Farming - Agriculture
is the practice of
. Agriculture considered as an
or way of life.
is the cultivation of animals, plants and fungi for food,
and other products used to
enhance human life.
can also refer to the
federal department that administers programs
that provide services to
farmers (including research and soil conservation
and efforts to stabilize
the farming economy
); created in 1862.
is a person who operates a farm. A farmer (also called an agriculturer) is
a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for
materials. The term usually applies to people who do some combination of
raising field crops
, or other
is an area of land
that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary
objective of producing food
and other crops; it is the basic facility in
Everyone should know how to Grow and Harvest Food. Even if you grow
food on a small scale, like in a
small backyard garden
or on your
windowsill, the benefits are numerous. Not only does growing your own food
provide you with healthy nutrition, you can also
learn several subjects at the same time
, soil health
is a group of
farm-produced crops and goods, including fruits and vegetables – meats,
grains, oats, etc. are also sometimes considered produce.
intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food
production. Orchards comprise fruit- or nut-producing trees which are
generally grown for commercial production.
plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also
raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science, practice
and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture.
In a Letter from
"Agriculture is our wisest pursuit, because it will in the end contribute
most to real wealth, good morals, and happiness."
330 farm families
leave their land for good. We must
stop this exodus and do what ever we can to turn this
around, our lives, and our future lives, depend on it. 47 Million
in Americans don't have Food Security
- Grow Beds -
- Community Gardens
Small Town Farming.Soil
(Food Forests) -
- DiseasesDry Land Farming
- Food Safety
Pick Your Own Food Farms
ConnecticutPick your Own
Farm Fresh Ri
is the study of ecological processes
applied to agricultural production
systems. The prefix agro- refers to agriculture. Bringing ecological
principles to bear in agroecosystems can suggest novel management
approaches that would not otherwise be considered. The term is often used
imprecisely and may refer to "a science, a movement, [or] a practice".
Agroecologists study a variety of agroecosystems, and the field of
agroecology is not associated with any one particular method of farming,
whether it be organic, integrated, or conventional; intensive or
extensive. Although it has much more common thinking and principles with
some of the before mentioned farming systems.
is the branch of
with the art, science, technology, and business of growing plants
includes the cultivation of medicinal plants, fruits, vegetables, nuts,
seeds, herbs, sprouts, mushrooms, algae, flowers, seaweeds and non-food
crops such as grass and ornamental trees and plants. It also includes
plant conservation, landscape restoration, landscape and garden design,
construction, and maintenance, and
. Inside agriculture,
horticulture contrasts with extensive field farming as well as animal
husbandry. Horticulturists apply their knowledge, skills, and technologies
used to grow intensively produced plants for human food and non-food uses
and for personal or social needs. Their work involves plant propagation
and cultivation with the aim of improving plant growth, yields, quality,
nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases, and environmental
stresses. They work as gardeners, growers, therapists, designers, and
technical advisors in the food and non-food sectors of horticulture.
Horticulture even refers to the growing of plants in a field or garden.
is the science and technology of producing
and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land reclamation.
has come to encompass work in the areas of
plant genetics, plant physiology, meteorology, and soil science. It is the
application of a combination of sciences like biology, chemistry,
economics, ecology, earth science, and genetics. Agronomists of today are
involved with many issues, including producing food, creating healthier
food, managing the environmental impact of agriculture, and extracting
energy from plants. Agronomists often specialise in areas such as crop
rotation, irrigation and drainage, plant breeding, plant physiology, soil
classification, soil fertility, weed control, and insect and pest control.
is a broad multidisciplinary
field of biology that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic
and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of
agriculture. (Veterinary science, but not animal science, is often
excluded from the definition.) Agriculture is the set of activities
that transform the environment for the production of animals and plants
for human use. Agriculture concerns techniques, including the application
of agronomic research. Agronomy
is research and development related to
studying and improving plant-based crops. Agricultural sciences include
research and development on:
Production techniques (e.g., irrigation
management, recommended nitrogen inputs). Improving agricultural
productivity in terms of quantity and quality (e.g., selection of
drought-resistant crops and animals, development of new pesticides,
yield-sensing technologies, simulation models of crop growth, in-vitro
cell culture techniques). Minimizing the effects of pests (weeds,
insects, pathogens, nematodes) on crop or animal production systems.
Transformation of primary products into end-consumer products (e.g.,
production, preservation, and packaging of dairy products). Prevention
and correction of adverse environmental effects (e.g., soil degradation,
waste management, bioremediation). Theoretical production ecology,
relating to crop production modeling. Traditional agricultural systems,
sometimes termed subsistence agriculture, which feed most of the poorest
people in the world. These systems are of interest as they sometimes
retain a level of integration with natural ecological systems greater than
that of industrial agriculture, which may be more sustainable than some
modern agricultural systems. Food production and demand on a global
basis, with special attention paid to the major producers, such as China,
India, Brazil, the USA and the EU. Various sciences relating to
agricultural resources and the environment (e.g. soil science,
agroclimatology); biology of agricultural crops and animals (e.g. crop
science, animal science and their included sciences, e.g. ruminant
nutrition, farm animal welfare); such fields as agricultural economics and
rural sociology; various disciplines encompassed in agricultural
engineering. Farming Technologies and Advanced
is self-sufficiency farming
in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and
their families. The output is mostly for local requirements with little or
no surplus trade
. The typical subsistence farm has a range of crops and
animals needed by the family to feed and clothe themselves during the
year. Planting decisions are made principally with an eye toward what the
family will need during the coming year, and secondarily toward market
prices. Tony Waters writes: "Subsistence peasants are people who grow what
they eat, build their own houses, and live without regularly making
purchases in the marketplace."
is an approach to food and farming systems
that regenerates topsoil
long into the future. Regenerative Agriculture improves water cycles,
enhances ecosystem services, increases resilience to climate fluctuation
and strengthens the health and vitality of farming and ranching
Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration
is a low-cost, sustainable land
restoration technique used to combat poverty
amongst poor subsistence
farmers in developing countries by increasing food and timber production,
and resilience to climate extremes. It involves the systematic
regeneration and management of trees and shrubs from tree stumps, roots
is measured as the ratio of agricultural
agricultural inputs. While individual products are usually measured by
weight, their varying densities make measuring overall agricultural output
difficult. Therefore, output is usually measured as the market value of
final output, which excludes intermediate products such as corn feed used
in the meat industry. This output value may be compared to many different
types of inputs such as labour and land (yield). These are called partial
measures of productivity. Agricultural productivity may also be measured
by what is termed total factor
(TFP). This method of calculating agricultural
productivity compares an index of agricultural inputs to an index of
outputs. This measure of agricultural productivity was established to
remedy the shortcomings of the partial measures of productivity; notably
that it is often hard to identify the factors cause them to change.
