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albert einstein To be intelligent you first have to know what being Intelligent is. And you also have to know what being ignorant is. Ignorant is just another word for "Not knowing". But not knowing is not always obvious or clearly understood. That's because learning is not fully understood. The more you learn the more you should realize what you didn't know. And if you learn things that do not make you realize how much you didn't know, and if learning doesn't make you realize how much you still need to know, then you did not learn anything valuable or relevant. Wisdom does not come with age, wisdom comes from learning. And if learning does not increase your understanding of yourself and the world around you, then that's not learning, that's just memorizing. Ten people can experience the same thing but not learn the same thing. This is because skill level and knowledge level varies from person to person. So this will need to be the next big advancement in education. Where every student will know what to learn, when to learn, how to learn, where to learn and why to learn. And then every student will know how to test themselves and monitor their own progress in their own time, and at their own pace. But you still need to be actively learning and deliberately learning for your entire life.

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Intelligent Words - Intelligent Types - Intelligence Measuring

Human Operating System - Ai - Collective - Brain Maintenance

Ignorance - Bias - Assuming - Fallacies

First you have to define what makes a person intelligent, then you need to have an accurate way of measuring if this intelligence is correctly understood. 

Internet = The Combined Collective intelligence of millions of people.

Just because you have abilities does not guarantee that you will know how to use your abilities correctly or effectively. And just what is correctly, and just what is effective? These words we need to define if we are ever going to know exactly what being intelligent really means. Enlightenment

Identifying the Allele Gene for human intelligence will not guarantee intelligence. A good education that encourages learning and a healthy environment are just two of the many influences that promote intelligence. DNA

Defining Intelligence

Thinking Question Mark Define the actions and the thought processes that are proven to produce the most positive results that are based on a particular set of circumstances. And these intelligent actions and thought processes have to be relevant and used by society today so that everyone can see the improvements and the positive outcomes and benefits that come from these particular intelligent actions. This way everyone can understand why these particular actions and thought processes are viewed as being intelligent. Because what good is having intelligence if you never use the intelligence in real life to solve real problems. An IQ test only confirms a small percentage of what is considered to be intelligence. So the only way to truly measure a persons intelligence is to have them solve real life problems and then have them explain their methods clearly enough so that others can repeat the process. Welcome to Defining Intelligence.

If a person does not have the necessary information and knowledge that is needed to correctly analyze a problem, it is nearly impossible for that person to understand how to calculate the correct actions that are needed in order to solve that problem. Even if a problem is right in front of a person it is very unlikely that they will be able to comprehend that a particular problem is even there without necessary information and knowledge. Then a person will still have to understand that particular information and knowledge in order to use it effectively. So how will a person be able to recognize that there is necessary information and knowledge missing from their education? How do you convince a person to see that there is a void of missing information and knowledge when they don't have the necessary information and knowledge in order for them to see that there is even a void? This is why it is so extremely important to teach students early and completely, especially the logic that is behind learning these techniques, tools and skills that are needed to acquire necessary information and knowledge. So what is this necessary information and knowledge? What are the techniques, tools and skills that are needed? That is exactly what we are going to find out, and exactly what we are going to teach. Remember that saying "The Buck Stops Here", that should be changed to "The Ignorance Stops Here". Defining the extreme degrees of ignorance. If everyone around you is stupid then how will you know how stupid you are? Being surrounded by stupidity often hides stupidity. That Does Not Compute

Brain GearsWhen a child is labeled with Gifted or Prodigy, most parents and teachers are not qualified or experienced enough to know what having a child with enhanced abilities means. Or do they know what extra attention is needed in order to not waste these enhanced abilities on tedious or irrelevant actions, like memorizing things that do not benefit you. It's like having a very powerful and fast computer, but it's being wasted because you are only using it to play video games. We are the only species on the planet that can be distracted by our own stupidity. Intelligent species? Not yet. Remember, enhanced abilities does not guarantee incredible achievements, it only implies that there's a potential, which we all have, that's if we all get the special attention that we need. The more I study education, the more I see what's needed.  The more you learn, the more you learn what you didn't know. Education needs to be everyone's special attention.

Advanced Precocious Learners
The Human Brain

"People say they are educated because they went to college, which is a lie and an ignorant observation, because there is no definition of what being educated is, like intelligence, just because you have a high IQ does not mean that you're intelligent."


You're Stupid Ignorant is being unaware because of a lack of relevant information or knowledge. Uneducated in general. Devoid of good sense or judgment. Uneducated in the fundamentals of a given art or branch of learning. A poor ability to understand or to profit from experience. Unable to Reason accurately or effectively, which is usually from the lack of valuable knowledge and information. 
Ignorance (wiki)

Rational Ignorance is refraining from acquiring knowledge when the cost of educating oneself on an issue exceeds the potential benefit that the knowledge would provide. But how would you know that Mr. Dumbass?  (oxymoron?)

Necessity and Sufficiency are implicational relationships between statements. The assertion that one statement is a necessary and sufficient condition of another means that the former statement is true if and only if the latter is true. That is, the two statements must be either simultaneously true or simultaneously false.

Agnotology is the study of culturally induced ignorance or doubt, particularly the publication of inaccurate or misleading scientific data.

illogical is lacking sense or clear, sound reasoning. Lack of connection or continuity. Disconnected. Logical

Confused is being perplexed by many conflicting situations or statements; filled with bewilderment. Failure to understand. Unable to think clearly, without order or sense. Make unclear, indistinct, or blurred. Not clearly defined or easy to perceive or understand. Disturbance of normal functioning. Confusion is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.

Contradictions - Paradox - Doubt
Gullible - Naive

Ignorance is similar to not understanding a Magic Trick, you are Easily Fooled.

Myopia is being near-sightedness or short-sightedness.

Lack Behavioral Control

Scatterbrained is being disorganized and lacking in concentration. Flighty, thoughtless, absent-minded, forgetful, distractable.

Crippled is being deprive of strength or efficiency; make useless or worthless. Having inaccurate beliefs can cripple the mind.

Foolish is being devoid of good sense or judgment. Having or revealing stupidity. Insane
Foolishness is the lack or failure of wisdom and of making proper careful choices. In this sense, it differs from stupidity, which is the lack of intelligence. An act of foolishness is called folly. Foolish talk is called stultiloquence. Risk

Stupidity is having a poor ability to understand or to profit from experience. Marked by defiant disregard for danger or consequences. Stupidity is a lack of intelligence, understanding, reason, wit or sense. Stupidity may be innate, assumed or reactive – a defence against grief or trauma.

"I'm not saying you're stupid, I'm just saying that you have bad luck when it comes to thinking."

Suspension of Disbelief or willing suspension of disbelief has been defined as a willingness to suspend one's critical faculties and
believe the unbelievable; sacrifice of realism and logic for the sake of enjoyment.

Shadow (psychology) is an unconscious aspect of the personality which the conscious ego does not identify in itself. Because one tends to reject or remain ignorant of the least desirable aspects of one's personality, the shadow is largely negative, or the entirety of the unconscious, i.e., everything of which a person is not fully conscious.

Psychological Projection humans defend themselves against their own unconscious impulses or qualities (both positive and negative) by denying their existence in themselves while attributing them to others. For example, a person who is habitually rude may constantly accuse other people of being rude. It incorporates blame shifting.

But of course, being ignorant is more then the basic definition.

When Awareness becomes Distorted

Years of Potential Life Lost is also related to the years that are lost from being ignorant, or doing ignorant things.
The Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) is a measure of overall Disease Burden, with the disease being ignorance in this case.

