To be intelligent you first have to know what being
you also have to know what being ignorant is. Ignorant
is just another word
". But not knowing is not always
. That's because
is not fully understood. The
more you learn the more you should realize what you didn't know. And if
you learn things that do not make you realize how much you didn't know,
and if learning doesn't make you realize how much you still need to know,
then you did not learn anything valuable
or relevant. Wisdom does not come with age
, wisdom comes from learning.
And if learning does not increase your understanding of yourself and the
world around you, then that's not learning, that's just
. Ten people can
the same thing but
not learn the same thing. This is because
varies from person to
person. So this will need to be the next big advancement in education.
Where every student will know what to learn, when to learn, how to learn,
where to learn and why to learn. And then every student will know how to
test themselves and monitor their own progress in their own time, and at
their own pace. But you still need to be
- Intelligent Types
- Intelligence Measuring
Human Operating System
Brain Maintenance Ignorance
First you have to define what makes a
person intelligent, then you
need to have an
accurate way of measuring if this intelligence is correctly understood.
= The Combined
Collective intelligence of millions of people.
Just because you have abilities does not guarantee that you will
know how to use
your abilities correctly or effectively. And just what is correctly,
and just what is effective? These words we need
define if we are ever going to know exactly what being
intelligent really means. Enlightenment
will not guarantee intelligence. A good education that encourages learning
and a healthy environment are just two of the many influences that promote
Define the actions and the thought processes that are proven to produce the most positive
results that are based on a particular set of circumstances. And
these intelligent actions and thought processes have to be
relevant and used by society today so that everyone can see the
improvements and the positive outcomes and benefits that come
from these particular intelligent actions. This way everyone
can understand why these particular actions and thought
processes are viewed as being intelligent. Because what good is
having intelligence if you never use the intelligence in real
life to solve real problems. An IQ test only confirms a small
percentage of what is considered to be intelligence. So the only
way to truly measure a persons intelligence is to have them
solve real life problems and then have them explain their
methods clearly enough so that others can repeat the process.
Welcome to Defining Intelligence.
If a person does not have the necessary information and
knowledge that is needed to correctly analyze a problem, it is
nearly impossible for that person to understand how to calculate
the correct actions that are needed in order to solve that
problem. Even if a problem is right in front of a person it is
very unlikely that they will be able to comprehend that a
particular problem is even there without necessary information
and knowledge. Then a person will still have to understand that
particular information and knowledge in order to use it
effectively. So how will a person be able to recognize that
there is necessary information and
knowledge missing from their education? How do you convince a
person to see that there is a void of missing information and
knowledge when they don't have the necessary information and
knowledge in order for them to see that there is even a void?
This is why it is so extremely important to teach students early
and completely, especially the logic that is behind learning these
techniques, tools and skills that are needed to acquire
. So what is this
necessary information and knowledge? What are the techniques,
tools and skills that are needed? That is exactly what we are
going to find out, and exactly what we are going to teach.
Remember that saying "The
Buck Stops Here
", that should be changed to "The
Ignorance Stops Here". Defining the extreme degrees of
ignorance. If everyone around you is stupid then how will you
know how stupid you are? Being surrounded by stupidity often
That Does Not Compute
When a child is labeled with
, most parents and teachers are not qualified or
experienced enough to know what having a child with enhanced
abilities means. Or do they know what extra attention is needed
in order to not waste these enhanced abilities on tedious or
irrelevant actions, like
memorizing things that do not benefit
. It's like having a very powerful and fast
computer, but it's being wasted because you are only using it to
play video games. We are the only species on the planet that can
be distracted by our own stupidity. Intelligent species? Not
yet. Remember, enhanced abilities does not guarantee incredible
achievements, it only implies that there's a potential, which we
all have, that's if we all get the special attention that we
need. The more I study education, the more I see what's needed.
The more you learn, the more you learn what you didn't know.
Education needs to be everyone's special attention.
Advanced Precocious Learners
The Human Brain
"People say they are educated because they went to
college, which is a lie and an ignorant observation, because
there is no definition of what
being educated is
, like intelligence, just because you have a
does not mean that you're
is being unaware because of a lack of relevant information or knowledge.
Devoid of good sense or judgment.
Uneducated in the fundamentals of a given art or branch of
learning. A poor ability to understand or to profit from
Unable to Reason
accurately or effectively, which is usually from the lack of
valuable knowledge and information.
"You don't outgrow ignorance. You
can only overcome your ignorance by deliberately learning throughout your
entire life. Wisdom does not come with age
wisdom comes from learning. A fool thinks of himself as being wise, a
knows himself to be a fool.""
is refraining from acquiring knowledge when the cost of
educating oneself on an issue exceeds the potential benefit that the
knowledge would provide. But how would you know that Mr. Dumbass? (oxymoron?)
Necessity and Sufficiency
are implicational relationships between
statements. The assertion that one statement is a necessary and sufficient
condition of another means that the former statement is true if and only
if the latter is true. That is, the two statements must be either
simultaneously true or simultaneously false.
is the study of culturally induced ignorance or doubt,
particularly the publication of inaccurate or misleading scientific data.
is lacking sense or clear, sound reasoning. Lack of connection or
is being perplexed by many
situations or statements; filled
with bewilderment. Failure to understand.
Unable to think clearly, without order or sense. Make unclear,
indistinct, or blurred. Not clearly defined or easy to perceive
or understand. Disturbance of normal functioning. Confusion
is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
Ignorance is similar to not understanding a
you are Easily Fooled
is being near-sightedness or
is being disorganized
and lacking in concentration. Flighty, thoughtless,
absent-minded, forgetful, distractable.
is being deprive of strength or efficiency; make useless or worthless.
Having inaccurate beliefs can cripple the mind.
is being devoid of good sense or judgment. Having or revealing stupidity.
is the lack or failure of wisdom and of making proper
careful choices. In this sense, it differs from stupidity, which is the
lack of intelligence. An act of foolishness is called folly. Foolish talk
is called stultiloquence. Risk
is having a poor ability to understand or to profit from experience.
defiant disregard for danger or consequences
is a lack of intelligence, understanding, reason, wit or
sense. Stupidity may be innate, assumed or reactive – a defence against
grief or trauma.
"I'm not saying you're stupid, I'm just
saying that you have bad luck when it comes to thinking."
Suspension of Disbelief
or willing suspension of disbelief
has been defined as a willingness to suspend one's critical
believe the unbelievable; sacrifice of realism and logic for the
sake of enjoyment.
is an unconscious aspect of the personality which the
identify in itself. Because one tends to reject or remain ignorant of the
least desirable aspects of one's personality, the shadow is largely
negative, or the entirety of the unconscious, i.e., everything of which a
person is not fully conscious.
humans defend themselves against their own
unconscious impulses or qualities (both positive and negative) by denying
their existence in themselves while attributing them to others. For
example, a person who is habitually rude may constantly accuse other
people of being rude. It incorporates
But of course, being ignorant is more then the basic definition.
Awareness becomes Distorted
Years of Potential Life Lost
is also related to the years
that are lost from being ignorant, or doing ignorant things.
The Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY
is a measure of overall
, with the disease being ignorance in this
is a cognitive bias whereby individuals
overestimate their own qualities and abilities, relative to others.
is the mental stress or discomfort
experienced by an individual who holds two or more
ideas, or values at the same time; performs an action that is
contradictory to one or more beliefs, ideas, or values; or is confronted
by new information that conflicts with existing beliefs, ideas, or values.
refers to the tendency for beliefs or sets of beliefs to endure once
formed. In particular, cognitive inertia describes the human inclination
to rely on familiar assumptions and exhibit a reluctance and/or inability
to revise those assumptions, even when the evidence supporting them no
longer exists or when other evidence would question their accuracy.
are exaggerated or irrational thought
patterns that are believed to perpetuate the effects of psychopathological
states, especially depression and anxiety.
Dunning Kruger Effect
is a cognitive
low-ability individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly
assessing their ability as much higher than it really is. Dunning and
Kruger attributed this bias to a metacognitive inability of those of low
ability to recognize their ineptitude and evaluate their ability
most Adults don't want to Learn
is a logical fallacy in which two opposing
arguments appear to be logically equivalent when in fact they are not.
is knowing that human beings could be wrong about their
beliefs, expectations, or their understanding of the world.
are commonly held scientific beliefs that
have no basis in actual scientific fact.
is a belief
that is held with strong conviction despite superior
is a cognition of mistrust in which a person doubts the
honesty of another person or believes another person to be guilty of some
type of wrongdoing or crime, but without sure proof. Suspicion can also be
aroused in response to objects that negatively differ from an expected
states that if individuals reflect on values that are personally relevant
to them, they are less likely to experience distress and react defensively
when confronted with information that contradicts or threatens their sense
to a wrongdoing
Refusing to move or to change one's opinion; obstinate; firmly resisting,
even when present with facts that prove they are wrong.
is the indirect expression of hostility,
such as through procrastination, stubbornness, sullen behavior, or
deliberate or repeated failure to accomplish requested tasks for which one
is (often explicitly) responsible.
of ones own
is the unknown dark side of your own
People fail to see themselves
is a mistaken belief, especially one based on unsound
argument. It's an incorrect argument in logic and rhetoric which
undermines an argument's logical
. Some people may simplify the meaning by saying "That's
is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical
structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system, for
example propositional logic. An argument that is formally fallacious is
always considered wrong. A formal fallacy is contrasted with an informal
fallacy, which may have a valid logical form and yet be unsound because
one or more premises are false.
is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical
structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system. An
argument that is formally fallacious is always considered wrong. A formal
fallacy is contrasted with an informal fallacy, which may have a valid
logical form and yet be unsound because one or more premises are
occurs when the contents of an argument's stated premises fail to
adequately support its proposed conclusion.
Fallacy of Composition
arises when one infers that something
is true of the whole from the fact that it is true of some part of the
whole (or even of every proper part). For example: "This fragment of metal
cannot be fractured with a hammer, therefore the machine of which it is a
part cannot be fractured with a hammer." This is clearly fallacious,
because many machines can be broken apart, without any of those parts
being able to be fractured.
is an informal fallacy closely related to
the sorites paradox, or paradox of the heap. The fallacy causes one to
erroneously reject a vague claim simply because it is not as precise as
one would like it to be. Vagueness alone does not necessarily imply
is a kind of logical argument that
applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more
propositions that are asserted or assumed
to be true.Anecdotal fallacy
– using a
personal experience or an isolated example instead of sound reasoning or
ErrorsAppeal to the stone
is dismissing a claim as absurd without demonstrating proof for its
Cutting people with knives is a crime.
Surgeons cut people with knives. Surgeons are criminals.
asserts, by irrelevant association and
often by appeal to emotion, that qualities of one thing are inherently
qualities of another. Two types of association fallacies are sometimes
referred to as guilt by association and honor by association.
List of Common Misconceptions
corrects erroneous beliefs
that are currently widely held about notable topics. Each misconception
and the corresponding facts have been discussed in published literature.
Note that each entry is formatted as a correction; the misconceptions
themselves are implied rather than stated.
Base Rate Fallacy
is a formal fallacy. If presented with related base
rate information (i.e. generic, general information) and specific
information (information only pertaining to a certain case), the mind
tends to ignore the former and focus on the latter. Base rate neglect is a
specific form of the more general Extension neglect.
is the height of ignorance." ~
is an example of cognitive bias
, in which
people react to a particular choice in different ways depending on how it
is presented; e.g. as a loss or as a gain. People tend to avoid risk when
a positive frame is presented but seek risks when a negative frame is
presented. Gain and loss are defined in the scenario as descriptions of
outcomes (e.g. lives lost or saved, disease patients treated and not
treated, lives saved and lost during accidents, etc.)
Blinkers (horse tack)
are a piece of horse tack that prevent the horse
the rear and, in some cases, to the side.
causes distant objects to be blurry while close
objects appear normal.
is hostility towards and mistrust of
intellect, intellectuals, and intellectual pursuits, usually expressed as
the derision of education, philosophy, literature, art, and science, as
impractical and contemptible.
is the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is
limited by the available information, the tractability of the decision
problem, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the time available
to make the decision. Decision-makers in this view act as satisficers,
seeking a satisfactory solution rather than an optimal one.
occurs in learning when there is an
interaction between the new material and transfer effects of past learned
behavior, memories or thoughts that have a negative influence in
comprehending the new material. Bringing to memory old knowledge has
the effect of impairing both the speed of learning and memory performance.
There are two main kinds of interference: proactive interference (see
Proactive learning), retroactive interference (see Retroactive learning).
The main assumption of interference theory is that the stored memory is
intact but unable to be retrieved due to competition created by newly
is the tendency not to notice and
more quickly forget stimuli that cause emotional discomfort and contradict
our prior beliefs.
is a delusional state that concerns
only one particular topic.
is a decision-making strategy or cognitive heuristic that entails
searching through the available alternatives until an acceptability
threshold is met.
is the notion that species can revert into more "primitive" forms over
one covers up, consciously or
unconsciously, weaknesses, frustrations, desires, or feelings of
inadequacy or incompetence in one life area through the
gratification or (drive towards) excellence in another area.
Ignorant people can be easily
Fooled by the
and other sources of Propaganda. (Twisted Logic)
Ignorant people are more susceptible to Mental Health Problems,
Physical Health Problems, Anger and Crime.
The Problems with trying to Teach Adults
is the Worlds Largest Killer
Gap and DividePopularity
Faith In Authority Is The Worst Enemy Of The
is being vague
because your statement lacks
the specifics or details to clarify the meaning. Not being specific enough
leads to meaningless chatter
reaching an inductive generalization
based on insufficient evidence. Making a hasty conclusion without
considering all of the variables.
is a conclusion about all or many
instances of a phenomenon that has been reached on the basis of just one
or just a few instances of that phenomenon. It is an example of jumping to
is something that
is not clear to the understanding.
are Not conclusive; Does not put an end to
doubt or question. Dose not explain enough in order to define the actions
that are needed to reach a particular goal, or to come to a particular
understanding. When there is no follow up, or
, then the amount of
mistakes will increase.
is a mental shortcut that relies on
immediate examples that come to a given person's mind when evaluating a
specific topic, concept, method or decision.
can also be Generalizing.
Media News Language Distortions
is to take something to be
the case or to be true without
or proof. Accepting
something without any evidence
. Arrogant or Presumptuous.
Make a Pretense of. Take liberties or act with
something. Used for the purpose of argument to indicate a
on which a statement can be based.
is the belief that something will happen without
considering the possibilities
will not happen, thus being
when the expected reality does not happen like you thought
is an unshakable belief in something without need for proof or
is an expression of strong disapproval; pronouncing as wrong or
is the act of giving a false appearance. Pretending with intention
to deceive. A false or unsupportable quality.
is being accused of having done something wrong or illegal but
. Declared but not proved. Doubtful or suspect.