Changes in TFP are usually attributed to technological improvements.
Farm Inputs: Land, equipment, seeds, feed, fuel, and fertilizer.
is the business of agricultural
production. The term was coined in 1957 by Goldberg and Davis. It includes
agrichemicals, breeding, crop production (farming and contract farming),
distribution, farm machinery, processing, and seed supply, as well as
marketing and retail sales. All agents of the food and fiber value chain
and those institutions that influence it are part of the agribusiness
is an applied field of
economics concerned with the application of economic theory in optimizing
the production and distribution of food and fibre—a discipline known as
agronomics. Agronomics was a branch of economics that specifically dealt
with land usage. It focused on maximizing the crop yield while maintaining
a good soil ecosystem.
a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supply most of the
food consumed by the world population. Only subsistence farmers, those who
survive on what they grow, and hunter-gatherers can be considered outside
of the scope of the modern food industry. The food Industry includes:
Agriculture: raising of crops and livestock, and seafood. Manufacturing:
agrichemicals, agricultural construction, farm machinery and supplies,
seed, etc.. Food processing: preparation of fresh products for market, and
manufacture of prepared food products. Marketing: promotion of generic
products (e.g., milk board), new products, advertising, marketing
campaigns, packaging, public relations, etc.. Wholesale and distribution:
logistics, transportation, warehousing. Foodservice (which includes
Catering). Grocery, farmers' markets, public markets and other retailing.
Regulation: local, regional, national, and international rules and
regulations for food production and sale, including food quality, food
security, food safety, marketing/advertising, and industry lobbying
activities. Education: academic, consultancy, vocational. Research and
development: food technology. Financial services: credit, insurance.
involves any agriculturally based
operation or activity that brings visitors to a farm or ranch. Agritourism
has different definitions in different parts of the world, and sometimes
refers specifically to farm stays, as in Italy. Elsewhere, agritourism
includes a wide variety of activities, including buying produce direct
from a farm stand, navigating a corn maze, slopping hogs, picking fruit,
feeding animals, or staying at a bed and breakfast (B&B) on a farm
is a person who either migrates
within their home country or outside it to pursue work such as seasonal
work. Migrant workers usually do not have an intention to stay permanently
in the country or region in which they work.
Agricultural Labor Relations Act
collective bargaining for farmworkers in that state. A a landmark statute
in US labor law enacted by the state of California which became law on
June 4, 1975.
allows a foreign national entry into the
United States for temporary or seasonal agricultural work. There are
several requirements of the employer in regard to this visa. The H-2A
temporary agricultural program establishes a means for agricultural
employers who anticipate a shortage of domestic workers to bring
non-immigrant foreign workers to the U.S. to perform agricultural labor or
services of a temporary or seasonal nature. In 2015 there were
approximately 140,000 total temporary agricultural workers under this
. Terms of
work can be as short as a month or two or as long as 10 months in most
cases, although there are some special procedures that allow workers to
stay longer than 10 months. All of these workers are covered by U.S. wage
laws, workers' compensation and other standards, additionally temporary
workers and their employers are subject to the employer and/or individual
mandates under the Affordable Care Act. Because of concern that guest
workers might be unfairly exploited the U.S. Department of Labor Wage and
Hour Division is especially vigilant in auditing and inspecting H-2A
employers. H-2A employers are the only group of employers who are required
to pay inbound and outbound transportation, free housing, and provide
meals for their workers. H-2A agricultural employers are among the most
heavily regulated and monitored employers in the U.S.
is a hired agricultural worker on a farm
that works for the farmers. However, in discussions relating to labor law
application, the term "farmworker" is sometimes used more narrowly,
applying only to a hired worker involved in agricultural production,
including harvesting, i.e. not to a worker in other on-farm jobs, such as
Farm Workers Info Graph
of Migrant Farm Workers
One Day in the Life of a Rice Farmer
Farm Workers are hard working and skilled, they need to be paid a fair wage.
International Union of Food Workers
United Farm Workers
David Bacon NAFTA
meaning "manual laborer
"one who works using his arms") was a series of laws and diplomatic
agreements, initiated on August 4, 1942, when the United States signed the
Mexican Farm Labor Agreement with Mexico. The agreement guaranteed decent
living conditions (sanitation, adequate shelter and food) and a minimum
wage of 30 cents an hour; it also allowed the importation of contract
laborers from Guam as a temporary measure during the early phases of World
Mexican Mega-farms Labor Abuses
Worker Protection Standard
is intended to protect
employees on farms, forests, nurseries, and greenhouses that are
occupationally exposed to agricultural
Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides
is any chronic ailment that occurs as a result of
work or occupational activity. It is an aspect of occupational safety and
health. An occupational disease is typically identified when it is shown
that it is more prevalent in a given body of workers than in the general
population, or in other worker populations. The first such disease to be
recognised, squamous-cell carcinoma of the scrotum, was identified in
chimney sweep boys by Sir Percival Pott in 1775. Occupational hazards that
are of a traumatic nature (such as falls by roofers) are not considered to
be occupational diseases. Under the law of workers' compensation in many
jurisdictions, there is a presumption that specific disease are caused by
the worker being in the work environment and the burden is on the employer
or insurer to show that the disease came about from another cause.
Diseases compensated by national workers compensation authorities are
often termed occupational diseases. However, many countries do not offer
compensations for certain diseases like musculoskeletal disorders caused
by work (e.g. in Norway). Therefore, the term work-related diseases is
utilized to describe diseases of occupational origin. This term however
would then include both compensable and non-compensable diseases that have
Produce Contamination - Food Safety Info-Graph
Behind the Brands
Rural Legal Services
Coast Migrant Head Start Project Home
World Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms
global organization that connects travelers, foodies, agriculturalists. Interant people.
Athletes in Temporary Employment as
or A-TEAM, was in the summer of 1965 when
thousands of American teenage boys heeded the call of the federal
government to work on farms. Secretary of Labor
W. Willard Wirtz
wanted to recruit 20,000 high schoolers to replace
the hundreds of thousands of Mexican agricultural workers who had labored
in the United States. But only 3,300 ever worked in the fields, and many
of them quickly quit or staged strikes because of the poor working
conditions, including oppressive heat and decrepit housing. The program
was cancelled after the first summer. The University High crew worked six
days a week, with Sundays off, and they were not allowed to return home
during their stint. Garden gloves that the farmers gave the students to
help them harvest lasted only four hours, because the cantaloupe's fine
hairs made grabbing them feel like "picking up sandpaper." They got paid
minimum wage — $1.40 an hour back then — plus 5 cents for every crate
filled with about 30 to 36 fruits. Breakfast was "out of the Navy," Carter
says — beans and eggs and bologna sandwiches that literally toasted in the
heat, even in the shade.
