ceramics, some metals and alloys,
especially the softer ones. Core samples can also be taken of living
things, including human beings, especially of a person's bones for
microscopic examination to help diagnose diseases.
Measuring How Old Something Is
Encyclopedia of Earth
invented the discipline of geography, including
the terminology used today. A Greek mathematician and astronomer
who estimated the circumference of the earth and the distances
to the Moon and sun (276-194 BC)
is the branch of
that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure,
embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all
animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their
is the scientific and objective study of
animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural
conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia (also
called Metazoa). The animal kingdom emerged as a basal clade within
Apoikozoa as a sister of the choanoflagellates. Sponges are the most basal
clade of animals. Animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously
and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually
becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of
metamorphosis later on in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs: they
must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance.
are large or giant animals.
are any vertebrates within the class Mammalia
distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of a
(a region of the brain), hair,
three middle ear bones and mammary glands.
refers to the collective sound
vocalizing animals create in each given environment.
Ways to Save some of the Worlds Rarest Species
lays their eggs in the nests of other species, but the majority of species
raise their own young.Cuckoo
man who is a stupid incompetent fool
males give birth and are impregnated by female Seahorses.
females are larger and stronger then male Hyenas.
is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or
illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to
see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis). Examples
include the leopard's spotted coat, the battledress of a modern soldier,
and the leaf-mimic katydid's wings. A third approach, motion dazzle,
confuses the observer with a conspicuous pattern, making the object
visible but momentarily harder to locate. The majority of camouflage
methods aim for crypsis, often through a general
to the background, high
contrast disruptive coloration, eliminating shadow, and countershading. In
the open ocean, where there is no background, the principal methods of
camouflage are transparency, silvering, and countershading, while the
ability to produce light is among other things used for
counter-illumination on the undersides of cephalopods such as squid. Some
animals, such as chameleons and octopuses, are capable of actively
changing their skin pattern and colours, whether for camouflage or for
signalling. It is possible that some plants use camouflage to evade being
eaten by herbivores
is to pretend to be someone or
something that you are not. Making a false outward show.
is the scientific study of insects, a branch of
are a class of invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a
chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three
pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. Insects are
the most diverse group of animals on the planet, including more than a
million described species and representing more than half of all known
living organisms. The number of extant species is estimated at between six
and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing
animal life forms on Earth. Insects may be found in nearly all
environments, although only a small number of species reside in the
oceans, a habitat dominated by another arthropod group, crustaceans.
the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo
develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal
hatches. An egg results from fertilization of an ovum. Most arthropods,
vertebrates, and mollusks lay eggs, although some, such as scorpions and
most mammals, do not.
a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into
adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or
cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle.
the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation between immature
and mature stages. The pupal stage is found only in holometabolous
insects, those that undergo a complete metamorphosis, with four life
stages: egg, larva, pupa and imago. The processes of entering and
completing the pupal stage are controlled by the insect's hormones,
especially juvenile hormone, prothoracicotropic hormone, and ecdysone.
is a biological process by which an animal physically
develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively
abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and
differentiation. Metamorphosis is iodothyronine-induced and an ancestral
feature of all chordates. Some insects, fishes, amphibians, mollusks,
crustaceans, cnidarians, echinoderms, and tunicates undergo metamorphosis,
which is often accompanied by a change of nutrition source or behavior.
Animals that go through metamorphosis are called metamorphoses. Animals
can be divided into species that undergo complete metamorphosis ("holometaboly"),
incomplete metamorphosis ("hemimetaboly"), or no metamorphosis ("ametaboly").
is the last stage an insect attains during its metamorphosis, its process
of growth and development; it also is called the imaginal stage, the stage
in which the insect attains maturity. It follows the final ecdysis of the
How Celibate Animals Evolved for 50 million years without ever having Sex
is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which
growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization. In animals,
parthenogenesis means development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg
cell. In plants parthenogenesis is a component process of apomixis.
Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in some plants, some invertebrate animal
species (including nematodes, water fleas, some scorpions, aphids, some
mites, some bees, some Phasmida and parasitic wasps) and a few vertebrates
(such as some fish, amphibians, reptiles and very rarely birds). This type
of reproduction has been induced artificially in a few species including
fish and amphibians. Aphid
(wiki) - Komodo
is a type of
by which offspring arise from a single organism, and
inherit the genes
of that parent
only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes
the number of chromosomes
Asexual reproduction is the primary form of reproduction for single-celled
organisms such as archaea and bacteria. Many plants and fungi sometimes
is an organism (plant or
animal) having both male and female reproductive organs. (2) An organism
having both male and female organs. Therefore, is capable of producing
both male and female gametes. Sometimes the cannabis plant will produce
male organs on a female plant.
an organism that has reproductive organs and produces gametes normally
associated with both male and female sexes.
Plant Reproductive Morphology
is the study of the physical form and
structure (the morphology) of those parts of plants directly or indirectly
concerned with sexual reproduction.
is the process
of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that
occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects, plants or
animals reproduce asexually. Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes
used to create copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell
cloning), or organisms (organism cloning).
production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or
organisms that are closely related genetically. By analogy, the term is
used in human reproduction, but more commonly refers to the genetic
disorders and other consequences that may arise from incestuous sexual
, which is the property of being from the same kinship as
another person. In that aspect, consanguinity is the quality of being
descended from the same ancestor as another person.
activity between family members or close relatives.
Phylogeny of insects
is based on genome sequencing data, it
is estimated that the class of insects originated on Earth about
480 million years ago
, in the
Ordovician, at about the same time terrestrial plants appeared.
Insect Agriculture is a specialized form of Symbiosis
is a group of
insects related to butterflies, belonging to the order
. Most lepidopterans are moths, and there are thought to be
approximately 160,000 species of moth
of which have yet to be described. Most species of moth are nocturnal, but
there are also crepuscular and diurnal species.
insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order
Lepidoptera, which also includes moths. Adult butterflies have large,
often brightly coloured wings, and conspicuous, fluttering flight.
Butterflies are classified in three superfamilies:
Papilionoidea or ‘true butterflies’. Hesperioidea, consisting of
the ‘skippers’. Hedyloidea, consisting of the ‘moth-butterflies’.
The five families of true butterflies usually recognized in the family
: Family Papilionidae, the Swallowtails, Apollos
and Birdwings. Family Pieridae, the Whites and Yellows. Family Lycaenidae,
the Blues and Coppers, also called the Gossamer-Winged Butterflies. Family
Riodinidae, the Metalmark butterflies. Family Nymphalidae, the
Brush-footed butterflies including the Monarch Butterfly.
is a branch of entomology concerning the scientific study of moths and the
three superfamilies of butterflies. Someone that studies in this field is
a lepidopterist or, archaically, an aurelian.
order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called
lepidopterans). About 180,000 species
the Lepidoptera are described, in 126 families and 46 superfamilies, 10
per cent of the total described species of living organisms. It is one of
the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world.
The Lepidoptera show many variations of the basic body structure that have
evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution. Recent estimates
suggest the order may have more species than earlier thought, and is among
the four most speciose orders, along with the Hymenoptera, Diptera, and
contains all the butterflies except for the moth-like
, which may
be distinguished by the following combination of characters: The body is
smaller and less moth-like. The wings are larger. The antennae are
straight and clubbed or hooked as in the skippers. The caterpillars do not
spin cocoons in which to pupate. The pupae are angular rather than
rounded. Recent phylogenetic analyses suggest the traditionally
circumscribed Papilionoidea are a paraphyletic group, and that skippers
and hedylids are true butterflies that should be included within the
Papilionoidea superfamily to reflect cladistic relationships.
4,000-Year-Old Termite Mounds found in Brazil
are visible from space.
There are around 200 million cone-shaped mounds, each about 2.5 meters
tall and 9 meters across.
is the scientific study of the normal function in living systems.
is the science of plant life and a branch of
All the plant life in a particular region or period.
Earth System Science
are mainly multicellular, predominantly
eukaryotes of the
kingdom Plantae. The term is today generally limited to the green plants,
which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants").
This includes the flowering plants, conifers
and other gymnosperms, ferns,
, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the
excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants formed one of two
kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals, and both
were treated as plants; however all current definitions of
"plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the
archaea and bacteria
). Green plants have cell walls with cellulose and
obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary
chloroplasts, derived from
chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green
color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce
normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are
characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations,
although asexual reproduction is also common. There are about
300–315 thousand species of plants
which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants
. Green plants provide most of the
world's molecular oxygen
and are the basis of most of Earth's
ecologies, especially on land. Plants that produce grains, fruits and
vegetables form humankind's basic foodstuffs, and have been domesticated
for millennia. Plants play many roles in culture. They are used as
ornaments and, until recently and in great variety, they have served as
the source of most medicines and drugs. The scientific study of plants is
known as botany, a branch of biology
Plants dominate every terrestrial environment, composing ninety-nine per cent of
on earth. By comparison, humans and all the other animals are, in the words of
one plant neurobiologist, “just traces.” Plants are able to sense and optimally
respond to so many environmental variables—light, water, gravity, temperature,
soil structure, nutrients, toxins, microbes, herbivores, chemical
—that there may exist some brainlike
to integrate the data and coordinate
a plant’s behavioral response.
are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments
like saltwater or freshwater.
(city farming) -
is the inability to see or notice the plants in
one's own environment—leading to the inability to recognize the importance
of plants in the biosphere, and in human affairs, and the inability to
appreciate the aesthetic and unique biological features of the life forms.
(MAM) Project begins this study by looking at
vascular plants, with the digitization of nearly one million herbarium
specimens from thirteen institutions in the urban corridor from New York
City to Washington.
Intermountain Regional Herbarium Network
is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with
the functioning, or physiology, of plants. Closely related fields include
plant morphology (structure of plants), plant ecology (interactions with
the environment), phytochemistry (biochemistry of plants), cell biology,
genetics, biophysics and molecular biology
are the reactions within signalling
pathways may provide a biochemical basis for learning and memory in
addition to computation and problem solving. Controversially, the brain is
used as a metaphor in plant intelligence to provide an integrated view of
Study Shows Plants Talk through the Roots
is the sensory adaptive behaviour of
plants and plant electrophysiology
. A plant's sensory and response system
has been compared to the neurobiological processes of animals.
Electricity in Nature
Measuring Plant Defensive Signals.
describes the information processing rate in plants, which
are mostly based on hormones instead of neurons like in all major animals
(except sponges). Plants can to some degree communicate with each other
and there are even examples of one-way-communication with animals.
Plants reveal Decision-Making Abilities under Competition
. Plants can
choose between alternative competitive responses according to the stature
and densities of their opponents, biologists have discovered. A new study
reveals that plants can evaluate the competitive ability of their
neighbors and optimally match their responses to them.
Videos about Plants
Intelligence of Plants
Mind of Plants : Documentary on The Intelligence of Plants
Season 1 Episode 3 | Aired on 07/02/2010 | TV-G | 52:16.
Jonathan Drori: The Beautiful Tricks of Flowers
Stefano Mancuso: The Roots of Plant Intelligence
root brain theory (video)
Ameenah Gurib Fakim: Humble Plants that hide Surprising Secrets
The Secret Life Of Plants with Music by Stevie Wonder
Life of Plants
Roger - Rhapsody In Green I - Effluves Plant Music Sound Track
(youtube)The Private Life of Plants with David Attenborough
The Beauty of Pollination - Moving Art
How trees talk to each other: Suzanne Simard
(video and text)
Electrical Experiments with Plants that Count and Communicate
is the response by
to mechanical sensation (touch) by altering their growth patterns. In the
wild, these patterns can be evinced by wind, raindrops, and rubbing by
is to give
expression to. (communication).
Plant Behavior (neuro)
Laboratory of Plant Neurobiology
Plant Molecular Biology
Cereals use chemical defenses in a multifunctional manner against
. Plants rely on their toxins not only to fend off
caterpillars but also to regulate defense mechanisms against aphids.
Scientists have characterized multiple functions of benzoxazinoids in
toxic form of the substances makes the plant directly resistant to
lepidopteran larvae, whereas a less toxic form regulates indirect defense
mechanisms against aphids. The researchers identified the 'switch' between
these different functions as a methyltransferase enzyme, which is
activated by caterpillar feeding. This switch enables wheat plants to
adapt their defense response to different herbivores.
is the diurnal motion or seasonal motion of plant parts
(flowers or leaves) in response to the direction of the sun.
sunflowers follow the sun
indicating growth or turning movement of a biological organism, usually a plant,
in response to an environmental stimulus.
is different from that of animals in a few ways.
Like mitochondria, chloroplasts have their own DNA, complicating pedigrees
somewhat. Like animals, plants have somatic mutations regularly, but these
mutations can contribute to the germ line with ease, since flowers develop
at the ends of branches composed of somatic cells. People have known of
this for centuries, and mutant branches are called "sports". If the fruit
on the sport is economically desirable, a new cultivar may be obtained.
Bioinformatics for Plant Biotechnology
is the study of a region's plants and their
practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and
people. An ethnobotanist thus strives to document the local customs
involving the practical uses of local flora for many aspects of life, such
as plants as medicines, foods, and clothing. Richard Evans Schultes, often
referred to as the "father of ethnobotany", explained the discipline in
this way: Ethnobotany simply means [...] investigating plants used by
primitive societies in various parts of the world.
(solar energy) -
(the fungus among us)
Theory suggests Root Efficiency, independence drove Global Spread of Flora
Researchers suggest that plants spread worldwide thanks to root
adaptations that allowed them to become more efficient and independent. As
plant species spread, roots became thinner so they could more efficiently
explore poor soils for nutrients, and they shed their reliance on
symbiotic fungi. The researchers report that root diameter and reliance on
fungi most consistently characterize the plant communities across entire
biomes such as deserts, savannas and temperate forests.
Plants Living Dormant under the soil for
up to 20 years like Rip Van Winkle
sequencing to survey pondweed diversity
. Researchers have developed a
protocol using environmental DNA (eDNA) to identify aquatic plant
diversity, making ecological biodiversity surveys of these plant
communities faster and less expensive. Their study on pondweeds -- an
important bioindicator of aquatic ecosystem health -- allows researchers
to overcome difficulties in monitoring and identification, and draw
conclusions regarding plant diversity and water quality. eDNA is a rapidly
emerging technique, but its use in aquatic habitats has been understudied.
collected from a variety of environmental samples such as soil, seawater,
or even air rather than directly sampled from an individual organism. As
various organisms interact with the environment, DNA is expelled and
accumulates in their surroundings. Example sources of eDNA include, but
are not limited to, feces, mucus, gametes, shed skin, carcasses and hair.
Such samples can be analyzed by high-throughput
, for rapid measurement and monitoring of biodiversity. In
order to better differentiate between organisms within a sample, DNA
is used in which the sample is analyzed and uses
previously studied DNA libraries to determine what organisms are present
(e.g. BLAST). The analysis of eDNA has great potential, not only for
monitoring common species, but to genetically detect and identify other
extant species that could influence conservation efforts. This method
allows for biomonitoring without requiring collection of the living
organism, creating the ability to study organisms that are invasive,
elusive, or endangered without introducing anthropogenic stress on the
organism. Access to this genetic information makes a critical contribution
to the understanding of population size, species distribution, and
population dynamics for species not well documented. The integrity of eDNA
samples is dependent upon its preservation within the environment. Soil,
permafrost, freshwater and seawater are well-studied macro environments
from which eDNA samples have been extracted, each of which include many
more conditioned subenvironments. Because of its versatility, eDNA is
applied in many subenvironments such as freshwater sampling, seawater
sampling, terrestrial soil sampling (tundra permafrost), aquatic soil
sampling (river, lake, pond, and ocean sediment), or other environments
where normal sampling procedures can become problematic.
A warmer spring leads to less plant growth in summer
How important are Flowers?
Most of our Foods and Medicines are derived from Flowers.
also known as a bloom or blossom, is the
reproductive structure found in flower plants, the division Magnoliophyta, also
called angiosperms. The flower structure contains the plant's organs, and its
function is to produce seeds through reproduction. For the higher plants, seeds
are the next generation, and serve as the primary means by which individuals of
a species are dispersed across the landscape either by pollination from insects,
birds, bats or the wind. After fertilization, portions of the flower develop
into a fruit containing the seeds. The grouping of flowers on a plant is called
the inflorescence. In addition to serving as the reproductive organs of
flowering plants, flowers have long been admired and used by humans, mainly to
beautify their environment but also as a source of food. Many flowers in
nature have evolved to attract animals to pollinate the flower, the movements of
the pollinating agent contributing to the opportunity for genetic recombination
within a dispersed plant population. Flowers that are insect-pollinated are
called entomophilous (literally "insect-loving"). Flowers commonly have glands
called nectaries on their various parts that attract these animals. Birds and
bees are common pollinators: both having color vision, thus opting for
"colorful" flowers. Some flowers have patterns, called nectar guides, that
show pollinators where to look for nectar; they may be visible to us or only
under ultraviolet light, which is visible to bees and some other insects.
Flowers also attract pollinators by scent. Many of their scents are pleasant
to our sense of smell, but not all. Some plants, such as Rafflesia, the titan
arum, and the North American pawpaw (Asimina triloba), are pollinated by flies,
so they produce a scent imitating rotting meat. Flowers pollinated by night
visitors such as bats or moths are especially likely to concentrate on scent
which can attract pollinators in the dark rather than color: Most such
flowers are white. (French flo(u)r) (Latin florem flos). The first evidence of a flower was found in a fossil
named Archaefructus, believed to be 125 million years old. Hengduan Mountain
Region in southwest China is believed to be the birthplace of all flowers.
Hengduan Mountain Region contains about 30,000 species of flowering plants and
ferns, compared to about 20,000 for all of North America north of Mexico.
Amborella trichopoda is believed to be the first flower based on DNA evidence.
Flowering plants are the most abundant and ecologically successful group of
plants on earth.
And ever since then, flowers
have been an essential part of our history, our spiritual growth and an
inspiration for millions. They have found a way into our hearts, by sight and
smell, giving enlightenment and self realization. So it is no surprise that
flowers are National Symbols, State Symbols and symbolic to many beliefs and
teachings around the world.
Rafflesia arnoldii (titan arum) is the world's largest flower at 3 feet across. Found in the Sumatra
and Borneo regions of Indonesia. Its odor has been described as similar to
Another large flower is the rare and threatened Amorphophallus
titanum plant that grows an incredible 6 to 7 inches a day & also emits a strong
odor, thus the name 'corpse flower'.
Wolffia flower is the worlds smallest flower which floats on the surface of quiet streams and ponds. The
entire plant, flower and all, is less than a millimeter long. A bouquet of a
dozen could fit on the head of a pin
These are just some of the things that I have learned about flowers, and all because of that one day in the
spring of 2004, I decided to take a super macro close up of a flower, and after
viewing it on my computer screen I realized I have been over looking one of the
most fascinating things this world has ever created, flowers.
There are about 300,000 plant
species on Earth. Plants are the only life forms that can produce their own food
using energy from sunlight. Plants produce almost all of the oxygen in the air
that humans and other animals breathe. Plants are also an important source of
food, building materials, and other resources that make life possible for
is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that
is used to control gas exchange.
"Find the seed at the bottom
of your heart and bring forth a flower." - (Shigenori Kameoka
"All plants are our brothers
and sisters. "
"They talk to us and if we listen, we can hear them." (Arapaho
"If one really loves nature,
one can find beauty everywhere." (Vincent
"The best and most beautiful
things in the world cannot be seen, nor touched but are felt in the heart."
South Africa’s Cape Floral Region
is home to the world's smallest
floristic kingdom (there are six in total), which includes the unique
Fynbos Biome, and supports nearly 9,000 species of plants, of which around
69% are endemic.
