is free from danger or the
. The state of being certain that
will not be caused
by some agent under defined conditions. A device or service designed to
prevent injury or accidents. Symptoms
The FDA inspects less than 2
percent of our seafood imports
, while the European
Union inspects 20 to 50 percent of theirs. Since 90
percent of our seafood comes
from other countries, banned drug residues and unwanted
contaminants could be
There are no specific mandatory guidelines about the
type of testing they have to
No governing body is required to precheck nutritional
labels for accuracy.
It’s all self-policed. I think the only time the FDA
would look at it would be if customers were complaining.
Sad and alarming.
About 48 million people
(1 in 6 Americans) get sick,
128,000 are hospitalized, and
3,000 die each year from
Food Safety News
1 In 10 People Around The World Gets Sick From Food
420,000 lives lost with One-third of all cases were in
refers to the presence in food of harmful chemicals and microorganisms
which can cause consumer illness. This article addresses the chemical
contamination of foods, as opposed to microbiological contamination, which
can be found under foodborne illness.
also referred to as
, is any illness resulting from the
food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or
parasites that contaminate food, as well as chemical or natural toxins
such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not
been boiled for at least 10 minutes.
is a stomach and intestinal
infection. TD is defined as the passage of unformed stool (one or more by
some definitions, three or more by others) while traveling. It may
be accompanied by abdominal cramps, nausea, fever, and bloating.
Occasionally bloody diarrhea
may occur. Most travelers recover within four days with little or no
treatment. About 10% of people may have symptoms for a week.
is the most common cause of viral
gastroenteritis in humans. It affects people of all ages. The virus is
transmitted by fecally contaminated food or water, by person-to-person
contact, and via aerosolization of vomited virus and subsequent
contamination of surfaces. Annually, norovirus is associated with 906,000
outpatient visits in industrialized countries, with 64,200 inpatient
hospitalizations. In developing countries, it is associated with 1.1
million hospitalizations, with an estimated 218,000 deaths.
Global burden of foodborne diseases
is a substance that forms part of a mixture active
ingredient is that part of a formulation that yields the effect expected
by the customer. National laws usually require prepared food products to
display a list of ingredients, and specifically require that certain
is the ingredient that is biologically active.
describes the beneficial or
of a drug on living matter.
is a quantity of something (chemical, physical, or
biological) that may impact an organism biologically; the greater the
quantity, the larger the dose.
should also include unhealthy food.
kills more people and creates more
disease then foodborne illnesses. So we just don't want
our food to be safe, we need our food to be healthy too.
Food Safety Knowledge
The Food Trust
Your Food Is Poisoning You
Food Safety News
Center for Food Safety
Health and Safety
Produce Safety Project
Food Integrity Now
Slow Food USA
Cool Foods Campaign
FDA Food Safety Modernization Act
Food Borne Illness
International Food Safety &
Food Poison Journal
are a large family of
Gram-negative bacteria that includes, along with many harmless symbionts,
many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli,
Yersinia pestis, Klebsiella, and Shigella.
is a gram-positive,
round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and is
frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
also known as
, is a gram-negative, facultatively
anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is
commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms
(endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can
cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally
responsible for product recalls due to food contamination.
is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum
and related species. It prevents the release of the neurotransmitter
acetylcholine from axon endings at the neuromuscular junction and thus
causes flaccid paralysis. Infection with the bacterium causes the disease
botulism. The toxin is also used commercially in medicine, cosmetics and
research. Botulinum is the most acutely lethal toxin known, with an
estimated human median lethal dose (LD50) of 1.3–2.1 ng/kg intravenously
or intramuscularly and 10–13 ng/kg when inhaled. The U.S. Food and Drug
Administration requires a boxed warning stating that when locally
administered the toxin may spread from the injection site to other areas
of the body, causing botulism. The warning was the result of deaths
associated with its uses. There are seven types of botulinum toxin, named
type A–G. Type A and B are capable of causing disease in humans, and are
also used commercially and medically. Types C–G are less common; types E
and F can cause disease in humans, while the other types cause disease in
other animals. Botulinum toxin types A and B are used in medicine to treat
various muscle spasms and diseases characterized by overactive muscle. The
commercial form is marketed under the brand name Botox, among others.