Advanced Farming Tools
is machinery used in farming or other
agriculture. There are many types of such equipment, from hand tools and
power tools to tractors and the countless kinds of farm implements that
they tow or operate. Diverse arrays of equipment are used in both organic
and nonorganic farming. Especially since the advent of mechanised
agriculture, agricultural machinery is an indispensable part of how the
world is fed.
Farming Tools and Machines
see and spray smart agriculture equipment using computer
vision and artificial intelligence. Our smart machines can detect,
identify, and make management decisions about every single plant in the
field. Precisely spraying herbicides only where needed, and with exactly
what's needed eliminating 90% of the herbicide volumes that growers spray
Robots and Farming
is a versatile machine designed to
efficiently harvest a variety of grain crops. Reaping, threshing, and
winnowing - into a single process.
Mechanized Planting Machine
comes with a GPS antenna.
Location, market trends, and uptake
booking system allows farmers to conveniently request,
schedule and prepay for tractor services, from nearby
Smart Tractor owners, through SMS messaging and mobile
Discovery of new stem cell pathway indicates route to
much higher yields in maize, staple crops
can be used to provide aerial
of crops to monitor disease,
gather data, validate crop
locate animals, and to use sprays
more accurately without waste.
Eyes in the Sky
The Farmers Breaking Big Tech's Repair Monopoly
Motor Vehicle Owners Right to Repair Act
would require automobile
manufacturers to provide the same information to
shops as they do for dealer shops. The bill also required automakers to
provide independent repairers the same emissions service information as
provided to franchised new car dealers. California further passed
legislation requiring that all emissions related service information and
tools be made available to independent shops. Unlike the Clean Air Act,
the California bill also required the car companies to maintain web sites
which contained all of their service information and which was accessible
on a subscription basis to repair shops and car owners.
Manufacturers don't support their products so they can force people to by
new products that they don't need.
are domesticated animals raised in an
agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber, and
labor. The term is often used to refer solely to those raised for food,
and sometimes only farmed ruminants, such as cattle and goats. In recent
years, some organizations have also raised livestock to promote the
survival of rare breeds. The breeding, maintenance, and slaughter of these
animals, known as animal husbandry, is a component of modern agriculture
that has been practiced in many cultures since humanity's transition to
farming from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. No universally accepted criteria
exist to separate "livestock" from pets or "companion animals", defined as
animals kept primarily for companionship.
is the milking of dairy animals, especially of dairy cattle,
without human labour. Automatic milking systems (AMS), also called
voluntary milking systems (VMS), were developed in the late 20th century.
They have been commercially available since the early 1990s. The core of
such systems that allows complete automation of the milking process is a
type of agricultural robot. Automated milking is therefore also called
robotic milking. Common systems rely on the use of computers and special
herd management software.
Automatic Cow Milking Machine
Adopt a Cow
Holistic Grazing Management
Cows who are fed a diet rich in
Seaweed Edible Algae
not only saves money, it also makes cows
healthier, even eliminating their methane-rich burps and farts.
a cow stands on a non-powered inclined
belt that the animal
will slowly slide down unless it
forward, turning the belt, which spins a gearbox
to drive a generator. A feed box entices the
cow to keep trekking.
prototype generates up to
two kilowatts, enough to power
A small farm could
earn back a 50-cow system’s estimated
$100,000 price in three years.
is food made from non-meats, also
called a meat alternative, meat substitute.
Rare Breed Agriculture
is a breed of poultry or
livestock that has a very small breeding population, usually from a few
hundred to a few thousand.
domesticated birds kept by humans for the eggs they produce, their meat,
or their feathers. These birds are most typically members of the
superorder Galloanserae (fowl), especially the order Galliformes (which
includes chickens, quails and turkeys). If there are ducks and or geese
that are kept as pets they shall not be considered poultry unlike
domesticated chickens. Poultry also includes other birds that are killed
for their meat, such as the young of pigeons (known as squabs) but does
not include similar wild birds hunted for sport or food and known as game.
The word "poultry" comes from the French/Norman word poule, itself derived
from the Latin word pullus, which means small animal.
Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906
, farmers who
want to sell meat commercially across state lines must
get their animals slaughtered and processed
at a meat
plant that has been approved
by the USDA. Government meat inspectors are required to
be on the floor anytime
those plants are operating.
Processing Revival and Intrastate Meat Exemption Act
PRIME Act Custom Slaughterhouses
is a facility where animals are
slaughtered for consumption as food. Slaughterhouses supply meat which
then becomes the responsibility of the packaging department. How to Butcher
Factory Farms Destruction
- Food Safety
Meat Packing Industry
handles the slaughtering,
processing, packaging, and distribution of animals such as cattle, pigs,
sheep and other livestock. Poultry is not included. This greater part of
the entire meat industry is primarily focused on producing meat for human
consumption, but it also yields a variety of by-products including hides,
feathers, dried blood, and, through the process of rendering, fat such as
tallow and protein meals such as meat & bone meal.
Development of Land
of animals (usually vertebrates) that can naturally be transmitted to
provides farmers with SMS
messages loaded with great information on how to improve what they are
doing. We provide information on best practices right into their hands
wherever they may be. We also have cool tools that farmers can use to help
them reduce their risks. Our system has a menu through which farmers can
select whatever they require from wherever they are 24/7!.
Department of Crop Sciences
is a volatile organic compound used
in plant defense and many diverse developmental pathways such as seed
germination, root growth, flowering, fruit ripening, and senescence.
is a cyclopropene derivative used as a synthetic plant
growth regulator. It is structurally related to the natural plant hormone
ethylene and it is used commercially to slow down the ripening of fruit
and to help maintain the freshness of cut flowers.
Economic Research Food - Farming
Fuel and Energy from Animal and Food Waste:
Waste to Energy
Earth Friendly Toilets
Trade - Fair Trade
of the ownership of
, from one person or entity to another, in exchange for
money, goods or services. A network that allows trade is called a
Wall Street Trading
Quid pro quo
means something for something. This for that.
of goods or
is when countries or governments do not
restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries. (but you still need
to protect workers and small businesses from cheap imports that do more
harm than good). Price
is different from
is a specific class of special economic zone. It is a
geographic area where goods may be landed, stored, handled, manufactured,
or reconfigured, and re-exported
under specific customs regulation and
generally not subject to customs duty. Free trade zones are generally
organized around major seaports, international airports, and national
frontiers—areas with many geographic advantages for trade.
is to help producers in developing
countries achieve better trading conditions and to promote
Balance of Trade
is the difference between the
nation's exports and imports over a certain period. Sometimes a
distinction is made between a balance of trade for goods versus one for
services. If a country exports a greater value than it imports, it is
called a trade surplus, positive balance, or a "favourable balance", and
conversely, if a country imports a greater value than it exports, it is
called a trade deficit
, negative balance,
"unfavorable balance", or, informally, a "trade gap".
between people. Sometimes a
business arrangement or a
agreement. Sometimes trading something or sometimes buying
something or sometimes selling something. Transport
is an agreement, or communication, carried out
between a buyer and a seller to exchange an asset for payment, often
involving the exchange of items of value, such as
, goods, services, and
money. It is still a transaction if the goods are exchanged at one time,
and the money at another. This is known as a
: part one is giving the money, part two is
receiving the goods. Real Estate Transaction
a transaction cost is a
in making any economic trade when participating in a market.