Fires are becoming more frequent and intense since the 1990s
requires a longer view to look for possible natural cycles and vegetation
responses to these, and also at the evolution of scientific and popular
understanding of fire.
is a significant task of systems biology and mathematical biology.[a]
Computational systems biology[b] aims to develop and use efficient
algorithms, data structures, visualization and communication tools with
the goal of computer modelling of biological systems
. It involves the use
of computer simulations of biological systems, including cellular
subsystems (such as the networks of metabolites and enzymes which comprise
metabolism, signal transduction pathways and gene regulatory networks), to
both analyze and visualize the complex connections of these cellular
processes. Artificial life or virtual evolution attempts to understand
evolutionary processes via the computer simulation of simple (artificial)
Wild Edible Plant Identifier App
(diseases of plants)
is a self-similar spiral curve
often appears in nature. The logarithmic spiral was first described by
Descartes and later extensively investigated by Jacob Bernoulli, who
called it Spira mirabilis, "the marvelous spiral".
is a concept found in Neo-Confucian Chinese
philosophy. It refers to the underlying reason and order of nature as
reflected in its organic forms.
is a genus of small, fresh-water animals of the phylum
Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa. They are native to the temperate and tropical
regions. Biologists are especially interested in Hydra because of their
regenerative ability – they appear not to age or die of old age.
Information on Plant Protection Products
Garden Hasn't Been Watered in Over 40 Years
Summer Rayne Oaks
keeps over 500 plants with 150 Types alive inside of her Williamsburg
1,200 foot Apartment
That Wouldn't Die (w/Robert Krulwich)
Environmental Preservation Ideas
Environmental Awareness Books
is a geographically defined area in which a specific
category of plant life is capable of growing, as defined by climatic
conditions, including its ability to withstand the minimum temperatures of
the zone (see the scale on the right or the table below). For example, a
plant that is described as "hardy to zone 10" means that the plant can
withstand a minimum temperature of -1°C (30.2°F) to 3.9°C (39.0°F). First
developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) as a rough
guide to landscaping and gardening, the use of the zones has been adopted
by other countries.
Royal Botanic Garden
are 391,000 vascular plant species known to science, with an
average of 2,000 new ones being discovered and named each year.
21 percent of global plant species are currently threatened with extinction.
is the Study of the
mixture of 21% oxygen
, and approximately 1% other trace
which is a noble gas
third-most abundant gas in the Earths
atmosphere and more than twice as abundant as
, which is lighter than air and triggers
that can lead to
is the global sum of all ecosystems
is the sphere of
is the state of the
, to the degree
that it is hot or cold, wet
or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. Most
weather phenomena occur in the troposphere
just below the stratosphere. Weather refers to day-to-day temperature and
precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the statistics of
atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. When used without
qualification, "weather" is generally understood to mean the weather of
Air Quality Report
is an organic compound that
contains only carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as volatile
derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
This Website is Hosted on Servers that are Powered by 100% Wind
is one of the two major sub-fields of geography. Physical geography is
that branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and
patterns in the natural environment like the
, hydrosphere, biosphere,
and geosphere, as opposed to the cultural or built environment, the domain
of human geography.
Art made of the Air we Breathe: Emily Parsons-Lord
Air is the combination of the invisible gases that
envelop the Earth, attracted by the Earth's gravitational pull. That air
that you just exhaled
, you enriched a hundred times in
roughly five liters of air per breath, 17 breaths
of the 525,600 minutes per year, comes to approximately
45 million liters of air, enriched 100 times in carbon dioxide, just for
you. Now, that's equivalent to about 18 Olympic-sized swimming pools.
. It's from about 300 to 350 million years ago
an era known as the time of the giants. So for the first time in the
history of life, lignin evolves. That's the hard stuff that trees are
made of. So trees effectively invent their own trunks at this time, and
they get really big, bigger and bigger, and pepper the Earth, releasing
oxygen, releasing oxygen, releasing oxygen, such that the oxygen levels
are about twice as high as what they are today. And this rich air supports
massive insects -- huge spiders and dragonflies with a wingspan of about
65 centimeters. To breathe, this air is really clean and really fresh. It
doesn't so much have a flavor, but it does give your body a really subtle
kind of boost of energy. It's really good for hangovers.
average adult, when resting, inhales and exhales about 7 or 8 liters of
air per minute. That totals about 11,000 liters of air per day. Inhaled
air is about 20-percent oxygen. Exhaled air is about 15-percent oxygen.
70% of the oxygen in the atmosphere is produced by
, the air in the bubble has 4% to 5% by volume more carbon
dioxide and 4% to 5% by volume less oxygen than was inhaled. Your exhaled
air is typically composed of: 78.04% nitrogen. 13.6% – 16% oxygen.
Plants that Purify Indoor Air
is a mixture of gaseous chemical elements
used for respiration
. Air is the most common, and only natural, breathing
gas - but a range of pure gases or mixtures of gases are used in breathing
equipment and enclosed habitats such as scuba equipment, surface supplied
diving equipment, recompression chambers, submarines, space suits,
spacecraft, medical life support and first aid equipment, high-altitude
mountaineering and anaesthetic machines. Oxygen
is the essential component for any
gas, at a partial pressure of
between roughly 0.16 and 1.60 bar
ambient pressure. The oxygen is usually the only metabolically active
component unless the gas is an anaesthetic mixture. Some of the oxygen in
the breathing gas is consumed by the metabolic processes, and the inert
components are unchanged, and serve mainly to dilute the oxygen to an
appropriate concentration, and are therefore also known as diluent gases.
Most breathing gases therefore are a mixture of oxygen and one or more
inert gases. Other breathing gases have been developed to improve on the
performance of ordinary air by reducing the risk of decompression
sickness, reducing the duration of decompression stops, reducing nitrogen
narcosis or allowing safer deep diving. A safe
for hyperbaric use has three essential features: it
must contain sufficient oxygen to support life, consciousness and work
rate of the breather. It must not contain harmful gases. Carbon monoxide
and carbon dioxide
are common poisons which
may contaminate breathing
gases. There are many other possibilities. It
must not become toxic when being breathed at high pressure such as when
underwater. Oxygen and nitrogen are examples of gases that become toxic
under pressure. The techniques used to fill
with gases other than air are called gas blending. Breathing gases for use
at ambient pressures below normal atmospheric pressure are usually air
enriched with oxygen to provide sufficient oxygen to maintain life and
consciousness, or to allow higher levels of exertion than would be
possible using air. It is common to provide the additional oxygen as a
pure gas added to the breathing air at inhalation, or though a
refers to any gas mixture composed (excepting trace gases) of nitrogen and
oxygen. This includes atmospheric air, which is approximately 78%
nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% other gases, primarily argon.
is a breathing
apparatus that absorbs the carbon dioxide of
a user's exhaled breath to permit the rebreathing (recycling) of the
substantially unused oxygen content, and unused inert content when
present, of each breath. Oxygen is added to replenish the amount metabolised by the user. This differs from an open-circuit breathing
apparatus, where the exhaled gas is discharged directly into the
environment. As a person breathes, the body consumes oxygen and produces
carbon dioxide. Base metabolism requires about 0.25 L/min of oxygen from a
of about 6 L/min, and a fit person working hard may
ventilate at a rate of 95 L/min but will only metabolise about 4 L/min of
oxygen The oxygen metabolised is generally about 4% to 5% of the inspired
volume at normal atmospheric pressure, or about 20% of the available
oxygen in sea level air. Exhaled air at sea level still contains roughly
16% oxygen. Even a small buildup of CO2
the inhaled gas quickly becomes intolerable; if a person tries to directly
rebreathe their exhaled breathing gas, they will soon feel an acute sense
of suffocation, therefore rebreathers must chemically remove the CO2 in a
component known as a carbon dioxide scrubber.
and draw upon
certain features of the environment in order to make accurate
and to be
that might affect
and that the world can be best understood in
. A naturalist is also a
who is knowledgeable about
comprise the fields of science that involve the
scientific study of living organisms – such as microorganisms, plants,
animals, and human beings – as well as related considerations like
is a branch of science
concerned with the
description, prediction, and understanding
of natural phenomena, based on
natural laws are the rules that govern the
structure and behavior of the natural universe
, that the changing
universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
recognizes the work of six young leaders who are making strides
in the environmental movement.
is a branch of natural Science
that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn
has many branches, each referred to as a "physical science", together
called the "physical sciences". However, the term "physical" creates an
unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of
physical science also study biological phenomena and branches of chemistry
such as organic chemistry.
Outline of Earth Science
is a literary movement that emphasizes
observation and the scientific method in the fictional portrayal of
Limits to Growth
Is the Eco-System our Teacher
Waste to Energy
refers to all economic activity derived
from scientific and research activity focused on biotechnology. In other
words, understanding mechanisms and processes at the genetic and molecular
levels and applying this understanding to creating or improving industrial
is a process whereby larger entities, patterns, and regularities arise
through interactions among smaller or simpler entities that themselves do
not exhibit such properties.
is the world's stock of natural resources,
which includes geology, soils, air, water and all living organisms.
Natural capital assets provide people with a wide range of free goods and
services, often called ecosystem services, which underpin our economy and
society and some of which even make human life possible.
studies the nature of systems—from simple to
complex—in nature, society, and science itself.
the scientific study of the normal function in
Outdoor Courses, Wilderness Schools, Experiential Education
Survival Books and Info
for Edible and Medicinal Wild Plants
relating to the uniformity in a substance or
to purify, mature, and perfect certain objects.
is the study of the structure and function of
biological systems such as humans, animals, plants, organs, fungi, and
cells by means of the methods of mechanics.
(Humans) - Culture
is typically conclusions based on repeated
scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have
become accepted universally within the scientific community. The
production of a summary description of our environment in the form of such
laws is a fundamental aim of science. These terms are not used the same
way by all authors.
is the change of minerals or geologic texture.
Global Green Carbon
is the branch of paleontology or paleobiology
dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from
geological contexts, and their use for the biological reconstruction of
past environments (paleogeography), and both the evolutionary history of
plants, with a bearing upon the evolution of life in general.
is the study of remains of plants
cultivated or used by man in ancient times, which have survived in
archaeological contexts. Paleoethnobotany is the archaeological sub-field
that studies plant remains from archaeological sites. Basing on the
recovery and identification of plant remains and the ecological and
cultural information available for modern plants, the major research
themes are the use of wild plants, the origins of agriculture and
domestication, and the co-evolution of human-plant interactions.
is the study of changes in climate taken on
the scale of the entire history of Earth. It uses a variety of proxy
methods from the Earth and life sciences to obtain data previously
preserved within things such as rocks, sediments, ice sheets, tree rings,
corals, shells and microfossils. It then uses the records to determine the
past states of the Earth's various climate regions and its atmospheric
system. Studies of past changes in the environment and biodiversity often
reflect on the current situation, specifically the impact of climate on
mass extinctions and biotic recovery.
is the study of the diversification of living
forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things
refers to responsible use and protection of the
natural environment through conservation and sustainable practices. Aldo
Leopold (1887–1949) championed environmental stewardship based on a land
ethic "dealing with man's relation to land and to the animals and plants
which grow upon it.Environmental
Study shows some Biodiversity Losses can be Reversed
"It's not the strongest of species that survives, nor the most intelligent,
but the one most adaptable to change
." Charles Darwin
About the quote above:
was assuming that there was intelligence and that it was not
intelligent enough to adapt, then I guess it was not so
intelligent after all? If you are not intelligent enough to
adapt, then your not
, just like we are
now. So maybe Charles is just mocking our perceived intelligence, which
doesn't really matter because the message still stands true, you have to
, if not, you die.
"Don't shit where you eat, and Don't shit
where you drink"..meaning, be extremely careful with
sanitation kills thousands everyday.
is the study of ecological processes that
operate in agricultural production systems
Everything about Farming
Green Schools - Clean Technology Schools
include instruction in sustainable development
, geography, environmental
policies, ethics, ecology, landscape architecture
, city and regional
, natural resources, sociology, and anthropology.
is the consumption of a resource faster than it can be
replenished. Natural resources are commonly divided between
and non-renewable resources (see also mineral resource
classification). Use of either of these forms of resources beyond their
rate of replacement is considered to be resource depletion.
is the branch of engineering
concerned with the application of scientific
and engineering principles for protection of human populations from the
effects of adverse environmental factors; protection of environments, both
local and global, from the potentially deleterious effects of natural and
human activities; and improvement of environmental quality.
is an emerging study of integrating
, concerned with the design, monitoring, and construction
of ecosystems. According to Mitsch (1996) "the design of sustainable
ecosystems intends to integrate human society with its natural environment
for the benefit of both".
is the application of concepts and methods of
(and secondarily of
, and computer
) to solve real-world problems related to
or the application thereof,
using engineering's own analytical and synthetic methodologies and also
its traditional sensitivity to the cost and practicality of the
solution(s) arrived at. In this context, while traditional
applies physical and
mathematical sciences to analyze, design and manufacture inanimate tools,
structures and processes, biological engineering uses primarily the
rapidly developing body of knowledge known as molecular biology to study
and advance applications of organisms and to create biotechnology.
power, solar power
, biomass, hydropower, biofuels, etc.), information
technology, green transportation
, electric motors,
lighting, Greywater, and many other
that are now more energy
efficient. It is a means to create electricity and fuels, with a smaller
environmental footprint and minimize pollution
the scientific study of the relationships
that exist between
peoples and plants
is the process that occurs between a
teacher and student that infuses direct experience with the learning
environment and content. The term is not interchangeable with
experiential learning is a sub-field and operates under the methodologies
of experiential education
refers to organized efforts to teach how natural environments function,
and particularly, how human beings can manage behavior and
live sustainably. It is a multi-disciplinary field integrating disciplines
such as biology, chemistry, physics, ecology, earth science,
, mathematics, and geography
is the study of nature by attempting to describe
things in terms of their apparent purpose, directive principle, or goal.
refers to organized learning that takes place in
the outdoors. Outdoor
sometimes involve residential or journey
wilderness-based experiences in which students participate in a variety of
adventurous challenges and
such as hiking, climbing, canoeing, ropes courses and
is the Emphasis on learning by doing –
hands-on projects, expeditionary learning, experiential learning.
Integrated curriculum focused on thematic units. Integration of
entrepreneurship into education. Strong emphasis on problem solving and
critical thinking. Group work and development of social skills.
Understanding and action as the goals of learning as opposed to rote
knowledge. Collaborative and cooperative learning projects. Education for
social responsibility and democracy Highly personalized learning
accounting for each individual's personal goals. Integration of community
service and service learning projects into the daily curriculum. Selection
of subject content by looking forward to ask what skills will be needed in
future society. De-emphasis on textbooks in favor of varied learning
resources. Emphasis on lifelong learning and social skills Assessment
by evaluation of child's projects and productions.
Children of the Earth
College of Agricultural Engineering
was opened in 1962. It
was closed as a separate entity at the end of 2007 and the land sold for
Environmental Integrity Project
virtue is the only good and that
the essence of virtue
Survival Books and Info
Foraging Wild Foods
Outdoor Gear Check List and Camping List
"Support wildlife, throw a party."
"Nature teaches beasts to know their friends". - (Act II, Scene I).
Learning Outside the Classroom
Vulnerabilities of our Environment
human impact on the Earth's geology
is the kind of
in which a particular
lives. It is characterized by both physical and biological
features. A species' habitat is those places where it can find food,
shelter, protection and mates for reproduction. The physical factors are for example
intensity as well as
factors such as the availability of
presence or absence of
. Every organism has certain habitat needs for the conditions
in which it will thrive, but some are tolerant of wide variations while
others are very specific in their requirements. A habitat is not
necessarily a geographical area, it can be the interior of a stem, a
rotten log, a rock or a clump of
it is the body of its
, part of the host's body such as the digestive tract, or a
within the host's body. Habitat types include
, semi-arid or
and marine habitats include salt marshes, the coast, the
the open sea, the sea bed, deep water and
. Habitats change over time. This may be due to a violent event such as
the eruption of a
or a change in oceanic currents; or the change may be more
gradual over millennia with alterations in the
advance and retreat, and as different weather patterns bring changes of
. Other changes come as a direct result of human
activities; deforestation, the ploughing of ancient grasslands, the
diversion and damming of rivers, the draining of marshland and the
dredging of the seabed. The
introduction of alien species
can have a devastating effect on native
wildlife, through increased
, through competition for resources or through the
introduction of pests and diseases to which the native species have no immunity.
is the process in which natural habitat
is rendered unable to support the species present. In this
process, the organisms that previously used the site are
displaced or destroyed
, reducing biodiversity.
is an illegal act which directly harms the
Edward Burtynsky Anthropocene Project
shows photos of
, industrialization and agriculture; the proliferation of
and diverting of waterways;
and acidification of oceans due to
; the pervasive presence around the
globe of plastics
, concrete, and
other technofossils; unprecedented rates of
and extinction: these human incursions, they argue, are
so massive in scope that they have already entered, and will endure in,
Disturbance in ecology
is a temporary change in environmental
conditions that causes a pronounced change in an ecosystem. Disturbances
often act quickly and with great effect, to alter the physical structure
or arrangement of biotic and abiotic elements. Disturbance can also occur
over a long period of time and can impact the biodiversity within an
ecosystem. Major ecological disturbances may include
various types of volcanic eruptions, tsunami, firestorms, impact events,
, and the devastating effects of human impact on the
environment (anthropogenic disturbances) such as clearcutting,
and the introduction of invasive
species can be considered major disturbances. Disturbance forces can have
profound immediate effects on ecosystems and can, accordingly, greatly
alter the natural community. Because of these and the impacts on
populations, disturbance determines the future shifts in dominance,
various species successively becoming dominant as their life history
characteristics, and associated life-forms, are exhibited over time.
is an ecological and environmental philosophy promoting
the inherent worth of living beings regardless of their instrumental
utility to human needs, plus a radical restructuring of modern human
societies in accordance with such ideas. Deep ecology argues that
the natural world
is a subtle balance of complex
inter-relationships in which the existence of organisms is dependent on
the existence of others within ecosystems
interference with or destruction of the natural world poses a threat
therefore not only to humans but to all organisms constituting the natural
Biodiversity Falls Below ‘Safe Levels’ Globally
refers to the
variety and variability of life on Earth
. One of the most widely used definitions defines it in terms of
the variability within species, between species and between
is a measure of the variety
of organisms present in different
This can refer to genetic variation, ecosystem variation, or species
variation (number of species) within an area, biome
, or planet.
Terrestrial biodiversity tends to be greater near the equator, which seems
to be the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity.
Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth. It is richest in the
tropics. Marine biodiversity tends to be highest along coasts in the
Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest and in the
mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in
species diversity. Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots,
and has been increasing through time, but will be likely to slow in the
future. The number and variety of plants, animals and other organisms that
exist is known as biodiversity. It is an essential component of nature and
it ensures the survival of human species by providing food
, fuel, shelter,
medicines and other resources to mankind. The richness of biodiversity
depends on the climatic conditions and area of the region. All species of
plants taken together are known as flora and about 300,000 species of
plants are known to date. All species of animals taken together are known
as fauna which includes birds, mammals, fish, reptiles, insects,
crustaceans, molluscs, etc.. Biology
is a biogeographic region with
significant levels of
that is under threat from humans.
Loss of Species Destroys Ecosystems
. Better ecosystem services through
biodiversity. High-diversity areas achieved better carbon storage. The
number of insects and other species was significantly higher.
between species such as pollination took place more
frequently. Higher-diversity meadows transported surface water into the
soil better. High-diversity ecosystems were more stable in the case of
disruptions such as droughts or floods than low-diversity ecosystems.
is the point at which a relatively small change
or disturbance in external conditions causes a rapid change in an
ecosystem. When an ecological threshold has been passed, the
may no longer be able to return to its
state by means of its inherent resilience. Crossing an ecological
threshold often leads to rapid change of ecosystem health. Ecological
threshold represent a non-linearity of the responses in ecological or
biological systems to pressures caused by human activities or natural
processes. Critical load, tipping point and regime shift are examples of
other closely related terms. Tipping Point
is a gradual change in abiotic factors through
space (or time). Environmental gradients can be related to factors such as
altitude, temperature, depth, ocean proximity and soil humidity. Species
abundances usually change along environmental gradients in a more or less
predictive way. However, the species abundance along an environmental
gradient is not only determined by the abiotic factor but, also by the
change in the biotic interactions, like competition, along the
environmental gradient. At an ecotone, species abundances change
relatively quickly compared to the environmental gradient. The species
distribution along environmental gradients has been studied intensively
due to large databases of species presence data (e.g. GBIF). Environmental
Gradients are linked to Connectivity and natural disturbance when
considering river systems. A river restoration scheme must consider all of
these factors before undertaking a program as these three factors are what
leads to a larger biodiversity. Each species are not found in every type
of habitat or in every part of the world. Within the environment there are
multiple factors which affects organisms. The organisms in the polar
region can not survive the climate at the equator.