Someone who is under suspicion.
The act or an instance of suspecting something
on little or no evidence.
is the belief in supernatural
one event causes another without any natural process linking the two
jump to conclusions, they incriminate, they judge, and
all without any hard evidence, or confirmed information, or
anything that is remotely relevant that would help them prove
that their reasoning is even accurate. Blowing hot air, a temper
tantrum, just another ignorant remark from the
, a waste of human language, and time.
Jumping to Conclusions
is where one "judge[s] or decide[s]
something without having all the facts; to reach unwarranted conclusions".
List of Common Misconceptions
is any of several hypothetical phenomena or
processes that reverse causality, allowing an effect to occur before its
When people assume, they make up stories
and pretend they know the facts, and they make other people
this pretend made up story, even when they have
very little facts. This behavior is idiotic. People should focus
more on each other and learn how to
and learn to fully understand ourselves and other people.
to learn how to stop assuming that they know more then the other
person. We have to stop pretending to have conversations that
never happened. Talking to yourself is not the same as talking
to the actual person. The art of conversation is the opportunity
to make a connection, to work together in mind. We have to stop
wasting time and energy, and life. We have this incredible
ability to communicate and use language, but we don't even teach
phenomenon studied in cognitive science and
social psychology. This term describes the role of motivation in
cognitive processes such as decision-making and attitude change
in a number of paradigms, including: Cognitive dissonance
reduction, Beliefs about others on whom one's own outcomes
depend, Evaluation of evidence related to one's own outcomes.
Bias is favoring something in advance that prevents
consideration of an issue
or situation. Influence in an unfair way.
An attitude of mind especially one that favors one alternative
over others. An inclination to favor one group or view or
opinion over alternatives. A predisposition to like something.
An attitude of mind
especially one that favors one alternative
over others. An inclination beforehand to interpret statements
in a particular way. A disposition in advance to react in a
particular way. The state of being susceptible; easily affected.
A natural or acquired habit or characteristic tendency in a
person or thing. A characteristic likelihood of or natural
disposition toward a certain condition or character or effect. A
feeling of favorable regard. Consider as the
. Promote over another.
Give preference to one over another. Opinion
Don't judge a book totally by its
, and don't
judge information totally by its source
Don't use barriers when receiving information, use
that are based on
and not based on preconceived
. Putting up
will lower your
chances of learning things that may be extremely important, which will
decrease your odds for success and lower your chances in life, and you
only have so many chances in life, so don't waste them on a foolish
. You need to
, and stop
pretending that you have learned enough
refers to a systematic pattern of deviation
from norm or rationality in judgment, whereby inferences about other
people and situations may be drawn in an illogical fashion. Individuals
create their own "subjective social reality" from their
input. An individual's construction of social reality, not the objective
input, may dictate their behaviour in the social world. Thus, cognitive
biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment,
illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality.
List of Cognitive Biases
is a cognitive bias that refers to the systematic errors made
when people evaluate or try to find reasons for their own and others'
behaviors. People constantly make attributions regarding the cause of
their own and others' behaviors; however, attributions do not always
accurately mirror reality. Rather than operating as
people are prone to perceptual errors that lead to biased interpretations
of their social world. Attributions
assigning some quality or character to a person or thing. Assigning to a
cause or source.
is when an uncertain quantity is the probability
distribution that would express one's beliefs about this quantity before
some evidence is taken into account.
is a cognitive bias by which a person will consider a
statement or another piece of information to be correct if it has any
personal meaning or significance to them. In other words, a person whose
opinion is affected by subjective validation will perceive two unrelated
events (i.e., a coincidence) to be related because their personal belief
demands that they be related. Closely related to the Forer effect,
subjective validation is an important element in cold reading. It is
considered to be the main reason behind most reports of
is the observation that individuals will give high accuracy ratings to
descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored
specifically for them but are, in fact, vague and general enough to apply
to a wide range of people. This effect can provide a partial explanation
for the widespread acceptance of some beliefs and practices, such as
astrology, fortune telling, graphology, aura reading and some types of
Insensitivity to Sample Size
is a cognitive bias that occurs when
people judge the probability of obtaining a sample statistic
respect to the sample size.
is a cognitive bias in which a person overestimates his or
her ability to interpret and predict accurately the outcome when analyzing
a set of data, in particular when the data analyzed show a very consistent
pattern—that is, when the data "tell" a coherent story. This effect
persists even when the person is aware of all the factors that limit the
accuracy of his or her predictions, that is when the data and/or methods
used to judge them lead to highly fallible predictions.
is the phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between
variables (typically people, events, or behaviors) even when no such
is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall
information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or
hypotheses, while giving disproportionately less consideration to
We tend to seek out and listen to information that confirms what we
already believe. Not only do we disregard contrary ideas, but we also
interpret ambiguous ones to fit our beliefs. Confirming our preconceptions
feels good. We like to be right. In reality, we can become blind to the
is a phenomenon in which a
disagreement becomes more extreme as the different parties consider
evidence on the issue. It is one of the effects of confirmation bias: the
tendency of people to search for and interpret evidence selectively, to
reinforce their current beliefs or attitudes. When people encounter
ambiguous evidence, this bias can potentially result in each of them
interpreting it as in support of their existing attitudes, widening rather
than narrowing the disagreement between them.
Inference-Observation Confusion. Unwarranted Conclusions
Judges or decides something without having all the facts.
is the quality of being inclined to accept and act on the suggestions of
others; where false but plausible information is given and one fills in
the gaps in certain memories with false
when recalling a scenario or moment. Suggestibility uses
cues to distort recollection after persistently being told something
pertaining to a past event, one's memory of the event conforms to what
they've been told.
Listening is a Skill
statistic is biased
if it is calculated in such a way that
it is only systematically different from the population
parameter of interest.
by Pace Art + Technology.
The following lists some types of biases, which can overlap.
involves individuals being more likely to be
selected for study than others, biasing the sample. This can
also be termed Berksonian bias.
evaluating diagnostic tests
patient samples, leading to an overestimate of the sensitivity
and specificity of the test.
Bias of an estimator
is the difference between an
estimator's expectations and the true value of the parameter
Bias of an Estimator
of an estimator is the difference between this
value and the
of the parameter being
estimated. An estimator or decision rule with zero bias is called
unbiased. Otherwise the estimator is said to be biased. In
, "bias" is an objective
statement about a function, and while not a desired property, it is not
pejorative, unlike the ordinary English use of the term "bias".
is the bias that appears in estimates of
parameters in a regression analysis when the assumed
specification omits an independent variable that should be in
statistical hypothesis testing
, a test is said to be
unbiased when the probability of committing a type I error (i.e.
false positive) is less than the significance level, and that of
getting a true positive (rejecting the null hypothesis when the
alternative hypothesis is true) is at least that of the
occurs when a phenomenon is more likely to be
observed for a particular set of study subjects. For instance,
the syndemic involving obesity and diabetes may mean doctors are
more likely to look for diabetes in obese patients than in
thinner patients, leading to an inflation in diabetes among
obese patients because of skewed detection efforts.
may lead to selection of outcomes, test samples, or
test procedures that favor a study's financial sponsor.
involves a skew in the availability of data, such
that observations of a certain kind are more likely to be
we judge a decision based on its outcome rather than how exactly the
decision was made in the moment. Just because you win a lottery doesn't
mean that buying a lottery ticket was a smart decision. Here you are
deciding the value of decision after you have seen the outcome.
arise due to the way that the results are
arise due to the systematic exclusion of certain
individuals from the study.
arises due to a loss of participants e.g. loss to
follow up during a study.
arises due to differences in the accuracy or
completeness of participant recollections of past events. e.g. a
patient cannot recall how many cigarettes they smoked last week
exactly, leading to over-estimation or under-estimation.
arises when the researcher unconsciously
influences the experiment due to cognitive bias where judgment
may alter how an experiment is carried out / how results are
recorded.Bias blind spot
when people tend to think themselves as less biased than other people. It
means that by default we remain blind to our own cognitive biases.
What if your bias was based on lies or inaccurate information?
There are no quick fixes when it comes to repairing our biases. It takes
years to learn how to overcome biases, and you have to have discipline and
awareness. But even then, there are no guarantees that you will always be
accurate. People need to be on a learning journey, and be reminded that
this journey should never end. Learning must be part of our daily
responsibilities, like eating healthy, drinking clean water, sleeping
enough, exercising, and learning something new that will increase your
understanding of yourself and the world around you. And remember, there is
no finish line or graduation day, only a continuation, something that adds
to life and extends life for the better. Live, Learn, Love and Progress.
is a cognitive bias in which people wrongly
think they have direct insight into the origins of their mental
states, while treating others' introspections as unreliable. In certain
situations, this illusion leads people to make confident but false
explanations of their own behavior (called "causal theories") or
inaccurate predictions of their future mental states.
is how individuals adapt to information or experiences that are
threatening to their self-concept.
Bias could also be
a way of looking at
using a particular set of parameters or roperties. But you
can't use the same parameters for everything.
are those physical quantities which directly describe the
physical attributes of the system;
are those combinations of the properties which suffice to
determine the response of the system. Properties can have all sorts of
dimensions, depending upon the system being considered; parameters are
dimensionless, or have the dimension of time or its reciprocal.
A man and his son were in an automobile accident. The man died
on the way to the hospital, but the boy was rushed into surgery.
The emergency room surgeon said "I can't operate, that's my
son!" How is this possible? Answer: The surgeon was
The worst thing about assuming is
that people ask a
when what they are really doing is making an
accusation and a judgment in the form of a question, because they assume
that they know the answer. So it's not a question, but an accusation and a
judgment without a trial, or without debate. Presumptuous questions can
either be balanced or unbalanced. Unbalanced questions ask questions only
from the point of view of one side of an argument. For example, an
interrogator might ask “’Do you favor the death penalty for persons
convicted of murder?”’ This question assumes that the person’s only point
of view in the situation is that a person who is convicted must either get
the death penalty or not. The second type of presumptuous question is
balanced question. This is when the interrogator uses opposite questions
to make the witness believe that the question is balanced when the reality
is that it is not. For example, the interrogator would ask, “’Do you favor
life in prison, without the possibility of parole?” This type of question
may seem balanced when in reality it is still influencing the person to
discuss life in prison and no other choice.
The Right to Remain Silent
is interviewing as commonly employed by law
enforcement officers, military personnel, and intelligence agencies with
the goal of eliciting useful information. Interrogation
may involve a
diverse array of techniques, ranging from developing a rapport with the
subject, to outright torture
one that implies that a certain answer should be given in response, or
falsely presents a presupposition in the question as accepted fact. Such a
question distorts the memory
thereby tricking the person into answering in
a specific way that might or might not be true or consistent with their
actual feelings, and can be deliberate or unintentional. For example, the
phrasing "Don't you think this was wrong?
" is more suggestive than "Do you
think this was wrong?
" despite the difference of only one word. The former
may subtly pressure the respondent into responding "yes," whereas the
latter is far more direct. Repeated questions can make people think their
first answer is wrong and lead them to change their answer, or it can
cause people to continuously answer until the interrogator gets the exact
response that they desire. The diction used by the interviewer can also be
an influencing factor to the response given by the interrogated
is a question that contains a controversial or
unjustified assumption (e.g., a presumption of guilt).
when someone asks a
upon more than one issue, yet allows only for one answer. This may result
in inaccuracies in the attitudes being measured for the question, as the
respondent can answer only one of the two questions, and cannot indicate
which one is being answered.
is a question that has a presupposition that is
complex. The presupposition is a proposition that is presumed to be
acceptable to the respondent when the question is asked.
is a figure of speech in the form of a question
that is asked to make a point rather than to elicit an answer. Though a
rhetorical question does not require a direct answer, in many cases it may
be intended to start a discussion
or at least draw an acknowledgement that the listener understands the
intended message. A common example is the question "Can't
you do anything right?
" This question, when posed, is intended
not to ask about the listener's ability, but rather to insinuate the
listener's lack of ability. Although sometimes amusing and even humorous,
rhetorical questions are rarely meant for pure, comedic effect.
is an implicit assumption about the world or background
belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in
is a confession obtained by a suspect or a
under means of torture
(including enhanced interrogation techniques) or other forms of
Depending on the level of coercion
used, a forced confession is not
in revealing the truth
. The person being interrogated may agree to the
story presented to him or even make up falsehoods himself in order to
satisfy the interrogator and discontinue his
is an admission of guilt for a
for which the confessor is
not responsible. False confessions can be induced through coercion or by
the mental disorder or incompetency of the accused. Research demonstrates
that false confessions occur on a regular basis in
, which is one reason why
has established a series of rules—called "confession
rules"—to detect, and subsequently reject, false confessions. Plea
agreements typically require the defendant to stipulate to a set of facts
establishing that he/she is guilty of the offense; in the United States
federal system, before entering judgment on a guilty plea, the court must
determine that there is a factual basis for the plea.
is a formal protest
raised in court
during a trial to disallow a witness's testimony or other
evidence which would be in violation of the rules of evidence or other
List of Objections
Effects of misleading questions and hypnotic memory suggestion
on memory reports: a signal-detection analysis.
In 2002, the first author and colleagues reported data
indicating that both hypnosis and misleading questions decreased
the accuracy of
and decreased "don't know" response rates, that the
effects of misleading questions were significantly greater than
those of hypnosis, and that the two effects were additive. Using
a sample of 194 undergraduate students, the present study
replicated the findings that misleading questions reduce
accuracy and "don't know" responding but failed to replicate the
negative effect of hypnosis on memory reports. Signal detection
analysis indicated that misleading questioning produced
decreased sensitivity accompanied by higher response bias,
though affecting sensitivity more than producing a criterion
National Criminal Justice Reference Service
Ask a question
as if you are talking to a Machine
unusual for someone not to understand something the first time
that they look at it
Everyone on the planet knows that to be a fact, yet to many
people still assume and jump to conclusions. And you know why?
People forget. People forget that they know that it's not
unusual for someone not to understand something the first time
that they look at it. So you are either lying to yourself and
others, or you have a really bad memory.