Botox is made by Allergan.
is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a
toxin, produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The disease begins
with weakness, trouble seeing, feeling tired, and trouble speaking. This
may then be followed by weakness of the arms, chest muscles, and legs. The
disease does not usually affect consciousness or cause a fever. Botulism
can be spread several different ways. The bacterial spores which cause it
are common in both soil and water. They produce the botulinum toxin when
exposed to low oxygen levels and certain temperatures. Foodborne botulism
happens when food containing the toxin is eaten. Infant botulism happens
when the bacteria develops in the intestines and releases the toxin. This
typically only occurs in children less than six months old, as protective
mechanisms develop after that time. Wound botulism is found most often
among those who inject street drugs. In this situation, spores enter a
wound, and in the absence of oxygen, release the toxin. It is not passed
directly between people. The diagnosis is confirmed by finding the toxin
or bacteria in the person in question. Prevention is primarily by proper
food preparation. The toxin, though not the organism, is destroyed by
heating it to more than 85 °C (185 °F) for longer than 5 minutes. Honey
can contain the organism, and for this reason, honey should not be fed to
children under 12 months. Treatment is with an antitoxin. In those who
lose their ability to breathe on their own, mechanical ventilation may be
necessary for months. Antibiotics may be used for wound botulism. Death
occurs in 5 to 10% of people. Botulism also affects many other animals.
The word is from Latin, botulus, meaning sausage. Early descriptions of
botulism date from at least as far back as 1793 in Germany.
is a chemical element with symbol As and
atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in combination
with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal. Arsenic is a
metalloid. It has various allotropes, but only the gray form is important
to industry. Treatment of chronic arsenic poisoning is possible. British
anti-lewisite (dimercaprol) is prescribed in doses of 5 mg/kg up to 300 mg
every 4 hours for the first day, then every 6 hours for the second day,
and finally every 8 hours for 8 additional days.
is the process which causes a substance to have unpleasant smell or taste.
Rancidification can also detract from the nutritional value of food, and
some vitamins are highly sensitive to degradation.
is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus)
gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The two species
of Salmonella are Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. Salmonella
enterica is the type species and is further divided into six subspecies
that include over 2,500 serotypes.
Keep Foods Apart - Cross Contamination
Food Safety and Inspection Service
Global Food Safety Initiative
Food Inspector Tool
is a Pocket
that Tells You What's Really in the Food like
calories, and sugar and fat.
Expiration Dates of Food
for the Science in the
Consumer Federation of America
for Health, Environment & Justice
New Leaf Foods
Ca. Leafy Greens
Department of Agriculture
FDA Food & Drug
Food Pesticide List
Public Health Advocacy
Science Shows The 5-Second Rule is Real Most of the Time
Factory Farms Abuses
is a modern form of intensive
farming that refers to the keeping of livestock, such as cattle, poultry
(including in "battery cages") and fish at higher stocking densities than
is usually the case with other forms of animal agriculture—a practice
typical in industrial farming by agribusinesses. The main products of this
industry are meat, milk and eggs for human consumption. There are issues
regarding whether factory farming is sustainable and ethical.
Factory Farms Map
to 23,000 American deaths a year
A River of Waste
Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations
is an animal feeding operation (AFO) that (a) confines
animals for more than 45 days during a growing season, (b) in an area that
does not produce vegetation, and (c) meets certain size thresholds.
diseases and blight)
Compassion over Killing
Factory Farming Sanctuary
. Ag-Gag is a
term used to describe a class of
that apply within the agriculture industry.
Judge Strikes Down Idaho 'Ag-Gag' Law
is a genus of heterotrophic
dinoflagellates that has been associated with harmful algal blooms and
Europe Bans Chlorine Chicken
is a feed additive to promote leanness
in animals raised for their meat.
Livestock's long shadow: environmental issues and
Food Poisoning - Food-Borne illness
All foods naturally contain small amounts of
. But poor handling of food, improper cooking or inadequate
storage can result in bacteria multiplying in large enough numbers to
cause illness. Parasites, viruses, toxins and chemicals also can
contaminate food and cause illness.