Illusory Superiority is a cognitive bias whereby individuals overestimate their own qualities and abilities, relative to others.
Patronizing - Condescension

Cognitive Dissonance is the mental stress or discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time; performs an action that is contradictory to one or more beliefs, ideas, or values; or is confronted by new information that conflicts with existing beliefs, ideas, or values.

Cognitive Inertia refers to the tendency for beliefs or sets of beliefs to endure once formed. In particular, cognitive inertia describes the human inclination to rely on familiar assumptions and exhibit a reluctance and/or inability to revise those assumptions, even when the evidence supporting them no longer exists or when other evidence would question their accuracy.

Cognitive Distortion are exaggerated or irrational thought patterns that are believed to perpetuate the effects of psychopathological states, especially depression and anxiety.

Dunning Kruger Effect is a cognitive Bias in which low-ability individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly assessing their ability as much higher than it really is. Dunning and Kruger attributed this bias to a metacognitive inability of those of low ability to recognize their ineptitude and evaluate their ability accurately.

Cognitive Tests
Why most Adults don't want to Learn

False Equivalence is a logical fallacy in which two opposing arguments appear to be logically equivalent when in fact they are not.


Fallibilism is knowing that human beings could be wrong about their beliefs, expectations, or their understanding of the world.

Scientific Misconceptions are commonly held scientific beliefs that have no basis in actual scientific fact.

Delusion is a belief that is held with strong conviction despite superior evidence to the contrary. Delusional Disorder

Suspicion is a cognition of mistrust in which a person doubts the honesty of another person or believes another person to be guilty of some type of wrongdoing or crime, but without sure proof. Suspicion can also be aroused in response to objects that negatively differ from an expected idea. Prejudice

Self-Affirmation states that if individuals reflect on values that are personally relevant to them, they are less likely to experience distress and react defensively when confronted with information that contradicts or threatens their sense of self.

is the unwillingness to admit to a wrongdoing. Refusing to move or to change one's opinion; obstinate; firmly resisting, even when present with facts that prove they are wrong. Anger - Denial

Passive-Aggressive Behavior is the indirect expression of hostility, such as through procrastination, stubbornness, sullen behavior, or deliberate or repeated failure to accomplish requested tasks for which one is (often explicitly) responsible.

is lacking tolerance or flexibility of ones own opinion or belief.

Insanity - Emotional Problems

Shadow psychology is the unknown dark side of your own personality.
People fail to see themselves
Self Smart

Fallacy is a mistaken belief, especially one based on unsound argument. It's an incorrect argument in logic and rhetoric which undermines an argument's logical validity. Some people may simplify the meaning by saying "That's Bullshit!"

Logical Fallacy is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system, for example propositional logic. An argument that is formally fallacious is always considered wrong. A formal fallacy is contrasted with an informal fallacy, which may have a valid logical form and yet be unsound because one or more premises are false.

Formal Fallacy is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system. An argument that is formally fallacious is always considered wrong. A formal fallacy is contrasted with an informal fallacy, which may have a valid logical form and yet be unsound because one or more premises are false.

Informal Fallacy occurs when the contents of an argument's stated premises fail to adequately support its proposed conclusion.

Fallacy of Composition arises when one infers that something is true of the whole from the fact that it is true of some part of the whole (or even of every proper part). For example: "This fragment of metal cannot be fractured with a hammer, therefore the machine of which it is a part cannot be fractured with a hammer." This is clearly fallacious, because many machines can be broken apart, without any of those parts being able to be fractured.

Continuum Fallacy is an informal fallacy closely related to the sorites paradox, or paradox of the heap. The fallacy causes one to erroneously reject a vague claim simply because it is not as precise as one would like it to be. Vagueness alone does not necessarily imply invalidity.

Categorical Syllogism is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true.

Anecdotal fallacy – using a personal experience or an isolated example instead of sound reasoning or compelling evidence.

Memory Errors

Appeal to the stone is dismissing a claim as absurd without demonstrating proof for its absurdity.

Accident Fallacy Cutting people with knives is a crime. Surgeons cut people with knives. Surgeons are criminals.

Association Fallacy asserts, by irrelevant association and often by appeal to emotion, that qualities of one thing are inherently qualities of another. Two types of association fallacies are sometimes referred to as guilt by association and honor by association.

List of Fallacies (PDF)

List of Common Misconceptions corrects erroneous beliefs that are currently widely held about notable topics. Each misconception and the corresponding facts have been discussed in published literature. Note that each entry is formatted as a correction; the misconceptions themselves are implied rather than stated.

Base Rate Fallacy is a formal fallacy. If presented with related base rate information (i.e. generic, general information) and specific information (information only pertaining to a certain case), the mind tends to ignore the former and focus on the latter. Base rate neglect is a specific form of the more general Extension neglect.

"Condemnation without investigation is the height of ignorance."  Albert Einstein

Framing Effect is an example of cognitive bias, in which people react to a particular choice in different ways depending on how it is presented; e.g. as a loss or as a gain. People tend to avoid risk when a positive frame is presented but seek risks when a negative frame is presented. Gain and loss are defined in the scenario as descriptions of outcomes (e.g. lives lost or saved, disease patients treated and not treated, lives saved and lost during accidents, etc.)

Blinkers (horse tack) are a piece of horse tack that prevent the horse seeing to the rear and, in some cases, to the side.
Myopia causes distant objects to be blurry while close objects appear normal.

Intellectual Disabilities

Anti Intellectualism is hostility towards and mistrust of intellect, intellectuals, and intellectual pursuits, usually expressed as the derision of education, philosophy, literature, art, and science, as impractical and contemptible.

Bounded Rationality is the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is limited by the available information, the tractability of the decision problem, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the time available to make the decision. Decision-makers in this view act as satisficers, seeking a satisfactory solution rather than an optimal one.

Interference Theory occurs in learning when there is an interaction between the new material and transfer effects of past learned behavior, memories or thoughts that have a negative influence in comprehending the new material.[1] Bringing to memory old knowledge has the effect of impairing both the speed of learning and memory performance. There are two main kinds of interference: proactive interference (see Proactive learning), retroactive interference (see Retroactive learning). The main assumption of interference theory is that the stored memory is intact but unable to be retrieved due to competition created by newly acquired information.

Selective Perception is the tendency not to notice and more quickly forget stimuli that cause emotional discomfort and contradict our prior beliefs.

Monothematic Delusion is a delusional state that concerns only one particular topic.

Satisficing is a decision-making strategy or cognitive heuristic that entails searching through the available alternatives until an acceptability threshold is met.

Devolution is the notion that species can revert into more "primitive" forms over time.

Compensation (psychology) one covers up, consciously or unconsciously, weaknesses, frustrations, desires, or feelings of inadequacy or incompetence in one life area through the gratification or (drive towards) excellence in another area.

Ignorant people can be easily Fooled by the Media and other sources of Propaganda.  (Twisted Logic)

Ignorant people are more susceptible to Mental Health Problems, Physical Health Problems, Anger and Crime.

The Problems with trying to Teach Adults
Cognitive Neuroscience
Cognitive Decline

Ignorance is the Worlds Largest Killer
Prejudice - Discrimination
Knowledge Gap and Divide

“A Foolish Faith In Authority Is The Worst Enemy Of The Truth” 

Generalization is being vague because your statement lacks the specifics or details to clarify the meaning. Not being specific enough leads to meaningless chatter.

Hasty Generalization reaching an inductive generalization based on insufficient evidence. Making a hasty conclusion without considering all of the variables.

Faulty Generalization is a conclusion about all or many instances of a phenomenon that has been reached on the basis of just one or just a few instances of that phenomenon. It is an example of jumping to conclusions.

Enigmatic is something that is not clear to the understanding.