Too many people can't understand the
things that will help them to understand. People cannot utilize
knowledge and information if they never learned how to utilize
knowledge and information. So what exactly is knowledge and
information. knowledge and information is the potential energy
that is in every human being. But in order to have access to
this power, you have to learn the right things at the right
time. And you also have to have access to the world most
valuable knowledge and information that the world has to offer,
and you have to be shown how to effectively and efficiently use
knowledge and information, so that you would receive the maximum
benefits from knowledge and information, and increase your
awareness about yourself and the world around you, and also have
more control, more freedom, more power, more potential, and more
are not stupid
, people just don't
have enough knowledge and information in order to accurately
understand themselves and the world around them. To say someone
one is stupid because they did not learn something that you know, is
stupid. To expect people to know something that you know, is stupid. You
cannot assume to understand someone's thinking, you should just
It's really difficult when there are
so many ignorant people, mentally challenged but
. So they can appear to be normal, but they are
far from normal, they cause more harm then good, because they
can only act functional temporally, the rest of the time they
are causing damage. But the damage goes unnoticeable to most
people, so the damage continues, which is extremely crazy. We
need to remove these people from their
and replace them with more competent people, while
at the same time, get these nonfunctioning people the help that
I have to stop being surprised and
irritated by peoples ignorance
, no one is to blame for their own
stupidity, because we know where the problem lie's, and that is
our education. We need to drastically improve education, and the
media, so that all citizens are completely educated and
informed. Otherwise this ignorance will continue to kill us
cause us problems till the day we die, and that my friend is the
future that I'm trying to stop from ever happening, and not just
for me, but for the trillions of people who will have to live
after me. If life is a cycle, then you better get on this bike
with me, because we have a lot of peddling to do.
Knowledge Peddler's Unite
In order to become intelligent, the first thing that you need to do is
to realize how ignorant you are. You can read all
the best books in the world
and go to the best colleges
, but if you are not educating yourself on the
things that make you ignorant, and if you're not taking the necessary
steps to reduce ignorant actions and thoughts, then you will always
be ignorant, even though you are very knowledgeable
Being smart is more then not being stupid.
It's a combination of many different skills
acquiring specialized knowledge over many years.
Ignorance in itself has an unusual
side effect of blinding the person from their own ignorance
So how does a person realize that they are ignorant when it’s
the ignorance itself that keeps them from realizing that they
are ignorant? Think
about when you see a doctor and the doctor tells you that you
have been diagnosed with a disease, a lot of people would say
that they never knew that they were sick.
Anton Babinski Syndrome
So there has to be a
way to diagnose
. We need some way to communicate or a test that
will say to that person that their thinking is not accurate
without saying that they are stupid, because
I don’t think that
anyone is stupid
, it's just that some of us are not thinking
correctly. There's a big difference between being stupid, and
doing stupid things. Most people have some level of
intelligence, it's just that most people are not always using
their intelligence at the right time or in the right way. We have to understand that people are not born bad,
they are simply brought up badly and thus become a bad person.
That's why most people in
have very little education as
well as very poor reading and writing skills. So people are not
born ignorant, they are just
brought up ignorantly
become an ignorant person. Now ignorant does not mean that you
are stupid. You can have a
(Intelligence Quotient) and
still be ignorant
explain this lets first define ignorance. Though the definition
of ignorance is usually defined a ‘ person who is ‘Uneducated in
general, lacking knowledge or sophistication, Unaware because of
a lack of relevant information or knowledge’. That is the more
common definition that I do not totally agree with. I would like
to define ignorance as a ‘ person who lacks a common sense that
keeps oneself from
separating opinion from fact
, a person who
dismisses information solely based on preference, a person who
assumes without questioning, and a person who has difficulty
formulating information in order to obtain a logical answer.
This to me is a more accurate meaning of the word ignorance. I
wonder if I could have the dictionary updated to include this
definition or just replace the old definition with the one above, unless
of course there is a better word in the dictionary for what is described above. Now some of you are still wondering how
can you have a high IQ and still be ignorant. To me an IQ test
is not a measure of intelligence but more of a test to measure
ones brain function. If a persons IQ is high then their ability
to process information and access their memory is exceptional,
thus their brain is functioning properly. A person with a high
IQ should be nurtured very carefully so that their ability is
not stifled and at the same time their brain is not overwhelmed
. A person with a low IQ will be treated
the same way, but they will need extra special attention to get
their brain functioning like a person with a high IQ. So if you
use my definition of ignorance you will find that there are
people with high IQ’s who are ignorant. They can process
information, but they still have trouble with separating opinion
from fact and sometimes can still dismiss information solely
based on preference. I have not yet met an intelligent person. I
have met some really smart people but I would not consider them
First, you have to admit that
you can be wrong about things.
Second, you have to admit that you
don't know enough about yourself and the world around you. Then and Only
then will you be able to effectively learn to increase your understanding
about yourself and the world around you. There is one extremely important
thing that you need to commit to, and that is learning. Otherwise, you
will be ignorant till the day you die.
If you don't know how
ignorant you are every day, then that's another day that you didn't learn
anything. And those days can easily and quickly turn into years.
Too many people just pretend that they know enough
about themselves and the world. That means that millions of people are
living in a fantasy world
of make believe.
Almost totally oblivious of the reality of this world, or the impact that
they have on themselves and other people. And the only way for people to
escape this quasi reality
, is to learn what
things in life are reality. Things that have been proven, things that have
been experienced. And one of the most important things that a person needs
to do first is to admit how ignorant they are about themselves, and how
ignorant they are about the world around them. And the only way to know
how ignorant you are, is to learn and study knowledge that would reveal
how ignorant you are, because ignorance does not reveal itself. They say
that being stupid doesn't hurt, like ignorance is bliss. That's a lie,
because being stupid does hurt, you just don't know it because you're
stupid. And the only way to know how much you're hurting yourself and
other people, is to learn why. And one of the best ways to learn is by
reading. But you can't read just anything because that would also be
stupid. You have to seek out the exact knowledge that you need that would
help increase your understanding of yourself and the world around you. You
have to take learning seriously, because everything depends on it,
When it comes to
, I look at them
as being normal and everyone else being abnormal or just not
aware of their potential, just yet. It’s really hard to
because to me intelligence must be proven in many
ways that would clearly define a person as being intelligent.
People have estimated that there are
over 3 million academically gifted students
in the United
States alone, which is an ignorant observation, because everyone
has the potential to be so called gifted. The single largest
disability that every child has is not having a school that
understands knowledge and intelligence. This goes beyond
. The U.S. is not just Neglecting Its
Smartest Kids, but all kids. Todays schools produce more
Intellectual Disabilities then they do Intellectual abilities,
and the reason that you don't know this is because you have an
. When smart kids do poorly in school, that proves
schools are flawed
areas of intelligence
intelligence, math intelligence, music intelligence, spatial intelligence,
self intelligence and so on.
Take any person from any continent on
this planet, and everyone will say that they would prefer to be
strong then weak. It's a
humans natural instinct
to be strong,
humans would never choose to be weak, but that is exactly what
we have done with our education system. We have a very weak
education, which creates weak minds. And a weak mind doesn't
know its weak, because it is to weak to figure it out.
"Knowledge will forever
govern ignorance; and a people who mean to be their own
governors must arm themselves with the power which knowledge
"The only way to
become intelligent is to first admit that you are a moron, then
and only then, does the journey towards intelligence
begin...It's impossible to know all the answers, especially when
don't even know the questions
"The fool doth think he
is wise, but the wise man knows himself to be a fool". - (Act V,
As You Like It
"You don't know what
you do not know, until you know what you did not know."
Collins - Both Sides
is not a destination, Intelligence is a path that you take, and
staying on this path is to be intelligent."
"Intelligence is being aware of all the things that you still
don't know but making the effort to know them, while using all
the things that you do know, effectively as possible. Humans
need to feed
as well as their stomachs, we need to be hunters
and gatherers of knowledge. And we need to
preserve all the valuable knowledge
that we find and create.
We certainly don't want to end up like
, dead and gone with very little records to
"I wouldn't call people ignorant or
incompetent, people just lack the intelligence and the necessary
skills that are needed to run their life or to do their job
effectively or efficiently. Improving education and training
will help solve this problem."
just revealing how ignorant someone's behavior is, not all behaviors are
bad, just the behaviors that cause damage and suffering. Some people take
offense to having their ignorance revealed, like they feel bad for finding
out that they were wrong about something, or having someone find out about
a horrible secret they have been hiding, something embarrassing, something
shameful. So Why do some people see learning as something negative and
tedious?I didn't want to be the one to tell you this
, but since no one
else has, I guess I'm stuck with this job of having to inform you. Don't
blame the messenger, because no one is to blame, until tomorrow that is.
Maybe you will forget what you have learned today, so maybe I will have to
remind you again tomorrow, I hope not. I hope we keep learning. A better
world is waiting for us, but it will not wait forever. And this is not
just about our time, our flash in the pan, this is about all time, and the
time that trillions upon trillions of future generations who will either
have to endure life or have the pleasure to enjoy life, this choice is
ours now, and tomorrow. I choose enjoy. No one should ever have to suffer
and endure from other peoples behavior. No one. Learning needs to be the
new fad, the new relish. There is tremendous amount of pleasure that comes
from learning. Everyone should be benefiting from learning. But when some
people can't learn because they don't have access, or they refuse to
learn, then they haven't learned the most important thing about learning,
which is, you learn everyday, if not, you will struggle, and in that
struggle is when people make most of their mistakes, mistakes that do most
"I work around a lot of things,
especially my own ignorance, because if you can't get passed
your own ignorance, you're screwed."
"I have experienced things and learned
from them even before I knew what they were. Meaning that, you
do not necessarily have to have a language to explain something
in order to learn from something, that is the brilliant design
of the brain. Just like having
Your brain is like an
8 cylinder engine
. When your brain finally starts to run on
6 cylinders, you then realize that your brain has been only
running on 2 cylinders for several years. And now that you're
running on 6 cylinders, you can now improve and progress so that
you will eventually be running on all 8 cylinders, meaning that
you will eventually have full access to the power of the human
"Everyone is inflicted with some form of
. But it's the level of ignorance and the amount of
ignorance that a person has that will ultimately determine the
amount of damage that a person will do to themselves, or to
others, or to the world.
Ignorance kills more people then all
causes of death combined.
And why we hardy ever here anything
about the worlds biggest killer is because we are ignorant. So
when we finally do realize how ignorant we are, that is when
learning will finally become extremely important, and a lot more
meaningful then ever before. It's an epiphany and the great
awakening all rolled up into one."
I'm still an idiot
, but I'm always learning so I'm always
discovering more ways to do what is right. I have made a lot of
I still have many more improvements to make
Once you start the process of self examination, you are starting
an amazing journey, and also making a commitment to never stop
learning about your own understanding of yourself and the world
around you. But you need to avoid being consumed by all the
problems, and by all the advancements, you need balance, live,
learn, love and prosper. But what is live? Here we go. You see
that thinking has bought you here and has made your life
possible, now can you see the importance? The fact that you have
the most amazing thing called the brain is enough to explore its
inner workings. You live because of the environment that you
grew into helped you to live, now its time to find out where
this love is coming from. When things go bad it's not about
hate, its about information going bad. That is why we have
correcting data error software, which is another word for
learning. You can't be aware of everything or plan for
everything, but you can increase your odds of success by
continually learning and paying attention to change and the
evidence of changes to come. The one major advantage that humans
have is that we can see the future, that is what life needs to
have in order to survive. And seeing the future has nothing to
do with sight or sound, only the patterns learned from sight and
sound, which do not have to be experienced, only read. That is
the human advantage. If I did not tell you to turn left instead
of right, you would have made a wrong turn.
"The common curse of
mankind, - folly and ignorance". - (Act II, Scene III).
Troilus and Cressida
"I was the idiot who
didn't know any better, but I wanted to know better but i didn't
know how. So I'm sorry it took so long, after all I was an
idiot. But now then I'm less then an idiot, I can continually
improve and become even smarter then I am now."
"What are the smartest
countries in the world, the answer is none. People who do
are incredibly ignorant and criminal, especially
when they use math and science test scores as a predictor of
good outcomes. Ignorant people cannot measure intelligence,
especially when they can't even measure their own ignorance."
"I have neither the
time nor the crayons to explain it to you."
"I can explain
it to you but I can't understand it for you."
"You couldn't pour the water out of a boot if the instructions were written on the heel."
To Know, or not to Know?
Is that even a question?Epiphany
is a sudden revelation. A moment of sudden
or revelation. Epiphany
is a scientific breakthrough that allows a problem or situation to be
understood from a new and deeper perspective. Having a depth of prior
knowledge is required to allow the leap of understanding.
is an enlightening or
disclosure. Self-Directed Learning
is the process of
and reducing ignorance.
. Enlightenment is that feeling you get when you
finally release ignorance that you have been holding on to. Letting go of
your stupidity, a relief from not knowing, to a realization of knowing.
refers to the "full
of a situation".
refers to the attainment of insight in ultimate or hidden
truths, and to human transformation supported by various practices and
experiences. kind of ecstasy or altered state of consciousness which is
given a religious or spiritual meaning.
is coming to understand something clearly and distinctly. Making
real or giving the appearance of
is receptiveness to new ideas. Open-mindedness relates
to the way in which people approach the views and knowledge of others, and
"incorporate the beliefs that others should be free to express their views
and that the value of others’ knowledge should be recognized." There are
various scales for the measurement of open-mindedness.
is the belief that
all criteria of judgment
are relative to the
individuals and situations involved, but this is being narrow-mined and
is to expand one's range of interests, activities, and
is the unexpected and fortunate discoveries, usually happening when
looking for something unrelated. Finding something nice while
looking for something else.
is an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that leads to a
Matter of Fact
, in the
the type of knowledge that can be characterized as arising out of one's
interaction with and experience in the external world (as compared to a
Relation of Ideas). In a Kantian framework, it is equivalent to the
synthetic a posteriori. Examples:-The sun will come out tomorrow. (Not
reason but habitual)-There are people outside the room. (One cannot know
what is outside one's own experience) How We Know:-It is impossible to
"know everything."-Depend upon The Principles of Induction and The
Uniformity of Nature. -Denying these do not lead to a contradiction.Do you know enough?
Could you know too much? You can
about a particular subject in order to perform a
particular task, but do you know enough about yourself? Do you
know enough about the world?
What do you know
? And, is it
enough? I know enough to get buy, but what is enough? And what
is getting buy? You can't even get buy these questions, so how
could you know enough? Can you explain what you know? And if so,
how could it be enough? People just don't want to learn, so they
pretend that they know enough, or, they did not know enough to
begin with, so they don't even know what they don't know. I
know. I know that I don't know everything.
But the more I know
the more of everything is possible. "I'm almost know a lot of
You need to Have an Open
, and be able to Expand your Mind
and always try to Broaden your Horizons
Curse of Knowledge
is the inability of
more informed individual to think about the problems from the perspective
of lesser informed individuals.
Do you know the Basics
Do you know what
What is there to
Why is there a
Don't believe everything you think.
I wouldn't say that there is Limits to
Knowledge, what I would say is that there is definitely limits
to the Lack of Knowledge.
"It aint what you don't know that gets you
into trouble, it's what you think you know for sure that just
aint so." ~
Mark TwainPeople Need to Stop
Pretending that they Know and Understand certain things.
people from learning. But it doesn't stop people from expressing their
opinions that do more harm then good. Believing that you know something that isn't true
can do a lot of
damage. Pretending that you
understand something is one of the most damaging things that you can do to
yourself. It's more then just wrong and illogical, it's a self
inflicted learning disability. Not only will you will suffer from your own
, but other people will suffer as well.