Foreign Exchange Market
is a global decentralized or over-the-counter
(OTC) market for the trading of currencies
This market determines the
Foreign Exchange Rate
. It includes all aspects of buying, selling and
exchanging currencies at current or determined prices. In terms of trading
volume, it is by far the largest market in the world, followed by the
is a system in which the prices for goods and
services are determined by the open
and consumers, in which the laws and forces of
supply and demand
are free from any
intervention by a government, price-setting
, or other authority. Another view considers systems with
significant market power, inequality of bargaining power, or information
asymmetry to be less than free.
is the trade of a commodity through distribution channels that
are legal but unintended by the original manufacturer.
a fully open market is a completely free market in which all
economic actors can trade without any external constraint. In reality,
few markets exist which are open to that extent, since they usually cannot
operate without an enforceable legal framework for trade which guarantees
security of property, the fulfillment of contractual obligations
associated with transactions, and the prevention of cheating.
is a good
brought into a jurisdiction, especially across a national border, from an
external source. The party bringing in the good is called an importer. An
import in the receiving country is an export from the sending country.
Importation and exportation are the defining financial transactions of
means shipping in the goods and services out of the
jurisdiction of a country. The seller of such goods and services is
referred to as an "exporter" and is based in the country of export whereas
the overseas based buyer is referred to as an "importer". In international
trade, "exports" refers to selling goods and services produced in the home
country to other markets.
may occur when one member of a free trade agreement charges lower tariffs
to external nations to win trade, and then re-exports the same product to
another partner in the trade agreement, but tariff-free. Re-exportation
can be used to avoid sanctions by other nations.
People should Trade
Knowledge and Information
just trade Products. Learn to Self
is the economic policy of restraining trade between states (countries)
through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and
a variety of other government regulations. Protectionist policies protect
the producers, businesses and workers of the import-competing sector in a
country from foreign competitors
is the relocation of a business process from one country to
another—typically an operational process, such as manufacturing, or
supporting processes, such as accounting. Typically this refers to a
company business, although state governments may also employ offshoring.
sometimes includes offshoring which is relocating a business
function to a distant country and
and assets from one
firm to another.
is an intergovernmental organization
which regulates international trade. Some
were about Profit over People, at Americas
expense. Talk about Terrorism.
is a wide ranging tax, tariff and trade treaty
that often includes investment guarantees. The most common trade
agreements are of the preferential and free trade types are concluded in
order to reduce (or eliminate) tariffs, quotas and other trade
restrictions on items traded between the signatories.
is an organization founded and funded by businesses
that operate in a specific industry. An industry trade association
participates in public relations activities such as advertising,
education, political donations, lobbying and publishing, but its focus is
collaboration between companies. Associations may offer other services,
such as producing conferences, networking or charitable events or
offering classes or educational materials. Many associations are
non-profit organizations governed by bylaws and directed by officers who
are also members.
Manufacturer's Certificate of Origin
(MCO), also known as a
Manufacturer’s Statement of Origin (MSO), is a specified document
certifying the country of origin of the merchandise required by certain
foreign countries for tariff purposes, it sometimes requires the signature
of the consulate of the country to which it is destined.
Bill of Lading
is a document issued by a carrier (or his agent) to acknowledge receipt of
cargo for shipment
United States Free Trade Agreements
Less Regulation and more Education
Trading should be decided locally,
no one should decide for you. Trade is needed to
balance our food diets so that everyone has access to healthy food.
is a Tax
on imports or exports.
is an extra tariff
charged on goods going into or out of a country, that is introduced
because a country has done business in an illegal or unfair way.
is a tax on certain items purchased abroad.
is a monetary exemption which reduces taxable income. Tax
exempt status can provide complete relief from taxes, reduced rates, or
tax on only a portion of items. Examples include exemption of charitable
organizations from property taxes and income taxes, veterans, and certain
cross-border or multi-jurisdictional scenarios. Tax exemption generally
refers to a statutory exception to a general rule rather than the mere
absence of taxation in particular circumstances, otherwise known as an
exclusion. Tax exemption also refers to removal from taxation of a
particular item rather than a deduction. International duty free shopping
may be termed "tax-free shopping". In tax-free shopping, the goods are
permanently taken outside the jurisdiction, thus paying taxes is not
necessary. Tax-free shopping is also found in ships, airplanes and other
vessels traveling between countries (or tax areas). Tax-free shopping is
usually available in dedicated duty-free shops. However, any transaction
may be duty-free, given that the goods are presented to the customs when
exiting the country. In such a scenario, a sum equivalent to the tax is
paid, but reimbursed on exit. More common in Europe, tax-free is less
frequent in the United States, with the exception of Louisiana. However,
current European Union rules prohibit most intra-EU tax-free trade, with
the exception of certain special territories outside the tax area.Smuggle
secretly importing prohibited goods or goods on which tax is due. To
import or export without paying customs
is the use of agriculture as a means of
whereby one nation or
group of nations offers or withholds commodities from another nation or
group of nations in order to manipulate behavior. Its potential use as a
weapon was recognized after OPEC’s earlier use of oil as a political
weapon. Food has a major influence on political actions of a nation. In
response to acts of food power, a nation usually acts in the interest of
its citizens to provide food.
is a standardized system of names and numbers to classify traded products.
Fair Food Matters
Fair Food Project
Fair Food Network
Fair Trade Federation
Trans Fair USA
World Integrated Trade Solution (WITS) software
of the food Americans eat
. One in three U.S. farm acres is planted
The U.S. Customs and Border Protection
(CBP) is responsible for
ensuring that all goods entering and exiting the United States do so in
accordance with all applicable U.S. laws and regulations. Although CBP
U.S. Export Regulations
for various other government agencies,
specific questions pertaining to commodity licensing requirements should
be directed to that lead agency. But like most
, criminals always find a way
to get around regulations using
Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership
Investor-State Dispute Settlement
TTIP: Might is Right (VPRO Backlight)
List of Free Economic Zones
business and trades laws differ from the
rest of the country. The term, and a number of other terms, can have
different specific meanings in different countries and publications. Often
they have relaxed jurisdiction of customs or related national regulations.