Nature is Everywhere we just need to Learn to see it: Emma Marris
(video and interactive text)
are large, abrupt, persistent changes in the structure
and function of a system. A regime is a characteristic behaviour of a
system which is maintained by mutually reinforced processes or
. Regimes are considered persistent relative to the time
period over which the shift occurs. The change of regimes, or the shift,
usually occurs when a smooth change in an internal process (feedback
or a single disturbance (external shocks) triggers a completely different
system behavior. Although such non-linear changes have been widely studied
in different disciplines ranging from atoms to climate dynamics, regime
shifts have gained importance in ecology because they can substantially
affect the flow of ecosystem services that societies rely upon, such as
provision of food, clean water or climate regulation. Moreover, regime
shift occurrence is expected to increase as human influence on the planet
increases – the Anthropocene – including current trends on human induced
climate change and biodiversity loss.
is a system in which a function describes the time
dependence of a point in a geometrical space. Examples include the
mathematical models that describe the swinging of a clock pendulum, the
flow of water in a pipe, and the number of fish each springtime in a lake.
At any given time, a dynamical system has a state given by a tuple of real
numbers (a vector) that can be represented by a point in an appropriate
state space (a geometrical manifold). The evolution rule of the dynamical
system is a function that describes what future states follow from the
. Often the function is
deterministic, that is, for a given time interval only one future state
follows from the current state. However, some systems are
, in that
also affect the evolution of the state variables. In
physics, a dynamical system is described as a "particle or ensemble of
particles whose state varies over time and thus obeys differential
equations involving time derivatives." In order to make a prediction
about the system’s future behavior, an analytical solution of such
equations or their integration over time through computer simulation is
realized. The study of dynamical
is the focus of dynamical systems theory, which has
applications to a wide variety of fields such as mathematics, physics,
biology, chemistry, engineering, economics, and medicine. Dynamical
systems are a fundamental part of chaos theory, logistic map dynamics,
bifurcation theory, the self-assembly process, and the edge of chaos
are human-built, modified, or engineered
niches of the Anthropocene. They exist in places that have been
altered in structure and function by human agency. Novel
of the human environment and niche (including urban, suburban,
and rural), they lack natural analogs, and they have extended an
influence that has converted more than three-quarters of wild
Earth. These anthropogenic biomes include technoecosystems that
are fuelled by powerful energy sources (fossil and nuclear)
including ecosystems populated with technodiversity, such as
roads and unique combinations of soils called technosols.
Vegetation associations on old buildings or along field boundary
stone walls in old agricultural landscapes are examples of sites
where research into novel ecosystem ecology is developing.
Invisible Web of the Rainforest
. If we change the interactions inside
this one species of plant, that it would effect plant diversity in the
rainforest. There's these little caterpillars that can actually kill the
plant. And then there are these ants that live inside the plant that kill
the caterpillars. And then there's a beetle that kills the ants. The
experiments that we did, for the most part involved adding beetles to
patches of plants where these beetles didn't exist. When we did that what
happened is they suppressed populations of ants, which normally suppress
the caterpillars. So with the ants gone, caterpillar populations exploded
and the leaf biomass declined really quickly of this plant. And what
happened in this case is that other caterpillars were also released from
control by the ants and they ate other species of plants, including plants
that were destined to be big trees. They were seedlings of these plants
that are normally these huge 40-meter tall trees that extend out from the
canopy of the rainforest. The end result was that several years of just
barely increasing the population of these beetles changed the diversity of
plants in the understory." Cohabitation
Investing in Conservation Pays Off
. The study by an international team
of researchers found that the $14.4 billion that countries spent on
conservation from 1992 to 2003 reduced expected declines in global
biodiversity by 29 percent.
Dangers Facing Our Planet
is a fact that a biological system
individual and population – is different over space. It is the
base of the Genetic variability
of different biological systems
is when a process variable or
changed and the system has not yet reached a steady state. A transient
process is a process in which process variables change over time.
Transient analysis is a study of transient processes.
is the response of a
to a change from an
or a steady state. The
transient response is not necessarily tied to "on/off" events but to any
event that affects the equilibrium of the system. The impulse response and
step response are transient responses to a specific input (an impulse and
a step, respectively).
is when the variables (called state variables) which
define the behavior of the system or the process are unchanging in time.
Cause and Effects
Alternative Stable State
predicts that ecosystems can exist under
multiple "states" (sets of unique biotic and abiotic conditions). These
alternative states are non-transitory and therefore considered stable over
ecologically-relevant timescales. Ecosystems may transition from one
stable state to another, in what is known as a state shift (sometimes
termed a phase shift
), when perturbed. Due to ecological
feedbacks, ecosystems display resistance to state shifts and therefore
tend to remain in one state unless perturbations are large enough.
Multiple states may persist under equal environmental conditions, a
phenomenon known as hysteresis. Alternative stable state theory suggests
that discrete states are separated by ecological thresholds, in contrast
to ecosystems which change smoothly and continuously along an
are the effects that the organisms in a community have on one another. In
the natural world no organism exists in absolute
, and thus every organism must interact with the environment
and other organisms. An organism's interactions with its environment are
fundamental to the survival of that organism and the functioning of the
ecosystem as a whole.
that applies to biological systems. A network is any system with sub-units
that are linked into a whole
, such as species
units linked into a whole food web. Biological networks provide a
mathematical representation of connections found in ecological,
evolutionary, and physiological studies, such as neural networks. The
analysis of biological networks with respect to human diseases has led to
the field of network medicine. Soil
Carbon Dioxide CO2 Concentrations
"Every child must know that we are still learning and that we
still have much to learn. Our future depends on you learning
what people have still not learned."
"Remember, it's our
responsibility to maintain
our natural environment and preserve
what we have left. The reason why we have parks and open land is
because we learned how extremely valuable our natural
world is to us. But too many people do not fully understand the
value of our natural world. So we have to find ways to spread
this message and offer free information and knowledge so that
people can educate themselves and learn what ever they need to
learn. This way, people can make good choices that would
continually improve their lives, as well as learn more and more
about all the other possibilities that life offers us."
"The only resource that this
world is short of is intelligence, and intelligence is one
resource that we have the power to create ourselves."
Caring about People and the Planet can be Dangerous
were murdered in 2014
almost double the number of journalists
killed in the same period.
Environmental activists across 16 countries were
murdered last year in 2015
trying to protect their communities
and protecting forest, water, and land rights from illegal
mining, logging, palm oil agriculture and industrial development
people defending their land, forests and rivers against destructive
Killings of Environmental Activists are IncreasingActivism
Everyone person on this planet has benefited from people who were
activists. All the freedoms we have came from activists, yet we still have
ignorant criminals who are blinded by money
much so, they can no longer see the truth.
Wildlife biologists can now cover vastly more territory with the
help of listening devices, camera traps, drones
remote DNA testing, and other technological timesavers.
"Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the
present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet
their own needs."- United Nations
"If there's a more efficient way of doing
something then you should do it. We should be thriving
from our use of energy, and not waste our energy and poison ourselves
because of it."
"I'm seeing a lot of advancements but not a lot
of improvements. Why?" -
"Working with the land
is a lot easier then working against it" - Maintenance
"When things are are used by many people in many places all over
the world continuously, they can have an incredible impact on the earth
and it's inhabitants. So we must make sure that the things we use a lot of
have Positive effects, because if they have negative effects the results
will be catastrophic, as clearly seen."
Trees Help Clean the Air and Water. Trees improve water quality
by slowing and filtering rainwater, as well as protecting aquifers and
watersheds. One hundred trees remove 53 tons of
and 430 pounds of other air
per year. Trees Help Provide
Water. Tress help save water by slowing
. Trees Help Prevent Soil
. Tress help conserve energy by providing shade.
Trees provide vital wildlife habitat
. One tree
produces somewhere between 500-600 liters of oxygen
day. A person needs around 550 liters of pure oxygen each
. mature, leafy trees, such as redwoods, aspens and oaks, are the
best producers of oxygen. Tree produces higher volumes when growing
than when mature, because converting air and soil into wood causes the
tree to produce more oxygen. Trees release oxygen when they use energy
from sunlight to make glucose from carbon dioxide and water. It takes six
molecules of CO2 to produce one molecule of glucose by photosynthesis, and
six molecules of oxygen are released as a by-product. During daylight
take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen through
and at night only about half that carbon is then released through
. However, Plants
remain a net carbon sink, meaning they absorb more than they emit. A tree
can absorb as much as 48 pounds of carbon dioxide per year and can
sequester 1 ton of carbon dioxide by the time it reaches 40 years old.
Trees reach their most productive stage of carbon storage at about 10
years at which point they are estimated to absorb 48 pounds of CO2 per
year. Mother Trees
are the largest trees in
forests that act as central hubs for vast below ground
. They support
young trees or seedlings
them with fungi and ferrying them the nutrients they need to grow.
By adding the value of the various services that
perform, such as providing
, an EU-commissioned study
estimates that the annual cost of forest loss is between $2
trillion and $5 trillion
, which is not including the loss of
humans or animal life. Air pollution now kills around seven
million people every year globally.
Trees help people live
longer, healthier, happier lives
. Trees and forests help remove
17 tonnes of air pollution, physically intercepting particulate
matter and absorbing gasses through their leaves.
Tree-based ecosystem benefits had a median annual value of $505 million
Increasing ecosystem services and urban wellbeing
Land and Forest Conservation Websites
Environmental Crime15.3 billion trees are cut down each
, 45% of all trees on
planet earth have been cut down.
Trees create oxygen
purify the air of
, and help keep temperatures cooler
Bio-Char Carbon Reduction
DNA Database of Trees to Stop Illegal Logging
How Trees Talk to Each Other: Suzanne Simard
Global Forest Watch
Green Belt Movement
natural, wild, maintenance free, native forests.
the cultivation, management
, and study of
individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants. The
of arboriculture studies how these
grow and respond to cultural practices
and to their environment. The practice of arboriculture includes cultural
techniques such as selection, planting, training, fertilization, pest and
pathogen control, pruning, shaping, and removal. A person who practices or
studies arboriculture can be termed an 'arborist' or an 'arboriculturist'.
A 'tree surgeon
' is more typically someone
who is trained in the physical maintenance and manipulation of trees and
therefore more a part of the arboriculture process rather than an
arborist. Risk management
legal issues, and aesthetic considerations have come to play prominent
roles in the practice of arboriculture. Businesses often need to hire
arboriculturists to complete "tree hazard surveys" and generally manage
the trees on-site to fulfill occupational safety and health obligations.
Arboriculture is primarily focused on individual woody plants and trees
maintained for permanent landscape and amenity purposes, usually in
gardens, parks or other populated settings, by arborists, for the
enjoyment, protection, and benefit of people.
Wood Working and Carpentry
in the practice of arboriculture, which is the cultivation, management,
and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody
in dendrology and Horticulture
Arborists generally focus on the health and safety of individual plants
and trees, rather than managing forests (the domains of forestry and
silviculture) or harvesting wood. An arborist's scope of work is therefore
distinct from that of either a forester or a logger, though the
professions share much in common.
- Seed Bank
are 60,065 species of trees in the world
, according to a comprehensive
study of the world's plants
. The data revealed that Brazil was the nation
with the greatest number of tree species, home to 8,715 varieties.
(BGCI) compiled the tree list by using data
gathered from its network of 500 member organizations.
Plant for the Planet
Arbor Day Gift Trees
Plant for the Planet Billion Tree Campaign
Plant Trees while you
Search the Web
. Ecosia search engine
has helped plant almost 18
million trees. It takes around 45 searches to plant a tree.
Kokota Island On
the Brink of Collapse Makes a Huge Comeback | Short Film Showcase
connects people and their communities to the
forests that sustain them.
Mission to Revive the Last Redwood Forests
Moving the Giants
is the sole living species of the genus Sequoia
in the cypress family Cupressaceae (formerly treated in Taxodiaceae).
Common names include coast redwood, coastal redwood and California
redwood. It is an evergreen, long-lived, monoecious tree living
1,200–1,800 years or more. The oldest known coast redwood is about 2,200
years old. This species includes the tallest living trees on Earth,
reaching up to 379 feet (115.5 m) in height
(without the roots) and up to 29.2 feet (8.9 m) in diameter at breast
height (dbh). These trees are also among the oldest living things on
Earth. Coast redwoods are resistant to insect attack, fungal infection,
and rot. These properties are conferred by concentrations of terpenoids
and tannic acid in redwood leaves, roots, bark, and wood. Despite these
chemical defenses, redwoods are still subject to insect infestations;
none, however, are capable of killing a healthy tree. Redwoods also face
predation from mammals: black bears are reported to consume the inner bark
of small redwoods, and black-tailed deer are known to eat redwood sprouts.
is a woody material full of
unsprouted bud tissue. It serves as a storage compartment for the genetic
code of the parent tree. If the redwood falls or is damaged, the burl may
sprout another redwood tree known as a
Trees for a
is a tree or a group of trees is planted in an area of a U.S.
Forest that's been damaged by fire
. Information about where the tree is
located and photos of it are posted online. The recipient of your gift can
go online and learn about the tree. They can even use a map to find it and
plan a trip to visit it!
Norway commits to Zero Deforestation and has become the first
country in the world to commit to zero deforestation
Iceland Is Growing New Forests for the First Time in 1,000 Years | Short
(youtube) - Within a few centuries, almost all of the island’s
trees were slashed and burned to make room for farming. This rapid
deforestation has resulted in massive soil erosion that puts the island at
risk for desertification. Today, the Icelandic Forest Service has taken on
the mammoth task of bringing back the woodlands. With the help of forestry
societies and forest farmers, Iceland’s trees are slowly beginning to make
a comeback. Watch this short film by Euforgen to learn more about how
their efforts are working to benefit Iceland's economy and ecology through
How one man created a Forest in a Cold Desert
i Tree Tools
for Assessing and Managing Community Forests.
Want Your City to Thrive? Look to Its Trees
Alliance for Community Trees
Adding Symbiotic Mycorrhiza Fungi to the Roots of newly planted trees
Benefits to the
. The fungus within a mycorrhiza receives sugars from
its plant host. Since fungi do not photosynthesise (produce their own
energy from the sun) and most plants do, the plant becomes a vital source
of energy for the fungus. Certain mycorrhizas will actually live inside
the plant's root, so the plant can also help isolate them from
are symbiotic relationships
between fungi and plant
roots (the term means literally 'fungus root'). Perhaps more than 80% of
the species of higher plants have these relationships, and so do many
pteridophytes (ferns and their allies) and some mosses (especially
the United States Forest Service to 'speak for the trees, for
the trees have no tongues
The court concluded that the
's decisions violated both
the National Forest Management Act and the National Environmental Policy
Act, and found the Forest Service lacked the authority to grant the
pipeline a right of way across the Appalachian Trail.
restoring forests for Climate, People, Planet.
is an agency of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture
that administers the nation's 154 national
forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres
(780,000 km2). Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest
System, State and Private Forestry, Business Operations, and the Research
and Development branch. Managing approximately 25% of federal lands, it is
the only major national land agency that is outside the
U.S. Department of the
. Forest Fires
National Forest Management Act of 1976
is a United States federal law
that is the primary statute governing the administration of national
forests and was an amendment to the Forest and Rangeland Renewable
Resources Planning Act of 1974, which called for the management of
renewable resources on national forest lands. The law was a response to
lawsuits involving various practices in the national forest, including
timber harvesting.World's most important
Scandinavian and Russian Taiga
Bulgaria and Romania
(wiki) Amazon Rainforest
List of Countries by Forest Area
National Environmental Policy Act
is a United States environmental law
that promotes the enhancement of the environment and established the
President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). The law was enacted on
January 1, 1970. To date, more than 100 nations around the world have
enacted national environmental policies modeled after NEPA. NEPA's most
significant outcome was the requirement that all executive federal
agencies prepare environmental assessments (EAs) and environmental impact
statements (EISs). These reports state the potential environmental effects
of proposed federal agency actions. NEPA does not apply to the President,
Congress, or the federal courts.
Bombed Judi Bari?
(2012) Aired: 03/02/2012 | 1 hr. 32 min.
who bombed judi bari.com
Over 64,000 trees were planted
in 15 minutes
, breaking the world record for the most trees
planted simultaneously. 7,000 people helped to plant
the Philippines province of
. Forests in the
Philippines are considered to be one of the ten most threatened
forests in the world.
reports that these threatened forests store over 25
. Meanwhile, 15% of the world's
emissions are due to
. China has reportedly
increased its forests by an unprecedented three million
per year. But many conservationists are concerned that
are still disappearing as new forests are
deliberately planted. As
Langrand explains, "Forests must be seen as more than just a
group of trees."
1000s in Ecuador pitch in to plant nearly 650,000 trees in One
plans to plant 2 billion trees
along the nation’s highway. India plants 66 million trees in
as part of record-breaking environmental campaign. More than 1.5
million volunteers were involved in the huge operation.
Drone That’s On A
Mission To Plant One Billion Trees using biodgradble seed pods
The Great Green Wall
an African-led project with an epic ambition: to
grow an 8,000 km natural wonder of the world across the entire width of
Africa. Its goal is to provide food, jobs and a future for the millions of
people who live in a region on the frontline of climate change. Once
completed, the Great Green Wall will be the largest living structure on
Earth and a new Wonder of the World.
Great Green Wall
initiative to combat the effects of climate change
Why is Africa
building a Great Green Wall? BBC News
green wall will defend us from the desert and The
Great Wall of Intelligence
that will defend us from ignorance".
is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees in an area
where there was no previous tree cover.
Become ONE: Blind Man and friend with No Arms plant 10.000 trees
in 10 years in China
Newly grown tropical forests can capture harmful carbon from the
atmosphere at a rate up to 11 times faster than older forests
We need to actively promote protection of old-growth forests as
well as to promote natural forest regeneration.
Mangroves can help countries mitigate their carbon emissions
environments are highly effective at capturing carbon.
Nature can provide services on par with traditional
infrastructure. On average, forests make up just 40 percent of
urban watersheds, with 30 percent of the area being used for
crops and 20 percent for pasture. Replanting forests,
changing farming practices to limit runoff.
Tropical forests covering an area
nearly the size of India are set to be destroyed in the next 35
years. Center for
Building a Belt of Trees
that will stretch some 2,800
miles across north and northwest China in an attempt to stop the
advance of the
. Overall, the country has planted 13 million
hectares (32 million acres) of new forest since 2008, according
to the State Forestry Administration. Global Forest Watch, China
has been suffering a net loss of about 523,248 hectares (1.29
million acres) of tree cover a year since 2011. Since 2008, that
yearly amount appears to be dropping.
Saihanba National Forest Park
is a national forest park located in
Weichang Manchu and Mongol Autonomous County, Chengde, Hebei, China, with
Inner Mongolian Plateau standing in the northwest, covering an area of
200.29-square-kilometre (77.33 sq mi). Established in 1962, this is a
multifunctional botanical park integrating scientific research, plant
species collection and display as well as tourism. Saihanba is often
called "the Green Lung of north China". There are more than 618 species
and 312 genera vascular plants cultivated in the park, including
Eleutherococcus gracilistylus, Astragalus propinquus, Glycine, and
Agropyron. Within the boundaries of the park, the following number of
species are known to live: 261 species of mammals, 39 species of birds, 32
species of fish, and about 660 species of insects.
How pervasive is biotic homogenization in human-modified
tropical forest landscapes
. The paper suggests that creating
a network of forest reserves nestled inside agricultural areas
would be the most beneficial way to preserve biodiversity. These
would include a mix of undisturbed and partially degraded
National Forest Management Act of 1976
many Trees can be grown in one acre
depends on the space between
each tree, and the type of tree.
1'x1' foot spacing can have 43,560 trees
- 10'x10' 436 trees - 30'x30' 48 trees - 250'x250' 1 tree
How to Save Forests
Growing the Wood Raw Material
Flourishing faster: How to make Trees Grow Bigger and Quicker
is the process of transplanting tree seedlings,
generally for forestry, land reclamation, or landscaping
purpose. It differs from the transplantation of larger trees in
arboriculture, and from the lower cost but slower and less
reliable distribution of tree seeds.