Once you stop learning, you stop living. So instead of accelerating
towards life, you accelerate towards death, like a cancer. You have to
first admit that your ignorant in order to start the process of learning.
"Get Rid of Everything that you Think you Know."
Don't Know the Half of It."
Every person on earth makes the same mistake of
believing that they have learned enough
, and that the knowledge they have
gives them full understanding of themselves and the world around them. But
trying to figure out what you don't know is not that easy. And you must
have access to the knowledge that you need, and some guidance to navigate
through the worlds accumulated knowledge that has been collected in the
last 2,000 years or so. People naively believe that they are learning
enough because they watch the news and do some reading. Well your wrong,
you are not learning enough. Read BK101 and you will begin to learn
Everybody Knows - Leonard Cohen
(youtube) - sadly the fact is,
everyone doesn't know.What is it that fools people into believing that
they know enough?
Is it that people don't even ask what's missing? If it
were easy for people to measure their intelligence level and skills level,
then people would be more aware of their potential, and more aware of what
they know and what they don't know.
The best thing that you can do
is to keep asking questions and stop pretending that you have all the
answers. Knowing that you are a moron is a good thing, because now you
have the ability to educate yourself, and thus stop being a moron and
start becoming more intelligent.
If finding out that you were
ignorant about something makes you feel bad, then that's a good thing,
because ignorance should never feel good. The only time that ignorance
should feel good is when you finally learned to over come it.
"I have a question that I'm not
going to ask you. I am just going to pretend that you don't know the
answer to that question that I never asked you so that I can continue to
pretend to know something that you don't."
"knowing what to do is
just as important as knowing what not to do."
"Most people do not have enough
information and knowledge in order to be fully aware of
themselves or the world around them. So people never fully
understand the options or the choices that they have, or what
better decisions they could be making."
"People don't think stuff
through far enough to fully understand." "Think Twice"
"You don't know what
you don't know until you know what you did not know."
"If there's one thing
that I have learned, it's that I still have a lot to learn."
"The most damaging lies
are the ones we tell ourselves."
"One of the most important things
that a person should know is that there will always be more that they
still don't know. knowing that you don't know everything will always be
better then believing that you know everything. You will never get through
a locked door unless you have a key, and the
key is knowledge
"Know one could have
all the answers, but the more answers you do have, the better
off you will be."
"There is more information in your
in just one tiny microscopic
cell in your body, then you have in your entire brain. But not for long. (BK101).Some people are not smarter then you
people just learned a little more about certain things then you. Things that you
can also learn. So people who have more knowledge and
information then you are not smarter then you, they just seem
smarter, only because you stopped learning or you didn't have
access to the knowledge and information that you need in order
to better understand yourself and the world around you. Just
keep learning a little each day.
How will you add yesterdays learning to
today? And how will you add todays learning to the future?
Learning needs progression, if knowledge becomes
, then it becomes less
effective.You can't be any more then you know
but you can definitely be less then what you know, because you
may have forgotten important things that you have learned. So
the more you know the better. But you have to choose your
knowledge wisely, and you have to learn something new everyday,
if not, then you will have wasted a day. And if you miss too
many days, your development and progress will almost come to a
complete stop. You have to understand the potential that
knowledge gives you, but you also have to understand that
potential energy comes from action, and that action is called
learning. But you have to know what to learn
and when to learn it, otherwise, information and knowledge
becomes fragmented, and unable to be utilized collectively. So
you will not know enough to piece together a full understanding
of yourself, or the world.
"You can be more then what you know,
but not knowing that you are more then what you know, will never
be as good as knowing that you are more then what you know."
"What I think and what I know are two different things."
that you are educated
does not mean that you are
, intelligence or even
fully aware of yourself and the world around you. Being educated just
means that you went to some type of school or institution. The only way to
measure if you are competent, intelligence and aware, is to have a test
that proves that you have these abilities. A test that can't be faked or
manipulated. No multiple choice or yes or no answers. The test will have
written or verbal explanations with witnesses present during the test.
Practice testing will be available so that you can study and prepare for
the test. The final test will be a confirmation that accurately measures
your abilities and that you fully understand yourself and the world around
you. And in doing so,
you are ready to take on the world
A genius who can't tie his own shoes
knowledge is knowledge that is time and place
specific, meaning that you don't really need that particular
knowledge and information until a special set of circumstances
arises. So this type of knowledge will only benefit you when you
need to perform a particular function, like surgery, or farming,
or driving a truck, and so on. Almost every school on the planet
offers this type of knowledge. This is the main reason why
people are ignorant. Because they have been denied knowledge and
information that would give them intelligence and awareness. So
they are just educated enough to be mindless slaves who are
easily manipulated and controlled. Though many people will
immediately say this is false, they will have a very difficult
time explaining why they believe this is false. And this is when
the realization happens, or, this is when they enter a state of
denial. So what valuable knowledge and information is missing
from education, and what knowledge and information is missing
from the news and our media outlets. They are supposedly paid to
inform us of our reality, but they are not doing this
effectively or efficiently. In fact they are
doing the opposite
most of the time.
High Functioning Addict
can't be aware of Everything
Genius in one area of your life does
not necessary mean that you're a genius in other areas of your
life. You've learn this, but not that. Anyone is capable of a
genius action, but that doesn't make that person a genius. Just
because an insane person shows signs of genius does not mean
that there is a connection or a correlation between genius and
insanity. That's like saying that because a person did something
genius, they must also be insane. One does not imply the other,
because they are two separate things. Two things are not
necessarily connected just because they share the same space.
don't necessarily mean
. And just because someone is suffering from
does not make that person crazy or broken. We have to be
very careful with our
. When we narrowly define things, we never see the
whole picture. So we never fully understand, or, do we know the
correct actions to take. So a label is just a starting point,
because it doesn't fully explain the contents. When we give a
label or use a label, we must also give the instructions and the
reasons, otherwise, a label could be more dangerous then
helpful. Don't judge a book by it's cover is also an incomplete
sentence. What book? Who's cover? Why this book?
Just because someone
has more knowledge then you, or more schooling then you, this
does not guarantee that this particular person is smarter the
you. It mostly comes down to who has the right information at
the right time, and if you are doing more harm then good. So
don't ever underestimate your value, and don't ever
underestimate the value of learning, because the more you know
the better your odds will be at making better decisions. So
choose what to learn and when to learn it very wisely. Choosing
correctly what to eat everyday has many benefits, and choosing
what to learn everyday has even more benefits.
Being smart is that ability to have good relationships, to
listen well, to treat people fairly with honestly. Being smart
is that ability to control emotions, to make good decisions, to
have good awareness.
Having more valuable knowledge that gives a greater
understanding does not mean that you will stop making mistakes,
but mistakes will be less frequently.
It's impossible to know everything, but it is possible to know
most of the important things. When smart people don't know
something they have the knowledge and skills to learn what they
need to learn, thus they are good at solving problems and good
at making the best decisions. Being intelligent means you
actually seek to understand what you know and the way things
work. Being smart is having a good bullshit detector, or being
able to tell when someone is lying, and being able to
distinguish sense from nonsense. But you still may be
susceptible to falling into certain traps of falsehood or mind
manipulation. Being smart is being able to control and use
accomplish certain goals. Having extensive knowledge of the mind
and body, and how to use mind and body functions to achieve
goals, like last for days without food, or survive extreme cold
or heat without dying.
Knowledge is knowledge that accumulates over many months
or even years as you learn more. And as you learn more, you
increase your understanding of yourself and the world around
you. So you become more aware, and have more potential, and have
more abilities and more skills. Though specialized knowledge
shares the same function as accumulated knowledge, specialized
knowledge is limited to a specific need. Everyone needs a
foundation of knowledge and information
that provides them
with a full understanding of themselves and the world around
them. Intelligence is the goal.
BK101 is not everything there is to know
, but it will help you to
know more about things in life then you ever thought possible.
Reading every encyclopedia wont make
you smart. Having a great
you smart either. Remembering mundane details might get you on a
meaningless game show like Jeopardy, but it does not mean that
you are smart or intelligent. It's not how much knowledge and
information you have, it's how effective and efficient you are
in using that knowledge and information to improve life. That is
truly what makes a person intelligent. So it's not what you
have, or how much you have, it's how you use what you have that
ends up being the most important aspect. That should be the top
priority of every educational institution on the planet, but
it's not. But for BK101, this is the top priority. This website
may have some of the worlds most valuable knowledge and
information, but if you never learn how to formulate knowledge
and information correctly, and use it effectively and
efficiently, then the benefits from knowledge and information
will never materialize. If you are not
then you are most likely adding to the problems that we have.
"Ignorance kills more people then all causes of death combined" Preventable
for adaptive and positive behavior
that enable humans to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of
everyday life; Competency
in Decision making,
thinking/lateral thinking, Critical thinking/perspicacity,
Effective communication, Interpersonal relationships, Self
Coping with stress
, trauma and loss, Resilience.
are a combination of interpersonal people
skills, social skills, communication skills, character traits, attitudes,
career attributes and emotional intelligence quotient (EQ) among others
that enable people to effectively navigate their environment, work well
with others, perform well, and achieve their goals with complementing hard
Life Skills-Based Education
are abilities for adaptive and
positive behavior that enable individuals to deal effectively with the
demands and challenges of everyday life.
Evolution of Human Intelligence
is closely tied to the
of the human brain
and to the origin of language. The timeline of human evolution spans
approximately 7 million years, from the separation of the Pan genus until
the emergence of behavioral modernity by 50,000 years ago. The first 3
million years of this timeline concern Sahelanthropus, the following 2
million concern Australopithecus and the final 2 million span the history
of actual human genus in the Paleolithic era. Many traits of human
intelligence, such as empathy, theory of mind, mourning, ritual, and the
use of symbols and tools, are apparent in great apes although in less
sophisticated forms than found in humans, such as great ape language.
Outline of Human Intelligence
has been defined in many different ways including one's capacity
for logic, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness,
communication, learning, emotional knowledge, memory, planning,
creativity and problem solving. It can be more generally
described as the ability to perceive information, and retain it
as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an
(Gq) is the ability to comprehend
quantitative concepts and relationships and to manipulate numerical
symbols.Reading and writing ability
(Grw) includes basic reading and
writing skills.Short-term memory
(Gsm) is the ability to apprehend and
hold information in immediate awareness, and then use it within a few
seconds.Long-term storage and retrieval
(Glr) is the ability to store
information and fluently retrieve it later in the process of thinking.
(Gv) is the ability to perceive, analyze, synthesize,
and think with visual patterns, including the ability to store and recall
visual representations.Auditory processing
(Ga) is the ability to
analyze, synthesize, and discriminate auditory stimuli, including the
ability to process and discriminate speech sounds that may be presented
under distorted conditions.Processing speed
(Gs) is the ability to
perform automatic cognitive tasks, particularly when measured under
pressure to maintain focused attention.
reflects the immediacy with which an individual can react to stimuli or a
task (typically measured in seconds or fractions of seconds; it is not to
be confused with Gs, which typically is measured in intervals of 2–3
minutes). Mental chronometry
is the use of response time in
perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal
sequencing of cognitive operations.
are eight abilities,
musical–rhythmic, visual–spatial, verbal–linguistic, logical–mathematical,
bodily–kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Howard Gardner Spatial Intelligence
Number SmartWord Smart
Frame of Reference
Music SmartProblem Solving
refers to experience and
accumulated knowledge. Includes the breadth and depth of a
person's acquired knowledge, the ability to communicate one's knowledge,
and the ability to reason using previously learned experiences or
is the ability to learn and process
information. The ability to reason, form concepts, and solve
problems using unfamiliar information or novel procedures.
Improving fluid intelligence
with training on working
memory, The ability to reason and to solve new problems
independently of previously acquired knowledge.
Outline of Human Intelligence
Seven Levels of intelligence and three types of genius
Link between Sensory Discriminations and Intelligence
Wisdom, intelligence, creativity, synthesized
The Genius in All of Us, David Shenk
you Teach Multiple Intelligences
Science Specials - Beautiful Minds
Season 1 Episode 86 | Aired on 01/28/2015 | TV-G | 2 hr. 17 min
My Brilliant Brain - Make Me a Genius (Episode 1)
NatGeo "My Brilliant Brain" featuring Susan Polgar
Switching skills on by turning off part of the Brain
Brain Stimulation makes the impossible problem solvable
Brain Function Examinations
Mensa Brain Test
Thurstone Test of Mental Alertness
Aptitude Competence IQ
= MA/CA x 100
(CA) multiplied by 100)
Implicit Association Test
is a measure within social
psychology designed to detect the strength of a person's automatic
association between mental representations of objects (concepts) in
Raven's Progressive Matrices
is a nonverbal group test typically used
in educational settings. It is usually a 60-item test used in measuring
abstract reasoning and regarded as a non-verbal estimate of
is the mental action or process of acquiring
knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses.
It encompasses processes such as knowledge, attention, memory and working
memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem
solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language,
scientifically based tool to measure and improve cognitive performance.
assessment of human intelligence. It is thought to tap
and motor skill
The test-taker uses hand movements to rearrange
have various color patterns on different sides to match a pattern. The
items in a block design test can be scored both by accuracy in matching
the pattern and by speed in completing each item.
are a set of cognitive processes – including attentional
control, inhibitory control
memory, and cognitive flexibility, as well as reasoning, problem solving,
and planning – that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior:
selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors
that facilitate the
attainment of chosen goals. Executive functions gradually develop and
change across the lifespan of an individual and can be improved at any
time over the course of a person's life. Similarly, these cognitive
processes can be adversely affected by a variety of events which affect an
individual. Levels of
is defined as the ability of an individual to perform the various mental
activities most closely associated with learning and problem solving.
Examples include verbal, spatial, psychomotor, and processing-speed
ability. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to
learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.
is the study of mental processes such as "attention
". Much of the work
derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other
modern disciplines of psychological study, including
are assessments of the cognitive capabilities of
humans and other animals. Tests administered to humans include various
forms of IQ tests; those administered to animals include the mirror test
(a test of visual self-awareness
) and the T maze test (which tests
learning ability). Such study is important to research concerning the
philosophy of mind and psychology
, as well as determination of human and
Cognitive AbilitiesCognitive Failures
Four Stages of Competence
is the process of progressing from
incompetence to competence in a skill.
The individual does not understand or
know how to do something and does not necessarily recognize the deficit.