They can be ports or other large areas or smaller allocated areas. Terms
include free port (porto Franco), free zone (zona franca), bonded area
(US: foreign-trade zone), free economic zone, free trade zone, export
processing zone and maquiladora. Most commonly a free port is a special
customs area or small customs territory with generally less strict customs
regulations (or no customs duties and/or controls for transshipment).
Earlier in history, some free ports like Hong Kong enjoyed political
autonomy. Many international airports have free ports, though they tend to
be called customs areas, customs zones, or international zones.
refers to the broad subject of
transport that is sustainable
in the senses
of social, environmental and climate impacts and the ability to, in the
global scope, supply the source energy indefinitely. Components for
evaluating sustainability include the particular vehicles used for road,
water or air transport; the source of energy; and the infrastructure used
to accommodate the transport (roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals
and terminals). Another component for evaluation is pipelines for
transporting liquid or gas materials. Transport operations and logistics
as well as transit-oriented development are also involved in evaluation.
Transportation sustainability is largely being measured by transportation
system effectiveness and efficiency as well as the environmental and
climate impacts of the system.
sustainable Cargo Shipment
Emission free from A to B. Transfer
Fuel For Eco-Boats
Eco-Friendly Shipping Tips
Eco-Friendly Shipping Boxes
Genetically Modified Food
are foods produced from
organisms that have had changes introduced into their
using the methods of
genetic engineering. Genetic engineering techniques allow for the
introduction of new traits as well as greater control over traits than
previous methods such as selective breeding and
or variation breeding. which is the process of
exposing seeds to chemicals or radiation in order to generate mutants with
desirable traits to be bred with other cultivars. Plants created using
mutagenesis are sometimes called mutagenic plants or mutagenic seeds.
is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant
breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits
(characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and
females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together. Domesticated
animals are known as breeds, normally bred by a professional breeder,
while domesticated plants are known as varieties, cultigens, or cultivars.
Two purebred animals of different breeds produce a crossbreed, and
crossbred plants are called hybrids. Flowers, vegetables and fruit-trees
may be bred by amateurs and commercial or non-commercial professionals:
major crops are usually the provenance of the professionals.
GM Food Overview
Non GMO Project
Seeds of Deception
Films about GMO's
Seeds of Death
Poison on the Platter
Of the Land
(2015 - 1 hr. 29 min.)
A film about GMOs and the
industrial food juggernaut.
Washington's Food Fight: The Debate Over GMO Labels
Not to say that all
food is bad, but we would
have to know
the details in order to determine which
ones are bad and which ones are good.
founder of the modern science of
genetics. (20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884).
is a biological process in which
RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing
targeted mRNA molecules.
How Plants turn off Genes they don't need
. Small sequences in plant
DNA that act as signposts for shutting off gene activity, directing the
placement of proteins that silence gene expression. A plant has one
genome, a specific sequence of millions of basepairs of nucleotides. Yet
how this genome is expressed can vary from cell to cell, and it can change
as a plant goes through various life stages, from germination to
vegetative growth to flowering to dormancy. Some genes must be turned on
and others shut off to ensure each plant cell is doing what it needs to do
when it needs to do it.
are a family of proteins first discovered in
fruit flies that can remodel chromatin such that epigenetic silencing of
genes takes place. Polycomb-group proteins are well known for silencing
Hox genes through modulation of chromatin structure during embryonic
development in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster).
Membrane Transport Protein
is a membrane
involved in the movement of
ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across
a biological membrane.
is an enclosing or separating
membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living
things. Biological membranes, in the form of cell membranes, often consist
of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded, integral and peripheral
communication and transportation of chemicals and ions. Bulk lipid in
membrane provides a fluid matrix for proteins to rotate and laterally
diffuse for physiological functioning. Proteins are adapted to high
membrane fluidity environment of lipid bilayer with the presence of an
annular lipid shell, consisting of lipid molecules bound tightly to
surface of integral membrane proteins. The cellular membranes should not
be confused with isolating tissues formed by layers of cells, such as
mucous membranes and basement membranes.
90 percent of America's corn and soybeans are
and producers of eggs, milk, and
rely on those crops to feed their animals.
A quick, five-minute check can verify if
a crop contains specific proteins
that are the signature of genetic modification.
We can't allow
as a reason
for not listing ingredients.
"GMO-free" means that something contains no more than
0.9 percent GMOs.
Clarks on Grain
Crop Yield Gets Boost with Modified Genes in Photosynthesis
is a buyer's guide to suppliers of non-GMO and
, grains, ingredients,
feed and foods.
Non GMO Source Book
is a buyer's guide to suppliers of non-GMO and organic
seeds, grains, ingredients,
feed and foods.
Journey to Forever
Increasing Crops Nutritional Value
Tripling the number of grains in Sorghum and perhaps other staple crops
Scientists have figured out how to triple the number of grains that the
plant produces by lowering the level of a key hormone, generating more
flowers and more seeds. This points toward a strategy for significantly
increasing the yield of sorghum and other staple grain crops. A simple
genetic modification can triple the grain number of sorghum, a
drought-tolerant plant that is an important source of food, animal feed,
and biofuel in many parts of the world.
Unique communication strategy discovered in stem cell pathway controlling
. Researchers have identified a receptor on plant stem
cells that can issue different instructions about how to grow. Tweaking
this pathway can lead to bigger fruits or more seeds in important food
When One Reference Genome is Not Enough
. Having plant pan-genomes for
crops that are important for fuel and food applications would enable
breeders to harness natural diversity to improve traits such as yield,
disease resistance, and tolerance of marginal growing conditions.
Scientists have gauged the size of a plant pan-genome using Brachypodium
distachyon, a wild grass widely used as a model for grain and biomass
crops. GMO-Free or Non-GMO
mean free of pesticides
fungicides or fertilizers. Certified Organic
the only way
No-Till Farming - Minimum Tillage
agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of various types,
such as digging, stirring, and overturning. Examples of human-powered
tilling methods using hand tools include shovelling, picking, mattock
work, hoeing, and raking. Examples of draft-animal-powered or mechanized
work include ploughing (overturning with moldboards or chiseling with
chisel shanks), rototilling, rolling with cultipackers or other rollers,
harrowing, and cultivating with cultivator shanks (teeth).
is the process by which air is circulated through,
mixed with or dissolved in a liquid or substance.
degrades soil, killing off
its biology, including beneficial fungi and earthworms
occasional tilling helps mix in fertilizers and manure, helps
churn weeds and crop residue back into the earth, and also helps
loosen the top layer of the soil
to ready it for
tilling uses less nitrogen fertilizer or fungicide and produces
yields that are above average with less labor and lower costs.