Tree Planting Tips
Native Forest Council
is an American environmental
organization "dedicated to the preservation and protection of all publicly
owned natural resources from destructive practices, sales, and all
resource extraction. Commercial timber sales, grazing, mining, and oil and
gas extraction all contribute to the destruction and degradation of air
quality, wildlife habitat, and of our wilderness areas. We believe a sound
economy and a sound environment need not be incompatible, and that current
land management practices are devastating to both.
Native Forest Action
was set up protect the publicly owned
native forests of the West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand from
- Arbor Day
Tree Relocation Machine
Relocation University of Michigan
Enhanced Tree Removal - Enhanced Tree Trimming by Electric
Living near Trees can make you feel
Neighborhood greenspace and health in a large urban center
Nature experience reduces rumination and subgenual prefrontal
Brodmann area 25
instead of problem solving)
11 scientifically proven reasons you should be spending less
time in the office
to be more resilient.
is a devastating disease of the American
chestnut tree that in the early 1900s caused a rapid, widespread
die-off of the once plentiful tree from its historic range, in
the Eastern United States.
American Chestnut for Restoration
Transgenic American chestnuts show enhanced blight resistance
and transmit the trait to T1 progeny
Plant a Tree in someone's
Seeds of Life
Plant a MemoryNew Growth
"There is something special when the tree leaves finally come
out, it's like a breath of fresh air and a burst of energy."
Recognizing Hazardous Defects In Trees
Saving the Ash Tree
is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and
lilac family, Oleaceae. It contains 45–65 species of usually
medium to large trees, mostly deciduous though a few subtropical
species are evergreen. The genus is widespread across much of
Europe, Asia and North America.
Rapid Ohi'a Death | Ceratocystis Wilt of Ohi'a Native Hawaiian
Sudden Oak Death PathogenBlight
Potential effect of
Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
trees in the United States. Beetle could have killed a third of
the trees in cities nationwide, at a loss of up to $669 billion.
Asian Long-Horned Beetle
species has now been accidentally introduced
into the United States.
Emerald Ash Borer
is a green buprestid or jewel beetle native to
north-eastern Asia that feeds on
are a large group of hymenopteran superfamilies, with
all but the wood wasps (Orussoidea) being in the wasp-waisted Apocrita. As
parasitoids, they lay their eggs on or in the bodies of other arthropods,
sooner or later causing the death
of these hosts. Different species
specialise in hosts from different insect orders, most often Lepidoptera,
though some select beetles, flies, or bugs; the spider wasps (Pompilidae)
exclusively attack spiders.
New Aerial Survey Identifies More Than 100 Million Dead Trees in
There used to be 4 billion American
, but they all disappeared.
is the oomycete plant pathogen known to
cause the disease sudden oak death
(SOD). The disease kills oak
and other species of trees and has had devastating effects on
the oak populations in California and Oregon, as well
as being present in Europe. Symptoms include bleeding cankers on
the tree's trunk and dieback of the foliage, in many cases
eventually leading to the death of the tree.
Chemicals from wood waste
: Vitamins, medication, solvents,
crop protection products and polymers cost-effective,
environmentally friendly and safe manner -- using bacteria to create
Amazon Rain Forest - The Largest Rain Forest in the World
1.5 million square miles (1.7 billion-acre jungle), covering about 40 percent of
Makes up more than half of the
Rainforest remaining on the
producing over 20 percent of the world’s oxygen
and home to more than one-third of all living species in the
world. It is the source of one-fifth of the Earth’s river water.
situated in nine countries
Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru,
Suriname and Venezuela. The
pushes so much water into the Atlantic Ocean that, more than one
hundred miles at sea off the mouth of the river, one can dip
fresh water out of the ocean. The volume of water in the Amazon
river is greater than the next eight largest rivers in the world
combined and three times the flow of all rivers in the United
Sebastiao SalgadoGlobal Forest Watch 2.0
Global Forest Watch
DETERring Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon
Estimated 390 billion individual trees divided
into 16,000 species
. Trees in the Amazon make their own rain. Trees
are often considered the lungs of the Earth, inhaling the greenhouse gas
carbon dioxide (CO2), and exhaling harmless chemicals like water vapor and
oxygen (O2). Trees give off other particles, aerosol-forming chemicals are
from trees, or biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), In a process
, plants release
water vapor from small pores on the underside of their leaves. Moisture
that evaporates from the ocean tends to be lighter than water vapor
released into the atmosphere by plants. That’s because during
, water molecules
containing deuterium, a heavy isotope of hydrogen made of one proton and
one neutron, get left behind in the ocean. By contrast, in transpiration,
plants simply suck water out of the soil and push it into the air without
changing its isotopic composition. Plants help “seed” the atmosphere for
rain by releasing tiny salt particles. But the new study strongly supports
the idea that plants play an important role in triggering the rainy
of hydrogen, found in extremely small amounts in
nature. The nucleus of deuterium, called a deuteron, contains one proton
and one neutron, whereas the far more common hydrogen nucleus contains
just one proton and no neutrons. Consequently, each atom of
(chemical symbol D or ²H) has roughly twice the mass of an
ordinary hydrogen atom
, and deuterium
is also called heavy hydrogen. Water in which ordinary hydrogen atoms are
replaced by deuterium atoms is known as heavy water.
also termed primary forest, virgin forest,
primeval forest, late seral forest, or (in Great Britain)
ancient woodland — is a forest that has attained great age
without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique
ecological features and might be classified as a climax
community. Old-growth features include diverse tree-related
structures that provide diverse wildlife habitat that increases
the biodiversity of the forested ecosystem. The concept of
diverse tree structure includes multi-layered canopies and
canopy gaps, greatly varying tree heights and diameters, and
diverse tree species and classes and sizes of woody debris.
Old-growth forests are valuable for economic reasons and for the
ecosystem services they provide. This can be a point of
contention when some in the logging industry may desire to cut
down the forests to obtain valuable timber, while
environmentalists seek to preserve the forests for benefits such
as maintenance of biodiversity, water regulation, and nutrient
and Law Enforcement. (eyes in the sky)
Detection of Deforestation (DETER) is a satellite-based system
that enables frequent and quick identification of deforestation
hot spots, greatly enhanced monitoring and targeting capacity,
making it easier for law enforcers to act upon areas with
illegal deforestation activity.
Paying People Not to Cut Down their Trees
cost-effective way to reduce carbon emissions.
Cash for carbon:
cost-effective way to reduce deforestation.
Payments For Ecosystem Services
offered to farmers or landowners in exchange for
managing their land
to provide some sort of
ecological service. They have been defined as "a transparent
system for the additional provision of environmental
services through conditional payments to voluntary providers."
These programmes promote the conservation of natural resources
in the marketplace.
Alone in the
vs. the Amazon - Full Documentary // Empire Files
1 hour) Abby launches a deep investigation into Chevron Texaco's
intentional spilling of 19 billion gallons of oil and waste in
Ecuador's pristine Amazon.
Antonio donato Nobre: The Magic of the Amazon
(video and text)
Mark Plotkin: what the people of the Amazon know that you don't
The Amazon rainforest is a vast laboratory
for experiments that are unveiling new relationships among human
beings, corporations and natural heritage that is crucial for
life on the planet. (12/05/2012 | 1 hr. 23 min.)
With more than 80 percent of
Earth's forests already destroyed,
Nations Environment Program
recently released an alarming
report indicating organized crime is responsible for 50 to 90
in tropical countries in the Amazon basin,
Central Africa and South East Asia.
illegal Logging info
Smits: How to Restore a Rainforest
is the third-largest island in the world and the
largest in Asia
Land use change has warmed the Earth's surface
. Activities like
cutting down evergreen forests for agricultural expansion in the tropics
create energy imbalances that lead to higher local
and contribute to global warming.
Almost 19 million
are destroyed every year due to
? This is a direct result of people being
forced to do horrible things by way of
and also a result of peoples ignorance and
lack of education about Land Management. Land does not need to
be cleared for our survival, it's the other way around. On top
of that the planet is losing almost 20 million hectares of
due to degradation and bad Land Management and
practices? So you see the the main problem still exists,
economic slavery and peoples lack of education and information
Sustainable Land Management
Scientists estimate that
humans burn an
average of 175 million acres of forest and grassland every year
often to make room for agriculture and living space.
Deep In The Amazon, An Unseen Battle Over The Most Valuable
Trees Rubber Tappers
is the process by which latex is collected from a
rubber tree. The latex is harvested by slicing a groove into the bark of
the tree at a depth of a quarter inch with a hooked knife and peeling back
the bark. Trees must be approximately six years old and six inches in
diameter in order to be tapped for
Save Ecuador's Indigenous Peoples Ancestral Lands that includes
Rain Forests from Destructive Oil Drilling
World in tree density: dark green represents a million or more
trees per square kilometer. There are fewer trees in the lighter
shades of green. The buff color has very few trees and darkest
brown represents areas with no trees.
A team of 38 scientists
finds that the planet is home to
3.04 trillion trees, blowing away the previously estimate of 400
billion. That means, the researchers say, that there are 422
trees for every person on Earth. More Earth Info
evolved before the
. Conifers produce their seeds in woody
Broadleaf's produce their seeds in more fleshy fruits.
Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
means bearing pinecones, most coniferous are
is a thin, long modified leaf typical of conifers.
means retaining leaves year round, therefore remaining
usually refers to coniferous trees.
is a thin, broad leaf structure with a good deal of
is the dropping of a part that is no longer needed, in
this case leaves.
is another commonly used word for deciduous, broadleaf
comes from, which is fossilized tree resin.
is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or
synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.
They are often mixtures of organic compounds, principally
terpenes. Many plants, particularly woody plants, produce resin
in response to injury. The resin acts as a bandage protecting
the plant from invading insects and pathogens.
North Atlantic Oscillation and synchronized tree reproduction across
plays a greater role in large scale masting, the process
whereby forest trees produce large numbers of seeds
in the same year.
Norfolk Island Pine
five-to-seven-year cycles. That os when Oak trees produce a huge amount of
Oil Spills and Leaks Happen Daily across U.S.
Each year there are more than 10,000 spills of oil and
hazardous substances, according to federal estimates, many that get into
. A six month CBS News
investigation found that spills of crude oil and
last year alone were three times the amount of
the Exxon Valdez spill. CBS News collected reported incidents for 2010 at wells and
pipelines from three federal agencies and 23 of 33 oil and gas
producing states. Not counting the BP disaster, we found
at least 6,500 spills, leaks, fires or explosions nationwide - that's
18 a day. Overall, at least 34 million gallons of crude oil and other
potentially toxic chemicals were spilled. That's triple the size of
the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill. Poisoned Drinking Water
Dead wildlife, destroyed land, illness, injury, and people being forced from their homes. Pollution
contributed to the deaths of some 9.9 million people in 2015
causing diseases such cancer
heart disease and respiratory illnesses. That's three times
than the death toll
, tuberculosis and
- Air Pollution
is an illegal
act which directly harms
the environment. Lawsuit
- Drugs in Drinking Water
is a good or service whose consumption is considered
unhealthy, degrading, or otherwise socially undesirable due to the
perceived negative effects on the consumers themselves.
Superfund Sites List in America
(wiki) - Hazardous Waste
People are addicted to oil is a lie
People only have limited choices that have been forced on them by ignorant
criminals. People are addicted
more is also a lie. People don't want more, people want better. People
only want more because they have been programed to want more by
continually being bombarded by
that influence their thinking and warp their
understanding of themselves and the world around them. People are not
addicted to anything, they're just
Pollution kills 9 million a year and costs $4.6
The number of people killed by pollution is undoubtedly
higher. Premature deaths, 16 percent of all deaths worldwide, most often
the world's poorest who suffer.
Polluters are like Suicide Bombers who
mass murder people everyday in the name of money. It's time to change the
meaning of the phrase "Trophy Hunting", it will now mean shutting down
polluting businesses who poison the environment and mass murder people for
money. Decorate your wall with that.
Suburban Ponds are a Septic Buffet
. A new study by Yale shows that
human waste accounts for a high percentage of nutrients consumed by some
animals and plants in suburban ponds.
Pipeline Spills, 1986-2016
in the last 30 years, there have been over
8,700 liquid pipeline spills, averaging nearly one every day. 4.2
million barrels (176 million gallons) that have spilled in the last 30
Dakota Access Pipeline Project
Bakken Pipeline Map
The Longest Continuous Oil Spill in American
MC20 Oil Platform
operated by Taylor Energy, which leaks about 96
barrels a day. The Oil Sheen is visible for miles and you can even see it
Neil Young's New
Anti-Pipeline Protest Song Dakota Access Pipeline supports the Standing
Rock Sioux Reservation.
Voice Of Baceprot -
The Enemy of Earth is You
Rocket Fuel that's Cleaner, Safer and still full of energy
shows that it may be possible to create rocket fuel that is much cleaner
and safer than the hypergolic fuels that are commonly used today. And
still just as effective. The new fuels use simple chemical 'triggers' to
unlock the energy of one of the hottest new materials, a class of porous
solids known as metal-organic frameworks, or MOFs.
There are about 18,000 contaminated sites in
with 516 designated as
. There are more than 800 contaminated sites in
Stamford, nearly 600 contaminated sites in Bridgeport, more than 620 in
Norwalk, 450 in Danbury, 400 in Greenwich, 400 in New Haven, almost
200 in Middletown and almost 150 in Torrington. Contaminated or
potentially contaminated sites include gas stations, colleges, hospitals,
car dealerships and auto body shops, and manufacturing and storage
facilities. The worst are considered brownfields, typically abandoned
factories, mills and warehouses that still have excessive traces of
nitrogen, calcium, petroleum hydrocarbons arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury
or other harmful substances. There are currently 516 brownfields on the
, 45 of them in Bridgeport, 35 in Stamford, 20 in Middletown,
17 in Norwalk, 16 in New Haven, 10 in Torrington, 3 in Danbury and 2 in
Greenwich. The DEEP maintains a list of contaminated or potentially
contaminated sites in every town, and includes whatever remediation may or
may not have been attempted.
List of Superfund sites in Connecticut
describes land previously used for industrial or
commercial purposes with known or suspected pollution including soil
contamination due to hazardous waste.
is remaining after the greater
part or quantity has gone. Relating to or indicating a remainder.
Something left after other parts have been taken away.
The Big Fix - BP
Oil Spill Cover up
On April 22, 2010
rig sank into the
Gulf of Mexico
creating the worst
oil spill in
205 million gallons
of crude oil and
over 1.8 millions
into the sea.
OIL & WATER (full
documentary HD) oil
Chevron vs. the
Amazon - Full Documentary // Empire Files
(youtube - 1 hour) Abby
launches a deep investigation into Chevron Texaco's intentional spilling
of 19 billion gallons of oil and waste in Ecuador's pristine Amazon.
The Empire Files:
The Tyranny of Big
28:25 mins.) Son of
a Snake Oil Salesman.
How Big Oil
Conquered the World
(youtube, 1:11 mins.)
NASA CSI: On the
Trail of a Hazy
in the lower
detected by the
aboard the Aura
Water Don't Mix
Aging oil pipelines threaten the pristine waters of
Straits of Mackinac
in the Great lakes.
amphipods living in the Mariana Trench
were contaminated at levels similar to those found in crabs living in
waters fed by one of China's most polluted rivers. The amphipods were
contaminated with PCBs —
used for decades in industry, as well as other
industrial pollutants known as persistent organic pollutants.
MAGELLO User-friendly, high-resolution atmospheric and ocean data
to identify movement of spills or toxic releases in rivers, ocean and air.
Oil demand in 2012 was 89.17 million
barrels per day worldwide, an increase of 1.07 million barrels
per day over 2011. Demand is projected to increase to 90.11
million barrels per day in 2013 and 91.46 million barrels per
day in 2014.
Energy Information Administration
Oil Spill Cleanup
Polymer Sponge capable of soaking up oil spills
it can be squeezed to
recover the oil and then reused. The highly buoyant polymer is made of
waste cooking oils and sulphur, by-products of the food and petroleum
industries, and has the ability to clean up crude oil and diesel spills.
CBS News Video
What BP Doesn't want
you to know about
the 2010 Gulf Spill
product line of oil dispersants used during oil spill response operations.
Warnings from the Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet for 2-butoxyethanol
include: "Cancer Hazard: 2-Butoxy Ethanol may be a carcinogen in humans
since it has been shown to cause liver cancer in animals. Many scientists
believe there is no safe level of exposure to a carcinogen...
rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning
that it possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have
harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure. Acid rain
is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react
with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. Some
governments have made efforts since the 1970s to reduce the release of
sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere with positive
results. Nitrogen oxides can also be produced naturally by lightning
strikes, and sulfur dioxide is produced by volcanic eruptions. Acid rain
has been shown to have adverse impacts on forests, freshwaters and soils,
killing insect and aquatic life-forms, causing paint to peel, corrosion of
steel structures such as bridges, and weathering of stone buildings and
statues as well as having impacts on human health.
What Ever Happened
To Acid Rain?
8 Fossil Fuel Companies Responsible for 15% of
Global Carbon Emissions Since 1850's
Royal Dutch Shell.
Climate Accountability Scorecard Ranking
The Sleepy Texan
Town Suffering In
The Shadow Of Big
fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a
residue. Broadly speaking, fuel oil is any liquid fuel that is burned in a
furnace or boiler for the generation of heat or used in an engine for the
generation of power, except oils having a flash point of approximately 42
°C (108 °F) and oils burned in cotton or wool-wick burners. In this sense,
diesel is a type of fuel oil. Fuel oil is made of long hydrocarbon chains,
particularly alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics. The term fuel oil is
also used in a stricter sense to refer only to the heaviest commercial
fuel that can be obtained from crude oil, i.e., heavier than gasoline and
international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (a)
global warming is occurring and (b) it is extremely likely that human-made
CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted
in Kyoto, Japan, on December 11, 1997 and entered into force on February
16, 2005. There are currently 192 parties (Canada withdrew effective
December 2012) to the Protocol.
Global Alliance on
Health and Pollution
polluted soil, water
and air (both
ambient) killed 8.4
million people in
Organization statistics show that 56 million people died in 2012 — that’s
every person who passed away on the planet, whether from car accidents,
suicides, old age, cancer, hospital errors, lightning strike, infectious
diseases, parachute failures, war or any number of other reasons. So,
pollution killed nearly one in seven of them.Other things that
It cost a "staggering"
$76.6 billion to
cover the health
expenses of American
children who were
sick because of
according to new
research by senior
scientists at the
Mount Sinai School
of Medicine in New
Warning: Mafia May
caused by some form
California could save $7.2 billion in healthcare costs -- and prevent more
than 400 premature deaths -annually if the state adopts a 64 miles-
per-gallon equivalent fuel economy standard, according to a report
released Tuesday by the American Lung Assn. in California.
is the introduction of contaminants into the
natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the
form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light.
Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign
substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is
often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution.
Higher Levels of Airborne Organic Hydroperoxides
is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources
such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat
destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution. It is defined as
any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious
or undesirable. As indicated by the I=PAT equation, environmental impact
(I) or degradation is caused by the combination of an already very large
and increasing human population (P), continually increasing economic
growth or per capita affluence (A), and the application of resource
depleting and polluting technology (T). Environmental degradation is one
of the ten threats officially cautioned by the High-level Panel on
Threats, Challenges and Change of the United Nations. The United Nations
International Strategy for Disaster Reduction defines environmental
degradation as "The reduction of the capacity of the environment to meet
social and ecological objectives, and needs". Environmental degradation is
of many types. When natural habitats are destroyed or natural resources
are depleted, the environment is degraded. Efforts to counteract this
problem include environmental protection and environmental resources management.
- Flooding Dangers
The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels
The Secret of the Seven Sisters -
Special series - Al Jazeera
Seven Sisters Oil Companies
The Biggest and Most Damaging Disasters in Human History
Boom: North America's Explosive Oil-By-Rail Problem
Lists Pollution Disasters around the World.