They may deny the usefulness of the skill. The individual must recognize
their own incompetence, and the value of the new skill, before moving on
to the next stage. The length of time an individual spends in this stage
depends on the strength of the stimulus to learn.
individual does not understand or know how to do something, he or she does
recognize the deficit, as well as the value of a new skill in addressing
the deficit. The making of mistakes can be integral to the learning
process at this stage.Conscious competence
The individual understands or knows how to do something. However,
demonstrating the skill or knowledge requires concentration. It may be
broken down into steps, and there is heavy conscious involvement in
executing the new skill.Unconscious competence
The individual has had so much practice with a skill that it has become
"second nature" and can be performed easily. As a result, the skill can be
performed while executing another task. The individual may be able to
teach it to others, depending upon how and when it was learned.
is a student whose mental capacities develop ahead of chronological
Mini Mental State Examination
is a 30-point questionnaire that is used extensively in clinical and
research settings to measure cognitive impairment. -
Mental Health Tests
Attentional Network Task (ANT)
Attention Networks Test
Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System
50 things everyone should know how to do
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
primary index scores (i.e., Verbal Comprehension Index, Visual Spatial
Index, Fluid Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, and Processing Speed
Index) that represent a child's abilities in more discrete cognitive
domains. Five ancillary composite scores can be derived from various
combinations of primary or primary and secondary subtests.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Adults Intelligence Scale
is an IQ test designed to measure
intelligence and cognitive ability in adults and older adolescents.
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
is the application of individual and collective
to weigh data and test
hypotheses within a secret socio-cultural context. The analyst must
correlate the similarities among
and extract a
is a Documentary about IQ testing and Testing for Intelligence. (youtube)
High School Diploma
does not confirm intelligence, then what does it confirm?
IQ scores are predictive in measuring the ability of a person to
have more occupational success, higher income, and better
physical and mental health. But higher IQ scores do not
determine the value of success, it only determines the increased
chances of success. But you have to
an iq test does not define success. This is more then just
getting a job, it's knowing that the work you do is valuable.
It's not about how much money you made, it's how you impacted
the world. Did you use and abuse the world and make everyone pay
for it? Or did you improve the world that produced measurable
benefits for other people? Once you accurately measure the
inputs and outputs of a persons life, it paints a much clearer
picture about what real success is.
There is too much
in these tests, just like in our
. Just remembering ignorant facts is not a test.
"I would not say that "Wisdom comes with
, because knowledge comes from
and seeking out facts. Though older
people may have more experiences
, they don't always learn from
those experiences the way they should. If you stop seeking
knowledge and stop learning, then wisdom and old age will never
So what do I consider
? First review the
below and then I will tell you my definitions that I believe should be
added. To be endowed and privileged enough to be
labeled with intelligent characteristics you should also have these
added qualities. A person who has common sense, a person who
separates opinion from fact, a person who does not dismiss
solely based on preference, a person who does not
, a person who can formulate information in
order to obtain a logical answer, A person who can
a person who is knowledgeable
of the Human Brain
a person who possesses
Discipline and Self-Control
, a person who knows
Good from Bad
from wrong and lives buy it,
a person who is not corruptible, a
Never Stops Learning
, a person who knows that being a
are the two greatest
responsibilities of an intelligent person, a person who is
constantly striving to always possess and honor the qualities of
intelligence, a person who teaches the qualities of
intelligence, a person who knows they will still
but now will learn from them and move on. So the next time you
want to call someone intelligent remember these qualities. You
should never call a child intelligent or gifted. You should
instead tell them that they have the abilities to be intelligent
or gifted. This way they will know that to be intelligent or
gifted is a life long process that is much more then a label
that someone gives you. If you find someone who considers
themselves to be intelligent then show them these definitions.
They should be able to prove these qualities, but a truly
intelligent person should say that they are constantly striving
to acquire all these qualities in order to one day possess them
all and even add some new ones. I look at these qualities as the
foundation of a
F = T (upside-down triangle or
A force to maximize future options
. Knowing when to apply
the correct action at the correct time
Being intelligent is being able to
approach intellectual road blocks from new angles. Being
intelligent is the ability to borrow tools from one discipline
to solve problems in another. Being intelligent is having many
different hobbies that can lead to creative breakthroughs. Being
intelligent is being able to slow down multitasking, having one
project take center stage for a series of hours or days. Leaving
the other projects to linger in the margins of consciousness,
but still being able to take ideas from the projects at the
margins. Being intelligent is being able to think outside the
box, letting the mind wander and dream, processing new
information, making new connections, and developing new thinking
strategies.To determine how
dysfunctional you are you first have to determine how functional
. That's like trying to figure out
how smart you are,
which is not easy because intelligence is not totally defined
yet, with too much of your understanding being determined by your
own perception. The only way to determine intelligence is to
have an exact list of questions and problems that test your skills and
knowledge. How much intelligence does the IQ test really
determine? Very little because it's an overall test of skills and
knowledge and not an exact test of what makes a person
intelligent. Define intelligence, then define the test.
Takes the 1964 Louisiana Literacy Test
- (The test was a
"I am so clever that sometimes I don't understand a single
word of what I am saying."
"A fool thinks himself to be wise, but a wise man knows
himself to be a fool."
"You're smart, it's
just that your understanding of the world is not totally
accurate, or complete."
"Be careful who you
because intellectuals are not always
intelligent, they have mostly been schooled, thus they are most
likely to be still ignorant and very vulnerable to corruption."
“The key to
attaining a higher level of intelligence is to make your years
of study qualitatively rich. We don't simply absorb information
- we internalize it and make it our own by finding some way to
put this knowledge to practical use.”
gradually and finally understanding just how incredibly
important knowledge and information is to a human."
Education Sayings and Quotes
is having the capacity for
and reason especially to a high degree. Possessing sound
Exercising or showing good judgment
. Endowed with the
capacity to Reason
. Having good
or a high mental capacity; quick to
"Intelligence is making good decisions and examining things
carefully. Intelligence is always learning."
has been defined in many different ways
including one's capacity for logic
learning, emotional knowledge
and problem solving.
It can be more generally described as the ability to perceive information,
it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within
an environment or context.
is a person who uses intelligence rather than
person who uses the mind creatively. The capacity for rational thought or
"Intelligence is not a level of
achievement, it is a way of life. And the levels are just temporary steps that
lead to greater and even larger steps, some of which have not yet been
are a set of cognitive processes –
including attentional control, inhibitory control,
cognitive flexibility, as well as reasoning,
, and planning
– that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior.Self-Directed Learning
is a person whose expertise spans a significant
number of different subject areas; such a person is known to draw on
complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
is the depth, polish and breadth that education
confers. The Latin word educāre means to bring out or
; hence an
educated person has come to think critically and logically. An erudite
person has both deep and broad familiarity with general subjects and is
usually knowledgeable in a particular subject, by virtue of study and
extensive reading of the subject's literature.
a type of wisdom relevant to practical things,
requiring an ability to discern how or why to act virtuously and encourage
practical virtue, excellence of character, in others.
is showing mental alertness and
resourcefulness. Characterized by quickness and ease in
Capable of independent and apparently intelligent action.
is the behavior of an electronic, software or
other system where the output is dependent on the sequence or timing of
other uncontrollable events. It becomes a bug when events do not happen in
the order the programmer intended.Thinking
is a person who has a lot of
common sense and knows what's going on in the world. This person knows
what every type of person has to deal with daily and understands all
groups of people and how to act around them. This person also knows all
the current sh*t going on in the streets and the ghetto and everywhere
else and knows how to make his own right decisions, knows how to deal with
different situations and has his own independent state of mind. A street
smart person isn't stubborn and actually listens to sh*t and understands
is being full of promise and potential.
is having or marked by unusual and impressive
intelligence. Surpassing excellence.
is the ability to respond to the environment
in an appropriate manner. This response is generally learned rather than
instinctive. Maturity also encompasses being aware of the correct time and
place to behave and knowing when to act, according to the circumstances
and the culture of the society one lives in. Adult development and
maturity theories include the purpose in life concept, in which maturity
emphasizes a clear comprehension of life's purpose, directedness, and
intentionality, which contributes to the feeling that life is meaningful.Prudent
is being careful and sensible; marked by sound judgment.
is being mentally perceptive and responsive.
What is Mindset
is the trait of being
considerate and thoughtful
of others. The trait of being observant and
is marked by the exercise of good judgment or common sense
in practical matters. Having or prompted by
or erudition or enlightenment.
The trait of utilizing knowledge and experience with common
sense and insight. Ability to apply knowledge or
experience or understanding or common sense and insight.
The quality of being prudent and sensible. Knowing the
is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience,
understanding, common sense, and insight.
is the body of ideas or explanations
as true by the public or by experts in a field.
(wiki) - Assumptions
is having no limits or
boundaries in time, space, extent, or magnitude.
is a wise and
is the quality or state of being reasonable,
based on facts or reason. Rationality implies the conformity of one's
beliefs with one's reasons to believe, or of one's actions with one's
reasons for action.
is someone who has attained the wisdom which a
was a person or agency considered to provide wise and
insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future,
inspired by the gods.
is a philosophical concept regarding wisdom.
"Wisdom does not
come with age, wisdom only comes from learning. And learning only comes
from having access to valuable knowledge and information that increases
your understanding of yourself and the world around you, and then learning
how to use knowledge and information effectively and efficiently."
is exhibiting or requiring the exercise
of great wisdom, especially in making difficult decisions.
is having worldly knowledge and refinement and Social skill. Ahead
in development; complex or intricate; Intellectually appealing.
is the power of creative imagination. Intelligence as
manifested in being quick and witty. Mentally quick and resourceful. Showing inventiveness and skill.
is the quality of being able to cope with a difficult
situation. The ability to deal resourcefully with
is being at a higher level in training or knowledge or skill; Ahead in
development; complex or intricate. Farther along in physical or
mental development; Ahead of the times. (of societies) highly
developed especially in technology or industry. Contribute to
the progress or growth of; Develop in a positive way; Move
is to be wise enough, experienced enough, or well trained enough
not to have done something wrong. To be wise enough to behave in
a more responsible or acceptable
way. You can know better, but,
if you don't apply the right information at the right time, then
knowing better will not help you, so you will most likely make
the same mistakes again and again.
a Process, a Procedure
is having deep insight; great depth of knowledge or thought. Wisdom that
is recondite and abstruse and profound. Intellectual depth;
penetrating knowledge; keen insight; etc. The intellectual
ability to penetrate deeply into
accumulation of knowledge or skill
that results from direct
participation in events or activities.
The content of direct observation or participation in an event. Go or live through. Have firsthand knowledge of states,
situations, emotions, or sensations.
Go through (mental or physical states or experiences) Undergo an
emotional sensation or be in a particular state of mind.
is the knowledge or mastery of an event or
subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.
Experience does not always mean that you are learning the right
is the cognitive condition of someone who understands.
Delicate discrimination (especially of esthetic values)
of that which is obscure. The mental
ability to understand and discriminate between relations.
The trait of judging wisely and objectively.
is someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and
originality. Unusual mental ability. Someone who is dazzlingly
in any field. Exceptional
is a person who displays exceptional intellectual ability,
creative productivity, universality in genres or originality, typically to
a degree that is associated with the achievement of new advances in a
domain of knowledge. Most
Genius happen between the ages of 30 and 40 years of age.
and Reasonable Judgment
that guide reasoning within a given field or
The branch of philosophy that analyzes
The system of operations performed by a computer that underlies
the machine's representation of
is generally held to consist of the systematic study
of the form of arguments. A valid argument is one where there is a
specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the
argument and its conclusion.
classical propositional and predicate logic to
include operators expressing
is a kind of non-classical logic requiring the antecedent and consequent
of implications to be relevantly related. They may be viewed as a family
of substructural or modal logics.
is fallible, twisted or
circular reasoning that when dissected is wrong, does not make sense or
does not explain the situation rationally.
is a person, such as a philosopher or a mathematician, whose
topic of scholarly study is logic.
are simple, first-order logic knowledge representations of natural
language sentences formed by the conjunction of concept predicates related
through shared arguments.
is a collection of formal systems used in
mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science
is an assignment of meaning to the
symbols of a formal language.
is a type of probabilistic logic that
explicitly takes uncertainty and belief ownership into account.
is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid
by a flaw in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a
standard logic system, for example propositional logic.
identifies a class of formal logics that
have been most intensively studied and most widely used.
is a rule of inference leading to a
refutation theorem-proving technique for sentences in propositional logic
and first-order logic. In other words, iteratively applying the resolution
rule in a suitable way allows for telling whether a propositional formula
is satisfiable and for proving that a first-order formula is unsatisfiable.
Attempting to prove a satisfiable first-order formula as unsatisfiable may
result in a nonterminating computation; this problem doesn't occur in
is a logic lacking one of the usual
structural rules (e.g. of classical and intuitionistic logic), such as
weakening, contraction, exchange or associativity. Two of the more
significant substructural logics are relevant logic and linear logic.
asserted that only statements
observation are cognitively meaningful.
is being capable of or reflecting the
capability for correct and
Based on known statements or events or conditions.
Marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent
relation of parts.
Capable of thinking and expressing yourself in a clear and
is thinking that is coherent and logical. Endowed with the capacity
to reason. Decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion.
determines whether the truth of a
conclusion can be determined for that rule, based solely on the truth of
the premises. (deductive logic, logical deduction, bottom up logic).
is deductive reasoning in which a
conclusion is derived from two premises.
attempts to support a determination of the rule. It
hypothesizes a rule after numerous examples are taken to be a conclusion
that follows from a precondition in terms of such a rule.
is a form of logical inference which goes from an
observation to a theory which accounts for the observation, ideally
seeking to find the simplest and most likely explanation. In abductive
reasoning, unlike in deductive reasoning, the premises do not guarantee
the conclusion. One can understand abductive reasoning as "inference to
the best explanation".
or analogy, is a cognitive process of
transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the
analogue or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression
corresponding to such a process. In a narrower sense, analogy is an
inference or an argument from one particular to another particular, as
opposed to deduction, induction, and abduction, where at least one of the
premises or the conclusion is general. The word analogy can also refer to
the relation between the source and the target themselves, which is often,
though not necessarily, a similarity, as in the biological notion of
How Logical Are
You? (Psychology of Reasoning)
verbal inferencing using assumptions and
is the process of identifying causality:
the relationship between a cause and its effect.
is an emotion-biased decision-making phenomenon
studied in cognitive science and social psychology. This term describes
the role of motivation in cognitive processes such as decision-making and
attitude change in a number of paradigms, including: Cognitive dissonance
reduction, Beliefs about others on whom one's own outcomes depend.
Evaluation of evidence related to one's own outcomes.
is a software system that generates
conclusions from available knowledge using logical techniques such as
deduction and induction.
a statement (in mathematics often shown in symbolic form) that is so
evident or well-established, that it is accepted without controversy or
Procedural Reasoning System
is a framework for
constructing real-time reasoning systems that can perform complex tasks in
Dual Process Theory
provides an account of how a phenomenon can occur in two different ways,
or as a result of two different processes.