Inconclusive Statements are Not conclusive; Does not put an end to doubt or question. Dose not explain enough in order to define the actions that are needed to reach a particular goal, or to come to a particular understanding. When there is no follow up, or rebuttal, then the amount of mistakes will increase.

Availability Heuristic is a mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to a given person's mind when evaluating a specific topic, concept, method or decision.
Using just Labels can also be Generalizing.

Media News Language Distortions


Assume is to take something to be the case or to be true without verification or proof. Accepting something without any evidence. Arrogant or Presumptuous. Make a Pretense of. Take liberties or act with too much Confidence. Expecting something. Used for the purpose of argument to indicate a premise on which a statement can be based.
Modus Ponens

Expectation (epistemic) is the belief that something will happen without considering the possibilities that it will not happen, thus being unprepared when the expected reality does not happen like you thought it would.

Conviction is an unshakable belief in something without need for proof or evidence.
Denial - Lying

Condemnation is an expression of strong disapproval; pronouncing as wrong or morally culpable.

Pretense is the act of giving a false appearance. Pretending with intention to deceive. A false or unsupportable quality.
Media Literacy

Alleged is being accused of having done something wrong or illegal but not yet proven guilty. Declared but not proved. Doubtful or suspect. Someone who is under suspicion. The act or an instance of suspecting something on little or no evidence.

Superstition is the belief in supernatural causality—that one event causes another without any natural process linking the two events.

People jump to conclusions, they incriminate, they judge, and all without any hard evidence, or confirmed information, or anything that is remotely relevant that would help them prove that their reasoning is even accurate. Blowing hot air, a temper tantrum, just another ignorant remark from the peanut gallery, a waste of human language, and time.  

Jumping to Conclusions is where one "judge[s] or decide[s] something without having all the facts; to reach unwarranted conclusions".

List of Common Misconceptions can be misleading in themselves.

Retro-Causality is any of several hypothetical phenomena or processes that reverse causality, allowing an effect to occur before its cause.

When people assume, they make up stories and pretend they know the facts, and they make other people believe by gossiping this pretend made up story, even when they have very little facts. This behavior is idiotic. People should focus more on each other and learn how to verify facts, and learn to fully understand ourselves and other people.

"Everyone needs to learn how to stop assuming that they know more then the other person. We have to stop pretending to have conversations that never happened. Talking to yourself is not the same as talking to the actual person. The art of conversation is the opportunity to make a connection, to work together in mind. We have to stop wasting time and energy, and life. We have this incredible ability to communicate and use language, but we don't even teach this, why?"

Motivated Reasoning is an emotion-biased decision-making phenomenon studied in cognitive science and social psychology. This term describes the role of motivation in cognitive processes such as decision-making and attitude change in a number of paradigms, including: Cognitive dissonance reduction, Beliefs about others on whom one's own outcomes depend, Evaluation of evidence related to one's own outcomes. Motivated Reasoning (PDF)


Bias is favoring something in advance that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation. Influence in an unfair way.
An attitude of mind especially one that favors one alternative over others. An inclination to favor one group or view or opinion over alternatives. A predisposition to like something. An attitude of mind especially one that favors one alternative over others. An inclination beforehand to interpret statements in a particular way. A disposition in advance to react in a particular way. The state of being susceptible; easily affected. A natural or acquired habit or characteristic tendency in a person or thing. A characteristic likelihood of or natural disposition toward a certain condition or character or effect. A feeling of favorable regard. Consider as the favorite. Promote over another. Give preference to one over another. Opinion

Don't judge a book totally by its cover, and don't judge information totally by its source. Don't use barriers when receiving information, use filters that are based on logic and not based on preconceived notions. Putting up barriers will lower your chances of learning things that may be extremely important, which will decrease your odds for success and lower your chances in life, and you only have so many chances in life, so don't waste them on a foolish ego. You need to keep learning, and stop pretending that you have learned enough.

Cognitive Bias refers to a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment, whereby inferences about other people and situations may be drawn in an illogical fashion. Individuals create their own "subjective social reality" from their perception of the input. An individual's construction of social reality, not the objective input, may dictate their behaviour in the social world. Thus, cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality.

List of Cognitive Biases

Attribution Bias is a cognitive bias that refers to the systematic errors made when people evaluate or try to find reasons for their own and others' behaviors. People constantly make attributions regarding the cause of their own and others' behaviors; however, attributions do not always accurately mirror reality. Rather than operating as objective perceivers, people are prone to perceptual errors that lead to biased interpretations of their social world. Attributions is assigning some quality or character to a person or thing. Assigning to a cause or source. Prior Probability is when an uncertain quantity is the probability distribution that would express one's beliefs about this quantity before some evidence is taken into account.

Subjective Validation is a cognitive bias by which a person will consider a statement or another piece of information to be correct if it has any personal meaning or significance to them. In other words, a person whose opinion is affected by subjective validation will perceive two unrelated events (i.e., a coincidence) to be related because their personal belief demands that they be related. Closely related to the Forer effect, subjective validation is an important element in cold reading. It is considered to be the main reason behind most reports of paranormal phenomena.

Barnum Effect is the observation that individuals will give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them but are, in fact, vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people. This effect can provide a partial explanation for the widespread acceptance of some beliefs and practices, such as astrology, fortune telling, graphology, aura reading and some types of personality tests.

Insensitivity to Sample Size is a cognitive bias that occurs when people judge the probability of obtaining a sample statistic
without respect to the sample size.

Illusion of Validity is a cognitive bias in which a person overestimates his or her ability to interpret and predict accurately the outcome when analyzing a set of data, in particular when the data analyzed show a very consistent pattern—that is, when the data "tell" a coherent story. This effect persists even when the person is aware of all the factors that limit the accuracy of his or her predictions, that is when the data and/or methods used to judge them lead to highly fallible predictions. Illusory Correlation is the phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between variables (typically people, events, or behaviors) even when no such relationship exists.

Confirmation Bias is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses, while giving disproportionately less consideration to alternative possibilities. Variables

Attitude Polarization is a phenomenon in which a disagreement becomes more extreme as the different parties consider evidence on the issue. It is one of the effects of confirmation bias: the tendency of people to search for and interpret evidence selectively, to reinforce their current beliefs or attitudes. When people encounter ambiguous evidence, this bias can potentially result in each of them interpreting it as in support of their existing attitudes, widening rather than narrowing the disagreement between them.

Inference-Observation Confusion. Unwarranted Conclusions. Judges or decides something without having all the facts.

Suggestibility is the quality of being inclined to accept and act on the suggestions of others; where false but plausible information is given and one fills in the gaps in certain memories with false information when recalling a scenario or moment. Suggestibility uses cues to distort recollection after persistently being told something pertaining to a past event, one's memory of the event conforms to what they've been told.

Media Manipulation
Listening is a Skill

A statistic is biased if it is calculated in such a way that it is only systematically different from the population parameter of interest. Neurosociety by Pace Art + Technology.

The following lists some types of biases, which can overlap.

Selection bias involves individuals being more likely to be selected for study than others, biasing the sample. This can also be termed Berksonian bias.

Spectrum bias
arises from evaluating diagnostic tests on biased patient samples, leading to an overestimate of the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

Bias of an estimator is the difference between an estimator's expectations and the true value of the parameter being estimated. Bias of an Estimator of an estimator is the difference between this estimator's expected value and the true value of the parameter being estimated. An estimator or decision rule with zero bias is called unbiased. Otherwise the estimator is said to be biased. In statistics, "bias" is an objective statement about a function, and while not a desired property, it is not pejorative, unlike the ordinary English use of the term "bias".

Omitted-variable bias is the bias that appears in estimates of parameters in a regression analysis when the assumed specification omits an independent variable that should be in the model.

