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Food Safety


Safety is free from danger or the risk of harm. The state of being certain that adverse effects will not be caused by some agent under defined conditions. A device or service designed to prevent injury or accidents.

Symptoms (food poisoning)

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Food Safety High Five
The FDA inspects less than 2 percent of our seafood imports, while the European Union inspects 20 to 50 percent of theirs. Since 90 percent of our seafood comes from other countries, banned drug residues and unwanted contaminants could be getting in. There are no specific mandatory guidelines about the type of testing they have to do. No governing body is required to precheck nutritional labels for accuracy. It’s all self-policed. I think the only time the FDA would look at it would be if customers were complaining. Sad and alarming.

About 48 million people (1 in 6 Americans) get sick, 128,000 are hospitalized, and 3,000 die each year from foodborne diseases.

CDC
FDA Regulations

Food Safety News

1 In 10 People Around The World Gets Sick From Food Every Year.
420,000 lives lost with One-third of all cases were in children.

Food Contaminant refers to the presence in food of harmful chemicals and microorganisms which can cause consumer illness. This article addresses the chemical contamination of foods, as opposed to microbiological contamination, which can be found under foodborne illness.

Foodborne illness also referred to as food poisoning, is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as chemical or natural toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.

Traveler's Diarrhea is a stomach and intestinal infection. TD is defined as the passage of unformed stool (one or more by some definitions, three or more by others) while traveling.  It may be accompanied by abdominal cramps, nausea, fever, and bloating. Occasionally bloody diarrhea may occur. Most travelers recover within four days with little or no treatment. About 10% of people may have symptoms for a week.

Norovirus is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans. It affects people of all ages. The virus is transmitted by fecally contaminated food or water, by person-to-person contact, and via aerosolization of vomited virus and subsequent contamination of surfaces. Annually, norovirus is associated with 906,000 outpatient visits in industrialized countries, with 64,200 inpatient hospitalizations. In developing countries, it is associated with 1.1 million hospitalizations, with an estimated 218,000 deaths.

Global burden of foodborne diseases

Ingredient is a substance that forms part of a mixture active ingredient is that part of a formulation that yields the effect expected by the customer. National laws usually require prepared food products to display a list of ingredients, and specifically require that certain additives be listed.

Active Ingredient is the ingredient that is biologically active. Biological Activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.

Dose (biochemistry) is a quantity of something (chemical, physical, or biological) that may impact an organism biologically; the greater the quantity, the larger the dose.

Food Safety should also include unhealthy food. Unhealthy Food kills more people and creates more disease then foodborne illnesses. So we just don't want our food to be safe, we need our food to be healthy too.

Additives
Toxic Chemicals


Food Safety Knowledge

The Food Trust
Your Food Is Poisoning You
Food Safety News
Center for Food Safety
Public Health and Safety
Produce Safety Project
Food Integrity Now
Slow Food USA
Sustainable Table
Cool Foods Campaign
Food Policy Research
FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (wiki)
Katom
FSMA
Food Borne Illness
International Food Safety &
Quality Network
Food Poison Journal
Antimicrobial Monitoring - PDF

Enterobacteriaceae Bacteria are a large family of Gram-negative bacteria that includes, along with many harmless symbionts, many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Yersinia pestis, Klebsiella, and Shigella.

Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and is frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.

Escherichia Coli also known as E. coli, is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination.

Botulinum Toxin is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. It prevents the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from axon endings at the neuromuscular junction and thus causes flaccid paralysis. Infection with the bacterium causes the disease botulism. The toxin is also used commercially in medicine, cosmetics and research. Botulinum is the most acutely lethal toxin known, with an estimated human median lethal dose (LD50) of 1.3–2.1 ng/kg intravenously or intramuscularly and 10–13 ng/kg when inhaled. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires a boxed warning stating that when locally administered the toxin may spread from the injection site to other areas of the body, causing botulism. The warning was the result of deaths associated with its uses. There are seven types of botulinum toxin, named type A–G. Type A and B are capable of causing disease in humans, and are also used commercially and medically. Types C–G are less common; types E and F can cause disease in humans, while the other types cause disease in other animals. Botulinum toxin types A and B are used in medicine to treat various muscle spasms and diseases characterized by overactive muscle. The commercial form is marketed under the brand name Botox, among others. Botox is made by Allergan.

Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin, produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The disease begins with weakness, trouble seeing, feeling tired, and trouble speaking. This may then be followed by weakness of the arms, chest muscles, and legs. The disease does not usually affect consciousness or cause a fever. Botulism can be spread several different ways. The bacterial spores which cause it are common in both soil and water. They produce the botulinum toxin when exposed to low oxygen levels and certain temperatures. Foodborne botulism happens when food containing the toxin is eaten. Infant botulism happens when the bacteria develops in the intestines and releases the toxin. This typically only occurs in children less than six months old, as protective mechanisms develop after that time. Wound botulism is found most often among those who inject street drugs. In this situation, spores enter a wound, and in the absence of oxygen, release the toxin. It is not passed directly between people. The diagnosis is confirmed by finding the toxin or bacteria in the person in question. Prevention is primarily by proper food preparation. The toxin, though not the organism, is destroyed by heating it to more than 85 °C (185 °F) for longer than 5 minutes. Honey can contain the organism, and for this reason, honey should not be fed to children under 12 months. Treatment is with an antitoxin. In those who lose their ability to breathe on their own, mechanical ventilation may be necessary for months. Antibiotics may be used for wound botulism. Death occurs in 5 to 10% of people. Botulism also affects many other animals. The word is from Latin, botulus, meaning sausage. Early descriptions of botulism date from at least as far back as 1793 in Germany.

Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal. Arsenic is a metalloid. It has various allotropes, but only the gray form is important to industry. Treatment of chronic arsenic poisoning is possible. British anti-lewisite (dimercaprol) is prescribed in doses of 5 mg/kg up to 300 mg every 4 hours for the first day, then every 6 hours for the second day, and finally every 8 hours for 8 additional days.

Rancidification is the process which causes a substance to have unpleasant smell or taste. Rancidification can also detract from the nutritional value of food, and some vitamins are highly sensitive to degradation.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The two species of Salmonella are Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. Salmonella enterica is the type species and is further divided into six subspecies that include over 2,500 serotypes.

Recalls

Keep Foods Apart - Cross Contamination

Food Safety and Inspection Service
Global Food Safety Initiative (wiki)

Food Inspector Tool

Scio is a Pocket Molecular Sensor that Tells You What's Really in the Food like calories, and sugar and fat.

Food Preserving

Expiration Dates of Food

Center for the Science in the
Public Interest
Consumer Federation of America
Center for Health, Environment & Justice

Food Labels

New Leaf Foods (Smart Wash)
Ca. Leafy Greens

USDA  Department of Agriculture
FDA Food & Drug Administration

Food Pesticide List
Pesticides
Public Health Advocacy
Moms Rising

Science Shows The 5-Second Rule is Real Most of the Time (youtube)


Factory Farms Abuses

Factory Farming is a modern form of intensive farming that refers to the keeping of livestock, such as cattle, poultry (including in "battery cages") and fish at higher stocking densities than is usually the case with other forms of animal agriculture—a practice typical in industrial farming by agribusinesses. The main products of this industry are meat, milk and eggs for human consumption. There are issues regarding whether factory farming is sustainable and ethical.

Factory Farms Map
Info-Graph (image)

Use of antibiotics in animals contribute to 23,000 American deaths a year.

A River of Waste (youtube)
Earthlings (youtube) Joaquin Phoenix - Website

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations is an animal feeding operation (AFO) that (a) confines animals for more than 45 days during a growing season, (b) in an area that does not produce vegetation, and (c) meets certain size thresholds.

Monoculture (food diseases and blight)

Compassion over Killing
Factory Farming Sanctuary
Supermarket Secrets (youtube)

Ag-gag attacks Free Speech. Ag-Gag is a term used to describe a class of anti-whistleblower laws that apply within the agriculture industry. Judge Strikes Down Idaho 'Ag-Gag' Law (npr)

Pfiesteria is a genus of heterotrophic dinoflagellates that has been associated with harmful algal blooms and fish kills.

Europe Bans Chlorine Chicken

Ractopamine is a feed additive to promote leanness in animals raised for their meat.

Livestock's long shadow: environmental issues and options



Food Poisoning - Food-Borne illness


All foods naturally contain small amounts of bacteria. But poor handling of food, improper cooking or inadequate storage can result in bacteria multiplying in large enough numbers to cause illness. Parasites, viruses, toxins and chemicals also can contaminate food and cause illness.