Case Based Reasoning
- Problem Solving
is the quality or state of being reasonable, based on
or reason. Rationality implies the conformity of one's beliefs with
one's reasons to believe, or of one's actions with one's reasons for
action. "Rationality" has different specialized meanings in economics,
sociology, psychology, evolutionary biology, and political science.
is using reason guided by the
is the view that "regards reason as the chief
source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source
of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a
methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not
sensory but intellectual and deductive".
Rational Choice Theory
is a statement that does not seem likely to be true
when assessed using intuition, common sense, or gut feelings.
Evidence Based Practice
is the ease with which information is
processed. Perceptual fluency is the ease of processing stimuli based on
manipulations to perceptual quality. Retrieval fluency is the ease with
which information can be retrieved from memory
describes ways of understanding and predicting
the natural and social world, without the use of rigorous methodologies.
is an inference method that
can be described (in lay terms) as working backward from the goal(s). It
is used in automated theorem provers, inference engines, proof assistants
and other artificial intelligence applications. In game theory, its
application to (simpler) subgames in order to find a solution to the game
is called backward induction. In chess, it is called retrograde analysis,
and it is used to generate tablebases
for chess endgames for computer
chess. Backward chaining is implemented in logic programming by SLD
resolution. Both rules are based on the modus ponens
. It is one of the two most commonly used methods of
reasoning with inference rules and logical implications – the other is
forward chaining. Backward chaining systems usually employ a depth-first
is an agent that has clear preferences
uncertainty via expected values of
or functions of variables, and always chooses to perform the action with
the optimal expected outcome for itself from among all feasible actions. A
rational agent can be anything that makes decisions, typically a person,
firm, machine, or software. Rational agents are also studied in the fields
of cognitive science
, including the
philosophy of practical reason.
The misunderstood limits of folk science: an illusion of
is a concept of intuitive probability. It
means a very high degree of probability, sufficient for action, but short
of absolute or mathematical certainty.
The Goal is
and Mathematical Optimization
is a formal theory of exemplar based
Can your decisions become more rational when thought in another
language? A university of Chicago study showed that Korean
citizens who thought in foreign languages reduced their overall
is a rational motive for a belief or action. An explanation of the
cause of some phenomenon. The capacity for
thought or inference or
discrimination. The state of having good sense and sound
A justification for something existing or happening. A
fact that logically justifies some premise or conclusion.
Show to be right by providing justification or proof. Defend,
explain, clear away, or make excuses for by reasoning.
Decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion. Think
logically. Knowing the difference between
is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying
logic, establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying
practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
are operations that affect mental contents.
Initially, operations of reasoning have been the object of logic alone.
is certain classes of mental states
that most people believe in do not exist.
Levels of Thinking
nature or meaning
of. To become
of through the
. Characterized by understanding based on
comprehension and discernment
mentally. The trait of judging
is a psychological process related to an
or physical object, such
as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to think about it
and use concepts to deal adequately with that object. Understanding is a
relation between the knower and an object of understanding. Understanding
implies abilities and dispositions with respect to an object of knowledge
sufficient to support intelligent behavior. PDF
is having or showing
knowledge or understanding or realization or perception.
One extremely important aspect of understanding is the ability to know
that there is another side to a story
another point of view, another way
to look at something
, to have an open mind, avoiding
jumping to conclusions
fully understand and get the meaning of something.
An Essay Concerning Human
is a distinct
feature or element in a problem. A characteristic to be considered.
Type II Errors
is a penetrating discernment—a clarity of
vision or intellect which provides a deep understanding and insight.Meanings
is to comprehend. Sound practical judgment. The faculty through which
the external world is fully understood.
Become aware of, not through
but instinctively. A
natural appreciation or ability. A general conscious
Perceive by a physical sensation, e.g., coming from the skin or
muscles. Detect some circumstance or entity automatically.
The meaning of a word or expression; the way in which a word or
expression or situation can be interpreted.
is the reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or
making a logical judgment on the basis of circumstantial
evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of
direct observation. Knowing the difference between
are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to
List of Rules of Inference
is acting in a way that maximizes utility
is to consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order
to discover essential features or meaning.
Make a mathematical, chemical, or grammatical analysis of; break
down into components or essential features.
Break down into components or essential features.
of the component
parts of a whole and their
in making up the whole. The abstract
separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the
parts and their relations
A form of literary criticism
in which the
of a piece
of writing is analyzed
A branch of mathematics involving calculus
and the theory of
limits; sequences and series and integration and
A set of
for exploring underlying motives and a
method of treating various
is the process of breaking a complex topic or
substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of
is the discovery, interpretation, and communication
. Especially valuable in areas rich with recorded information,
analytics relies on the simultaneous application of
programming and operations research to quantify performance. Analytics
often favors data visualization
to communicate insight.
is the application of individual and collective
data and test hypotheses within a secret socio-cultural context. The
analyst must correlate the similarities among
and extract a
is the ability to visualize, articulate, conceptualize or solve both
complex and uncomplicated problems by making decisions that are sensible
given the available information. Such skills include demonstration of the
ability to apply logical thinking to breaking complex problems into their
is a systematic determination of a subject's
merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of
standards. It can assist an organization, program, project or any other
intervention or initiative to assess any aim, realisable concept/proposal,
or any alternative, to help in decision-making
; or to ascertain the degree
of achievement or value in regard to the aim and objectives and results of
any such action that has been completed. The primary purpose of
evaluation, in addition to gaining insight into prior or existing
initiatives, is to enable reflection and assist in the identification of
future change.Processer Research
by which a medical professional
investigates the body of a
patient for signs of disease. It generally follows the taking of the
medical history—an account of the symptoms as experienced by the patient.
Together with the medical history, the physical examination aids in
determining the correct diagnosis and devising the treatment plan. This
data then becomes part of the medical record.
is preparing or putting through a prescribed
. Subject to
a process or treatment, with the aim of readying for some
purpose, improving, or remedying a condition. Perform
mathematical and logical operations on (data) according to
in order to obtain the required
information. Deal with in a routine way.
is concerned with practical matters. Guided by practical
and observation rather than
Consider the practical effects of the objects of
your conception. Then, your conception of those effects is the whole of
your conception of the object.
is being or involving basic
or principles. Far-reaching and thoroughgoing in
effect especially on the nature of something. Any
that could be considered important to the
understanding of a particular business.
is a conceptual process by which general rules
are derived from the usage and classification of specific
examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or
thought based on the model
are a particular kind of mathematically based
techniques for the specification, development and verification of software
and hardware systems.
is to gain
of (an area not known or experienced) by extrapolating. Estimate
the value of. Draw from specific cases for more general cases. Extend
the application of (a method or conclusion, esp. one based on
to an unknown situation by assuming that existing trends will
continue or similar methods will be applicable.
is the process of estimating, beyond the original
observation range, the
value of a variable on the basis of its relationship with another
is the capacity to assess situations or circumstances shrewdly and
to draw sound conclusions.
The mental ability to understand and discriminate between
relations. The act of judging
a person or situation
The cognitive process of reaching a
or drawing conclusions.
is to evaluate
or estimate the nature,
, ability, extent, value
or significance of.
is the evaluation
to make a decision.
is a formal charge of
brought against a person;
the act of imputing blame
or guilt. An assertion that someone is guilty of a
What is a Judge
is the capacity to assess situations or circumstances shrewdly and
to draw sound conclusions.
is free from error; adapting to fact or truth. In accord with
accepted standards of usage or procedure.
To achieve accuracy. Alter or regulate so as to achieve accuracy
or conform to a standard.
is a statement that makes something comprehensible by describing
the relevant structure or operation or circumstances etc..
Thought that makes something comprehensible. The act of
explaining; making something plain or intelligible.
is to determine the essential
quality of. Give a definition
for the meaning of a word.
Determine the nature of.
is a message describing
how something is to be done. Something that provides direction
or advice as to a decision or course of action. A formal
statement of a command or injunction to do something. The
concentration of attention or energy on something. Showing the
is someone who shows the way
by leading or advising. Something that offers basic information
or instruction. Someone who can find paths through unexplored
having something represented accurately or precisely. Show the form or outline
of. Determine the essential quality of.
Trace the shape of. Make a mark or lines on a surface. Describe
in vivid detail.
is to represent in words especially with sharpness and detail. To
give an account or representation of in words.
Give a description of.
is to establish after a calculation, investigation, experiment,
survey, or study. Reach, make, or come to a decision about
Find out, learn, or determine with certainty, usually by making
an inquiry or other effort.
is one of a number of things from
which only one can be chosen. Serving or used in place of
Necessitating a choice between mutually exclusive possibilities.
The freedom or right to choose.
is something capable of being apprehended or understood. Express clearly, and loud enough to be heard distinctly.
is a course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating a truth or
falsehood; the methodical process of logical reasoning.
is something (such as a
fact or circumstance
) that shows an action
to be reasonable or necessary.
A statement in explanation of some action or
. The act of
defending or explaining or making excuses for by reasoning.
Theory of Justification
is a part of
attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs.
Epistemologists are concerned with various epistemic features of belief,
which include the ideas of justification, warrant,
, and probability
. Of these
four terms, the term that has been most widely used and discussed by the
early 21st century is "warrant". Loosely speaking, justification is the
reason that someone (properly) holds a belief. When a claim is in doubt,
justification can be used to support the claim and reduce or remove the
doubt. Justification can use empiricism (the
(the appeal to criteria and
authority), or logical deduction
are a basic generalization that is accepted as true and
that can be used as a basis for reasoning or
A rule or standard especially of good behavior. A basic
A rule or law concerning a natural phenomenon or the function of
a complex system.
Rule of personal conduct. (law) an explanation of the
fundamental reasons (especially an explanation of the working of
device in terms of laws of nature) Knowing the differences
between a Lie
is a law
that has to be, or usually is to be
followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an inevitable
something, such as the laws observed in nature or the way that a system is
constructed. The principles of such a system are understood by its users
as the essential characteristics of the
, or reflecting
system's designed purpose, and the effective
or use of which would
be impossible if any one of the principles was to be ignored.
is a position or opinion or judgment reached after consideration. An intuitive assumption. The proposition arrived at by logical
reasoning (such as the proposition that must follow from the
major and minor premises of a syllogism
Problem Solving Words
I still love you, even knowing that you only have a
Half a Brain
But I would love you a lot more if you had a whole brain that
was full of valuable knowledge and information. Then when we are
together, we would have more potential, more options, more
control, more power, more freedom, and more
possibilities...Well, that's what whole brain people do any way,
How would you explain intelligence to someone who isn't
Smart and intelligent cannot be used to describe a person
unless you explain why. Smart and intelligent only describes a
particular action, an action that is known to be logical. That
was a smart thing to do, that was an intelligent thing to do. So
to say "That Person is Smart", you have to say why? Did they do
a smart thing, or is it they can do particular things that
require specialized knowledge? So in order to be smart or
intelligent you have to perform intelligent actions. So only
that particular action is smart and not necessarily the person
performing the action. But if you would like to be considered
smart then you would have to be known as the person who
performed the most intelligent actions. And to prove that you
would have to be extremely intelligent." Good luck...it's not a
problem, it's a challenge...
You're very bright and aware, keep learning...
Human Operating System (HOS)
HOS is another way of describing your
knowledge. The constructs that you use when understanding yourself and the
world around you.
The Human Brain is the most powerful machine on
, so it makes perfect sense that the most powerful machine in
the world should have the most powerful software
in the world.
is a comprehensive computer model
is an analytical tool used to make conceptual
conceptual frameworks capture something real and do this in a way that is
easy to remember and apply.
is a category of real-time dynamic, business
analytics that delivers visibility and insight into data, streaming events
and business operations. OI solutions run queries against streaming data
feeds and event data to deliver analytic results as
. OI provides organizations the ability to make decisions and
immediately act on these analytic insights, through manual or automated
endowing a robot with intelligent behavior
by providing it with a
architecture that will allow it to learn and reason about how
to behave in response to complex goals in a complex world.
is a way of characterizing the most basic
problem of intelligent systems:
what to do next
is an autonomous entity which observes
upon an environment using actuators and directs its activity towards
is a class of
use various artificial intelligence computing approaches like
, Bayesian probability, fuzzy logic,
, evolutionary computation and genetic algorithms.
What would be the
for Learning? You would have to write a lot of
is a piece of software designed to update a computer
program or its supporting data, to fix or improve it.
Organizing Knowledge Cognitively
is a system of grouping and
categorizing our brain to use, sort and store information. System changes
and adapts as the amount of knowledge about a particular subject changes
Artificial Curiosity and Creativity
research that aims to develop software and hardware with
similar to those of the animal or human brain.Human Operators Manual
has been updated.
Life Operators Manual
(youtube - Tom Shadyac, Michael D.
Palm sented Life's Operating Manual)
Human Source Code
Refactoring The Human Body
Category-Based Intrinsic Motivation
of your thoughts, being aware of
how you feel. An examination of the mind, questioning accuracy.
is the set of cognitive faculties
that enables consciousness, perception,
thinking, judgment, and memory—a characteristic of humans, but which also
may apply to other life forms.
Language of Thought Hypothesis
is when language controls thinking
to the way that computer software
This is your
is more then a skill that one needs to learn,
awareness is about having a full understanding of
cause and effect
, and how everything in this world, in one
way or another, is
are a set of applications
that watch over a user’s shoulder and
suggest information relevant to the current situation. While query-based
memory aids help with direct recall, remembrance agents are an augmented
associative memory. For example, the word-processor version of the RA
continuously updates a list of documents
relevant to what’s being typed or
read in an emacs buffer. These suggested documents can be any text files
that might be relevant to what you are currently writing or reading. They
might be old emails related to the mail you are currently reading, or
abstracts from papers and newspaper articles that discuss the topic of
your writing.Working Memory
is the system
responsible for the transient
holding and processing
of new and already-stored
recalling past experiences and knowledge from memory. To Keep in
mind for attention or consideration. This is an important
process for reasoning
. Working memory is a
theoretical framework that refers to structures and processes
used for temporarily storing and manipulating information. What
information do we have? What information are we receiving? What
is the appropriate action
? Most of the time people are in
automatic mode, and rarely use the processing power of the human
brain. That's because not enough people are teaching this skill
or learning this skill.
is when existing memories are recalled
and modified with new knowledge.
Development of Autonomy in Adolescence
is the ability to do things without occupying
the mind with the low-level details required, allowing it to become an
automatic response pattern or habit. It is usually the result of learning,
repetition, and practice.
refers to the total amount of mental effort being used
in the working memory. Intrinsic cognitive load is the effort associated
with a specific topic. Extraneous cognitive load
refers to the way
information or tasks are presented to a learner. And, germane cognitive
load refers to the work put into creating a permanent store of knowledge,
or a schema.
is an Organized Pattern of Thought or
Manual Controls and
is a type of implicit memory (unconscious memory)
and long-term memory which aids the performance of
particular types of
tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.