In statistical hypothesis testing, a test is said to be unbiased when the probability of committing a type I error (i.e. false positive) is less than the significance level, and that of getting a true positive (rejecting the null hypothesis when the alternative hypothesis is true) is at least that of the significance level.

Detection bias occurs when a phenomenon is more likely to be observed for a particular set of study subjects. For instance, the syndemic involving obesity and diabetes may mean doctors are more likely to look for diabetes in obese patients than in thinner patients, leading to an inflation in diabetes among obese patients because of skewed detection efforts.

Funding bias
may lead to selection of outcomes, test samples, or test procedures that favor a study's financial sponsor.
Reporting bias involves a skew in the availability of data, such that observations of a certain kind are more likely to be reported.
Outcome Bias is when we judge a decision based on its outcome rather than how exactly the decision was made in the moment. Just because you win a lottery doesn't mean that buying a lottery ticket was a smart decision. Here you are deciding the value of decision after you have seen the outcome.
Analytical bias arise due to the way that the results are evaluated.
Exclusion bias arise due to the systematic exclusion of certain individuals from the study.
Attrition bias arises due to a loss of participants e.g. loss to follow up during a study.
Recall bias arises due to differences in the accuracy or completeness of participant recollections of past events. e.g. a patient cannot recall how many cigarettes they smoked last week exactly, leading to over-estimation or under-estimation.
Observer bias arises when the researcher unconsciously influences the experiment due to cognitive bias where judgment may alter how an experiment is carried out / how results are recorded.
Bias blind spot is when people tend to think themselves as less biased than other people. It means that by default we remain blind to our own cognitive biases.

What if your bias was based on lies or inaccurate information?

Introspection illusion is a cognitive bias in which people wrongly think they have direct insight into the origins of their mental
states, while treating others' introspections as unreliable. In certain situations, this illusion leads people to make confident but false explanations of their own behavior (called "causal theories") or inaccurate predictions of their future mental states.

Patronizing - Condescension 

Self-Affirmation is how individuals adapt to information or experiences that are threatening to their self-concept.

Trick Questions

A man and his son were in an automobile accident. The man died on the way to the hospital, but the boy was rushed into surgery. The emergency room surgeon said "I can't operate, that's my son!" How is this possible?   Answer: The surgeon was his mother.

The worst thing about assuming is that people ask a Question when what they are really doing is making an accusation and a judgment in the form of a question, because they assume that they know the answer. So it's not a question, but an accusation and a judgment without a trial, or without debate. Presumptuous questions can either be balanced or unbalanced. Unbalanced questions ask questions only from the point of view of one side of an argument. For example, an interrogator might ask “’Do you favor the death penalty for persons convicted of murder?”’ This question assumes that the person’s only point of view in the situation is that a person who is convicted must either get the death penalty or not. The second type of presumptuous question is balanced question. This is when the interrogator uses opposite questions to make the witness believe that the question is balanced when the reality is that it is not. For example, the interrogator would ask, “’Do you favor life in prison, without the possibility of parole?” This type of question may seem balanced when in reality it is still influencing the person to discuss life in prison and no other choice.  

The Right to Remain Silent

Interrogation is interviewing as commonly employed by law enforcement officers, military personnel, and intelligence agencies with the goal of eliciting useful information. Interrogation may involve a diverse array of techniques, ranging from developing a rapport with the subject, to outright torture.

Suggestive Question is one that implies that a certain answer should be given in response, or falsely presents a presupposition in the question as accepted fact. Such a question distorts the memory thereby tricking the person into answering in a specific way that might or might not be true or consistent with their actual feelings, and can be deliberate or unintentional. For example, the phrasing "Don't you think this was wrong?" is more suggestive than "Do you think this was wrong?" despite the difference of only one word. The former may subtly pressure the respondent into responding "yes," whereas the latter is far more direct. Repeated questions can make people think their first answer is wrong and lead them to change their answer, or it can cause people to continuously answer until the interrogator gets the exact response that they desire. The diction used by the interviewer can also be an influencing factor to the response given by the interrogated individual. PDF

Forced Confession is a confession obtained by a suspect or a prisoner under means of torture (including enhanced interrogation techniques) or other forms of duress. Depending on the level of coercion used, a forced confession is not valid in revealing the truth. The person being interrogated may agree to the story presented to him or even make up falsehoods himself in order to satisfy the interrogator and discontinue his suffering.

False Confession is an admission of guilt for a crime for which the confessor is not responsible. False confessions can be induced through coercion or by the mental disorder or incompetency of the accused. Research demonstrates that false confessions occur on a regular basis in case law, which is one reason why jurisprudence has established a series of rules—called "confession rules"—to detect, and subsequently reject, false confessions. Plea agreements typically require the defendant to stipulate to a set of facts establishing that he/she is guilty of the offense; in the United States federal system, before entering judgment on a guilty plea, the court must determine that there is a factual basis for the plea.

False Memories

Objection is a formal protest raised in court during a trial to disallow a witness's testimony or other evidence which would be in violation of the rules of evidence or other procedural law.
List of Objections (PDF)

Communication Styles

Effects of misleading questions and hypnotic memory suggestion on memory reports: a signal-detection analysis.
In 2002, the first author and colleagues reported data indicating that both hypnosis and misleading questions decreased the accuracy of memory reports and decreased "don't know" response rates, that the effects of misleading questions were significantly greater than those of hypnosis, and that the two effects were additive. Using a sample of 194 undergraduate students, the present study replicated the findings that misleading questions reduce accuracy and "don't know" responding but failed to replicate the negative effect of hypnosis on memory reports. Signal detection analysis indicated that misleading questioning produced decreased sensitivity accompanied by higher response bias, though affecting sensitivity more than producing a criterion shift. 

National Criminal Justice Reference Service
Ask a question as if you are talking to a Machine

It's not unusual for someone not to understand something the first time that they look at it. Everyone on the planet knows that to be a fact, yet to many people still assume and jump to conclusions. And you know why? People forget. People forget that they know that it's not unusual for someone not to understand something the first time that they look at it. So you are either lying to yourself and others, or you have a really bad memory.

Too many people can't understand the things that will help them to understand. People cannot utilize knowledge and information if they never learned how to utilize knowledge and information. So what exactly is knowledge and information. knowledge and information is the potential energy that is in every human being. But in order to have access to this power, you have to learn the right things at the right time. And you also have to have access to the world most valuable knowledge and information that the world has to offer, and you have to be shown how to effectively and efficiently use knowledge and information, so that you would receive the maximum benefits from knowledge and information, and increase your awareness about yourself and the world around you, and also have more control, more freedom, more power, more potential, and more possibilities...

People are not stupid, people just don't have enough knowledge and information in order to accurately understand themselves and the world around them. To say someone one is stupid because they did not learn something that you know, is stupid. To expect people to know something that you know, is stupid. You cannot assume to understand someone's thinking, you should just inquire.

It's really difficult when there are so many ignorant people, mentally challenged but functional. So they can appear to be normal, but they are far from normal, they cause more harm then good, because they can only act functional temporally, the rest of the time they are causing damage. But the damage goes unnoticeable to most people, so the damage continues, which is extremely crazy. We need to remove these people from their important positions and replace them with more competent people, while at the same time, get these nonfunctioning people the help that they need.

I have to stop being surprised and irritated by peoples ignorance, no one is to blame for their own stupidity, because we know where the problem lie's, and that is our education. We need to drastically improve education, and the media, so that all citizens are completely educated and informed. Otherwise this ignorance will continue to kill us and cause us problems till the day we die, and that my friend is the future that I'm trying to stop from ever happening, and not just for me, but for the trillions of people who will have to live after me. If life is a cycle, then you better get on this bike with me, because we have a lot of peddling to do. Knowledge Peddler's Unite.