Signs and symptoms of food poisoning vary
with the source of contamination, and whether you are dehydrated or have low blood pressure. Generally they include: Diarrhea, Nausea. Abdominal pain. Vomiting, Dehydration.

With significant dehydration, you might feel:
Lightheaded or faint, especially on standing. A rapid heartbeat
Whether you become ill after eating contaminated food depends on the organism, the amount of exposure, your age and your health.

High-risk groups include:
Older adults. As you get older, your immune system may not respond as quickly and as effectively to infectious organisms as it once did. Infants and young children. Their immune systems haven't fully developed. People with chronic diseases. Having a chronic condition, such as diabetes or AIDS, or receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer reduces your immune response.

If you develop food poisoning: Rest and drink plenty of liquids.

Generally, anti-diarrheal medications should be avoided because they may slow elimination of organisms or toxins from your system. If in doubt, check with your doctor about your particular situation.
Infants or young children should not be given anti-diarrheal medications because of potentially serious side effects.
Foodborne illness often improves on its own within 48 hours. Call your doctor if you think you have a foodborne illness and your symptoms have lasted longer than two or three days. Call immediately if blood appears in your stools.

Seek emergency medical assistance if: You have severe symptoms, such as severe abdominal pain or watery diarrhea that turns very bloody within 24 hours. You belong to a high-risk group.

You suspect botulism poisoning. Botulism is a potentially fatal food poisoning that results from the ingestion of a toxin formed by certain spores in food. Botulism toxin is most often found in home-canned foods, especially green beans or tomatoes. Signs and symptoms of botulism usually begin 12 to 36 hours after eating the contaminated food and may include headache, blurred vision, muscle weakness and eventual paralysis. Some people also have nausea and vomiting, constipation, urinary retention, difficulty breathing, and dry mouth. These signs and symptoms require immediate medical attention.

Poisoning and harmful substances
Establish what they have taken. When? And how much? Symptoms may vary. Throat and stomach pains, mouth burns, vomiting, drowsiness. Give water to dilute poison. Call Doctor.

Poisoning Prevention First Aid


Allergic Reactions

Life-threatening Anaphylaxis
A life-threatening allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) can cause shock, a sudden drop in blood pressure and trouble breathing. In people who have an allergy, anaphylaxis can occur minutes after exposure to a specific allergy-causing substance (allergen). In some cases, there may be a delayed reaction or anaphylaxis may occur without an apparent trigger. If you're with someone having an allergic reaction with signs of anaphylaxis: Immediately call 911 or your local medical emergency number. Ask the person if he or she is carrying an epinephrine autoinjector (EpiPen, Auvi-Q, others) to treat an allergic attack. If the person says he or she needs to use an autoinjector, ask whether you should help inject the medication. This is usually done by pressing the autoinjector against the person's thigh. Have the person lie still on his or her back. Loosen tight clothing and cover the person with a blanket. Don't give the person anything to drink. If there's vomiting or bleeding from the mouth, turn the person on his or her side to prevent choking. If there are no signs of breathing, coughing or movement, begin CPR. Do uninterrupted chest presses — about 100 every minute — until paramedics arrive. Get emergency treatment even if symptoms start to improve. After anaphylaxis, it's possible for symptoms to recur. Monitoring in a hospital for several hours is usually necessary. If you're with someone having signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis, don't wait to see whether symptoms get better. Seek emergency treatment right away. In severe cases, untreated anaphylaxis can lead to death within half an hour. An antihistamine pill, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl), isn't sufficient to treat anaphylaxis. These medications can help relieve allergy symptoms, but work too slowly in a severe reaction. Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis include: Skin reactions, including hives, itching, and flushed or pale skin. Swelling of the face, eyes, lips or throat. Constriction of the airways, leading to wheezing and trouble breathing. A weak and rapid pulse. Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. Dizziness, fainting or unconsciousness.
Some common anaphylaxis triggers include:
Medications. Foods such as peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish. Insect stings from bees, yellow jackets, wasps, hornets and fire ants. If you've had any kind of severe allergic reaction in the past, ask your doctor if you should be prescribed an epinephrine autoinjector to carry with you.




The Thinker Man