Food Chemistry - Combining Foods
Knowing how the different combinations of
foods react in the body, and how they taste.
Learning how to maximize your health and energy without having to eat
more. Learn about the chemistry of food, and how certain foods that are
eaten together can benefit you, and how other foods that are eaten
together can actually minimize the benefits from those foods. The timing
of when you should eat certain foods is also important. Like if you eat
bread before your main meal you could
spike your blood sugar
and amp up
your appetite. But if you eat the bread after your dinner you will slow
down the process of carbohydrates turning into sugar. Food
combinations also effect flavor and taste
. You can eat the same
healthy foods everyday, but there are some foods that you shouldn't eat
all the time every day. it is important to vary your diet to make sure
that you are covering all your nutritional needs, and that you're not
getting too much of any one food, because some foods can be harmful to
certain people, and you could also develop
You should also know
which vitamins that should be taken together
for maximum effect, and
know which supplements
should not be taken together
is the study of chemical processes and interactions of all biological and
non-biological components of foods.
is considered to be a branch of Food chemistry concerned
with the study of both physical and chemical interactions in foods in
terms of physical and chemical principles applied to food systems, as well
as the applications of physical/chemical techniques and instrumentation
for the study of foods.
is the applied science devoted to the study of food. The
Institute of Food Technologists defines food science as "the discipline in
which the engineering, biological, and physical sciences are used to study
the nature of foods, the causes of deterioration, the principles
underlying food processing, and the improvement of foods for the consuming
is a multidisciplinary field of applied physical sciences which combines
science, microbiology, and engineering education for food and related
industries. Food engineering includes, but is not limited to, the
application of agricultural engineering, mechanical engineering and
chemical engineering principles to food materials. Food engineers provide
the technological knowledge transfer essential to the cost-effective
production and commercialization of food products and services. Physics,
chemistry, and mathematics are fundamental to understanding and
engineering products and operations in the food industry.
Food Label Meanings
FoodAcid Foods and
is a Pocket
that Tells You What's Really in the Food like
calories, and sugar and fat.Molecular
is a subdiscipline of food science that seeks to investigate the physical
and chemical transformations of ingredients that occur in cooking. Its
program includes three axes, as cooking was recognized to have three
components, which are social, artistic and technical. Molecular cuisine is
a modern style of cooking, and takes advantage of many technical
innovations from the scientific disciplines.
is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned
with the construction of organic compounds via organic reactions. Organic
molecules often contain a higher level of complexity than purely inorganic
compounds, so that the synthesis of organic compounds has developed into
one of the most important branches of organic
also known as trophology, is a term for a nutritional
approach that advocates specific combinations of foods as central to good
health and weight loss (such as not mixing carbohydrate-rich foods and
protein-rich foods in the same meal).Food Paring for Flavor
is cuisine that combines elements of different
Effects on Food
are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with
the absorption of nutrients. Nutrition studies focus on
antinutrients commonly found in food sources and beverages. Protease
inhibitors are substances that inhibit the actions of trypsin, pepsin and
other proteases in the gut, preventing the digestion and subsequent
absorption of protein. For example, Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor is found
You'll get more plant-based iron from black beans if you eat them with
something rich in vitamin C, like red pepper.
Effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from co-consumed, raw
Hummus made with
sesame seeds (in tahini) slathered on whole wheat bread gives you all the
amino acids to form a complete protein.
kind of acid — in things like tea and coffee may decrease the absorption
of iron and zinc.
Combining Turmeric and Black Pepper makes curcumin, the pigment in turmeric that has
anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties, easier for the body to
Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin
is a branch of pharmacology
determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.
- the process of release of a drug from the pharmaceutical
formulation. See also
- the process of a
substance entering the blood circulation.
- the dispersion
or dissemination of substances throughout the fluids and tissues of
(or biotransformation, or inactivation) – the
recognition by the organism that a foreign substance is present and
the irreversible transformation of parent compounds into daughter
- the removal of the substances from the body.
In rare cases, some drugs irreversibly accumulate in body tissue.
Foods digest at different rates:
Wait 2 hours after eating fruit, 3 hours
after eating starches, 4 hours after eating protein.
Taking vitamins at the same time as a cup of
can interfere with the body's absorption of many necessary
. It is probably
better to consume your caffeine between meals, not just before or just
is also a mild
which increases urination. So water soluble vitamins, such as the
B-vitamins, can be depleted as a result of the fluid loss. Water-soluble
vitamins: Vitamin C, biotin and the seven B vitamins — thiamin (B-1),
riboflavin (B-2), niacin (B-3), pantothenic acid (B-5), pyridoxine (B-6),
folic acid (B-9) and cobalamin (B-12).
Brain Benefits from
Fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E
Oregon State Coffee Research
Coffee also increases the excretion of
magnesium, potassium, sodium and phosphate. There is also
evidence that caffeine interferes with the action of vitamin A.