In order to become intelligent, the first thing that you need to do is to realize how ignorant you are. You can read all the best books in the world and go to the best colleges, but if you are not educating yourself on the things that make you ignorant, and if you're not taking the necessary steps to reduce ignorant actions and thoughts, then you will always be ignorant, even though you are very knowledgeable and educated. Being smart is more then not being stupid. It's a combination of many different skills and it's acquiring specialized knowledge over many years.

Ignorance in itself has an unusual side effect of blinding the person from their own ignorance. So how does a person realize that they are ignorant when it’s the ignorance itself that keeps them from realizing that they are ignorant? Think about when you see a doctor and the doctor tells you that you have been diagnosed with a disease, a lot of people would say that they never knew that they were sick. Anton Babinski Syndrome  So there has to be a way to diagnose Ignorance. We need some way to communicate or a test that will say to that person that their thinking is not accurate without saying that they are stupid, because I don’t think that anyone is stupid, it's just that some of us are not thinking correctly. There's a big difference between being stupid, and doing stupid things. Most people have some level of intelligence, it's just that most people are not always using their intelligence at the right time or in the right way. We have to understand that people are not born bad, they are simply brought up badly and thus become a bad person. That's why most people in Prison have very little education as well as very poor reading and writing skills. So people are not born ignorant, they are just brought up ignorantly and thus become an ignorant person. Now ignorant does not mean that you are stupid. You can have a High IQ (Intelligence Quotient) and still be ignorant. To explain this lets first define ignorance. Though the definition of ignorance is usually defined a ‘ person who is ‘Uneducated in general, lacking knowledge or sophistication, Unaware because of a lack of relevant information or knowledge’. That is the more common definition that I do not totally agree with. I would like to define ignorance as a ‘ person who lacks a common sense that keeps oneself from separating opinion from fact, a person who dismisses information solely based on preference, a person who assumes without questioning, and a person who has difficulty formulating information in order to obtain a logical answer. This to me is a more accurate meaning of the word ignorance. I wonder if I could have the dictionary updated to include this definition or just replace the old definition with the one above, unless of course there is a better word in the dictionary for what is described above. Now some of you are still wondering how can you have a high IQ and still be ignorant. To me an IQ test is not a measure of intelligence but more of a test to measure ones brain function. If a persons IQ is high then their ability to process information and access their memory is exceptional, thus their brain is functioning properly. A person with a high IQ should be nurtured very carefully so that their ability is not stifled and at the same time their brain is not overwhelmed with useless information. A person with a low IQ will be treated the same way, but they will need extra special attention to get their brain functioning like a person with a high IQ. So if you use my definition of ignorance you will find that there are people with high IQ’s who are ignorant. They can process information, but they still have trouble with separating opinion from fact and sometimes can still dismiss information solely based on preference. I have not yet met an intelligent person. I have met some really smart people but I would not consider them intelligent.

First, you have to admit that you can be wrong about things. Second, you have to admit that you don't know enough about yourself and the world around you. Then and Only then will you be able to effectively learn to increase your understanding about yourself and the world around you. There is one extremely important thing that you need to commit to, and that is learning. Otherwise, you will be ignorant till the day you die.

If you don't know how ignorant you are every day, then that's another day that you didn't learn anything. And those days can easily and quickly turn into years.

Too many people just pretend that they know enough about themselves and the world. That means that millions of people are living in a fantasy world of make believe. Almost totally oblivious of the reality of this world, or the impact that they have on themselves and other people. And the only way for people to escape this quasi reality, is to learn what things in life are reality. Things that have been proven, things that have been experienced. And one of the most important things that a person needs to do first is to admit how ignorant they are about themselves, and how ignorant they are about the world around them. And the only way to know how ignorant you are, is to learn and study knowledge that would reveal how ignorant you are, because ignorance does not reveal itself. They say that being stupid doesn't hurt, like ignorance is bliss. That's a lie, because being stupid does hurt, you just don't know it because you're stupid. And the only way to know how much you're hurting yourself and other people, is to learn why. And one of the best ways to learn is by reading. But you can't read just anything because that would also be stupid. You have to seek out the exact knowledge that you need that would help increase your understanding of yourself and the world around you. You have to take learning seriously, because everything depends on it, everything. Everything.

When it comes to Child Prodigies, I look at them as being normal and everyone else being abnormal or just not aware of their potential, just yet. It’s really hard to measure intelligence because to me intelligence must be proven in many ways that would clearly define a person as being intelligent. People have estimated that there are over 3 million academically gifted students in the United States alone, which is an ignorant observation, because everyone has the potential to be so called gifted. The single largest disability that every child has is not having a school that understands knowledge and intelligence. This goes beyond Undermatching or Tracking. The U.S. is not just Neglecting Its Smartest Kids, but all kids. Todays schools produce more Intellectual Disabilities then they do Intellectual abilities, and the reason that you don't know this is because you have an Intellectual Disability. When smart kids do poorly in school, that proves schools are flawed.

Some areas of intelligence are linguistics intelligence, math intelligence, music intelligence, spatial intelligence, self intelligence and so on.

Take any person from any continent on this planet, and everyone will say that they would prefer to be strong then weak. It's a humans natural instinct to be strong, humans would never choose to be weak, but that is exactly what we have done with our education system. We have a very weak education, which creates weak minds. And a weak mind doesn't know its weak, because it is to weak to figure it out.
Education Blog


"Knowledge will forever govern ignorance; and a people who mean to be their own governors must arm themselves with the power which knowledge gives."   James Madison

"The only way to become intelligent is to first admit that you are a moron, then and only then, does the journey towards intelligence begin...It's impossible to know all the answers, especially when you don't even know the questions."

"The fool doth think he is wise, but the wise man knows himself to be a fool". - (Act V, Scene I). 
As You Like It 1599

"You don't know what you do not know, until you know what you did not know."

Judy Collins - Both Sides (youtube)

"Intelligence is not a destination, Intelligence is a path that you take, and staying on this path is to be intelligent."

"Intelligence is being aware of all the things that you still don't know but making the effort to know them, while using all the things that you do know, effectively as possible. Humans need to feed the brain as well as their stomachs, we need to be hunters and gatherers of knowledge. And we need to preserve all the valuable knowledge that we find and create. We certainly don't want to end up like previous civilizations, dead and gone with very little records to explain why."

"I wouldn't call people ignorant or incompetent, people just lack the intelligence and the necessary skills that are needed to run their life or to do their job effectively or efficiently. Improving education and training will help solve this problem."

I'm just revealing how ignorant someone's behavior is, not all behaviors are bad, just the behaviors that cause damage and suffering. Some people take offense to having their ignorance revealed, like they feel bad for finding out that they were wrong about something, or having someone find out about a horrible secret they have been hiding, something embarrassing, something shameful. So Why do some people see learning as something negative and tedious?

I didn't want to be the one to tell you this, but since no one else has, I guess I'm stuck with this job of having to inform you. Don't blame the messenger, because no one is to blame, until tomorrow that is. Maybe you will forget what you have learned today, so maybe I will have to remind you again tomorrow, I hope not. I hope we keep learning. A better world is waiting for us, but it will not wait forever. And this is not just about our time, our flash in the pan, this is about all time, and the time that trillions upon trillions of future generations who will either have to endure life or have the pleasure to enjoy life, this choice is ours now, and tomorrow. I choose enjoy. No one should ever have to suffer and endure from other peoples behavior. No one. Learning needs to be the new fad, the new relish. There is tremendous amount of pleasure that comes from learning. Everyone should be benefiting from learning. But when some people can't learn because they don't have access, or they refuse to learn, then they haven't learned the most important thing about learning, which is, you learn everyday, if not, you will struggle, and in that struggle is when people make most of their mistakes, mistakes that do most of damage.