Procedural memory guides the processes we perform and most frequently
resides below the level of conscious awareness. When needed, procedural
memories are automatically retrieved and utilized for the execution of the
integrated procedures involved in both cognitive and motor skills, from
tying shoes to flying an airplane to reading. Procedural memories are
accessed and used without the need for conscious control or attention.
Procedural memory is created through procedural learning or, repeating a
complex activity over and over again until all of the relevant neural
systems work together to automatically produce the activity. Implicit
procedural learning is essential for the development of any motor skill or
brains have a basic algorithm that enables our intelligence
Imagine using a
and having no
system controls and
, and at the same time having no coordination
or management of priorities. You would have a very difficult
time trying to accomplish even the simplest task. Now imagine a
Human without an operating system. Well you can’t, because you
don’t know what a Human Operating System is yet. Just like if
you never used a computer you would have no idea what it would
be like using a computer without an operating system. Most of us
have a crappie operating system already thanks to our
dysfunctional education system
. We should have been given an
Open Sourced Operating System
instead of a
and dysfunctional operating system
. So let me give you a brief description of what a Human
Operating System is like, or supposed to be like. Remember that
the original definition of a computer was “A human who preformed
calculations”. But when the electronic computer was developed
then the definition changed or evolved. Not understanding the immediate
similarities between a computer and a
was a huge
mistake. While the computer went through incredible advances and
improvements in a short period of time, the human counter part
did not. In less then 50 years an
computer went from being the size of a house and costing 3
million dollars to the size of a book costing less then $500.00.
Of course the
was not followed or most likely ignored when we
designed cars and other consumer items. Because If cars had gone
through those same improvements a car today would get a thousand
miles to the gallon and cost the same as a computer. This was
, which is a
that is still
happening today. (Pyramids
of Waste aka The Light bulb Conspiracy, 2010
). So if we made
the same advances and improvements in educating the human brain we would
have hundreds of millions of intellectuals solving all the worlds
problems. But sadly today we only have a few thousand intellectuals that
are mostly being exploited and underutilized.
"When you first
turn on your computer you want your computer to be ready to accomplish the
actions that you need to have done. When you first wake up every day, you
want your brain to be ready to accomplish actions that you need to have
done. You don't want your brain to randomly process information all the
time. You need to be able to manually switch on the brain and focus on
your current needs
. If not, then
you will always be distracted
inefficient, and not just with your actions, but with your thoughts as
is a set of instructions
executed directly by a
computer's central processing unit (CPU). Each instruction performs a very
specific task, such as a load, a jump, or an ALU operation on a unit of
data in a CPU register or memory. Every program directly executed by a CPU
is made up of a series of such
is any collection of computer instructions
(possibly with comments), written using a human-readable computer
language, usually as ordinary text.
encoded information or computer instructions
, in contrast to the physical
hardware from which the system is built.
An HOS will need to be activated, like
needs software to be loaded in
. In order
for human to develop, development must be in
That means that education and what we learn should have
sequential order. But no one has defined what to learn or when
to learn it. Computer programmers wrote the code for an
operating system, teachers will write the language for a
learning system. The code in our
makes us who we are
physically, and we didn't even have to write our DNA code
because some one already wrote the code for us. But humans must
manually input knowledge and information
, because we are not
born with the
knowledge that helps us form our personalities, and helps us
understand ourselves and the world around us. This is why an
education must be high quality, developing humans into
intelligent people should be
wrote the code to make computers fully
functional, God or evolution wrote the DNA code for humans so
that humans could be fully functional. That is why we need a
high quality education, so that every human mind is developed to
be fully functional. We have already witnessed the benefits of a
good education, we just haven't defined what a good education
should be, but we are close.
Windows operating system has roughly
50 million lines of code
"We update our appliances, our TV's, our
phones, our computers, but we never update our brains, why? Why
did everything else improved fairly quickly except for our
Now lets get back to the Human
Operating System or H.O.S. for short. Lets start by examining
the similarities between a computer and the Human brain
are used to process information, perform calculations, store
information and carry out responsibilities and priorities. A
computer is also doing things behind the scenes just like the
Like when the brain tells the heart to beat
faster or slower, telling the lungs to breath more air, and
telling the immune system to fight infections. A computer has
many parts. A Human brain also has many parts. Knowing and
understanding computer parts helps with maintaining its proper
operation. Knowing and
understanding the parts of the human
will also have the same benefit.
What happens to a human
when they don’t get their
of information and
knowledge like computers do when they get their
of virus definitions? Well people also get 'The
Blue Screen of Death
'. People have that blank stare of
ignorance on their face, not knowing what to do and not knowing
what to say. Is this just a computer malfunction or people
just behaving badly?
Why is the Human Brain similar to a
is the attribution of human traits,
emotions, and intentions to
and is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology.
It's not so unusual to think
that there are similarities between a computer and a human
brain, after all, computers are made by humans. And the humans
who designed these computers have a high degree of knowledge
about language and logic. So your computer engineer and your
computer programmers possess a system of tools and language that
are very useful to educators. Teaching a computer has some of
the same instruction elements as teaching a human. The language,
the structure, the organizing, the processing, the allocating,
the actions and the desired outputs.
If people understood how a computer works, understood its
language and its
computational abilities, understood how the system works and
communicates, you can easily see similarities in its logic, logic
that was created by a human. To come up with a source code was understanding how we
learn. If you look at the whole computer as a engineering design, you see
effective ways to process information.
(Time-Based Structure - Space-Based Structure)
Why is Behavior like a Computer Program
is having been divided;
Having the unity destroyed. Break or cause to break into pieces.
File System Fragmentation
is the tendency of a file system
to lay out the contents of files non-contiguously to allow in-place
modification of their contents. It is a special case of data
fragmentation. File system fragmentation increases disk head movement or
seek time, which are known to hinder throughput. In addition, file systems
cannot sustain unlimited fragmentation. The correction to existing
fragmentation is to reorganize files and free space back into contiguous
areas, a process called defragmentation.
is a phenomenon in which
used inefficiently, reducing capacity or performance and often both. The
exact consequences of fragmentation depend on the specific system of
storage allocation in use and the particular form of fragmentation. In
many cases, fragmentation leads to storage space being "wasted", and in
that case the term also refers to the wasted space itself. For other
systems (e.g. the FAT file system) the space used to store given data
(e.g. files) is the same regardless of the degree of fragmentation (from
none to extreme).
Emptying Disk Space
is a process that reduces the amount of
fragmentation. It does this by physically organizing the contents of the
mass storage device used to store files into the smallest number of
contiguous regions (fragments). It also attempts to create larger regions
of free space using compaction to impede the return of fragmentation. Some
defragmentation utilities try to keep smaller files within a single
directory together, as they are often accessed in sequence.
Defragmentation is advantageous and relevant to file systems on
electromechanical disk drives. The movement of the hard drive's read/write
heads over different areas of the disk when accessing fragmented files is
slower, compared to accessing the entire contents of a non-fragmented file
sequentially without moving the read/write heads to seek other fragments.
divided against itself
will be ruined, and a house divided
against itself will fall."
You don't need a Computer Chip implanted
in your Body
correct and free from
(words, letters, numbers, diagrams, symbols)
is the ability to apply knowledge and
Information into the correct
to achieve a
Wisdom is showing good
and good judgment by
Wisdom is also understanding the future and the different events that
might happen, being
because some changes might be indications that bigger changes
are coming so good
is a language with a set of instructions that computers (or person) use to
perform specific operations or to exhibit desired behaviors.
is a series of steps to be carried out or
to be accomplished. A
of projects or services intended to meet a public need.
that a computer can interpret and execute. Similar to
of some composite
that affects mental contents. Analyze
is a set of instructions
resources and provides common services for computer programs,
input and output and Memory Allocation
. Acts as an
A collection of software (Information) that manages computer hardware
resources and provides common services for computer programs.
The operating system is a vital component of the
computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to
function. Software that controls the execution of computer programs and may provide
Time-sharing operating systems
for efficient use of the system
and may also include accounting for cost allocation of processor time, mass
storage, printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the
operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer
, although the application code is usually executed directly by
the hardware and will frequently make a system call to an OS function or be
interrupted by it. Operating systems can be found on almost any device that
contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to
Real-Time Operating System
(RTOS) used to control machinery,
scientific instruments, industrial systems and appliances. Has very little
user-interface capability and no end-user utilities.
Single-User Operating System
has a reliable single hard-wired program
designed to run one program at a time so that it runs on time consistently to
insure safe operation.
Single-User Multi-Tasking Operating System
runs several programs in
operation at the same time. Like desktop and laptop computers
, and humans.
allows for input from several different users at the same
Robot Operating System
is a collection of software frameworks for robot software development,
) providing operating system-like
functionality on a heterogeneous computer cluster. ROS provides standard
operating system services such as hardware abstraction, low-level device
control, implementation of commonly used functionality, message-passing
between processes, and package management. Running sets of ROS-based
processes are represented in a graph architecture where processing takes
place in nodes that may receive, post and multiplex sensor, control,
state, planning, actuator and other messages. Despite the importance of
reactivity and low latency in robot control, ROS, itself, is not a
real-time OS (RTOS), though it is possible to integrate ROS with real-time
code. The lack of support for real-time systems is being addressed in the
creation of ROS 2.0. Software in the ROS Ecosystem can be separated into
three groups: language-and platform-independent tools used for building
and distributing ROS-based software; ROS client library implementations
such as roscpp, rospy, and roslisp; packages containing
application-related code which uses one or more ROS client libraries.
is computer software that provides services to software
applications beyond those available from the operating system. It can be
described as "software glue". Middleware makes it easier for software
developers to implement communication and input/output, so they can focus
on the specific purpose of their application. Collaboration
is a characteristic of a product or system, whose
understood, to work with other products or systems, present or future, in
either implementation or access, without any restrictions.
is to perform as expected when applied. (computer science)
in which the result is completely specified
by a rule (especially the processing that results from a single instruction)
is an organized structure for arranging or classifying.
or process for obtaining an objective. A complex of methods or
rules governing behavior
. An ordered manner; orderliness by virtue of being methodical and well
Instrumentality that combines interrelated interacting artifacts
designed to work as a coherent entity.
is to cause to be
or ordered or operating according to some principle or
Arrange by Systematic
and united effort.
An integrated set of attitudes and beliefs. A person's
of self with regard to position and time and place and
is an act of formulating a
for a definite course of action. Have the will and intention to carry out some action.
The cognitive process of thinking about what you will do in the event of
Make a design of; plan out in systematic, often graphic form.
The act or process of drawing up plans or layouts for some project or enterprise.
Input - Process - OutputBinary
is a pre-compiled, pre-linked program that is ready to run under a
given operating system; a binary for one operating system will
not run on a different operating system.
The computer operating system software is a written language
that explains and defines its responsibilities when controlling
applications, programs, other software, system controls,
hardware and so on and so on. The Human Operating System is also
that also explains and defines its
responsibilities. The Human Operating System language is based
that helps with carrying out human responsibilities
and human functions. The
for mechanical operations that interface with the computer
responsibilities and computer functions. The computer operating
system language took years to write and went through many
changes and advances and is still improving. The Human Operating
System language will also take years to write and will also go
through many improvements and advances. Most of the Human
Operating System language has already been written but it needs
to be organized and written in the proper language in order for
it to be correctly processed by the human brain. Just like the
computer language ‘COBOL
that is used to communicate actions and commands before it is converted
into its raw binary code of zero’s and ones, the Human Operating System
language will also need some conversion in order for it to be correctly
understood by the human brain.
Operating System Source Code
(Programmed Logic for
Cohesion (computer science)
refers to the degree to which
the elements of a module belong together. Thus, cohesion measures the
strength of relationship between pieces of functionality within a given
module. For example, in highly cohesive systems functionality is strongly
Encapsulation (object-oriented programming)
is used to refer
to one of two related but distinct notions, and sometimes to the
combination thereof: A language mechanism for restricting direct access to
some of the object's components. A language construct that facilitates the
bundling of data with the methods (or other functions) operating on that
is a method of designing modular
communication protocols in which logically separate functions in the
network are abstracted from their underlying structures by inclusion or
information hiding within higher level objects.
is not pertinent to the matter under consideration.
Statistically unrelated. Having a set of mutually perpendicular axes;
meeting at right angles.
paradigm based on the
concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often
known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as
methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access
and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are
associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self"). Object
is a programming paradigm, derived
from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call.
Procedures, also known as routines, subroutines, or functions (not to be
confused with mathematical functions, but similar to those used in
functional programming), simply contain a series of computational steps to
be carried out. Any given procedure might be called at any point during a
program's execution, including by other procedures or itself.
millions of lines of code
for the computer operating system to work. Just think if
programmers were used to write educational lessons for the Human
Operating System. We just don’t need programmers for that. We
need educators, teachers and intellectuals. That is why literacy
is one of the most important skills every human should possess.
Books and the written
was the single greatest advancement in human
history to date. When more humans had access to knowledge and
books, which took hundreds of years, we had the most prevalent
advancements in our history. Now our important advancements will
come from understanding this knowledge and how we use it.
describes the property two vectors have when
they are perpendicular to each other. Each vector will advance
indefinitely into space, never to intersect. Well designed software is
orthogonal. Each of its components can be altered without effecting other
components. Making precise changes with predictable outcomes is easy." Jason
More Similarities Between a Computer and the Human Brain
neural networks in computers are actually similar to the synapses and neurons
in the human brain. And the Integrated Circuits, or IC’s, of a
computer are also similar in design to synapses and neurons,
which are also either on or off. Humans have a processor similar
in design as a computer does. The similarities between a
computer and a human are uncanny. So in a sense we have actually
been, accidentally or indirectly, building a Human Operating
System, and in a way being totally unaware of these
will become teachers and not just
programmers. Of course the Human Operating System is not a new
idea. Just like many inventions and innovations in our past we
are just again realizing the true potential of our knowledge.
Computational theory of mind, connectionism, cognitive
psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience and philosophy of
mind have all been around for a long time. So instead of humans
mostly running off their Radom Access Memory, or RAM, we should
all have a Human Operating System that helps us govern our lives
and keeps us aware and continually learning while at the same
time improving ourselves and our world. The
human brain is a
. Some people are walking around with a few
of information while others are walking around with
thousands of Gigs of information. People with less information will always
be at a disadvantage internally and externally.
"The brain works somewhat
like both a computer and a chemical factory. Brain cells produce
electrical signals and send them from cell to cell along
pathways called circuits. As in a computer, these circuits
receive, process, store, and retrieve information. Unlike a
computer, however, the brain creates its electrical signals by
chemical means. The proper functioning of the brain depends on
many complicated chemical substances produced by brain cells."