Unfiltered coffee is a significant source of
that have been found to raise serum total and LDL
cholesterol concentrations in humans.
causes calcium to be excreted in the urine and feces. For every 150 mg of
caffeine ingested, about the amount in one cup of coffee, 5 mg of calcium
is lost. Caffeine inhibits vitamin D receptors, which limit the amount
that will be absorbed. Because vitamin D is important in the absorption
and use of calcium in building bone, this could also decrease bone mineral
density, resulting in an increased risk for osteoporosis. Caffeine
interferes with the body's absorption of iron, which is necessary for red
blood cell production. Caffeine may reduce the absorption of
manganese, zinc and copper. So don't take vitamins with coffee.
There are around 70 types of the Coffea
flowering plant, and two major types, Coffea Arabica (Arabica beans) and
Coffea canephora var. Robusta (Robusta beans).
The History of Coffee
is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans,
which are the seeds of berries from the
, which is a genus of flowering plants whose seeds, called coffee
beans, are used to make various coffee beverages and products. It is a
member of the family Rubiaceae. They are shrubs or small trees native to
tropical and southern Africa and tropical Asia.
Beans are baked somewhere between 180 and 250 degrees Celsius for
somewhere between 2 and 25 minutes. During the scorch, sugars and fats
degrade, amino acids and sugars react with each other, and degradation
products spark chain reactions.
culminates in the formation of dozens
of aromatic compounds that make up that enticing coffee bouquet.
Compounds include aldehydes, ketones,
furans, pyrazines, pyridines, phenolic compounds, indoles, lactones,
esters and benzothiazines. But for chlorogenic acids, more roasting leads
to less of these beneficial phenols. Chlorogenic acids: Around 45 of these
phenolic compounds have been found in coffee caffeic acid,
anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties.
bitter alkaloid has been linked to protecting the brain from damage,
blocking cancer cells from moving around, combating bacteria, and lowering
blood sugar and total cholesterol. Kahweol and cafestol: These diterpenes,
which contribute to the bitter taste of coffee, have been linked to
preventing and battling cancer cells. But, they’ve also been linked to
Using a standard home
grinder for 42 seconds compared with 5 seconds doubled the amount of
caffeine squeezed out of a 37 gram portion.
Rok Hand Coffee Grinder
Coffee Grind Refining System.
Brewing methods are also critical for squeezing out the goodness of the
beans. There’s a variety of methods to choose from: Brief boiling
), steeping (French press
), Filtering (drip coffee
). Espresso machines, which force hot (91-96 degrees
Celsius) pressurized (~9 bar) water evenly over fine, well-packed coffee
grinds, produces the brews with the most concentrated doses of caffeine.
is a competition which showcases the craft and skill of
filter coffee brewing by hand.
Jolt - Brew Coffee & Tea in the Palm of Your Hand
A portable coffee
and tea brewer that can brew anywhere in the world using rechargeable
Portable Coffee Maker
fast hand powered portable coffee maker and
Gina Coffee Brewer
the early morning, our bodies produce high levels of cortisol, the
that helps us
become more alert. Filling the body with caffeine first thing in the
morning signals the body to make less cortisol, which means the body will
start relying on coffee, rather than its natural functions, to wake up. So
waiting a couple of hours after you wake up to drink your coffee will
benefit you more.
Consumption by CountryCoffee grounds improve
Coffee grounds improve
in two ways. They
typically contain about 2% nitrogen (the same amount as manure), which
feeds the micro-organisms that digest plant debris and turns it into
compost. Second, as they decompose, coffee grounds have been shown to
suppress common fungal rots and reduce the growth of E. coli and
Staphylococcus spp, according to
research published by Washington State University
. For optimal compost
disease-suppression, shoot for 10 to 20 percent coffee grounds per total
compost volume. Earthworms also love coffee grounds. Leaving a bowlful of
used grounds in the fridge overnight will rid your icebox of icky odors.
not mixing carbohydrate-rich foods and
in the same meal.
Separating food into three
groups: alkaline, acidic, and neutral Acidic foods are protein rich,
such as meat, fish, dairy, etc.
Alkaline foods are carbohydrate rich,
such as rice, grains and potatoes.
Pairing Foods for Flavor Enhancement
is the sensory
impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the
chemical senses of taste
The "trigeminal senses", which detect chemical irritants in the mouth and
throat as well as temperature and texture, are also important to the
overall Gestalt of flavor perception. The flavor of the food, as such, can
be altered with natural or artificial flavorants which affect these
is a method for identifying which foods go well together. The method is
based on the principle that foods combine well with one another when they
share key flavor components. Foodpairing is a relatively new method and is
often confused with wine and food matching. By contrast, foodpairing uses
HPLC, gas chromatography and other laboratory methods to analyse food and
to find chemical components that they have in common.
flavor combinations in seconds.