"I work around a lot of things, especially my own ignorance, because if you can't get passed your own ignorance, you're screwed."

"I have experienced things and learned from them even before I knew what they were. Meaning that, you do not necessarily have to have a language to explain something in order to learn from something, that is the brilliant design of the brain. Just like having instincts"

Your brain is like an 8 cylinder engine. When your brain finally starts to run on 6 cylinders, you then realize that your brain has been only running on 2 cylinders for several years. And now that you're running on 6 cylinders, you can now improve and progress so that you will eventually be running on all 8 cylinders, meaning that you will eventually have full access to the power of the human mind.

"Everyone is inflicted with some form of ignorance, even me. But it's the level of ignorance and the amount of ignorance that a person has that will ultimately determine the amount of damage that a person will do to themselves, or to others, or to the world. Ignorance kills more people then all causes of death combined. And why we hardy ever here anything about the worlds biggest killer is because we are ignorant. So when we finally do realize how ignorant we are, that is when learning will finally become extremely important, and a lot more meaningful then ever before. It's an epiphany and the great awakening all rolled up into one."

I'm still an idiot, but I'm always learning so I'm always discovering more ways to do what is right. I have made a lot of improvements, but I still have many more improvements to make. Once you start the process of self examination, you are starting an amazing journey, and also making a commitment to never stop learning about your own understanding of yourself and the world around you. But you need to avoid being consumed by all the problems, and by all the advancements, you need balance, live, learn, love and prosper. But what is live? Here we go. You see that thinking has bought you here and has made your life possible, now can you see the importance? The fact that you have the most amazing thing called the brain is enough to explore its inner workings. You live because of the environment that you grew into helped you to live, now its time to find out where this love is coming from. When things go bad it's not about hate, its about information going bad. That is why we have correcting data error software, which is another word for learning. You can't be aware of everything or plan for everything, but you can increase your odds of success by continually learning and paying attention to change and the evidence of changes to come. The one major advantage that humans have is that we can see the future, that is what life needs to have in order to survive. And seeing the future has nothing to do with sight or sound, only the patterns learned from sight and sound, which do not have to be experienced, only read. That is the human advantage. If I did not tell you to turn left instead of right, you would have made a wrong turn.

"The common curse of mankind, - folly and ignorance". - (Act II, Scene III). Troilus and Cressida  1602

"I was the idiot who didn't know any better, but I wanted to know better but i didn't know how. So I'm sorry it took so long, after all I was an idiot. But now then I'm less then an idiot, I can continually improve and become even smarter then I am now."

"What are the smartest countries in the world, the answer is none. People who do rankings are incredibly ignorant and criminal, especially when they use math and science test scores as a predictor of good outcomes. Ignorant people cannot measure intelligence, especially when they can't even measure their own ignorance."

"I have neither the time nor the crayons to explain it to you."  "I can explain it to you but I can't understand it for you."

"You couldn't pour the water out of a boot if the instructions were written on the heel."

To Know, or not to Know?

Is that even a question?

Epiphany is a sudden revelation. A moment of sudden understanding or revelation. Epiphany is a scientific breakthrough that allows a problem or situation to be understood from a new and deeper perspective. Having a depth of prior knowledge is required to allow the leap of understanding. Ideas

Revelation is an enlightening or astonishing disclosure. Self-Directed Learning - Inspiration - Motivation

is the process of increasing knowledge and reducing ignorance. Understanding. Enlightenment is that feeling you get when you finally release ignorance that you have been holding on to. Letting go of your stupidity, a relief from not knowing, to a realization of knowing. Enlightenment refers to the "full comprehension of a situation".

Mysticism refers to the attainment of insight in ultimate or hidden truths, and to human transformation supported by various practices and experiences. kind of ecstasy or altered state of consciousness which is given a religious or spiritual meaning.

is coming to understand something clearly and distinctly. Making real or giving the appearance of Reality. Awareness

Open-Mindedness is receptiveness to new ideas. Open-mindedness relates to the way in which people approach the views and knowledge of others, and "incorporate the beliefs that others should be free to express their views and that the value of others’ knowledge should be recognized." There are various scales for the measurement of open-mindedness. Relativism is the belief that all criteria of judgment are relative to the individuals and situations involved, but this is being narrow-mined and biased.

Broaden your Horizons
is to expand one's range of interests, activities, and knowledge.

is the unexpected and fortunate discoveries, usually happening when looking for something unrelated. Finding something nice while looking for something else.

Luck is an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that leads to a favorable outcome.

Fate - Coincidence

A Matter of Fact, in the Human sense, is the type of knowledge that can be characterized as arising out of one's interaction with and experience in the external world (as compared to a Relation of Ideas). In a Kantian framework, it is equivalent to the synthetic a posteriori. Examples:-The sun will come out tomorrow. (Not reason but habitual)-There are people outside the room. (One cannot know what is outside one's own experience) How We Know:-It is impossible to "know everything."-Depend upon The Principles of Induction and The Uniformity of Nature. -Denying these do not lead to a contradiction.

Do you know enough?

Could you know too much? You can know enough about a particular subject in order to perform a particular task, but do you know enough about yourself? Do you know enough about the world? What do you know? And, is it enough? I know enough to get buy, but what is enough? And what is getting buy? You can't even get buy these questions, so how could you know enough? Can you explain what you know? And if so, how could it be enough? People just don't want to learn, so they pretend that they know enough, or, they did not know enough to begin with, so they don't even know what they don't know. I know. I know that I don't know everything. But the more I know, the more of everything is possible.  "I'm almost know a lot of things."

You need to Have an Open Mind, and be able to Expand your Mind, and always try to Broaden your Horizons.

Curse of Knowledge is the inability of more informed individual to think about the problems from the perspective of lesser informed individuals. Empathize 

Do you know the Basics?
Do you know what Knowledge is?
What is Knowing?
What is there to Know?
Why is there a Knowledge Gap?

I wouldn't say that there is Limits to Knowledge, what I would say is that there is definitely limits to the Lack of Knowledge.

"It aint what you don't know that gets you into trouble, it's what you think you know for sure that just aint so." ~ Mark Twain

Believing that you know something that isn't true does more damage then just not knowing about something at all.
One you thought you knew, the other you just didn't know, which is just a mistake, with the other being an act of stupidity.

"Pretending that you understand something is one of the most damaging things that you can do to yourself. It's more then just wrong and illogical, it's a self inflicted learning disability. Not only will you will suffer from your own assumptions, but other people will suffer as well. Once you stop learning, you stop living. So instead of accelerating towards life, you accelerate towards death, like cancer."

"Get Rid of Everything that you Think you Know"  Assumptions - Biased - Prejudice

Every person on earth makes the same mistake of believing that they have learned enough, and that the knowledge they have gives them full understanding of themselves and the world around them. But trying to figure out what you don't know is not that easy. And you must have access to the knowledge that you need, and some guidance to navigate through the worlds accumulated knowledge that has been collected in the last 2,000 years or so. People naively believe that they are learning enough because they watch the news and do some reading. Well your wrong, you are not learning enough. Read BK101 and you will begin to learn enough.

What is it that fools people into believing that they know enough? Is it that people don't even ask what's missing? If it were easy for people to measure their intelligence level and skills level, then people would be more aware of their potential, and more aware of what they know and what they don't know.

"knowing what to do is just as important as knowing what not to do." 

"Most people do not have enough information and knowledge in order to be fully aware of themselves or the world around them. So people never fully understand the options or the choices that they have, or what better decisions they could be making."