Just because people use products that are made from oil does not
mean we don't have other choices and options. Just because some
criminal takes away our choices and options does not mean that
options don't exist anymore. When they are people living a life
that you believe doesn't exist, that means that there is
choices. People say that we are dependent on oil, but that is
clearly a lie. That is like saying that the drug addict needs
drugs, or that the soldier needs people to kill. To say that we
need oil for jobs is a lie, that's like saying that we need war
to live, or that we need to poison the environment, and that we
need to kill people and destroy peoples health just because it creates jobs.
Ignorance is killing us
Garbage in the Sky
Air pollution kills
an estimated 7 million people worldwide every year
. 4.3 million
deaths in 2012 caused by
indoor air pollution
, mostly people
using wood and coal stoves in Asia.
there were about 3.7 million deaths from outdoor air pollution
in 2012, of which nearly 90 percent were in developing
than 95% of world's population breathe dangerous air
Those most affected
by air pollution are children whose
immune systems and lungs are not fully developed. Fine particulate matter
— PM 2.5 — increases the risk of respiratory infection in children. In
Ulaanbaatar PM 2.5 is usually six to seven times the World Health
Organization allowance, but can be as much as 25 times higher. One of the
leading causes of death for children under 5 here is acute lower
respiratory infection, accounting for 15 percent of under 5 childhood
mortality cases under age 5.Potential
Inhaled Dose -
Here's How Much Pollution You're Actually Inhaling (HBO)
86,000 bicycle commuters in NYC -
How much Pollution you're actually inhaling
Exposure Inhalation Assessment Tools
. Inhalation exposure can result
from breathing air that is contaminated with particulate matter (e.g.,
dust), vapors (e.g., volatile or semivolatile contaminants), or aerosols.
Individuals can be exposed via the inhalation route during a variety of
activities outdoors and indoors.
could also be exposed to outdoor air contaminants that infiltrate the
indoor environment. CO2
Clean Air Act
is a United States Federal Law
designed to control air pollution
on a national level. It is one of the United States' first and most
influential modern environmental laws, and one of the most comprehensive
air quality laws in the world. The 1955
Air Pollution Control Act
was the first U.S federal legislation that
pertained to air pollution; it also provided funds for federal government
research of air pollution.
is an illegal act
which directly harms
the environment. International bodies such as the G8, Interpol, European
Union, United Nations Environment Programme and the United Nations
Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute have recognised the
following environmental crimes: Illegal wildlife trade in endangered
species in contravention to the Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES); Smuggling of
ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in contravention to the 1987 Montreal
Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer;
Dumping and illicit trade in hazardous waste
in contravention of the 1989 Basel Convention on the Control of
Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes and their
Disposal; Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing in contravention to
controls imposed by various regional fisheries management organisations;
Illegal logging and the associated trade in stolen timber in violation of
national laws. These crimes are liable for
. Interpol facilitates international police cooperation
and assists its member countries in the effective enforcement of national
and international environmental laws and treaties. Interpol began fighting
environmental crime in 1992.
9 out of 10 or 92 Percent Of The World's Population Breathes Substandard
. Nearly 600,000 Children under 5 Die From Breathing Toxic Air Every
Children and teens exposed to high levels of traffic-related air pollution
have evidence of a specific type of DNA damage called
Researchers tap rare pristine air to reveal pollution's impact
Human-caused pollution spurs the production of climate-changing particles
known as secondary organic aerosols much more than previously thought.
Researchers made the finding by analyzing air samples that were captured
aboard a research aircraft as it zigzagged between pristine air over the
Amazon rainforest and polluted air over the nearby city of Manaus. It was
like a trip back (and forth) through time, as scientists weaved between
the two vastly different settings.
Secondary Organic Aerosol
is a molecule produced via oxidation over
several generations of a parent organic molecule. In contrast to primary
, which are emitted directly from the biosphere
organic aerosols are formed via
through the successive oxidation of gas-phase
organic compounds. These gas-phase
species exert high vapor pressures,
meaning they are volatile and stable in the gas-phase, however, upon
oxidation, the increased polarity of the molecules results in a reduction
of vapor pressure. After sufficient oxidation, the vapor pressure is
sufficiently low that the gas-phase compound partitions into the
solid-phase, producing secondary organic matter. SOAs represent a
significant proportion of aerosols contained in the troposphere. A common
misconception is that the aerosol refers to the solid phase of the
compound, where in reality, by definition, it is the combination of the
gas- and solid-phases which constitute the aerosol.
Measurement Research Facility
Air Pollution Exposure on Home-to-School Walking Routes Reduces the Growth
of Working Memory in Children
People who live close to high-traffic roadways
face a higher risk of
than those who live
Air Quality Alerts
Indoor Air Quality Monitors
Household Air Pollution and Health
Outline of Air Pollution Dispersion
is the distribution of air
pollution into the atmosphere. Air pollution is the introduction of
particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into
Earth's atmosphere, causing disease, death to humans, damage to other
living organisms such as food crops, or the natural or built environment.
Air pollution may come from anthropogenic or natural sources. Dispersion
refers to what happens to the pollution during and after its introduction;
understanding this may help in identifying and controlling it. Air
pollution dispersion has become the focus of environmental
conservationists and governmental environmental protection agencies
(local, state, province and national) of many countries (which have
adopted and used much of the terminology of this field in their laws and
regulations) regarding air pollution control.
is the practice of modifying a diesel engine to
increase the amount of fuel entering the engine in order to emit large
amounts of black or grey sooty exhaust fumes into the air. It also may
include the intentional removal of the particulate filter. Practitioners
often additionally modify their vehicles by installing smoke switches and
smoke stacks. Modifications to a vehicle to enable rolling coal may cost
from $200 to $5,000.
Study shows how Air Pollution fosters Heart Disease
Pollution Particles Linked To
Found In Human Brain: Nanoparticles, linked to
neurodegenerative diseases, are found in the human brain - and appear to
come from an outside source.
could be triggered by heavy air pollution, new research suggests -
American Lung Association
Alternate Fuel Cars
Association of Clean Air Agencies
reveals 'invisible' air pollution
More Causes of Death
Health Risks from Wildfires in U.S.
climate change will expose tens of
millions of Americans to high levels of air pollution in the coming
decades. Air pollution from past and projected future wildfires in 561
western counties, and found that by mid-century more than 82 million
people will experience “smoke waves,” or consecutive days with high air
pollution related to Fires
also known as particulate matter (PM) or particulates –
are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the Earth's
atmosphere. Suspended particulate matter (SPM). Thoracic and respirable
particles. Inhalable coarse particles, which are [coarse] particles with a
diameter between 2.5 and 10 micrometres (µm). Fine particles with a
diameter of 2.5 µm or less. PM2.5. PM10. Ultrafine particles.
More than 80% of the world’s urban population lives in areas
where air quality does not meet standards set by the World
Association between neighborhood air pollution concentrations
and dispensed medication for psychiatric disorders in a large
longitudinal cohort of Swedish children and adolescents.
Nearly 138.5 million Americans
, nearly 44 percent, are inhaling
Particulate Matter (PM)
2.5 means microscopic particles
about 25 times thinner than a human hair; they can be dust,
dirt, soot, smoke or liquid droplets.
can trigger asthma attacks.
Environmental Justice Screening and Mapping Tool
NASA Satellite Maps Show Human Fingerprint on Global Air Quality
Global Air Quality: the Impact of People and Cities
India's Smog Destroyed Enough Crops In A Year To Feed 94 Million
People, worth an estimated $1.3 billion
The top four the 20 worst polluted cities worldwide are in
India. Delhi is now the most polluted major city.
India has the highest rate of deaths caused by respiratory
disease. Indian air quality standards would save 2.1 billion
If India curbs the pollution and meets its air quality
standards, those 660 million people would add some 3.2 years
onto their lives.
had free rein of Milan's streets Monday during a
six-hour ban on private cars in a bid to alleviate persistent
smog. Health officials say vehicle emissions account for half of
the pollution in Milan and 70 percent in Rome, and that the high
pollution levels have increased reports of acute cardiovascular
disease in recent days.
Pollution levels in Italy's business capital have exceeded
levels considered healthy for more than 30 days straight,
prompting officials to ban private cars from 10 a.m. until 4
p.m. Monday through Wednesday this week.
Rome, which is also battling smog, has been enforcing alternate
day driving based on odd and even numbers on license plates,
while Florence has announced limits on automobile access to the
historic center through New Year's Eve.
Ozone Air Pollution
are a group of pollutants, predominantly
those emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels.
is a colorless and highly irritating gas that forms
just above the earth's surface. It is called a "secondary" pollutant
because it is produced when two primary pollutants react in sunlight and
stagnant air. These two primary pollutants are nitrogen oxides (NOx) and
volatile organic compounds (VOCs).Leaded Gasoline used in piston-engine
Once burned and emitted from the tail of a car or plane,
lead from gasoline
can contaminate not only the air but also
waterways, livestock, crops and soil. What's more, the metal
doesn't dissipate in the environment. The EPA reports increases
concentrations near airports that host piston-engine planes,
including the Santa Monica Airport. The agency also echoes the
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's warning that
there is no safe level of lead exposure, and it estimates that
people live, and more than 3 million children attend school,
within a kilometer of airports where avgas is used.
is an aviation fuel used in spark-ignited internal-combustion engines to
propel aircraft. Coal
supplies over 40 percent of global electricity needs. 1,200 big new coal facilities in 59
countries are proposed for construction, 7,000 coal-fired power
plants, including almost 600 in the US.. 7.6 billion tons of coal consumed worldwide last
year in 2014.
2 pounds of carbon dioxide emitted for each kilowatt-hour of
electricity generated via coal. 1 billion tons of coal used in
global industrial steel production each year. At the moment
there are Zero alternatives to coal in the industrial
44 degrees Fahrenheit is the potential average global
temperature rise if all remaining coal were burned.
That means we're all dead.
Coal: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)
(youtube, 24 mins.)
Coal jobs have been declining since 1923, mostly because of automation
and the fact that there are other energy sources.
U.S. Coal Production Peaked in 2008
China is the largest emitter of green house gases, more then
Europe and north America combined. China already emits
one-quarter of the world’s greenhouse gases, more than any other
country. 16 million tons of carbon every year. Outdoor air
pollution annually contributes to about 1.2 million premature
deaths in China. 70% of china's energy comes from coal. China
consumes half of the worlds coal. China builds a new coal
burning plant every week. Every second 100 tons of coal are
burned. 3 billion tons a year. But china only uses 1 fifth of
the electricity then the average American. More than
three-quarters of China’s electricity comes from coal. China's
energy demand has tripled in the last 20 years. China Produces
480 tons of garbage every minute. 1 in 5 people live in china.
China sells 35,000 cars a day. China builds 1,800 new cars in
one hour. China has 160 cities with a million people or more.
has over 30 million people. By 2025 will have 10 NYC size
cities. Half of the worlds buildings that are built are built in China.
Bouts of acrid smog enveloping Beijing prompted authorities in
the Chinese capital to declare two unprecedented "red alerts" in
December 2015 — a warning to the city's 22 million inhabitants
that heavy pollution is expected for more than three days.
China has done a
ton of building in the developing world
. Over the past two decades, it
has financed and built bridges, hospitals, roads, railways, airports and
seaports — many billions of dollars' worth and counting. "China has
recently become a major financier of economic infrastructure," according
to a new report from
, a development finance research lab based at the College of
William & Mary.
A safe level of
airborne particulate matter
air quality index
, measures 25 micrograms per cubic meter.
Beijing's index hit 608, that is more than 24 times the safe
level estimated by the
Air Quality Reports
China, 4,400 people die from air
pollution each day, according to an August 2015 study by the
U.S. nonprofit Berkeley Earth.
Science Specials - Green China Rising
(youtube 05/13/2013 |
45 min.)Renewable Clean Energy Progress Reports
Smog Free Project
More than 46.2 million people (14.7%) in the United States live
in an area with unhealthful year-round levels of particle pollution
Top 10 U.S. Cities Most Polluted by Short-Term Particle Pollution
1. Bakersfield, California.
2. Fresno-Madera, California.
3. Visalia-Porterville-Hanford, California.
4. Modesto-Merced, California.
5. Fairbanks, Alaska.
6. Salt Lake City-Provo-Orem, Utah.
7. Logan, Utah-Idaho.
8. San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, California.
9. Los Angeles-Long Beach, California.
10. Missoula, Montana.
Top 10 U.S. Cities Most Polluted
by Year-Round Particle Pollution
1. Bakersfield, California.
2. Visalia-Porterville-Hanford, California.
3. Fresno-Madera, California.
4. Los Angeles-Long Beach, California.
5. El Centro, California.
6. Modesto-Merced, California.
7. San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, California.
8. Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, Pennsylvania-Ohio-West
9. Harrisburg-York-Lebanon, Pennsylvania.
10. Louisville-Jefferson County-Elizabethtown-Madison,
Top 10 Most Ozone-Polluted Cities
1. Los Angeles-Long Beach, California.
2. Bakersfield, California.
3. Visalia-Porterville-Hanford, California.
4. Fresno-Madera, California.
5. Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, Arizona.
6. Sacramento-Roseville, California.
7. Modesto-Merced, California.
8. Denver-Aurora, Colorado.
9. Las Vegas-Henderson, Nevada-Arizona.
10. Fort Collins, Colorado.
Carbon Capture - CO2
covalently double bonded
to two oxygen atoms
. A colorless
and odorless gas
that is vital to life on Earth. Carbon dioxide is a
significant greenhouse gas. Since the Industrial Revolution, anthropogenic
emissions - including the burning of carbon-based fossil fuels and land
use changes (primarily deforestation) - have rapidly increased its
concentration in the atmosphere
, leading to global warming. Carbon dioxide
also causes ocean acidification because it dissolves in water to form carbonic acid.
worldwide oxygen content declined by more than 2% between 1960 and 2010.
, is a colorless,
odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than
. It is
to hemoglobic animals (both invertebrate and vertebrate, including
humans) when encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm, although it
is also produced in normal animal metabolism in low quantities, and is
thought to have some normal biological functions. In the atmosphere, it is
spatially variable and short lived, having a role in the formation of
ground-level ozone. Carbon monoxide consists of one
, connected by a triple bond that consists of two covalent
bonds as well as one dative covalent bond. It is the simplest oxocarbon
and is isoelectronic with the cyanide anion, the nitrosonium cation and
molecular nitrogen. In coordination complexes the carbon monoxide ligand
is called carbonyl. Carbon monoxide is killing public housing residents,
but HUD doesn’t require
Carbon Monoxide Detectors
Carbon Capture and Storage
is the process of capturing waste
carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources, such as fossil
fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and
depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally
an underground geological formation. Methane
Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rise in 2018 even as coal wanes and
. Fossil fuel emissions have climbed for a second
straight year, driven by growing energy use.Netpower
natural gas power plant with no carbon emissions or air pollution
generates lower-cost electricity from fossil fuels than current power
systems while producing zero air emissions.
when the true market value of oil
exaggerated and criminally inflated because the true costs of carbon
dioxide in intensifying global warming are not yet taken into account.
Thus when the truth comes out, those company stocks who are vested in oil
and coal will plummet unless switch their investments
towards technologies that reduce Global Warming
turns CO2 into Energy
- Geo-Thermal Energy
Carbon Dioxide Scrubber
is a device which absorbs carbon dioxide
(CO2). It is used to treat exhaust gases from industrial plants or from
exhaled air in life support systems such as rebreathers or in spacecraft,
submersible craft or airtight chambers. Carbon dioxide scrubbers are also
used in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. They have also been researched
for carbon capture.
Transforming Carbon Dioxide into industrial fuels
. The gases coming
from power plants and heavy industry are instead captured and fed into
catalytic reactors that chemically transform greenhouse gases like carbon
dioxide into industrial fuels or chemicals and that emit only oxygen.
Blowing Bubbles to Catch Carbon Dioxide
using a bio-inspired liquid
membrane that could make clean coal a reality.
remove CO2 directly from the air.
lower-cost electricity from fossil fuels than current power systems while
producing zero air emissions
- Warming Dangers
100 Solutions to Climate Change: Chad Frischmann
(video and text)
More CO2 in the Air for Plants means a
Decrease of Nutrition in Food.
Though having more carbon dioxide in the air yields 10 percent more crops,
when compared to plants in normal atmosphere,
they have five to
ten percent reductions in nutrients like iron, zinc, and
. 2 billion people already are getting too little iron
and zinc in their diets, and it's damaging their health.
How supercharged plants could slow climate change - Joanne Chory TED2019
(video) - Plants can be engineered to absorb more CO2 and sequester CO2
back into the soil where it can benefit nutrient depleted soil.
lignins are complex, higher plant epidermis and periderm cell-wall
macromolecules, forming a protective barrier. Suberin, a complex polyester
biopolymer, is lipophilic, and composed of long chain fatty acids called
suberin acids, and glycerol. Suberins and lignins are considered
covalently linked to lipids and carbohydrates, respectively, and lignin is
covalently linked to suberin, and to a lesser extent, to cutin. Suberin is
a major constituent of cork, and is named after the cork oak, ''Quercus
suber''. Its main function is as a barrier to movement of water and
Free-Air Concentration Enrichment
is a method used by ecologists and
plant biologists that raises the concentration of CO2 in a specified area
and allows the response of plant growth to be measured. Experiments using
FACE are required because most studies looking at the effect of
elevated CO2 concentrations
have been conducted in labs and where
there are many missing factors including plant competition. Measuring the
effect of elevated CO2 using FACE is a more natural way of estimating how
plant growth will change in the future as the CO2 concentration rises in
the atmosphere. FACE also allows the effect of elevated CO2 on plants that
cannot be grown in small spaces (trees for example) to be measured.
However, FACE experiments carry significantly higher costs relative to
We can convert
. More carbon resides in soil than in the
atmosphere and all plant life combined; there are 2,500 billion
tons of carbon in soil, compared with 800 billion tons in the
atmosphere and 560 billion tons in plant and animal life. And
compared to many proposed geoengineering fixes,
storing carbon in soil is simple
: It’s a matter of returning
carbon where it belongs. Through
, a plant draws carbon out of the air to form
Bolstering soil microbiology by adding beneficial microbes to
stimulate the soil cycles where they have been interrupted by use of
insecticides, herbicides, or fertilizers. Indoor
or carbon assimilation refers to the
conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to
organic compounds by living organisms.
is the process involved in carbon capture and
the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2).
Key to Speeding Up Carbon Sequestration Discovered
by adding a common
enzyme to the mix, the researchers have found, can make that rate-limiting
part of the process go 500 times faster.
Scientists turn Carbon Dioxide back into Coal
. New technique can
efficiently convert CO2 from gas into solid particles of carbon.
is a mineral which can capture the greenhouse gas carbon
dioxide from the atmosphere, at room temperature.
is a mineral with the chemical formula MgCO3 (magnesium
carbonate). Mixed crystals of iron(II) carbonate and magnesite (mixed
crystals known as ankerite) possess a layered structure: monolayers of
carbonate groups alternate with magnesium monolayers as well as iron(II)
carbonate monolayers. Manganese, cobalt and nickel may also occur in small
Just 100 Companies Responsible for 71% of Global Emissions, study says
Climate Case 2015 Urgenda
(Dutch Goverment Sued). Together with 900
citizens the Urgenda Foundation filed the Climate Case against the Dutch
Government. On 24 June 2015, Urgenda won a lawsuit against the Dutch
State, forcing it to take more measures against
Study finds increased Ocean Acidification due to Human Activities
anthropogenic carbon in the northeast Pacific means weaker shells for many
When you take your next breath, you'll be breathing in 42 percent more carbon dioxide than if you were
breathing in 1750
how I'm supposed to Breathe with No Air
The concentration of CO2 reached 400 ppm for the
first time in recorded history in 2013
. 400 parts per million is
400 out of one million molecules in the atmosphere are CO2.
Oxygen Levels Decreasing
- Earth's Atmosphere
Carbon Dioxide Passes 400 PPM Threshold. never to return below it in our
(every breath you take)
CO2 concentrations of 7% to 10% (70,000 to 100,000 ppm) may
, even in the presence of sufficient oxygen.