Foods that Change Sense of Taste
The Dorito Effect is when food lying to us.
flavor and nutrition go hand in hand.
really cared about people they would use their expertise to make healthy
food taste good, not junk food. Making money at the expense of other
peoples health is insane and criminal.
Institute of Food Technologists
is a scientific discipline that applies principles of experimental design
and statistical analysis to the use of human senses (sight, smell, taste,
touch and hearing) for the purposes of evaluating consumer products.
Lexical Gustatory Synesthesia
is a rare form of
in which spoken and written language (as well as some
colors and emotions) causes individuals to experience an automatic and
highly consistent taste/smell.
How Food Color Changes the Experience of Taste
Tea and Food Pairing
not always mean
Physical Health Knowledge
Food PhotosWhat People Eat
is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and
motor functions such as biting and chewing.
Smart Gastronomy Lab
NASA 3D Food
6 Sensor Labs
Portable Allergen Sensor
Sense of Taste
Sweet - Salty - Sour - Bitter
is one of the five traditional
that belongs to
the gustatory system. Taste is the sensation produced when a substance in
the mouth reacts chemically with taste receptor cells located on taste
buds in the oral cavity, mostly on the tongue. Taste, along with smell
(olfaction) and trigeminal nerve stimulation (registering texture, pain,
and temperature), determines flavors of food or other substances. Humans
have taste receptors on taste buds (gustatory calyculi) and other areas
including the upper surface of the tongue and the epiglottis.
which is the fifth taste, which is the mysterious but interesting pleasant savory
is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals. It separates the
oral cavity from the nasal cavity. The palate is divided into two parts,
the anterior bony hard palate, and the posterior fleshy soft palate (or
is generally a neutral flavored element in food that
enables to clear the palate from one flavor to another; in cultures where
diversity of flavors in dishes is customary, the palate cleanser is
considered an essential companion to entrees.
(i.e., pleasure) provided by foods or fluids that are agreeable to the
"palate", which often varies relative to the homeostatic satisfaction of
nutritional, water, or energy needs. The palatability of a food or fluid,
unlike its flavor or taste, varies with the state of an individual: it is
lower after consumption and higher when deprived. Palatability of foods,
however, can be learned. It has increasingly been appreciated that this
can create a hedonic hunger that is independent of homeostatic needs.
is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food
for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing. It is of importance
in the digestive system and is the primary organ of taste in the gustatory
system. The tongue's upper surface (dorsum) is covered in taste buds
housed in numerous lingual papillae. It is sensitive and kept moist by
saliva, and is richly supplied with nerves and blood vessels. The tongue
also serves as a natural means of cleaning the teeth. A major function of
the tongue is the enabling of speech in humans and vocalization in other
contain the taste receptor cells, which are also known as
gustatory cells. The taste receptors are located around the small
structures known as papillae found on the upper surface of the tongue,
soft palate, upper esophagus, the cheek and epiglottis. These structures
are involved in detecting the five elements of taste perception: salty,
sour, bitter, sweet and umami; through the combination of these elements
we detect "flavors." A popular myth assigns these different tastes to
different regions of the tongue; in reality these tastes can be detected
by any area of the tongue. Via small openings in the tongue epithelium,
called taste pores, parts of the food dissolved in saliva come into
contact with the taste receptors. These are located on top of the taste
receptor cells that constitute the taste buds. The taste receptor cells
send information detected by clusters of various receptors and ion
channels to the gustatory areas of the brain via the seventh, ninth and
tenth cranial nerves. On average, the human tongue has 2,000–8,000 taste
is a type of receptor which facilitates the sensation of taste. When food
or other substances enter the mouth, molecules interact with saliva and
are bound to taste receptors in the oral cavity and other locations.
Molecules which give a sensation of taste are considered "sapid". Taste
receptors are divided into two families: Type 1, sweet, first
characterized in 2001: TAS1R2 – TAS1R3. Type 2, bitter, first
characterized in 2000: TAS2R1 – TAS2R50, and TAS2R60. Combinations of
these receptors in dimers or other complexes contributes to different
perceptions of taste. Visual, olfactive, “sapictive” (the perception of
tastes), trigeminal (hot, cool), mechanical, all contribute to the
perception of taste. Of these, transient receptor potential cation channel
subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) vanilloid receptors are responsible for the
perception of heat from some molecules such as capsaicin, and a CMR1
receptor is responsible for the perception of cold from molecules such as
menthol, eucalyptol, and icilin.
is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAS2R38 gene. TAS2R38 is a
bitter taste receptor.