"People don't think stuff through far enough to fully understand."

"You don't know what you don't know until you know what you did not know."

"If there's one thing that I have learned, it's that I still have a lot to learn."

"Know one could have all the answers, but the more answers you do have, the better off you will be."

Some people are not smarter then you, some people just learned about more things then you. Things that you can also learn. So people who have more knowledge and information then you are not smarter then you, they just seem smarter, only because you stopped learning or you didn't have access to the knowledge and information that you need in order to better understand yourself and the world around you. Just keep learning a little each day.

How will you add yesterdays learning to today? And how will you add todays learning to the future? Learning needs progression, if knowledge becomes fragmented, then it becomes less effective.

You can't be any more then you know, but you can definitely be less then what you know, because you may have forgotten important things that you have learned. So the more you know the better. But you have to choose your knowledge wisely, and you have to learn something new everyday, if not, then you will have wasted a day. And if you miss too many days, your development and progress will almost come to a complete stop. You have to understand the potential that knowledge gives you, but you also have to understand that potential energy comes from action, and that action is called learning. But you have to know what to learn and when to learn it, otherwise, information and knowledge becomes fragmented, and unable to be utilized collectively. So you will not know enough to piece together a full understanding of yourself, or the world. "You can be more then what you know, but not knowing that you are more then what you know, will never be as good as knowing that you are more then what you know."

"What I think and what I know are two different things."

A genius who can't tie his own shoes

Specialized knowledge is knowledge that is time and place specific, meaning that you don't really need that particular knowledge and information until a special set of circumstances arises. So this type of knowledge will only benefit you when you need to perform a particular function, like surgery, or farming, or driving a truck, and so on. Almost every school on the planet offers this type of knowledge. This is the main reason why people are ignorant. Because they have been denied knowledge and information that would give them intelligence and awareness. So they are just educated enough to be mindless slaves who are easily manipulated and controlled. Though many people will immediately say this is false, they will have a very difficult time explaining why they believe this is false. And this is when the realization happens, or, this is when they enter a state of denial. So what valuable knowledge and information is missing from education, and what knowledge and information is missing from the news and our media outlets. They are supposedly paid to inform us of our reality, but they are not doing this effectively or efficiently. In fact they are doing the opposite most of the time. 

High Functioning Addict
You can't be aware of Everything

Genius in one area of your life does not necessary mean that you're a genius in other areas of your life. You've learn this, but not that. Anyone is capable of a genius action, but that doesn't make that person a genius. Just because an insane person shows signs of genius does not mean that there is a connection or a correlation between genius and insanity. That's like saying that because a person did something genius, they must also be insane. One does not imply the other, because they are two separate things. Two things are not necessarily connected just because they share the same space. Similarities don't necessarily mean connected. And just because someone is suffering from mental illness does not make that person crazy or broken. We have to be very careful with our labels. When we narrowly define things, we never see the whole picture. So we never fully understand, or, do we know the correct actions to take. So a label is just a starting point, because it doesn't fully explain the contents. When we give a label or use a label, we must also give the instructions and the reasons, otherwise, a label could be more dangerous then helpful. Don't judge a book by it's cover is also an incomplete sentence. What book? Who's cover? Why this book?

Just because someone has more knowledge then you, or more schooling then you, this does not guarantee that this particular person is smarter the you. It mostly comes down to who has the right information at the right time, and if you are doing more harm then good. So don't ever underestimate your value, and don't ever underestimate the value of learning, because the more you know the better your odds will be at making better decisions. So choose what to learn and when to learn it very wisely. Choosing correctly what to eat everyday has many benefits, and choosing what to learn everyday has even more benefits.

Being smart is that ability to have good relationships, to listen well, to treat people fairly with honestly. Being smart is that ability to control emotions, to make good decisions, to have good awareness.

Having more valuable knowledge that gives a greater understanding does not mean that you will stop making mistakes, but mistakes will be less frequently.

It's impossible to know everything, but it is possible to know most of the important things. When smart people don't know something they have the knowledge and skills to learn what they need to learn, thus they are good at solving problems and good at making the best decisions. Being intelligent means you actually seek to understand what you know and the way things work. Being smart is having a good bullshit detector, or being able to tell when someone is lying, and being able to distinguish sense from nonsense. But you still may be susceptible to falling into certain traps of falsehood or mind manipulation. Being smart is being able to control and use human energy to accomplish certain goals. Having extensive knowledge of the mind and body, and how to use mind and body functions to achieve goals, like last for days without food, or survive extreme cold or heat without dying.

Accumulative Knowledge is knowledge that accumulates over many months or even years as you learn more. And as you learn more, you increase your understanding of yourself and the world around you. So you become more aware, and have more potential, and have more abilities and more skills. Though specialized knowledge shares the same function as accumulated knowledge, specialized knowledge is limited to a specific need. Everyone needs a foundation of knowledge and information that provides them with a full understanding of themselves and the world around them. Intelligence is the goal.

Reading every encyclopedia wont make you smart. Having a great memory wont make you smart either. Remembering mundane details might get you on a meaningless game show like Jeopardy, but it does not mean that you are smart or intelligent. It's not how much knowledge and information you have, it's how effective and efficient you are in using that knowledge and information to improve life. That is truly what makes a person intelligent. So it's not what you have, or how much you have, it's how you use what you have that ends up being the most important aspect. That should be the top priority of every educational institution on the planet, but it's not. But for BK101, this is the top priority. This website may have some of the worlds most valuable knowledge and information, but if you never learn how to formulate knowledge and information correctly, and use it effectively and efficiently, then the benefits from knowledge and information will never materialize. If you are not solving problems then you are most likely adding to the problems that we have. 

"Ignorance kills more people then all causes of death combined"   

Intelligence Types

Life Skills are abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that enable humans to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life; Competency in Decision making, Problem solving, Creative thinking/lateral thinking, Critical thinking/perspicacity, Effective communication, Interpersonal relationships, Self awareness/mindfulness, Assertiveness, Empathy, Equanimity, Coping with stress, trauma and loss, Resilience. 

21st Century Skills
Skill Set (PDF)
Mind Set

Soft Skills are a combination of interpersonal people skills, social skills, communication skills, character traits, attitudes, career attributes and emotional intelligence quotient (EQ) among others that enable people to effectively navigate their environment, work well with others, perform well, and achieve their goals with complementing hard skills.

Life Skills-Based Education are abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life.
Intelligent Meaning

Evolution of Human Intelligence is closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the origin of language. The timeline of human evolution spans approximately 7 million years, from the separation of the Pan genus until the emergence of behavioral modernity by 50,000 years ago. The first 3 million years of this timeline concern Sahelanthropus, the following 2 million concern Australopithecus and the final 2 million span the history of actual human genus in the Paleolithic era. Many traits of human intelligence, such as empathy, theory of mind, mourning, ritual, and the use of symbols and tools, are apparent in great apes although in less sophisticated forms than found in humans, such as great ape language.

Outline of Human Intelligence (wiki)   PDF

Intelligence has been defined in many different ways including one's capacity for logic, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness, communication, learning, emotional knowledge, memory, planning, creativity and problem solving. It can be more generally described as the ability to perceive information, and retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment.