Soil health proponents say that by leaving fields unplowed and
using cover crops
which act as sinks for nitrogen and other nutrients, growers can
increase the amount of organic matter in their soil, making it
better able to absorb and retain water.
Minimum Tillage Systems
Chisel Plow Rototiller, Straw Mulching,
Disking, Subsoiling, Landplaning, Bed Formation, Dry Mulching, Soil Compaction, Incontrolled
Excessive Plant Residue, Uneven Beds
Cultivation, Harvest Operations, Non-uniform Stand Establishment.
Deep Tillage. Ripping, or Row-Till.
Deep plowing is a plowing to a depth greater than 50 cm (20 in)
as compared to ordinary plowing which rarely exceeds 20 cm (8
in). The purpose of deep plowing is to modify the soil water
retention characteristics over the long term. In one long term
lasting 35 years, the mean annual grain yield was 2,800 lbs per
acre (3,138 kg per ha) with deep plowing, which was 10% greater
than the 2,550 lbs per acre (2,858 kg per ha) yield in unplowed
There is a movement away from plowing altogether, and from deep
plowing in particular. The theory is that this will stop the
loss of topsoil, increase the organic content of soil and reduce
runoff of fertilizer and pesticides into rivers. Another part of
the no-plowing theory is that ground moisture would be
conserved; but this was shown to be incorrect by a 35-year
A subsoiler or flat lifter is a tractor mounted implement
used to loosen and break up soil at depths below the level of a
traditional ploughing, disk harrow or rototiller. Most tractor
mounted cultivation tools will break up and turn over surface
soil to a
depth of 15–20 cm (6–8 in) while a subsoiler will break up and
loosen soil to twice those depths. Typically a subsoiler mounted
to a Compact Utility Tractor will reach depths of about 30 cm
(12 in) and typically have only one thin blade with a sharpened
The subsoiler is a tillage tool which will improve growth in all
crops where soil compaction is a problem. In agriculture angled
wings are used to lift and shatter the hard pan that builds up
due to compaction. The design provides deep tillage, loosening
soil depth is deeper than a tiller or plough is capable of
reaching. Agricultural ubsoilers, according to the Unverferth
Company, can disrupt hardpan ground down to 60 cm (24 in)
Various manufacturers' brochures claim that crops perform well
during hot and dry seasons because roots penetrate soil layers
deeper to reach moisture and nutrients. Brochures further claim
that in wet conditions, the water passes more easily
through the shattered areas, reducing the possibility of crops
Agricultural subsoiler implements will have multiple deeper
reaching blades; each blade is called a scarifier or shank.
Purdue University's Dept. of Agriculture indicates that common
subsoilers for agricultural use are available with 3, 5 or 7
shanks. Subsoilers can be up to 15' wide, some models are towed
behind tractors while others are mounted to the three-point
A form of this implement (with a single blade), a
pipe-and-cable-laying plough, is used to lay buried cables or
pipes, without the need to dig a deep trench and re-fill.
"Natural Farming" or "Do-nothing Farming"
Half the worlds population works the
with 3 quarters of them doing it by hand.
Over 11% of the earths land surface is used
We have cleared 19.4 million square miles for crops and
livestock, roughly the size of South America and Africa combined.
10 to 12 billion apples are harvested every year by hand.
3/4's of the varieties of foods
developed by farmers over 1,000's of years has been wiped out.
A large portion of crops are
being grown just to feed live stock.
70% of all water is for
Where Farms are Sucking the Planet Dry
There is less then 3 million farmers in America? 2.2 percent (6.8
million) are farm operators or farm household members.
13 million more acres
of farmland would be required to produce enough
fruit and vegetables for the daily diets of all Americans
to meet U.S. Department of Agriculture nutrition guidelines.
The United States has a total land area of nearly 2.3 billion acres.
USDA Fact Sheets
Total U. S. farmland occupies 954 million acres, or 1.490.625 square
23 million acres of farmland
(roughly the size of Indiana) have been lost since the late 1980's due to sprawl and development.
2007 USDA Census of Agriculture
claims 62% of farms did not collect any
"United States produces 4,000 calories worth of food per resident daily, twice what's required. We have
ample land; we just need to stop abusing the soil we have."
7 Million Farms in 1935, now less then 1.9 Million in 1997
Family Farming Knowledge Platform
One Million acres of Farm
Land are lost each year
Each week, around
330 farm families
leave their land for good.
February 2012: 206,900 foreclosure filings,
default notices, scheduled auctions and bank
As of 2013 there is an average of 50,000 foreclosures a month.
Suicide Rates are Alarmingly High
America's Farmers are being forced to kill themselves in record numbers.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC) found that people
working in agriculture – including farmers, farm laborers, ranchers,
fishers, and lumber harvesters – take their lives at a rate higher than
any other occupation. The data suggested that the suicide rate for
agricultural workers in 17 states was nearly five times higher compared
with that in the general population.
Since 2013, net farm income for US farmers has
declined 50%. Median farm income for 2017 is projected to be negative
$1,325. And without parity in place (essentially a minimum price floor for
farm products), most commodity prices remain below the cost of production.
People working in “farming
fishing, and forestry” had the highest rates compared to all other
industries, at 84.5 per 100,000. That number is more than five times the
national rate and is comparable to high suicide rates among military
Net farm income
dropped 50 percent from 2013-2016
, and it has remained depressed ever
Young Farmers Coalition
is building hope and health in the rural agricultural
is to enhance quality of life for farmers, ranchers, and
other agricultural workers with disabilities.
Suicides in India
. In 2014, the National Crime Records Bureau of India
reported 5,650 farmer suicides. The highest number of farmer suicides were
recorded in 2004 when 18,241 farmers committed suicide. The farmers
suicide rate in India has ranged between 1.4 and 1.8 per 100,000 total
population, over a 10-year period through 2005. More than 270,000 farmers
have died by suicide since 1995 in India.
Buy a Farm
97 percent of the 2.1 million farms in the United States
are family-owned operations.
88 percent of all U.S. farms are small family farms
58 percent of all direct farm sales to consumers come from small
64 percent of all vegetable sales and 66 percent of all dairy
sales come from the 3 percent of farms that are large or very
large family farms.
18 percent of principal operators on family farms in the U.S.
started within the last 10 years.
A family farm is any farm where the majority of the business is
owned by the operator and individuals related to the operator,
including through blood, marriage, or adoption.
Center for Rural
reports that less than 6 percent of Nebraska farmers are under
the age of 35.
Global Assessment of Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture: Irrigated
and Rainfed Croplands
Two-thirds of all farms sell less than $25,000 worth of crops or
livestock each year. That's not profit, that's total sales.