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor
is a protein that in humans is encoded by
the AHR gene. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is a ligand-activated
transcription factor involved in the regulation of biological responses to
planar aromatic (aryl) hydrocarbons. This receptor has been shown to
regulate xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450.
is a distortion of the sense of taste. Dysgeusia is also often associated
with ageusia, which is the complete lack of taste, and hypogeusia, which
is a decrease in taste sensitivity.
Becoming a Taste Tester
How to Taste Test
Taste and Oral Sensations vary in humans
buds and sense of smell are easily molded by our preconceptions and
Can You Trust Your Taste Buds? (WINE CHALLENGE)
150 Aromas and Flavors that can be tasted in Wines
The Brain Perceives Taste with All Senses, Research Reveals
Associative learning changes cross-modal representations in the gustatory
Taste receptors really are everywhere, including the colon. And if it gets
exposed to too much bitterness, it triggers a release of ions, which in
turn causes water to pour into the gut via osmosis, and the body
of food can also effect flavor. People have been known to like
a wine more when they were told it's expensive.
You can also gross yourself out
And people who get sick from a particular food will also perceive that food
People can also perceive certain foods differently when
or Hyposensitivity, which is less than normal
sensitivity to a foreign agent, such as an allergen, in which the response
is unusually delayed or lessened in degree. Also called hypoergia. Your
flavor perception can also change when there is too many foods blended
smell composed of many equally strong but diverse smells, perhaps over 30.
Mixtures of many different smells across the perceptual range all tend to
smell very similar to humans, despite different components making them up.
The concept is similar to all different
combining to form white. Olfactory white is neither
pleasant or unpleasant.
Scents and Smells
The Power of Smell
"The human nose can distinguish at least 1 trillion different odours?"
is the sense of smell. This sense is mediated by specialized sensory cells
of the nasal cavity of vertebrates, which can be considered analogous to
sensory cells of the antennae of invertebrates. In humans, olfaction
occurs when odorant molecules bind to specific sites on the olfactory
receptors. These receptors are used to detect the presence of smell. They
come together at the glomerulus, a structure which transmits signals to
the olfactory bulb (a brain structure directly above the nasal cavity and
below the frontal lobe).
is the part of the sensory
used for smelling (olfaction). Most mammals and reptiles have a
main olfactory system and an accessory olfactory system. The main
olfactory system detects airborne substances, while the accessory system
senses fluid-phase stimuli. The senses of smell and taste (gustatory
system) are often referred to together as the chemosensory system, because
they both give the brain information about the chemical composition of
objects through a process called transduction.
is the inability to perceive odor or a lack of functioning olfaction—the
loss of the sense of smell. Anosmia may be temporary, but some anosmia
(including traumatic anosmia) can be permanent. Anosmia is due to a number
of factors, including an inflammation of the nasal mucosa, blockage of
nasal passages or a destruction of one temporal lobe. Inflammation is due
to chronic mucosa changes in the paranasal sinus lining and the middle and
is the temporary, normal inability to distinguish a
particular odor after a prolonged exposure to that airborne compound. For
example, when entering a restaurant initially the odor of food is often
perceived as being very strong, but after time the awareness of the odor
normally fades to the point where the smell is not perceptible or is much
weaker. After leaving the area of high odor, the sensitivity is restored
with time. This is one of the reasons why we can't tell how bad we smell
because we adapt to smells very quickly.
is an olfactory dysfunction that is characterized by the inability of the
brain to properly identify an odor's "natural" smell. What happens
instead, is that the natural odor is transcribed into what is most often
described as an unpleasant aroma, typically a "'burned,' 'rotting,'
'fecal,' or 'chemical' smell." There are instances, however, of pleasant
odors. This is more specifically called euosmia (Gk.).
is caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds, generally at a
very low concentration, that humans or other animals perceive by the sense
of olfaction. Odors are also commonly called scents, which can refer to
both pleasant and unpleasant odors.
is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor. A chemical-compound has a
smell or odor when it is sufficiently volatile to be transported to the
olfactory system in the upper-part of the nose.Aroma-Therapy
can help you relax.
can help you feel less stress.
can elevate your mood.
can elevate your mood.
may ease depression.
can sharpen your mind.
may boost concentration.
can help you feel more energized.
can serve as an aphrodisiac.
may mitigate a migraine.
can satisfy your appetite.
when they’re triggered
by scent, as opposed to sight or sound or anything else.
is a mixture of dried, naturally fragrant plant material, used to provide
a gentle natural scent inside buildings, most commonly in residential
settings. It is usually placed in a decorative (often wooden) bowl, or
tied in small sachet made from sheer fabric.
Make Potpourri Dried Flowers
Scented ProductsScented Oils
The Scent Wizard
Send Postagram Postcards from
your iPhone or Android
The Power of Scent
is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social
response in members of the same species. Pheromones are chemicals capable
of acting outside the body of the secreting individual to impact the
behavior of the receiving individuals.
Tristram Wyatt: Human Pheromone