Manifesting as dizziness
, headache, visual and hearing
dysfunction, and unconsciousness within a few minutes to an
hour. The physiological effects of acute carbon dioxide exposure
are grouped together under the term
, a subset of
. Symptoms of carbon
include a pressure on your chest, auditory
— whoosh — and an unexplained feeling of
3 Molecules of Oxygen are Lost for every 1 CO2 Molecule Produced
. Less oxygen in the atmosphere
allows more sunlight to reach the earth, allowing more moisture
to evaporate, which increases temperatures and the intensity of
is the set of chemical reactions that take place in
chloroplasts during photosynthesis. The cycle is light-independent because
it takes place after the energy has been captured from sunlight.
Earth may be 140 years away from reaching Carbon Levels not seen in 56
. Humans have emitted roughly 1,500 gigatons of carbon as
of 2016. Total human carbon dioxide emissions could match those of Earth's
last major greenhouse warming event
in fewer than
are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds
Acid / Alkaline Balance and the
Immune System: Carbon dioxide, through its conversion to carbonic acid, is
a primary regulator of the acid/alkaline balance
the blood. The body (organs) has several needs for different levels of
pH). Higher Levels of CO2
lead to an
immediate drop in blood and extracellular fluid pH levels through the
formation of carbonic acid, thus obliging the hemoglobin to more readily
distribute its oxygen to meet local metabolic requirements.
of CO2, as a result of lower metabolism, lead to blood vessel constriction
(e.g. reduction in the diameter of the coronaries) and to higher levels of
blood and extracellular fluid pH (less carbonic acid), thus permitting
oxygen and glucose to go elsewhere where metabolic requirements are
greater. In the simplest of terms, this is the biochemistry of healthy
respiration. A reduction in carbon dioxide shifts the body's
which alters the rate of activity of other biochemical processes. Blood
alkaline state weakens the immune system, thus making the body more
susceptible to viruses and allergies.
Vessels: Carbon dioxide in the plasma helps to dilate smooth muscle tissue.
Insufficient carbon dioxide can cause spasms throughout the body
including the brain, the bronchi, and other smooth muscle tissues. Good
examples are the spasms that take place during asthma attacks and
migraines. The Cardiovascular System: Carbon dioxide helps regulate the
cardiovascular system. Too little carbon dioxide can result in many
problems, including angina, high blood pressure, chest pain, myocardial
infarcts, strokes, and so on. The Digestive System: A direct
relationship exists between the level of carbon dioxide in the body and
the functioning of the digestive glands—especially between the level of
carbon dioxide and the intensity of gastric secretion. Too little carbon
dioxide can eventually lead to poor digestion and eventually to ulcers.
Why does CO2 get most of the attention when there are so many other
heat-trapping gases (greenhouse gases)?
Ice cores reveal a slow decline in atmospheric Oxygen over the last
Molecular signature shows plants are adapting to increasing atmospheric
, but not humans.Warming
is the study of changes in climate taken on
the scale of the entire history of Earth.
List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions per capita
Climate Change Information and Resources
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle
is a technology that
uses a high pressure gasifier to turn coal and other carbon
based fuels into pressurized gas—synthesis gas (syngas). It can
then remove impurities from the syngas prior to the power
generation cycle. Some of these pollutants, such as sulfur, can
be turned into re-usable byproducts through the Claus process.
This results in lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, particulates,
mercury, and in some cases carbon dioxide.
is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is
exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere,
hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth. Along with the
nitrogen cycle and the water cycle, the carbon cycle comprises a
sequence of events that are key to making the Earth capable of
sustaining life; it describes the movement of carbon as it is
recycled and reused throughout the biosphere, including carbon
Deep Carbon Observatory
is a global research program designed to
transform understanding of carbon's role in Earth. DCO is a community of
scientists, including biologists, physicists, geoscientists and chemists,
whose work crosses several traditional disciplinary lines to develop the
new, integrative field of deep carbon science. To complement this
research, the DCO’s infrastructure includes public engagement and
education, online and offline community support, innovative data
management, and novel instrumentation development.
Scientists probe underground depths of Earth’s carbon cycle
the fluid of the Earth’s mantle is not in the form of carbon dioxide, but
rather in carbonate and
is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the
presence of the carbonate ion, CO2−3.
is a natural or
artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some
carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period.
The process by which carbon sinks remove carbon dioxide (CO2)
from the atmosphere is known as carbon sequestration.
Earth's upper mantle may be up to 100 trillion
metric tons of carbon dioxide
. There is 1.8 million square
kilometers reservoir of melting carbon under Western United States.
CO2-eating Microalgae as a Biofuel Feedstock
Engineering a More Efficient System for Harnessing Carbon Dioxide
is a technique for solving problems in the
planning of organic syntheses. This is achieved by transforming a target
molecule into simpler precursor structures without assumptions regarding
starting materials. Each precursor material is examined using the same
method. This procedure is repeated until simple or commercially available
structures are reached.
an enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, a
process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted by
plants and other photosynthetic organisms to energy-rich
molecules such as glucose.
Surveying Rubisco diversity and temperature response to improve
crop photosynthetic efficiency
Discoveries in Rubisco (Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase):
a historical perspective
Diamonds from the sky, approach turns CO2 into valuable products
Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air
Global CCS Institute
International Energy Agency
is an organic compound derived from carbamic acid
(NH2COOH). A carbamate group, carbamate ester (e.g., ethyl carbamate), and
carbamic acids are functional groups that are inter-related structurally
and often are interconverted chemically. Carbamate esters are also called
Waste to Energy
A forgotten Space Age technology could change how we grow food:
(video and interactive text).
are organisms that are able to metabolize
molecular hydrogen as a source of energy. An example of
hydrogenotrophy is performed by carbon dioxide reducing
organisms. They utilize CO2 and H2 to produce methane, CH4, by
the following reaction: CO2 + 4H2 → CH4 + 2H2O.
Other hydrogenotrophic metabolic pathways include acetogenesis
and sulfate reduction
to produce renewable methanol from carbon dioxide,
hydrogen, and electricity for energy storage, fuel applications,
and efficiency enhancement.
Single-Celled Organisms may be altering Earth's carbon cycle in ways
scientists never expected
. In the area 100 to 1,000 meters below the
ocean's surface -- dubbed the twilight zone because of its largely
impenetrable darkness -- scientists found that tiny organisms called
phaeodarians are consuming sinking, carbon-rich particles before they
settle on the seabed, where they would otherwise be stored and sequestered
from the atmosphere for millennia.
Breakthrough Solar Cell captures Carbon Dioxide and Sunlight,
produces Burnable Fuel
: 1,000-fold improved chemistry leads
to 'artificial leaf' that makes
. Solar cell that cheaply
and efficiently converts atmospheric carbon dioxide directly
into usable hydrocarbon fuel, using only
sunlight for energy
Nanostructured Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Electrocatalysts
for CO2 Reduction in Ionic Liquid
Cornell scientists convert carbon dioxide, create electricity
Splitting Carbon Dioxide using low-cost catalyst materials
scientists have built the first Earth-abundant and low-cost catalytic
system for splitting CO2 into CO and oxygen, an important step towards
achieving the conversion of renewable energy into hydrocarbon fuels
Recycling Carbon Dioxide: U of T researchers efficiently reduce
climate-warming CO2 into building blocks for fuels
A chemistry professor in Florida
has just found a way to trigger the
in a synthetic material, turning greenhouse gases into
clean air and producing energy all at the same time.
turns CO2 into Energy
are compounds consisting of metal ions or
clusters coordinated to organic ligands to form one-, two-, or
three-dimensional structures. They are a subclass of coordination
polymers, with the special feature that they are often porous. The organic
ligands included are sometimes referred to as "struts", one example being
1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC)
Nano-spike catalysts convert carbon dioxide directly into ethanol
High-Selectivity Electrochemical Conversion of CO2 to Ethanol using a
Copper Nanoparticle/N-Doped Graphene Electrode
Chemists create Molecular 'Leaf' that collects and stores Solar Power
without Solar Panels
. Uses light or electricity to convert the
greenhouse gas carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide -- a carbon-neutral
fuel source -- more efficiently than any other method of "carbon
reduction." quest to recycle carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere into
carbon-neutral fuels and others materials.
Solar conversion of CO2 to CO
using Earth-abundant electrocatalysts
prepared by atomic layer modification of CuO. École polytechnique fédérale
de Lausanne (EPFL) describe a new catalyst for splitting carbon dioxide
that, in their words, is the foundation for the first ever low-cost
carbon-dioxide splitting system. It relies on two materials, tin oxide and
copper oxide, both of which are readily abundant on Earth, and offers a
CO2 to CO conversion efficiency of nearly 14 percent.
Well-Defined Nanographene–Rhenium Complex as an Efficient Electrocatalyst
and Photocatalyst for Selective CO2 Reduction
Go Ever Green
Carbon War Room
Be Green Now
is a white salt, soluble in water
(insoluble in ethanol) which forms a strongly alkaline solution. It can be
made as the product of potassium hydroxide's absorbent reaction with
carbon dioxide. It is deliquescent, often appearing a damp or wet solid.
Potassium carbonate is used in the production of soap and glass.
is a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide or
greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere.
- Sustainable Living
Low Impact Living
- Green Building Ideas
What's the difference between
Rankings Countries Carbon Dioxide Emissions
List of Countries by Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Cap & Trade
is when Green House Gas
emissions caused by the combustion of fossil fuels are closely related to
the carbon content of the respective fuels, a tax on these emissions can
be levied by taxing the carbon content of fossil fuels at any point in the
product cycle of the fuel.
the method favored by many economists for reducing
global-warming emissions — charges those who emit carbon dioxide (CO2
for their emissions. That charge, called a carbon price, is the amount
that must be paid for the right to emit one tonne of CO2 into the
atmosphere. Carbon pricing usually takes the form either of a carbon tax
or a requirement to purchase permits to emit, generally known as
cap-and-trade, but also called "allowances". Carbon Bubble
Carbon Dioxide Equivalent
are two related but distinct measures for describing how much global
warming a given type and amount of greenhouse gas may cause, using the
functionally equivalent amount or concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the reference.
is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the
. It compares the amount of heat trapped by a certain mass of
the gas in question to the amount of heat trapped by a similar mass of
carbon dioxide. A GWP is calculated over a specific time interval,
commonly 20, 100 or 500 years. Air Pollution
is a gas in an atmosphere
that absorbs and emits
range. This process is the fundamental cause of the
greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are
water vapor, carbon dioxide,
, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Without
greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be
about −18 °C (0 °F), rather than the present average of 15 °C (59 °F). In
the Solar System, the atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan also contain
gases that cause a greenhouse effect. Human activities since the beginning
of the Industrial Revolution (taken as the year 1750) have produced a 40%
increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, from 280 ppm
in 1750 to 400 ppm in 2015. This increase has occurred despite the uptake
of a large portion of the emissions by various natural "sinks" involved in
the carbon cycle
(CO2) emissions (i.e.,
emissions produced by human activities) come from combustion of
fuels, coal, oil, and natural gas
, along with deforestation
and animal agriculture. It has been estimated that if
greenhouse gas emissions continue at the present rate, Earth's surface
temperature could exceed historical values as early as 2047
potentially harmful effects on ecosystems, biodiversity and the
livelihoods of people worldwide. Recent estimates suggest that on the
current emissions trajectory the Earth could pass a threshold of 2 °C
global warming (3.5 °F
) which the United Nations' IPCC designated as the upper
limit to avoid "dangerous" global warming, by 2036.
Human Impact on the Environment
anthropogenic impact on the
environment includes impacts on biophysical environments.
. (anthropogenic emissions).
Specific Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Various Fuels: Wood, Oil and Gas
Planet at risk of heading towards “Hothouse Earth” state
Global Warming Activism
Humidity May Prove Breaking Point for Some Areas as Temperatures Rise
Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity
(feed back loop) -
General Circulation Models (GCMs).atmospheric Energy Balance Models (EBMs)
Ocean Sink for Human-Made Carbon Dioxide Measured
. Scientists have
determined the amount of human-made
emissions taken up by the ocean between 1994 and 2007.
School Strike for Climate
is an international movement of school
students who are deciding not to attend classes and instead take part in
demonstrations to demand action to prevent further global warming and
climate change. Publicity and widespread organising began when the climate
activist Greta Thunberg staged an action in August of 2018 outside the
(parliament), holding a sign that read "Skolstrejk för
klimatet" ("School strike for the climate"). An
estimated 1.4 million young people
skipped school March 15th, 2019 to demand stronger
climate policies in what may be one of the largest environmental protests in history.
National Climate Assessment
(NCA) assesses the science of climate
change and variability and its impacts across the United States, now and
throughout this century.
As World Temperatures Rise a Billion People will be newly exposed to
Diseases like Dengue Fever
. As many as a billion people could be newly
exposed to disease-carrying mosquitoes by the end of the century because
of global warming.
is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CH4 (one atom of
and four atoms of
methane waste reducing
Many oil wells burn off Methane
-- the largest component of natural
gas -- in a process called flaring
currently wastes 150 billion cubic meters of the gas each year and
generates a staggering 400 million tons of carbon dioxide, making this
process a significant contributor to global warming. Methane is
and used to generate electrical
power or produce chemicals. However, special equipment is needed to
cool and pressurize methane gas, and special pressurized containers or
pipelines are needed to transport it. Convert methane into derivatives of
methanol, a liquid that can be made into automotive fuel or used as a
precursor to a variety of chemical products. This new method may allow for
lower-cost methane conversion at remote sites.
is the release of methane from seas and soils in
permafrost regions of the Arctic. While a long-term natural process, it is
exacerbated by global warming. This results in a positive feedback effect,
as methane is itself a powerful greenhouse gas. (5000
Gigatons or a Billion tons being released, 5 Gigatons in the atmosphere in
). Decays slowly.
Emergency: Methane released by the Gigaton
Published on Oct 13, 2016
). Methane traps up to 100 times more
heat in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide
MIT scientists have determined the structure of an enzyme that is found in
ocean microbes and can produce a precursor to methane.
agricultural activities produce large amounts of methane. Many bacteria
also produce methane as a byproduct of their metabolism.
is a solid clathrate hydrate compound in which a
large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water,
forming a solid similar to ice. Originally thought to occur only in the
outer regions of the Solar System, where temperatures are low and water
ice is common, significant deposits of methane clathrate have been found
under sediments on the ocean floors of the Earth. Methane clathrates are
common constituents of the shallow marine geosphere and they occur in deep
sedimentary structures and form outcrops on the ocean floor. Methane
hydrates are believed to form by the precipitation or crystallisation of
methane migrating from deep along geological faults. Precipitation occurs
when the methane comes in contact with water within the sea bed subject to
temperature and pressure. In 2008, research on Antarctic Vostok and EPICA
Dome C ice cores revealed that methane clathrates were also present in
deep Antarctic ice cores and record a history of atmospheric methane
concentrations, dating to 800,000 years ago. The ice-core methane
clathrate record is a primary source of data for global warming research,
along with oxygen and carbon dioxide. (also called methane hydrate,
hydromethane, methane ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate,
CH4·5.75H2O or 4CH4·23H2O).Exponential Growth
Between 65% and 80% of CO2 released into the air
dissolves into the ocean over a period of 20–200 years. The rest is
removed by slower processes that take up to several hundreds of thousands
of years, including chemical weathering and rock formation. This means
that once in the atmosphere, carbon dioxide can continue to affect climate
for thousands of years. Methane
removed from the atmosphere by chemical reaction, persisting for about 12
years. Thus although methane is a potent greenhouse gas, its effect is
relatively short-lived. But what happens when methane increases every year
for 12 years? Nitrous oxide
is destroyed in
the stratosphere and removed from the atmosphere more slowly than methane,
persisting for around 114 years. Compounds containing chlorine and/or
fluorine (CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, PFCs
a huge number of different chemical species, each of which can last in the
atmosphere for a specific length of time – from less than a year to many
thousands of years. The IPCC has published a comprehensive list of the
atmospheric lifetime of the various CFCs and other greenhouse gases.
is a very effective absorber
of heat energy in the air, but it does not accumulate in the atmosphere in
the same way as the other greenhouse gases. This is down to it having a
very short atmospheric lifetime, of the order of hours to days, because it
is rapidly removed as rain and snow. The amount of water vapour that the
atmosphere can hold increases as the atmosphere gets warmer, so the
greenhouse properties of water vapour are usually considered to act as
part of a feedback loop, rather than a direct cause of climate change.
Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing
is the difference between insolation (sunlight)
absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back to space. The influences
that cause changes to the Earth’s climate system altering Earth’s
radiative equilibrium, forcing temperatures to rise or fall, are called
climate forcings. Positive radiative forcing means Earth receives more
incoming energy from sunlight than it radiates to space. This net gain of
energy will cause warming. Conversely, negative radiative forcing means
that Earth loses more energy to space than it receives from the sun, which
produces cooling. Typically, radiative forcing is quantified at the
tropopause or at the top of the atmosphere (often accounting for rapid
adjustments in temperature) in units of watts per square meter of the
Earth's surface. Positive forcing (incoming energy exceeding outgoing
energy) warms the system, while negative forcing (outgoing energy
exceeding incoming energy) cools it. Causes of radiative forcing include
changes in insolation and the concentrations of radiatively active gases,
commonly known as greenhouse gases, and aerosols. Radiative forcing is a
measure of the influence a factor has in altering the balance of incoming
and outgoing energy in the Earth-atmosphere system and is an index of the
importance of the factor as a potential climate change mechanism.
Radiative forcing values are for changes relative to preindustrial
conditions defined at 1750 and are expressed in Watts per square meter (W/m2).
Almost all of the energy that affects Earth's climate is received as
radiant energy from the Sun. The planet and its atmosphere absorb and
reflect some of the energy, while long-wave energy is radiated back into
space. The balance between absorbed and radiated energy determines the
average global temperature. Because the atmosphere absorbs some of the
re-radiated long-wave energy, the planet is warmer than it would be in the
absence of the atmosphere. Radiative forcing is a concept used for
quantitative comparisons of the strength of different human and natural
agents in causing climate change.
A warming world increases Air Pollution
. Climate change is warming the
ocean, but it's warming land faster and that's really bad news for
Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006
. Assembly Bill AB32 is a
California State Law that fights global warming by establishing
a comprehensive program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from
all sources throughout the state.
How to Reduce Heat Extremes by 2-3 Degrees Celsius
. How changing
crops, moving to no till agriculture and lightening infrastructure can
reduce extreme temperatures.
7,000 Underground Methane Permafrost Gas Bubbles in Siberia Are About to
Domes of Frozen Methane may be warning signs for new blow-outs
Several methane domes, some 500m wide, have been mapped on the Arctic
Ocean floor. They may be signs of soon-to-happen methane expulsions that
have previously created massive craters in a near-by area they are still
more stable than the pingos found in sub- sea permafrost in Canadian and
Russian Arctic. “The gas hydrate pingos in permafrost are formed because
of the low temperatures. But the water-depth that supports gas hydrates in
sub-sea permafrost is only 40 to 50 meters. There is no significant
pressure there to keep them in check. Sub-seabed permafrost is
deteriorating constantly and quickly” notes Serov. Even though they are
more stable than the permafrost pingos, the Barents Sea domes are on the
limit of their existence. “A relatively small change in the water
temperature can destabilise these hydrates fairly quickly. We were
actually very lucky to observe them at this point. And we will probably be
able to observe significant changes to these domes during our lifetime.
More than 50 million
, when the Earth experienced a series of extreme global warming
events, early mammals responded by shrinking in size. While this mammalian
dwarfism has previously been linked to the largest of these events.
Eocene Thermal Maximum 2
was a transient period of global warming that
occurred approximately 53.7 million years ago (Ma). It appears to be the
second major hyperthermal that punctuated the long-term warming trend from
the Late Paleocene through the early Eocene (58 to 50 Ma). The
hyperthermals were geologically brief time intervals (<200,000 years) of
global warming and massive carbon input. The most extreme and best-studied
event, the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM or ETM-1), occurred
about 1.8 million years before ETM-2, at approximately 55.5 Ma. Other
hyperthermals likely followed ETM-2 at nominally 53.6 Ma (H-2), 53.3
(I-1), 53.2 (I-2) and 52.8 Ma (informally called K, X or ETM-3). The
number, nomenclature, absolute ages and relative global impact of the
Eocene hyperthermals are the source of much current research. In any case,
the hyperthermals appear to have ushered in the Early Eocene Climatic
Optimum, the warmest interval of the Cenozoic Era. They also definitely
precede the Azolla event at about 49 Ma.