So more than half of all farmers need to work
Meanwhile, though, big farms are getting bigger. There are just
80,000 farms with sales of over $1 million a year. They
represent just 4 percent of the total farm population. But those
few big farms account for two-thirds of all agricultural
production in the country.
There are two million farms in America. But just four percent of those
farms account for two-thirds of all agricultural production.
Mega farms are
ignorant and dangerous
Farm MapNational Farmers
is land devoted to agriculture, rearing of livestock and production of
crops—to produce food for humans.It is thus generally synonymous with
farmland or cropland.
is land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
Arable Land (% of land area)
The World Factbook
Land (% of land area)
Dry Land Farming
Land Use in Agriculture
Land Value Tenure
Agricultural Land Area
56 million acres of wheat
grow in a belt stretching more
than 1,000 miles from the Canadian border to Central Texas.
For 2015, the U.S. Department of Agriculture
forecasts farm income will drop 38 percent to $55.9 billion, the
lowest in a decade
Net farm income went from just over $50 billion in 2000 to close
to $130 billion in 2013, a nearly threefold increase.
Much of that growth came thanks to a spike in trade with China,
to which U.S. farm exports grew from just a few billion dollars
in 2000 to a record $29.9 billion last year.
Small-Scale Agriculture threatens the Rainforest
Paying Farmers Not to Farm.
The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)
is a land conservation program
administered by the
Farm Service Agency (FSA). In exchange for a
yearly rental payment, farmers enrolled in the program agree to remove
environmentally sensitive land from agricultural production and plant
species that will improve environmental health and quality. Contracts for
land enrolled in CRP are 10-15 years in length. The long-term goal of the
program is to re-establish valuable land cover to help improve water
quality, prevent soil erosion, and reduce loss of wildlife habitat. If you
would like to watch an informational video on CRP, please click here.
“What greater wealth is there than
to own your life and to spend it on growing? Every
living thing must grow. It can't stand still.
It must grow or perish.” (Ellis Wyatt
(Part 3, Chapter 1, Page 722)
"We have always had
, and that is a fact. So don't ever believe that we
need GMO's or mega farms in order to feed people, because that
is a lie. What we need is more local farms, then everyone will
"If solving a problem causes more problems then it solves, then you did not solve a problem."
(or agricultural society) is any society whose
economy is based on producing and maintaining crops and farmland. Another
way to define an agrarian society is by seeing how much of a nation's
total production is in agriculture. In an agrarian society cultivating the
land is the primary source of wealth. Such a society may acknowledge other
means of livelihood and work habits but stresses the importance of
agriculture and farming. Agrarian societies have existed in various parts
of the world as far back as 10,000 years ago and continue to exist today.
They have been the most common form of socio-economic organization for
most of recorded human history.
Origins of Plants
Native origins and primary regions of diversity for selected major
Origins of Food Crops connect Countries Worldwide
Domesticated Plants List
(wiki) - Wild grains were collected and eaten from at
least 20,000 BC.
Neolithic Founder Crops
are the eight plant species that were
Holocene (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B,
11,700 years ago
) farming communities in
the Fertile Crescent region of southwest Asia, and which formed the basis
of systematic agriculture in the Middle East, North Africa, India, Persia
and (later) Europe. They consist of flax, three cereals and four pulses,
and are the first known domesticated plants in the world. Although
domesticated rye (Secale cereale) occurs in the final Epi-Palaeolithic
strata at Tell Abu Hureyra (the earliest instance of domesticated plant
species), it was insignificant in the Neolithic Period of southwest Asia
and only became common with the spread of farming into northern Europe
several millennia later. Cereals:
wheat (Triticum dicoccum, descended from the wild T. dicoccoides). Einkorn
wheat (Triticum monococcum, descended from the wild T. boeoticum). Barley
(Hordeum vulgare/sativum, descended from the wild H. spontaneum).
Lentil (Lens culinaris). Pea (Pisum
sativum). Chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia).
Flax (Linum usitatissimum).
"We don't want to feed ignorance, that's just crazy, because if you feed ignorance
then the product produced will be ignorant.
That means innocent people will be subjected to people feeding them
ignorance. We need to educate people so they don't grow
up to become neither eaters nor feeders of ignorance. This way we can finally end this cycle of
ignorance once and for all. Everyone needs to be educated on the matter, if
not, then living wont matter."
Films about Farming and Food
Life Running Out of Control
The Future of Food
Super Size Me
Bigger, Stronger, Faster
The Beautiful Truth
The Gerson Miracle
To Market, To Market: To Buy a Fat Pig
14 The Garden in LA (2008)
Ripe for Change
The Truth About Your Food
Organic We Trust (2013)
of the Future
"If you are not a benefit to
you are most likely a threat to humans."
Farm to Consumer Legal Defense Fund
US grows about 92 million acres of
corn averaging about 160 bushels an
Acre with 55 pounds per bushel, this
equates to about 800 billion pounds
per year, or 2500 lbs. per
person per year (approximate 300 million
people in the
US), or 8 lbs. per day per
person on one commodity crop alone. 8 lbs. of corn/food becomes 1/2 a pound of
meat and a
gallon of gas. About 40 percent of the planet's crops
currently are fed to
University of Minnesota
Ideas to Help Improve the World
Food Forest Garden
Plant Breeding - Pruning - Grafting - Propagation
is selecting only particular plants with
desirable characteristics to grow, so that all the new plants grown will
have these new desirable characteristics. Selective adaptation instead of
the natural process of evolution
where only the strongest survive. The art and science of changing the
traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. Plant
breeding can be accomplished through many different techniques ranging
from simply selecting plants with desirable characteristics for
propagation, to more complex molecular techniques (see cultigen and
cultivar). Plant breeding has been practiced for thousands of years, since
near the beginning of human civilization. It is practiced worldwide by
individuals such as gardeners and farmers, or by professional plant
breeders employed by organizations such as government institutions,
universities, crop-specific industry associations or research centers.
is a plant
that has been deliberately altered or selected by humans; it is the result
of artificial selection or
which is the process by which humans use animal breeding and
plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits
(characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and
females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.
assemblage of plants selected for desirable characteristics that are
maintained during propagation.
or cross breeding, is the result of mixing, through sexual reproduction,
two animals or plants of different breeds, varieties, species or genera.