"People will normally look at software
before they load it on to their computer, but for some reason
people don't bother to carefully look at the information that
they take into their mind on a daily basis. It's like reading
without having any comprehension. If you are not fully aware of
what you're feeding into your mind, then learning doesn't
"If you consume healthy food, it will give you energy for a day,
but if you consume a little bit of knowledge each day, you will
have energy for your entire life."
do you think you need
to ask in order to fully understand something?
Before the Human Operating System language is written here
are a few things that will outline some of its structure.
The Human Operating System will be continually learning and
improving so it will never become stagnate or repetitive.
Human Operating System will not be able to keep you from making
mistakes, but it will make you better at learning from mistakes.
Human Operating System will not dehumanize you or deprive you
of human qualities, but it will make you more aware of how
important those qualities are.
Human Operating System will not keep you from spontaneity, but
it will make you more aware of your actions.
Human Operating System will not stop you from loving, but it
will make you more aware of how important love is.
Human Operating System will have complete knowledge and control
of the human brain, for this is where the Human Operating System
resides, communicates and moves through the metaphysical world.
Human Operating System will have complete knowledge and control
of the human body that it operates in, for this is how it
communicates and moves through the physical world.
Human Operating System will be a coordinator and manager of
responsibilities and priorities and act like a conscience.
The Human Operating System will be a Collective Intelligent
Consensus where everyone is a contributor.
The Human Operating System is not Mind Control or in anyway
Mind Programming. The Human Operating System is Systems
with some elements becoming
but always flexible. You are the manager who is in
control of your mind. If you do not know how to manage your own
mind then you are vulnerable to manipulation and propaganda,
which can create a distorted sense of reality. And when your
sense of reality becomes distorted you are always vulnerable to
mind controlling manipulation. A great source of mind
controlling manipulation is your
, If you do not believe this
or realize this, it means that you have a distorted sense of
reality and are very vulnerable to manipulation and propaganda.
You are not a free thinker, your are merely a robot waiting for
your next command.
The Human Operating System (HOS)
will consist of all the
Disciplines in Basic Knowledge 101
as well as a
made up of
, Thinking Styles,
to help increase the capacity to think
logically about the relationships among concepts and situations
and to justify and ultimately prove the correctness of a
mathematical procedure or assertion.
When the HOS is created,
it will also be used as Artificial Intelligence, the only
difference is AI will have fixed parameters, because knowing
what AI is supposed to do creates stability and consistency,
something that you can count on, unlike a human. Ai will be like
having a very intelligent friend who keeps you aware and up to
Continued from above
.. (off on a tangent)
It’s kind of weird that the Windows OS is very similar to our
dysfunctional education system
. They both
improvements and growth, which of course harms everyone, and
everything. We can no longer afford to allow this to continue.
If we are to improve and prosper we need to do what’s right for
the good of everyone and not just what’s right for the sake of a
single corporation, or a few individuals. The separation of State and People is
ridicules and absurd. If a law infringes on the rights and
freedoms of the individual, our groups of individuals, then that
is not a law for it is an attack on itself. America has more
lawyers then most nations combined, and this is the best that we
can come up with? If you cannot fully explain your reasoning
then you have no reason to be there. The power of decision needs
to be openly debated and not decided in the dark behind closed
doors. But, here we are.
The Internet is reconnecting people to the worlds most valuable knowledge and information that was either
is the combined intelligence of millions of people
from all over the world. You would be a fool not to be part of
it. It is truly the single greatest resource that we have. But
at the moment not enough people are using the
correctly or effectively. But once we improve that, we will
immediately start seeing the power of the internet come alive. Millions of people
coming together to use their collective skills and intelligence
to make improvements, and to repair the damage that we have done
to ourselves and to our planet. This will create jobs for everyone,
it will help connect people to needed services, it will help people locate food and
water, it will give people access to information and give people access
to education, which has already begun. But it's not at the rate
that would ultimately utilize the potential of every man, women
and child on the planet. But we are getting there. And once we
do, the 21st
century is going to be the biggest defining moment in human
history. This will be way beyond the
Coming of Age
Rite of Passage
. It is
on the grandest scale.
is a process whereby larger entities arise through
interactions among smaller or simpler
entities such that the larger
entities exhibit properties the smaller/simpler entities do not exhibit.
is shared or group intelligence that emerges
from the collaboration
, and competition of many
individuals and appears in consensus decision making
Not Popular Belief
is shared knowledge arrived at by individuals and groups.
is the shared pool of knowledge and
information in the memories of two or more members of a social group.
is the set of
and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society.
products and services are created and value
is added through social networks
operating on large or global scales.
of the Crowd
is the collective opinion of a group of
individuals rather than that of a
interconnects all humans and their technological artifacts. As this
network stores ever more information, takes over ever more functions of
coordination and communication from traditional organizations, and becomes
increasingly intelligent, it increasingly plays the role of a brain for
the planet Earth.
help world citizens make the best use of universal information resources
and make the best contribution to world peace.
term for a group of close advisers, prized for their expertise in
is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems,
natural or artificial.
is the study of how people and entities
relay information through mass media
large segments of the population at the same time.
Artificial Neural Network
is the collection of computer resources from multiple locations to reach a
is a model in which components located on networked computers communicate
and coordinate their actions by passing messages.
is an association of two or more individuals, companies, organizations or
governments (or any combination of these entities) with the objective of
participating in a common activity or pooling their resources for
achieving a common goal.
characterizes the intentionality
that occurs when two or more individuals undertake a task together.
Examples include two individuals carrying a heavy table up a flight of
stairs or dancing a tango.
is a group of people produce a sequence of
utterances that performs a cognitive act.
refers to action taken together by a group
of people whose goal is to enhance their status and achieve a common
is intelligence collected from
publicly available sources.
is to identify the most important vertices within a
characterizes multi-agent, distributed systems
where each agent, human or machine, is uniquely positioned, with autonomy
to contribute to a problem-solving network. Collaborative autonomy of
organisms in their ecosystems makes evolution possible.
is a form of collective action that
occurs when large numbers of people work independently on a single
project, often modular in its nature. Such projects typically take place
on the internet using social software and computer-supported collaboration
tools such as wiki technologies, which provide a potentially infinite
substrate within which the collaboration may be situated.
Collaborative Innovation Network
is a social construct used to describe innovative teams.
deploys models of the extended mind by
taking as the fundamental unit of analysis "a collection of individuals
and artifacts and their relations to each other in a particular work
describes a new model of socioeconomic
production in which large numbers of people work cooperatively (usually
over the Internet). Commons-based projects generally have less rigid
hierarchical structures than those under more traditional business models.
Often—but not always—commons-based projects are designed without a need
for financial compensation for contributors.
is computationally intensive science that is carried out in highly
distributed network environments, or science that uses immense data sets
that require grid computing; the term sometimes includes technologies that
enable distributed collaboration, such as the Access Grid.
is an educational software designed to help and support
knowledge building communities
One mind can't do it all, but 7 billion minds
could. The internet gives us the ability to connect all of us. A
brain that can connect to all of its parts.
Internet is more then an amazing tool, the internet is also a
symbol of human power and potential. Because we know that when
we work together we are stronger, and when we work together we
are also more effective, and we are also more efficient. The
internet is a realization of Human Intelligence. Because we now
know that When we make communication and collaboration easier,
we can solve any problem. Merging
the Power of Multiple Brains Peer-to-Peer Knowledge Sharing
"It's not the connection that makes you
smarter, it's how you use that connection that makes you
Internet of Things
The Internet of Things
(IoT) is the network of physical
objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software,
sensors, and network connectivity, which enables these objects
to collect and exchange data. The Internet of Things allows
objects to be sensed and controlled remotely across existing
, creating opportunities for more direct
integration between the physical world and computer-based
systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and
The Education of Things
learning about all the things that you can control, internally
resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit.
The Connection of Things
learning about all the different ways that
things are connected in our world
, understanding cause and
effects and how all actions and inactions have an effect,
whether they are internally or externally, or near or far away.
(CPS) is a system of collaborating
computational elements controlling physical entities. Today, a
precursor generation of cyber-physical systems can be found in
areas as diverse as aerospace, automotive, chemical processes,
civil infrastructure, energy, healthcare, manufacturing,
transportation, entertainment, and consumer appliances. This
generation is often referred to as embedded systems. In embedded
systems the emphasis tends to be more on the computational
elements, and less on an intense link between the computational
and physical elements.
The Natural Physical System is
is a computer system with a dedicated
function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often
with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of
a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts.
Embedded systems control many devices
in common use today.
Percent of all microprocessors being manufactured are used in
The Environmental System
network of natural embedded systems.
One of the great things about the internet is that you could
have information and knowledge that is not that valuable to you
or someone near you, but on the other side of the planet, that
information and knowledge could be extremely valuable. And you
only have to share that bit of information and knowledge only
once, because it can be shared and copied over and over again,
in almost the exact same way that
our DNA gets passed on
internet is a
mimic of life
"Another great thing about the internet is
that knowledge and information can be
now, which makes even more knowledge and
information accessible to more people. But even though the
internet can be translated into many different languages, there
that have not yet been translated and
digitized, and there are still
billion people who don’t have access to the internet
People want information and knowledge that's easy to follow,
whether in conversation, education, videos or in writing. And we
have already been working on improving this problem, using
websites and the internet. We can make a website that makes
information easy to follow, and at the same time, dynamic enough
to handle a more experienced user who's looking for unique
services and information.
"When you educate people,
. When people are more knowledgeable about themselves and
the world around them, people make better decisions and make
better choices. We need to use our communication tools like TV,
Radio and Newspapers more effectively, so that we can
Communicate our most valuable knowledge and information and give
people more access to the Facts, this way people will finally
have the means to make the necessary improvements that are
"When I'm online and I find something
interesting that I'm reading, I usually ask "what can I learn
from this?" And since I do most of my reading online, I can
instantly get more information about the subject that I'm
reading about, which means I learn a lot more about the subject
and have a much better understanding about the subject. The
internet is awesome. It's the greatest learning tool on the
One of my best friends is a machine
it's more then a machine, it's a connection to human collective
most Intelligent person I know
is the Internet Machine. But the
is not really a person, it's persons. A collective intelligence
made up of millions of people collaborating. After all, we are
the strongest when we work together
, and we are the smartest when
we put our heads together. Enormous potential and strength
is staring us right in the face, it's time to wake up and pay
attention. You will never have a single machine or a single
human that is capable of answering every question that you have,
but collectively, our potential to learn increases by one
thousand percent. Let go of your
, let go of the self and
embrace the whole, our true strength awaits us.
the first 48 years of my life socializing and experiencing as many things
as I could. But I didn't learn enough just socializing and experiencing.
My most important and valuable learning came from reading. And everything
important that I read I saved on BK101. That saves every human on earth
over 50,000 hours of work
Which was the time I spent locating valuable knowledge and information,
collecting valuable knowledge and information, organizing valuable
knowledge and information and sharing valuable knowledge and information.
I also save you the time from having to learn all the necessary skills
that was needed in order to Locate, collect, organize and share valuable
knowledge and information. And when you add up all the human knowledge
that other people shared, this human potential is worth trillions of
dollars, which you could easily deposit into your own personal bank called
the Human Brain. I could have never done this without
Standing on the Shoulder's of Giants
but now the Giant just got a whole lot bigger. This is more then the
Elephant in the Room
, which is an idiom for an obvious problem or risk
no one wants to discuss, or a condition of groupthink no one wants to
challenge. It is based on the idea/thought that something as conspicuous
as an elephant can appear to be overlooked in codified social
interactions, and that the sociology/psychology of repression also
operates on the macro scale. This is our future, our hope, our power, our
potential, our love of life.
"Collaborating and working with people
can be very productive and insightful. But when I'm alone I can
focus better on getting things done, so I work better on my own.
And that's one the the great things about the
, I can be
alone but still be connected to millions of people, it's
Human Search Engine
"Taking your work home with you is not
always a bad thing, you need time to think."
the Sleeper has Awaken
"Waking up is not just what
you do after you sleep, it's also what you do after you realize
that you were never fully awake."
A tremendous Leap Forward, but this
time we can actually see where we are going...
To say that the internet is the
reason for people being radicalized is very ignorant
, and a
dangerous lie. That
is like saying that phone lines radicalized people. People on
the internet did not click on an add and accidentally get
radicalized, oops my bad.
People don't seek out radicalized ideas. People are searching
for answers. And sometimes people come across the wrong
information at the wrong time. So books could radicalize people,
schools could radicalize people, religion could radicalize
people, TV could radicalize people, and people could radicalize
people. The internet is our savior. But it is not without
People misuse technology
. And people don't have enough
skills and knowledge to
accurately analyze information
. So don't blame the tools
moron. Blame our
and our irresponsible
Saying that the internet is radicalized people is like saying
that electricity is radicalizing people. Plus it's just stupid
to use the internet to say how bad the internet is. It's like
shooting someone with a gun just to say how dangerous a gun is.
Anything can be misused, that includes technology, that includes
money, that includes power. We don't blame power when a
politician commits a crime, we blame the person who is too
ignorant to use something effectively and efficiently. and
morally. When we improving education this ignorant behavior will
cease to exist, as well as all ignorant behavior.
"The internet helping people become
radicalized is like saying that too much freedom is the
radicalization. That's when they take away our freedoms,
then everyone gets punished, except for the people doing the
punishing of course."
There are many things involved that create
. People get radicalized by there experiences and
from the misinterpretation of information. Talk to any radical
and they will all have a story about when they experienced a
traumatic event that changed them, usually the death of family
or friends, and also knowing others who have lost people close
to them. All humans take to a cause, because they feel that they
have no other choices. People who start a
not radicals. They feel threatened, and they feel they have no
other choice but to fight. To blame this behavior on some
inanimate object is insane. I truly know that people want to
make a difference, and they want to stop this insane violence,
and to stop this insane behavior, but we can't attack things
that are doing more good then harm. You want to dispute the
horrible schools we have, then I'm right there with you. But if
you want to attack the technology that people use to share
knowledge and information, and if you want to attack peoples
right to communicate, and you want to attack peoples right to
inform themselves, then you will create more anger and many more
problems. Millions of people have signed petitions already
committing themselves to
protecting the internet
. We don't want to attack our ability
to communicate just because some people ignorantly believe that
is the cause of our problems. And because of the internet, you
will not be able to hide that ignorance. So my suggestion. Help
, help us improve life for every person on the
planet. Help us improve the methods for informing the public so
that people are more aware of their choices and options, so they
become the masters of their own destinies, and not controlled by
some outside ignorant behavior.
Questions to ask Machines
No Future in War
Do you need a Computer
Chip implanted in your Brain
"If you are to benefit from someone's thinking, then you better give them time to think."