Rapid Climate Change in the Arctic
. Diminishing sea ice near the
Arctic coast leaves more open water near the coast for winds to create
waves. The increased wave action reaches down and stirs up sediments on
shallow continental shelves, releasing radium-228 and other chemicals that
are carried up to the surface and swept away into the open ocean by
currents such as the Transpolar Drift.
Undersea Gases could Superheat the Planet
. Carbon reservoirs on ocean
floor caused global warming before -- and could do it again.
The 2018 Arctic Report Card found the Arctic region
second-lowest overall sea-ice coverage on record
Warming, sea-ice loss: Arctic Report Card tracks region's environmental
changes. The Arctic region experienced the second-warmest air temperatures
ever recorded; the second-lowest overall sea-ice coverage; lowest recorded
winter ice in the Bering Sea; and earlier plankton blooms due to early
melting of sea ice in the Bering Sea.
Declining numbers of
, nematodes and other animal species in
McMurdo Dry Valleys
, one of the world's driest and coldest deserts.
Coal Seam Fire
refers to natural burning of an outcrop or
underground coal seam. Most coal-seam fires exhibit smoldering combustion,
particularly underground coal-seam fires, because of limited atmospheric
oxygen availability. Coal-seam fire instances on Earth date back several
Centralia | 100 Wonders | Atlas Obscura
Rising of Global Coal Fires
is an international treaty designed to protect the
by phasing out the
production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone
depletion. It was agreed on 26 August 1987, and entered into force on 26
August 1989, followed by a first meeting in Helsinki, May 1989. Since
then, it has undergone eight revisions, in 1990 (London), 1991 (Nairobi),
1992 (Copenhagen), 1993 (Bangkok), 1995 (Vienna), 1997 (Montreal), 1998
(Australia), 1999 (Beijing) and 2016 (Kigali, adopted, but not in force).
As a result of the international agreement, the ozone hole in Antarctica
is slowly recovering. Climate projections indicate that the ozone layer
will return to 1980 levels between 2050 and 2070. Due to its widespread
adoption and implementation it has been hailed as an example of
exceptional international co-operation, with Kofi Annan quoted as saying
that "perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date
has been the Montreal Protocol". In comparison, effective burden sharing
and solution proposals mitigating regional conflicts of interest have been
among the success factors for the ozone depletion challenge, where global
regulation based on the Kyoto Protocol
failed to do so. In this case of the ozone depletion challenge, there was
global regulation already being installed before a scientific consensus
was established. Also, overall public opinion was convinced of
possible imminent risks. The two ozone treaties have been ratified by 197
parties (196 states and the European Union), making them the first
universally ratified treaties in United Nations history. These truly
universal treaties have also been remarkable in the expedience of the
policy-making process at the global scale, where only 14 years lapsed
between a basic scientific research discovery (1973) and the international
agreement signed (1985 & 1987).(a protocol to the Vienna Convention for
the Protection of the Ozone Layer). Risk
is an international treaty which extends the 1992
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that
commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the
scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part
two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2
have predominantly caused it. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted
in Kyoto, Japan on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February
2005. There are currently 192 parties (Canada withdrew from the protocol, effective December 2012) to the Protocol.
Green New Deal
are areas of sea water, fresh water, or groundwater that
are depleted of dissolved oxygen and are a more severe condition of
hypoxia. The US Geological Survey defines anoxic groundwater as those with
dissolved oxygen concentration of less than 0.5 milligrams per litre. This
condition is generally found in areas that have restricted water exchange.
In most cases, oxygen is prevented from reaching the deeper levels by a
physical barrier as well as by a pronounced density stratification, in
which, for instance, heavier hypersaline waters rest at the bottom of a
basin. Anoxic conditions will occur if the rate of oxidation of organic
matter by bacteria is greater than the supply of dissolved oxygen.
is a description of the
environment - without oxygen. Mostly
microbes live here
, and oxygen is
actually toxic to most of them.
in the Earth's past where portions of
depleted in oxygen (O2)
at depths over a large geographic area. During
some of these events, euxinia, waters that contained H2S hydrogen sulfide,
developed. Although anoxic events have not happened for millions of years,
the geological record shows that they happened many times in the past.
Anoxic events coincided with several mass extinctions
and may have
contributed to them. Many geologists believe oceanic anoxic events are
strongly linked to slowing of ocean circulation, climatic warming
elevated levels of greenhouse gases. Researchers have proposed enhanced
volcanism (the release of CO2) as the "central external trigger for
which refers to the state of water when the water is depleted of oxygen
and has a raised level of free hydrogen sulfide. The Black Sea is known to
experience euxinia. When parts of an ocean are depleted of oxygen,
hydrogen sulfide is formed.
refers to low oxygen conditions. Normally,
20.9% of the gas in the atmosphere is oxygen
The partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere is 20.9% of the total
barometric pressure. In water however, oxygen levels are much lower,
approximately 1%, and fluctuate locally depending on the presence of
photosynthetic organisms and relative distance to the surface (if there is
more oxygen in the air, it will diffuse across the partial pressure
is the expansion of oxygen minimum zones in the
as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions of carbon
dioxide. The change has been fairly rapid and poses a threat to fish and
other types of marine life, as well as to people who depend on marine life
for nutrition or livelihood.
are areas in the world's oceans and large lakes, caused by
"excessive nutrient pollution from human activities coupled with other
factors that deplete the oxygen required to support most marine life in
bottom and near-bottom water.
Oxygen Minimum Zone
is the zone in which oxygen saturation in seawater
in the ocean is at its lowest. This zone occurs at depths of about 200 to
1,500 m (660–4,920 ft), depending on local circumstances. OMZs are found
worldwide, typically along the western coast of continents, in areas where
an interplay of physical and biological processes concurrently lower the
oxygen concentration (biological processes) and restrict the water from
mixing with surrounding waters (physical processes), creating a “pool”
of water where oxygen concentrations fall from the normal range of 4–6
mg/l to below 2 mg/l.
and the release of
happens everyday, except we call it
. Pollution has murdered more people and created
more diseases then all wars combined. Billions of dollars are
spent every year in healthcare
to treat all these pollution related diseases. Think about all
the time people and resources that are wasted treating this
disease called pollution, and none for fixing the causes of
pollution, you can't win a war if you are only treating the
disease, you have to find a cure. And improving peoples access
to important information and knowledge is the first step.
Witness : Invisible Threat
is waste that has substantial or potential
threats to public health or the environment
Characteristic hazardous wastes are materials that are known or tested to
exhibit one or more of the following hazardous traits: Ignitability,
Reactivity, Corrosivity and Toxicity. Listed hazardous wastes are
materials specifically listed by regulatory authorities as hazardous
wastes which are from non-specific sources, specific sources, or discarded
chemical products. Hazardous wastes may be found in different physical
states such as gaseous, liquids, or solids. A hazardous waste is a special
type of waste because it cannot be disposed of by common means like other
by-products of our everyday lives. Depending on the physical state of the
waste, treatment and solidification processes might be required.
List of Hazardous Waste
Hazardous Waste in the United States
was a biodefense medical research
program carried out by the United States Army at Fort Detrick, Maryland
between 1954 and 1973. The program pursued medical research using
volunteer enlisted personnel who were eventually nicknamed "Whitecoats".
These volunteers, all conscientious objectors, including many members of
the Seventh-day Adventist Church, were informed of the purpose and goals
of each project before providing consent to participate in any project.
The stated purpose of the research was to defend troops and civilians
against biological weapons and it was believed that the Soviet Union was
engaged in similar activities. Although the program was discontinued in
1973, human use research for biodefense purposes is still conducted at the
U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) at
Fort Detrick and at other government and civilian research institutes.
However, these post-Whitecoat studies are often, human use challenge
studies, in which a person is inoculated with a known pathogen to
determine how effective an investigational treatment will be.
- Depleted Uranium
Toxins in Products
The real terrorists are the government
agency's that allow big corporations to kill people and to
poison the environment
. They are responsible for more
murders, more attacks on human rights, and poisoning more food, water,
land and air then anything else. And since these criminals own the media
you will never have enough knowledge and information that is needed to
understand what is happening to you, or the world.
Coal Combustion Waste
(PDF) According to the EPA, more than half of all
toxic water pollution
in the country comes from coal-fired power plants.
EPA’s 1998 Chemical
Hazard Data Availability Study revealed that although nearly
3,000 chemicals have High Production Volume status in the United
States (defined by the EPA as imported or produced at one
million pounds per year or more), complete basic toxicity
profiles (covering acute, sub-chronic, chronic, developmental,
and reproductive toxicity, as well as mutagenicity) were
available for only 7% of these.
Confronting Toxic Chemical Management
Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976
introduction of new or already existing chemicals. When the TSCA was put
into place, all existing chemicals were considered to be safe for use and
subsequently grandfathered in. Its three main objectives are to assess and
regulate new commercial chemicals before they enter the market, to
regulate chemicals already existing in 1976 that posed an "unreasonable
risk to health or to the environment", as for example PCB's, lead, mercury
and radon, and to regulate these chemicals' distribution and use.
Importing and Exporting Hazardous Chemicals
NeurotoxinsIt's not what you believe
The question is do you understand knowledge and information? Do
you understand research and historical evidence? Do you know the
difference between a fact and an opinion
? So it does not matter
what you believe, what matters is
what you know
, and can you
prove what you know? If you don't know enough, and if you know
something but have no way of proving it, then what you believe
is useless and irrelevant. You are simply ignorant. So the only
logical answer that you can give is "I don't know enough to have
an opinion on that matter, but if it is true, I can make
adjustments in my life that will guarantee that either way, I am
safe. And these adjustments are good either way, so I can't lose
even if I'm wrong.
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
Lipstick on a Pig
and their residues causes farmworkers to suffer more
chemical-related injuries and illnesses than any other workforce
"There are many
toxins in our foods, in our homes and in our environment. If you
don't stand up for healthier products and a healthier
environment, then you will have to get use to eating poison and
getting diseases, like cancer."
"How can we be an accessory to the
worlds largest mass murder in our history. People seem
comfortable with knowing their life is ending, but they have no
compassion for the millions of lives that they are responsible
for killing. How did we become so disconnected?..So many people
have blood on their hands, some people don't even know it and
others know it but ignore it."
"Humans are killing
the planet, but if we combine our efforts and make better
decisions together, humans can save the plane and save the lives
of millions of people.
The Choice is ours
"Money is just one of
many tools that humans have. And when it comes to solving a
problem you will need more then just money to solve it. Money
doesn't solve problems, people solve problems."
(is the disturbing or
that may harm the activity or balance of human or animal life. The
source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines and
transportation systems, motor vehicles engines, aircraft, and trains.
Outdoor noise is summarized by the word environmental noise. Poor urban
planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial
and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential
areas. Documented problems associated with urban noise go back as far as
Ancient Rome. Outdoor noise can be caused by machines, construction
activities, and music performances, especially in some workplaces.
Noise-induced hearing loss can be caused by outside (e.g. trains) or
inside (e.g. music) noise. High noise levels can contribute to
cardiovascular effects in humans and an increased incidence of coronary
artery disease. In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by
altering predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfere with
reproduction and navigation, and contribute to permanent hearing loss.
Underwater Noise Pollution
"Mountains don't grow back
, besides that, you have nothing
to show for the energy you used except 1,000's of acres of
poison ground and water that will last 10's of thousands of
years. This is a horrific crime and a total waste of resources,
land and people."
Could you be evil and not even know it
course, that is why improving education is a must, but just in
case, here's the prayer; "We're taking back
and all the other
, the people you refer to as your
so called friends, and we will let them know that you are truly
the enemy and that it would be in their best interest if they
would return to heaven to help us end your insanity instead of
fueling it, because everyone knows that this will ultimately end
badly for everyone, and everything."
The Eco-System is our Teacher
And this teacher is clearly
showing us the way to survive and to sustain a Happy and Healthy Life Style. This knowledge is
Insects, birds and other animals all play an important
role in maintaining
environment. Humans also have an important role in maintaining the
environment, except that humans have to learn what their role is because
that knowledge is not
, which means certain knowledge, information and skills
have to be learned. This is why improving education and improving the
media is so extremely important. When humans are more educated and more
informed about themselves and the world around them, they can understand
the choices and options they have more
, and then use
human intelligence to make accurate choices and better decisions. We have
already been doing this for hundreds of years, but all the other 7 billion
people need a high quality education. If animals, plants and insects were
not born with instincts or behavioral
, then life would not exist. And if humans don't
understand the instructions we receive from the environment, and from our
own bodies, then humans will go extinct like millions of other species
have done in the last 700 million years.
The Natural Beauty of the Great Outdoors in Perfect
National Parks are a
beautiful reminder of what God was doing for hundreds of
millions of years before humans were even created. Just think
about it, hundreds of millions of years creating magnificent
mountains, beautiful oceans, streams and rivers, in a perfect
that has built to sustain itself for millions of years, living
in harmony with all kinds of amazing life forms, to roam her
land, to fly through her skies and to swim in her seas.
Evolution or Intelligent Design
I couldn’t even begin to imagine a greater place then earth, and
we can see hundreds millions of light years away. Even if there
were another living planet, I doubt it would be as nice as
Nature is more
then just visual it’s a feeling of Serenity, Tranquility,
Peacefulness, Harmony and Calm. If you lose this feeling it
means that you are simply lost and out of touch.
It's like the
Six degrees of Separation
, everybody in one way or another
is related to
It’s easy to
describe how beautiful our earth is, especially now with photos
and video, but when try to describe what you feel when you see a
National Park, like Glacier National Park in Wyoming for
instance, it’s really hard to find the words that do it justice,
it’s like trying to describe life. It’s has to be the oldest
living feeling in our human history. Knowing that millions of
eyes before you have witnessed what you are seeing, it’s like
being connected to all our ancestors, especially the American
Indians, who have loved this land for thousands of years before
America was even a country. When you read all the beautiful
words that people have written about National Parks, it’s like
you are reading a love story, and that’s what it truly is, a
love story. I have always loved the outdoors and our natural
environment, and when I see it being destroyed, it’s like
someone destroying your home with your family still inside. Even
amongst all the devastation, we are so fortunate that we had
some great people who stood up and fought to protect our natural
Documentary by Ken Burns:
National Parks - America's Best Idea
Humans are the caretakers of this earth, the only living planet
around. So it is everyone’s responsibility to protect our earth
and all its life forms, because believe it or not, our life
actually depends on it.
Mass Extinction Number 6
Scientists estimate that 150-200 species of plant, insect, bird and mammal
every 24 hours. This is nearly 1,000 times the
"natural" or "background" rate and, say many biologists, is
greater than anything the world has experienced since the
vanishing of the dinosaurs nearly 65 Million years ago.
Mathematics predicts a sixth mass extinction
. By 2100, oceans may hold
enough carbon to launch mass extermination of species in future millennia.
Population of Vertebrate Animals Fell 58% From 1970-2012
. The largest
drop was in freshwater species, which fell on average 81 percent in that
Largest King Penguin Colony has Shrunk Nearly 90%
Accelerated Modern Human–Induced Species Losses: Entering the Sixth Mass
The Sounds of SilenceCanary in a Coal Mine
is something whose sensitivity to adverse conditions makes it a
useful early indicator of such conditions; something which warns of
the coming of greater danger or trouble by a deterioration in its health
or welfare. Name originated from miners who use to carry down caged
canaries (birds) into the mine tunnels with them. If dangerous gases such
as carbon monoxide collected in the mine, the gases would kill the canary
before killing the miners, thus providing a warning to exit the tunnels
immediately. Except in our case we don't have a way out of our tunnel
because we have only one planet.
Mammals cannot Adapt or Evolve fast enough to Escape current Extinction
"We are destroying the book of
life before we even had a chance to finish reading it."
"We can either be
part of this miracle called the eco-system or just Go Extinct
like 99.9% of other species have done before. We just happen to be the
only species in the history of our planet who actually might have a
, the Sixth Extinction or Anthropocene Extinction, is a name
for the ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene
epoch (11,700 years before AD 2000) mainly due to human activity
is the significant human impact on the Earth's geology
and ecosystems, including, but not limited to, anthropogenic
the New Geological Epoch
relating to mankind or the period of
is human-centered. Global Warming
Epoch in geology
is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is
longer than an age and shorter than a period.
is a system of chronological dating that relates geological
strata (stratigraphy) to time, and is used by geologists, paleontologists,
and other Earth scientists to describe the timing and relationships of
events that have occurred during Earth’s history. The table of geologic
time spans, presented here, agrees with the nomenclature, dates and
standard color codes set forth by the International Commission on
Mass Extinctions in the Past
end of an organism or of a group of
(taxon), normally a species.
The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the
last individual of the species.
is the occurrence of abundant fern spores in the fossil record,
usually immediately (in a geological sense) after an extinction event. The
spikes are believed to represent a large, temporary increase in the number
of ferns relative to other terrestrial plants after the extinction or
thinning of the latter, probably because fern dispersal is more rapid over
large geographic areas, since single-celled fern spores are more easily
distributed by the wind than are seeds. Fern spikes are most associated
with the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, although they have been
found at other events such as at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Away from
the fossil record, fern spikes have also been observed to occur in
response to local extinction events, for instance the 1980 Mount St.
is a widespread and rapid decrease in the
biodiversity on Earth. Such an event is identified by a sharp change in
the diversity and abundance of multicellular organisms. It occurs when the
rate of extinction increases with respect to the rate of speciation.
Because the majority of diversity and biomass on Earth is microbial, and
thus difficult to measure, recorded extinction events affect the easily
observed, biologically complex component of the biosphere rather than the
total diversity and abundance of life. Extinction occurs at an uneven
rate. Based on the fossil record, the background rate of extinctions on
Earth is about two to five taxonomic families of marine animals every
million years. Marine fossils are mostly used to measure extinction rates
because of their superior fossil record and stratigraphic range compared
to land organisms.
is a term used in conservation biology to explain
the point at which a species, population
metapopulation, experiences an abrupt change in density or number because
of an important parameter, such as habitat loss. It is at this critical
value below which a species, population, or
, will go extinct, though this may take a long time for
species just below the critical value, a phenomenon known as extinction
debt. Extinction thresholds are important to conservation biologists when
studying a species in a population or metapopulation context because the
colonization rate must be larger than the extinction rate, otherwise the
entire entity will go extinct once it reaches the threshold. Extinction
thresholds are realized under a number of circumstances and the point in
modeling them is to define the conditions that lead a population to
extinction. Modeling extinction thresholds can explain the relationship
between extinction threshold and habitat loss and habitat fragmentation.
How Many Species Are There on Earth and in the Ocean?
(±1.3 million SE) eukaryotic species globally, of which 2.2 million (±0.18
million SE) are marine. In spite of 250 years of taxonomic classification
and over 1.2 million species already catalogued in a central database, our
results suggest that some 86% of existing species on Earth and 91% of
species in the ocean still await description.
refers to any end of the world scenario
are the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny
is where world events achieve a final climax.
Researchers uncover new clues to Surviving Extinction
transformation in the wake of the 'Great Dying' moves scientists
closer to understanding the nature of recovery.
Sustainability Success Stories
Researchers consider whether supernovae killed off large ocean animals at
dawn of Pleistocene
. About 2.6 million years ago, an oddly bright
light arrived in the prehistoric sky and lingered there for weeks or
months. It was a supernova some 150 light years away from Earth. Within a
few hundred years, long after the strange light in the sky had dwindled, a
tsunami of cosmic energy from that same shattering star explosion could
have reached our planet and pummeled the atmosphere, touching off climate
change and triggering mass extinctions of large ocean animals, including a
shark species that was the size of a school bus.