Using genetic terminology, it may be defined as follows. Hybrid generally
refers to any offspring resulting from the breeding of two genetically
distinct individuals, which usually will result in a high degree of
heterozygosity, though hybrid and heterozygous are not, strictly speaking,
synonymous. A genetic hybrid carries two different alleles of the same
gene. A structural hybrid results from the fusion of gametes that have
differing structure in at least one
, as a result of structural
abnormalities. A numerical hybrid results from the fusion of gametes
having different haploid numbers of chromosomes. A permanent hybrid is a
situation where only the heterozygous genotype occurs, because all
homozygous combinations are lethal. Plant
organism with purebred parents of two different breeds, varieties, or
populations. Crossbreeding, sometimes called "designer crossbreeding", is
the process of breeding such an organism, often with the intention to
create offspring that share the traits of both parent lineages, or
producing an organism with hybrid vigor. While crossbreeding is used to
maintain health and viability of organisms, irresponsible crossbreeding
can also produce organisms of inferior quality or dilute a purebred gene
pool to the point of extinction of a given breed of organism.
Plant Growth Chambers
that control temperature, light, humidity for agricultural biotechnology,
plant science research.
as a method to
accelerate applied and basic research on cereal species, standard
genotypes of spring bread wheat (T. aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum),
barley (H. vulgare) and the model grass.
is an area of agricultural science
involving the use of scientific tools and techniques, including genetic
engineering, molecular markers, molecular diagnostics, vaccines, and
tissue culture, to modify living organisms: plants, animals, and
is the transfer of pollen from the flower
of one plant to the flower of a plant having a different genetic
is the process by which pollen is transferred to the female reproductive
organs of a plant, thereby enabling fertilization to take place. Like all
living organisms, seed plants have a single major goal: to
pass their genetic information on to
the next generation
. The reproductive unit is the seed, and
pollination is an essential step in the production of seeds in all
spermatophytes (seed plants).
is the process of creating new plants from
a variety of sources: seeds, cuttings, bulbs and other plant parts. Plant
propagation can also refer to the artificial or natural dispersal of
Propagate your shrubs from softwood cuttings
Plant propagation from softwood cuttings
Fruit Tree Propagation
is usually carried out vegetatively (non-sexually) by grafting or budding
a desired variety onto a suitable rootstock.
is a horticultural technique whereby tissues of
plants are joined so as to continue their growth together. The upper part
of the combined plant is called the scion while the lower part is called
the rootstock. The technique is most commonly used in asexual propagation
of commercially grown plants for the horticultural and agricultural
trades. The success of this joining requires that the vascular tissue grow
together and such joining is called inosculation
which is a natural phenomenon in which trunks, branches or roots of two
trees grow together. It is biologically very similar to grafting.
Graft Tomatoes onto Potatoes
Tree of 40 Fruit
is a means of plant propagation in which a portion
of an aerial stem grows roots while still attached to the parent plant and
then detaches as an independent plant. Layering has evolved as a common
means of vegetative propagation of numerous species in natural
environments. Layering is also utilized by horticulturists to propagate desirable plants.
is to cause a plant or cutting to grow roots.
(liquid, powder, gel)
are chemicals that regulate plant growth.
is when a piece of the stem or root of the source
plant is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil. If the conditions
are suitable, the plant piece will begin to grow as a new plant
independent of the parent, a process known as striking. A stem cutting
produces new roots, and a root cutting produces new stems. Some plants can
be grown from leaf pieces, called leaf cuttings, which produce both stems
and roots. The scions used in grafting are also called cuttings.
Cuttings from Established Plants
a class of plant hormones (or plant growth substances) with some morphogen-like
characteristics. Auxins have a cardinal role in coordination of many
growth and behavioral processes in the plant's life cycle and are
essential for plant body development. GMO
(Genetically Modified Organisms)
involves the selective removal of parts of a plant, such as branches,
buds, or roots. Reasons to prune plants include deadwood removal, shaping
(by controlling or directing growth), improving or
health, reducing risk
from falling branches, preparing nursery specimens for transplanting, and
both harvesting and increasing the yield or quality of flowers and fruits.
Tree Pruning Tips
How to Pinch your Garden Plants
Corporation applies crop science, bioprocessing and
materials science for the production of agricultural-based biomaterials
made from Guayule (Parthenium argentatum).
More Carbon Dioxide in the Air
Helps crops but Lowers Nutrients
Increasing Crops Nutritional Value
Food Plant Diseases and Fungus
New test can detect plant viruses faster, cheaper
is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by
pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions
(physiological factors). Cross Breading
refers to a specific symptom affecting plants in
response to infection by a pathogenic organism. It is a rapid and complete
chlorosis, browning, then death of plant tissues such as leaves, branches,
twigs, or floral organs. Accordingly, many diseases that primarily exhibit
this symptom are called blights. Monocrops,
and not enough verity in food crops, is a catastrophe ready to happen
Great Famine Ireland
or the Great Hunger was a period of
mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1852.
About two-fifths of the population was solely reliant on this cheap crop
for a number of historical reasons. Approximately one million people died
and a million more emigrated from Ireland.
agricultural practice of producing or growing a single
, plant, or livestock species, variety, or breed in a field or
farming system at a time.
, where more than one crop is grown in the same space at
the same time, is the alternative to monoculture. Monoculture is widely
used in both industrial farming and organic farming and has allowed
increased efficiency in planting and harvest.
Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Cubense
is a fungal plant pathogen
that causes Panama disease of banana (Musa spp.), also known as fusarium
wilt of banana.
is a plant disease of the roots of banana
plants. It is a type of Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen
Fusarium oxysporum. The pathogen is resistant to fungicide and cannot be
Taxonomy, distribution and biology of lettuce powdery mildew (Golovinomyces
cichoracearum sensu stricto)
Guidelines for Head Lettuce Production in Arizona
wild lettuce with regular lettuce that helps protects against fungus and
Dodder Parasitic Plant
causes major damage to crops in the US and
worldwide every year. They can silence the
expression of genes
in the host plants from which it obtains water and nutrients. This
cross-species gene regulation, which includes genes that contribute to the
host plant's defense against parasites, has never before been seen from a
is a plant
that derives some or all of its nutritional
requirements from another living plant. They make up about 1% of
angiosperms and are in almost every biome in the world. All parasitic
plants have modified roots, named haustoria (singular: haustorium), which
penetrate the host plants, connecting them to the conductive system –
either the xylem, the phloem, or both. This provides them with the ability
to extract water and nutrients from the host. Parasitic plants are
classified depending on where the parasitic plant latches onto the host
and the amount of nutrients it requires. Some parasitic plants
able to locate their host plants by detecting chemicals in the air or soil
given off by host shoots or roots, respectively. About 4,500 species of
parasitic plant in approximately 20 families of
is a plant that
obtains or may obtain part of its food by parasitism, e.g.,
, which also photosynthesizes.
Dogs can Detect Agricultural Diseases Early
. A dog can be trained to
detect laurel wilt-diseased trees before the visible symptoms are seen.
Once a diseased tree is identified, these "agri-dogs" will sit, indicating
a positive alert.
Dry Weather Farming