Signs and symptoms of food poisoning
with the source of contamination, and whether you are dehydrated or
have low blood pressure. Generally they include: Diarrhea, Nausea. Abdominal pain.
dehydration, you might feel:
Lightheaded or faint, especially on
standing. A rapid heartbeat
Whether you become ill after eating contaminated food
depends on the organism, the amount of exposure, your age and your health.
High-risk groups include:
Older adults. As you get older, your immune system may
not respond as quickly and as effectively to infectious organisms as it
once did. Infants and young children. Their immune systems haven't
fully developed. People with chronic diseases. Having a chronic
condition, such as diabetes or AIDS, or receiving chemotherapy or
radiation therapy for cancer reduces your immune response.
If you develop food poisoning:
drink plenty of liquids.
Generally, anti-diarrheal medications should
be avoided because they may slow elimination of organisms or toxins from
your system. If in doubt, check with your doctor about your particular
Infants or young
children should not be given anti-diarrheal medications because of
potentially serious side effects.
Foodborne illness often improves on
its own within 48 hours. Call your doctor if you think you have a
foodborne illness and your symptoms have lasted longer than two or three
days. Call immediately if blood appears in your stools.
Seek emergency medical assistance if:
You have severe symptoms, such as severe abdominal pain or watery diarrhea
that turns very bloody within 24 hours. You belong to a high-risk group.
poisoning. Botulism is a potentially fatal food poisoning that results
from the ingestion of a toxin formed by certain spores in food. Botulism
toxin is most often found in home-canned foods, especially green beans or
tomatoes. Signs and symptoms of botulism usually begin 12 to 36 hours
after eating the contaminated food and may include headache, blurred
vision, muscle weakness and eventual paralysis. Some people also have
nausea and vomiting, constipation, urinary retention, difficulty
breathing, and dry mouth. These signs and symptoms require immediate
and harmful substances
Establish what they have taken. When? And how
much? Symptoms may vary. Throat and stomach pains, mouth burns,
vomiting, drowsiness. Give water to dilute poison. Call Doctor.
Poisoning Prevention First Aid
A life-threatening allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) can cause shock, a
sudden drop in blood pressure and trouble breathing. In people who
have an allergy, anaphylaxis can occur minutes after exposure to a
specific allergy-causing substance (allergen). In some cases, there
may be a delayed reaction or anaphylaxis may occur without an apparent
trigger. If you're with someone having an allergic reaction with signs
of anaphylaxis: Immediately call 911 or your local medical emergency
number. Ask the person if he or she is carrying an
(EpiPen, Auvi-Q, others) to treat an allergic attack.
If the person says he or she needs to use an autoinjector, ask whether you
should help inject the medication. This is usually done by pressing
the autoinjector against the person's thigh. Have the person lie
still on his or her back. Loosen tight clothing and cover the person
with a blanket. Don't give the person anything to drink. If there's
vomiting or bleeding from the mouth, turn the person on his or her
side to prevent choking. If there are no signs of breathing, coughing
or movement, begin CPR. Do uninterrupted chest presses — about 100
every minute — until paramedics arrive. Get emergency treatment even if
symptoms start to improve. After anaphylaxis, it's possible for
symptoms to recur. Monitoring in a hospital for several hours is
usually necessary. If you're with someone having signs and symptoms of
anaphylaxis, don't wait to see whether symptoms get better. Seek
emergency treatment right away. In severe cases, untreated anaphylaxis
can lead to death within half an hour. An antihistamine pill, such as
diphenhydramine (Benadryl), isn't sufficient to treat anaphylaxis.
These medications can help relieve allergy symptoms, but work too
slowly in a severe reaction. Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis include:
Skin reactions, including hives, itching, and flushed or pale skin.
Swelling of the face, eyes, lips or throat. Constriction of the airways,
leading to wheezing and trouble breathing. A weak and rapid pulse.
Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. Dizziness, fainting or unconsciousness.
Some common anaphylaxis triggers include:
Medications. Foods such as
peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish. Insect stings from bees, yellow
jackets, wasps, hornets and fire ants. If you've had any kind of severe
allergic reaction in the past, ask your doctor if you should be
prescribed an epinephrine
to carry with you.