A staggering 80 percent of 94 ecological processes
that form the
foundation for healthy marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems
already show signs of distress and response to
. 82 percent of key biological processes necessary for
healthy ecosystems had been impacted by the phenomenon. The changes have
been felt even though the world is just 1 degree Celsius warmer than
More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total flying insect biomass
in protected areas
when you're on the brink of a dangerous situation and extremely close to
disaster or failure
is the hypothetical end of the human species. This may result from natural
causes or it may be anthropogenic, i.e. the result of human action. The
likelihood of human extinction in the near future by wholly natural
scenarios, such as a meteorite impact or large-scale volcanism, is
generally considered to be extremely low. For anthropogenic extinction,
many possible scenarios have been proposed: human global nuclear
annihilation, biological warfare or the release of a pandemic-causing
agent, dysgenics, overpopulation, ecological collapse, and climate change;
in addition, emerging technologies could bring about new extinction
scenarios, such as advanced artificial intelligence, biotechnology or
self-replicating nanobots. The probability of anthropogenic human
extinction within the next hundred years is the topic of an active debate.
Human extinction needs to be differentiated from the extinction of all
life on Earth (see also future of Earth) and from the extinction of major
components of human culture (e.g., through a global catastrophe
leaving only small, scattered human populations, which might evolve in
isolation). Why Civilizations Fail
Happen If Humans Disappeared?
10,000 Years After Humans
The only sign of
human life on Earth will be the stone statues we've created, like the
Pyramids, The Great Wall of China, and Mt. Rushmore. Our stone presidents
will remain "mostly intact" for several hundreds of thousands of
years. 50 Million Years After Humans
By now, the only trace of our entire human existence will
bottles and pieces of
broken glass.100 Million Years After
and pieces of glass will finally be gone.
300 Million Years After Humans
will be no trace of us at all. If another species comes to our planet,
they won't even know we were there.
Timeline of the Far Future
The Sun's luminosity has increased by 10%, causing
Earth's surface temperatures to reach an average of c. 320 K (47 °C; 116
°F). The atmosphere will become a "moist greenhouse", resulting in a
runaway evaporation of the oceans. Pockets of water may still be present
at the poles, allowing abodes for simple life
1.3 billion years
eukaryotic life dies out
due to carbon dioxide starvation. Only prokaryotes remain.
1.5–1.6 billion years
The Sun's increasing
luminosity causes its circumstellar habitable zone
to move outwards; as
carbon dioxide increases in Mars's atmosphere, its surface temperature
rises to levels akin to Earth during the ice age.
"I'm not sad to know that I will die
someday, what truly makes me sad is knowing that the entire human race
could die and go extinct. So I'm going to do everything in my power to
stop this from happening. We can not have a
on a sinking ship, that's just freaking stupid. We need to stop the ship
from sinking first, then we can work on solving our other problems too."
The human body is in fact very much like the earths eco-system,
it grows, it regenerates, it sustains, it dies and then it’s
reborn. So in a sense the earth is an extension of our body for
it too keeps us alive. The earth can live without humans but
humans cannot live without the earth.
We are all Connected
The Earth is our Greatest
. Everything that our earth has taught us, through her
many lessons and examples, has given us the abilities and
knowledge to survive and grow for ten’s of thousands of years.
But for some strange reason humans have stopped paying attention
to their teacher. Blame it on emotions, superficial distractions
or an undisciplined brain. This Attention Deficit is every
humans Achilles Heal. We cannot allow ourselves to be distracted
or blinded from knowing our responsibilities, our priorities and
our own reality. One of earth’s greatest lessons is upon us,
“Learn to Live Together or Die”
. And not just learn to live each
other as humans, but learn to live together with our planet.
There’s nothing more damaging to the human spirit then
suffering. And there’s no need to suffer in order to learn a
lesson. Though survival is a great motivator, motivation without
a clear direction or understanding will always lead to more
confusion and then more suffering. Our fellow humans are
suffering and so is our earth. It’s time that we start paying
more attention to what we need to do and not just what we want
Every living thing on this planet
is in some way affected by the environment in which they live.
The number of environmental effects
that Humans have to deal
with is much higher then any other species on the planet. That
is because we have added most of theses environmental effects
ourselves. We are not totally aware of most of these
environmental effects but we are aware of a lot of them.
Everyone needs to be more informed in order to be aware of these
effects and to be aware if they are contributing to these
effects. Also everyone needs to be more informed in order to
understand and become more aware of the effects that we know
little about. If we minimize our affects on the environment
while at the same time educate ourselves about the ones that we
need to contend with, we will definitely improve life to a
degree because we all know that things have a cumulative effect,
whether they are good or bad.
"You have to learn to understand the
what it needs and what it offers.
The earth is our
and she’s the reason why we are all here.
Take care of her and she’ll take care of you.
And please don’t mind the occasional outbursts from
she’s just reminding us that we should never take Life for
Thank You Mom.."
Our Souls are
Seeds, our Words are its Soil.
Spreading the seeds of
like a flower spreading its seeds in the wind,
education is the first step so let us begin.
Our evolution is upon us and has already begun,
it's time for all to realize we too can shine like the sun.
To learn more about how earth is our greatest teacher watch the documentary
The universe is our home. The
earth is our teacher and the animals are the students. Since
most animals have been here longer then humans they have become
the teachers assistant. Animals have taught us many things on
how to survive and the reasons to migrate.
There are a lot of things in nature that
make sense, except for humans. Too many Humans are not making
any sense of the world, and when you don't make sense, you do
things that are insensible. Nature understands adaptation,
nature understands trends. And this intelligence is one of the
main reasons why plant life has survived for millions of years.
We also see intelligence in animal life, especially humans. But
too many humans make no sense of the environment, like plants
do. So why are we so disconnected? And not just disconnected
from ourselves, why are we so disconnected from other
intelligent life on our planet? Somehow we got lost, we went of
track. We have the bigger brain, so why don't we use it? Oh ya,
that stupid education problem
that we have. What we think is education, is not education.
Today's education does not help us connect, we must correct
this. We need to be more aware. So the curriculum needs to be
expanded, and this curriculum will be intelligent, because one
of the main goals of this new improved and expanded curriculum,
is to create intelligent people.
about the Environment
Everything is Connected
a human takes there is a
in the world. Most reactions are unnoticed because the
impact is not so obvious, or in some cases not totally in sync
with the action of the human. So even doing nothing will still
have an effect on the world. So it is only logical that every
human understands these effects and understands their
to minimize negative effects and to maximize
positive effects. All actions and inactions have a reaction.
is oneness in all things. All things are of a
single underlying substance and reality
, and that there is no true
separation deeper than appearances. Relation
refers to the state or quality of being
. The concept is widely used in various fields such as biology,
network theory, and ecology. It can be further elaborated as all parts of
a system, which interact with one another and cannot be analyzed if
considered alone. Despite subtle differences in meaning, interconnectivity
is often related to the ideas of interconnectedness and
suggests that humans possess an innate tendency to seek
connections with nature and other forms of life.
Edward O. Wilson
introduced and popularized the hypothesis in his book, Biophilia (1984).
He defines biophilia as "the urge to affiliate with other forms of life".
One World is a Fact of Life
is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups
are generated or interact
in ways such that the quantum state
each particle cannot be described independently of the others, even when
the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a
must be described for the system as a whole. (could make communication
over long distances possible, instant transmission).
is the theoretical transfer of matter or energy from one
point to another without traversing the physical space between them. The
way it works is based on the idea of quantum entanglement. Two
that are created at the same moment
share the same existence and are linked in such a way that no matter how
far the distance, any changes happening to one of the objects happens
instantaneously to the other. Using this technology, scientists hope to be
able to communicate across vast distances of space without any delay,
making manned missions to Mars and other planets much more feasible.
Action at a Distance
is the concept that an object can be moved,
changed, or otherwise affected without being physically touched (as in
mechanical contact) by another object. That is, it is the nonlocal
interaction of objects that are separated in space. Pioneering physicist
Albert Einstein described the phenomenon as "spooky action at a distance".
The Tao of Physics
is a 1975 book about An Exploration of the
Parallels Between Modern Physics and
are elements of human culture that must be understood in terms of their
relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure. It works to
uncover the structures
that underlie all the things that humans do, think, perceive, and feel.
is the study of living bodies and the study of
interaction among living organisms on the Earth operating under the
hypothesis that the Earth itself acts as a single living organism.
organisms interact with their
inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic self-regulating,
complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for
life on the planet.
(when people view the
earth from space)
Gaia in Mythology
is the ancestral mother of all
life: the primal Mother Earth goddess.
is the property of being present everywhere.
believes that living organisms on a planet
will affect the nature of their environment in order to make the
environment more suitable for life.
"If Humans make Earth Less
Inhabitable, then Earth will not be able to sustain life, not even our
own. Earth is a living entity. Earth needs to feed, Earth needs to erupt,
Earth has stormy reactions to environmental pressures. Earth gets sick and
Earth needs time to heal. But Earth gives Humans life, so that makes Earth
our best friend. So we need to show our friend some respect and
appreciation. And we need to pay attention to our friend. We need to have
a good relationship with our friend Earth. Earth loves us. But if we turn
our back on Earth, then Earth can no longer protect us or provide for us.
My friend is Earth, and Earth is my Friend. And I will stick by my friend
till the end. I hope you too will be our friend. So please, don't let all
this incredible Love go to waste. There is no other Earth. Earth is
totally unique and incredibly special, which happens to be the kind of
friends I like the most, people who are unique and special, just Like
is a common personification of nature that focuses on
the life-giving and nurturing
aspects of nature by embodying it, in the
form of the mother.World
everything that exists anywhere. All of your experiences that determine
how things appear to you. People in general considered as a whole. All of
human inhabitants of the
means "not two" or "one undivided without a second". In
Buddhist Madhyamaka it means that there is no absolute, transcendent
reality beyond our everyday reality, and while things exist, they are
ultimately "empty" of any existence on their own. In Yogacara, it refers
to the idea of nondualism of cognition and that which is cognized; Advaita,
which states that all of the universe is one essential reality, and that
all facets and aspects of the universe are ultimately an expression or
appearance of that one reality.
is the view that attributes
oneness or singleness.
an intrinsic connection between all living things on
the planet, which relates to our world in much the same way as the soul is
connected to the human body.Holistic
is the idea
that systems and their properties should be
viewed as wholes
, not just as
a collection of parts
is the quality of being
logical and consistent
. The quality
of forming a unified whole
belonging to a thing by its very nature.
is of the
or similar kind
is an uninterrupted connection
. The property of a
continuous and connected period of time
is the state of being
. The temporal
property of two things happening at the same time. Something that joins or
of physical, biological, or psychological phenomena so integrated as to
constitute a functional unit with properties not derivable by summation of
its parts. Elements so unified as a whole that it cannot be described
merely as a sum of its parts
. "the whole is something else than the
sum of its parts",
"The whole is greater than the sum of its parts".
is an attempt to understand the laws behind the ability to
acquire and maintain meaningful perceptions in an apparently chaotic
world. The central principle of gestalt psychology is that
the mind forms a global
whole with self-organizing tendencies
. This principle maintains that
when the human mind (perceptual system
) forms a percept or "gestalt", the
whole has a reality of its own, independent of the parts.
refers to a vision of cosmos where the part (microcosm) reflects the whole
(macrocosm) and vice versa. It is a feature "present in all esoteric
schools of thinking". As Above, So
is an expression
says that some problems are systemic and that individual or domestic ills
can result from larger societal ills. The microcosm reflects the
macrocosm, and trickle down ignorance is the root of the problem.
As Above, So Below
whatever happens on any
of reality (physical, emotional,
or mental) also happens on every other level.
Everything is connected. This is more than the just mundane chains of
cause and effect. This is a problem that we can fix.
DNA (below) and Our
Knowledge and Education (above)
Identity of Indiscernibles
is an ontological principle that
states that there cannot be separate objects or entities that have all
their properties in common
. That is,
entities x and y are identical if every predicate possessed by x is also
possessed by y and vice versa; to suppose two things indiscernible is to
suppose the same thing under two names. It states that no two distinct
things (such as snowflakes) can be exactly alike, but this is intended as
a metaphysical principle rather than one of natural science.
is the concept of one topic being connected to another topic
in a way that
makes it useful to consider the second topic when considering the first.
are a set of principles in psychology, first proposed by
Gestalt psychologists to account for the observation that
humans naturally perceive
objects as organized patterns and objects
, a principle known as
Prägnanz. Gestalt psychologists argued that these principles exist because
the mind has an innate disposition to perceive patterns in the stimulus
based on certain rules. These principles are organized into five
categories: Proximity, Similarity, Continuity, Closure, and Connectedness.
"The whole is greater than the sum of its parts, but the whole is
nothing without its parts".
equal the same thing
are also equivalent to one another"
"We are all independent cells
within the super-organism called humanity"
Is there such a thing as an
? A physical system so far removed from other systems
that it does not interact with them. Or a thermodynamic system enclosed by
rigid immovable walls through which neither matter nor energy can pass.
The Tree of Life
- Cause and Effect
is a place where passengers and cargo are exchanged
between vehicles or between transport modes. Public transport hubs include
train stations, rapid transit stations, bus stops, tram stop, airports and
ferry slips. Freight hubs include classification yards, seaports and truck
terminals, or combinations of these. For private transport, the parking
lot functions as a hub.
Six Degrees of Separation
is the theory that everyone
and everything is six or fewer steps away, by way of introduction, from
any other person in the world, so that a chain of "a friend of a friend"
statements can be made to connect any two people in a maximum of six
Environmental Sayings and Quotes
Eco-Initiative Ideas and Actions
The worst type of disconnect
is when people have no real connection to life. People are so distracted
and so consumed by things in their life that they never realize their own
potential, or do they realize how incredible life is and how incredible
our planet is. This disconnect is related to the lack of knowledge and
information that people have. You have to learn how to be connected to
life and learn how to stay connected to life, if not, then you will live
your entire life without ever being truly connected to life itself, as if
you have never lived. This doesn't have to happen. We can improve
education and improve peoples access to valuable knowledge and
information. Humans have a right to be humans
and the right to reach for their fullest potential. No one has a right to
treat people like they are insignificant to life.
Most things we do have many
, whether the effects come from drugs, foods or
the actions we take. You must know all the side effects involved
in order to determine what the correct action is that you should
to take. You have to understand what each side effect means
separately, and you also have to understand what all the effects
mean as a whole, as well as determine which effect is the most
dangerous and most likely the one that could cause the most
Earth does not belong to man
; Man belongs to the Earth. This we
know. All things are connected like the blood which unites one family.
Whatever befalls the Earth befalls the sons of the Earth. Man did not
weave the web of life, he is merely a strand in it. Whatever he does to
the web, he does to himself.” —
is an intricate
suggesting something that
was formed by weaving or
. An interconnected
things or people
network consisting of a collection of internet sites that offer text and
graphics and sound and animation resources through the
Humans need to remember that they do not create or sustain Mother
Earth. Mother Earth creates and sustains us. Instead of seeking to
dominate and control Earth, we need to respect and
with Earth and our fellow inhabitants (including animals and
"Apparently there is a great discovery or insight which
our culture is
deliberately designed to suppress, distort and ignore
. That is that Nature
is some kind of minded entity. That Nature is not simply the random flight
of atoms through electromagnetic fields. Nature is not the empty, despiritualized lumpen matter that we inherit from modern physics. But it
is instead a kind of intelligence, a kind of mind." ~
"No man is an island, entire of itself
, every man
is a piece of the continent, a part of the main. If a clod be
washed away by the sea, Europe is the less, as well as if a
promontory were, as well as if a manor of thy friends or of thine own were, any man's death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind
and therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls
it tolls for thee."
literally 100's of important choices and decisions that we make
Changes and Improvements will only come from being aware of
the choices that we need to make everyday and not from the money
we give to charities. Face it,
will never solve our
problems. Being aware of what choices we need to make everyday
is the only sure way, and the only sustainable way, that we will
ever have lasting changes and Improvements. And passing on this
wisdom to people and future generations is the only way that we
will ever free ourselves from making these same mistakes over
and over again. A
Only asking for Money
is not a
. A charity must have proven methods that clearly communicates the
ways that people can really help without relying on money.
should never have to depend on
. And the word Volunteer should never be used
when describing what someone needs to do or what society needs
to do. There is a huge difference between 'Work
Doing what's right and doing what's good should never need a reason or
should never need a word to describe it.
should just be a natural reaction that a human has
when a human interacts with the world.
A Charity should mostly be about giving knowledge and
Information and finding everyway possible to help people
understand this knowledge and Information so that people can
take action, make changes and make the right choices. Raising
awareness is more important then raising money as long as the
awareness can be translated into
We must allow time for
improvements and innovation. Autonomy
Every business should give employees a half hour every
workday, or at least a half hour every week, to work on a community
project or a cause that will benefit people in some way. At the same time
every school should give every teacher, administrator and student a half
hour every school day or school week to work on a community project or a
cause that will benefit people in some way.
You don't have to own
everything, you just have to know where everything is. We can
share a lot of our tools and resources by having a community
rental place, like the ones they have now but better. But you
still have to use our tools resources responsibly for rebuilding
(Results Only Work Environment)
I Care America
Teach for America
Do Patents Encourage Innovation or Stifle
Remember, ending poverty, ending
hunger, providing healthcare, and even with all the greatest
advances and improvements that we make in this world, non of
these will mean nothing if we never increase the quality and
quantity of our education. Give a person a fish you feed them
for a day, teach that person how to fish and you feed them for a
Learn and Learn again until
Lambs become Lions
More Qualified Teachers and
increasing the Quality of Education will definitely help inspire
Stop Business as Usual
Are Zoos, Aquariums, Circuses and Rodeos Educational ?
misinform us as to the social and behavioral needs of
are regarded as exhibits or displays - as
mere commodities. This callous attitude contributes to society’s
failure to protect natural environments because of a false sense
of security -- if it’s in captivity, then it won’t become
extinct; it doesn’t need help. Students do not learn about the
and the history of the
Promoting the development of symbiotic relations between people,
animals the environment.
is studying the biology of animals that are
under the control of humankind. Livestock
is the end of an organism or of a group of
organisms (taxon), normally a species. The moment of extinction
generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the
species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost
before this point.
is a species that has a disproportionately
large effect on its environment relative to its abundance. Such species
are described as playing a critical role in maintaining the structure of
an ecological community, affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem
and helping to determine the types and numbers of various other species in
killed an estimated 100,000 elephants across Africa
between 2010 and 2012, a huge spike in the continent's death
rate of the world's largest mammals because of an increased
demand for ivory in China and other Asian nations, a new study
published Monday found. This past January, China crushed six
tons of illegal ivory, and Hong Kong pledged to destroy 28 tons
over the next two years. Maybe we should have sold the ivory and
used the money to pay for more protection of Elephants?
Every 15 minutes an Elephant is Killed by
Endangered Species Laws with DNA Barcodes
Documenting Asia's Illegal Animal
is the illegal hunting or capturing of wild
animals, usually associated with land use rights.
refers to the commerce of products that are
derived from non-domesticated animals or plants usually extracted from
their natural environment or raised under controlled conditions. It can
involve the trade of living or dead individuals, tissues such as skins,
bones or meat, or other products.
on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals. It was
drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of
members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora
Illegal Fishing, Logging and Poaching
are impacting two-thirds of the
57 natural World Heritage sites monitored by the International Union for
Conservation of Nature this year in 2017, putting some of the world's most
precious and unique ecosystems and species at risk.
Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus
was an American traveling
circus company billed as The Greatest Show on Earth. It and its
predecessor shows ran from 1871 to 2017. Known as Ringling Bros. and
Barnum & Bailey Combined Shows, the circus started in 1919 when the Barnum
& Bailey's Greatest Show on Earth, a circus created by
and James Anthony Bailey, was merged with the Ringling Bros.
World's Greatest Shows. The Ringling brothers had purchased Barnum &
Bailey Ltd. following Bailey's death in 1906, but ran the circuses
separately until they were merged in 1919. After 1956 the circus no longer
exhibited under their own portable "big top" tents, instead using
permanent venues such as sports stadiums and arenas. In 1967, Irvin Feld
and his brother Israel, along with Houston Judge Roy Hofheinz bought the
circus from the Ringling family. In 1971, the Felds and Hofheinz sold the
circus to Mattel, buying it back from the toy company in 1982. Since the
death of Irvin Feld in 1984, the circus had been a part of Feld
Entertainment, an international entertainment firm headed by Kenneth Feld,
with its headquarters in Ellenton, Florida. With weakening attendance and
high operating costs, the circus closed on May 21, 2017 after 146 years.