Quantitative reasoning (Gq) is the ability to comprehend quantitative concepts and relationships and to manipulate numerical symbols.
Reading and writing ability (Grw) includes basic reading and writing skills.
Short-term memory (Gsm) is the ability to apprehend and hold information in immediate awareness, and then use it within a few seconds.
Long-term storage and retrieval (Glr) is the ability to store information and fluently retrieve it later in the process of thinking.
Visual processing (Gv) is the ability to perceive, analyze, synthesize, and think with visual patterns, including the ability to store and recall visual representations.
Auditory processing (Ga) is the ability to analyze, synthesize, and discriminate auditory stimuli, including the ability to process and discriminate speech sounds that may be presented under distorted conditions.
Processing speed (Gs) is the ability to perform automatic cognitive tasks, particularly when measured under pressure to maintain focused attention.
Decision/reaction time/speed (Gt) reflects the immediacy with which an individual can react to stimuli or a task (typically measured in seconds or fractions of seconds; it is not to be confused with Gs, which typically is measured in intervals of 2–3 minutes).
Mental chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations.

Multiple Intelligences are eight abilities, musical–rhythmic, visual–spatial, verbal–linguistic, logical–mathematical, bodily–kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.

Six Intellects
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Howard Gardner Spatial Intelligence (youtube)

Social Intelligence
People Smart
Collaboration Smart
Nature Smart
Survival Smart
Number Smart
Word Smart
Five Wits

Spatial Intelligence
Frame of Reference
Learning Smart
10,000 Hours
Music Smart
Problem Solving Smart

Self Smart
Emotional Intelligence
Heart's Intuitive Intelligence (youtube)
Body Smart
Cognition Testing

Crystallized Intelligence refers to experience and accumulated knowledge. Includes the breadth and depth of a person's acquired knowledge, the ability to communicate one's knowledge, and the ability to reason using previously learned experiences or procedures.

Fluid Intelligence is the ability to learn and process information. The ability to reason, form concepts, and solve problems using unfamiliar information or novel procedures.

Scientifically Literate

Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory, The ability to reason and to solve new problems independently of previously acquired knowledge.

Spiritual Intelligence
Outline of Human Intelligence
Seven Levels of intelligence and three types of genius

Parallel Computing
Artificial Intelligence
Global Brain

Swarm Intelligence
Link between Sensory Discriminations and Intelligence

Wisdom, intelligence, creativity, synthesized (PDF)

The Genius in All of Us, David Shenk (video)
How do you Teach Multiple Intelligences (youtube)

Problem Solving
Self-Directed Learning
Knowledge Management   
Information Literacy  

Pure Science Specials - Beautiful Minds (youtube) Season 1 Episode 86 | Aired on 01/28/2015 | TV-G | 2 hr. 17 min
My Brilliant Brain - Make Me a Genius (Episode 1) (video)
NatGeo "My Brilliant Brain" featuring Susan Polgar (youtube)
László Polgár (wiki)

Switching skills on by turning off part of the Brain
Brain Stimulation makes the impossible problem solvable

Brain Function Examinations

Intelligence Tests (wiki)
Types of Intelligence
Mensa Brain Test 
Thurstone Test of Mental Alertness

IQ = MA/CA x 100  (The Ratio of Mental Age (MA) to Chronological Age (CA) multiplied by 100)
Intelligence Quotient
IQ Test
IQ Classification
IQ Research
Flynn Effect (wiki)

Implicit Association Test is a measure within social psychology designed to detect the strength of a person's automatic association between mental representations of objects (concepts) in memory.

Raven's Progressive Matrices is a nonverbal group test typically used in educational settings. It is usually a 60-item test used in measuring abstract reasoning and regarded as a non-verbal estimate of fluid intelligence.

Cognition is the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses. It encompasses processes such as knowledge, attention, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language, etc.
Thinking Smart - Cognitive Abilities
Neuro Tracker scientifically based tool to measure and improve cognitive performance.

Executive Functions are a set of cognitive processes – including attentional control, inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, as well as reasoning, problem solving, and planning – that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals. Executive functions gradually develop and change across the lifespan of an individual and can be improved at any time over the course of a person's life. Similarly, these cognitive processes can be adversely affected by a variety of events which affect an individual.
Levels of Thinking

Cognitive Skill is defined as the ability of an individual to perform the various mental activities most closely associated with learning and problem solving. Examples include verbal, spatial, psychomotor, and processing-speed ability. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.
Cognitive Neuroscience

Cognitive Tests are assessments of the cognitive capabilities of humans and other animals. Tests administered to humans include various forms of IQ tests; those administered to animals include the mirror test (a test of visual self-awareness) and the T maze test (which tests learning ability). Such study is important to research concerning the philosophy of mind and psychology, as well as determination of human and animal intelligence.

Cognitive Tests
Cognitive Abilities
Cognitive Failures

Four Stages of Competence is the process of progressing from incompetence to competence in a skill.

Unconscious incompetence
The individual does not understand or know how to do something and does not necessarily recognize the deficit. They may deny the usefulness of the skill. The individual must recognize their own incompetence, and the value of the new skill, before moving on to the next stage. The length of time an individual spends in this stage depends on the strength of the stimulus to learn.
Conscious incompetence
Though the individual does not understand or know how to do something, he or she does recognize the deficit, as well as the value of a new skill in addressing the deficit. The making of mistakes can be integral to the learning process at this stage.
Conscious competence
The individual understands or knows how to do something. However, demonstrating the skill or knowledge requires concentration. It may be broken down into steps, and there is heavy conscious involvement in executing the new skill.
Unconscious competence
The individual has had so much practice with a skill that it has become "second nature" and can be performed easily. As a result, the skill can be performed while executing another task. The individual may be able to teach it to others, depending upon how and when it was learned.

Gifted is a student whose mental capacities develop ahead of chronological age.
Testing Mom

Mini Mental State Examination is a 30-point questionnaire that is used extensively in clinical and research settings to measure cognitive impairment. - PDF
Mental Health Tests

Brain Games
Virtual Reality

Attentional Network Task (ANT)
Attention Networks Test

Assessment Flaws
Observer Effects

Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System
DKEF (wiki)
Wiz IQ
50 things everyone should know how to do 
Reasoning Tests
Darwin Awards

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children provides five primary index scores (i.e., Verbal Comprehension Index, Visual Spatial Index, Fluid Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, and Processing Speed Index) that represent a child's abilities in more discrete cognitive domains. Five ancillary composite scores can be derived from various combinations of primary or primary and secondary subtests.
Adults Intelligence Scale is an IQ test designed to measure intelligence and cognitive ability in adults and older adolescents.
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
Mental Age

Vibrant Brains

Intelligence Analysis is the application of individual and collective cognitive methods to weigh data and test hypotheses within a secret socio-cultural context. The analyst must correlate the similarities among deceptions and extract a common truth

Battle of the Brains is a Documentary about IQ testing and Testing for Intelligence. (youtube)

If a High School Diploma, SAT, GRE, ACT or College Degree does not confirm intelligence, then what does it confirm? Conformity

Higher IQ scores are predictive in measuring the ability of a person to have more occupational success, higher income, and better physical and mental health. But higher IQ scores do not determine the value of success, it only determines the increased chances of success. But you have to define success, and an iq test does not define success. This is more then just getting a job, it's knowing that the work you do is valuable. It's not about how much money you made, it's how you impacted the world. Did you use and abuse the world and make everyone pay for it? Or did you improve the world that produced measurable benefits for other people? Once you accurately measure the inputs and outputs of a persons life, it paints a much clearer picture about what real success is.

There is too much propaganda in these tests, just like in our Civics Tests. Just remembering ignorant facts is not a test.
Testing Failures
Optional Testing (pdf)

"I would not say that "Wisdom comes with Age", because knowledge comes from continually learning and seeking out facts. Though older people may have more experiences, they don't always learn from those experiences the way they should. If you stop seeking knowledge and stop learning, then wisdom and old age will never meet."

So what do I consider to be Intelligent? First review the common definitions of intelligence below and then I will tell you my definitions that I believe should be added. To be endowed and privileged enough to be labeled with intelligent characteristics you should also have these added qualities. A person who has common sense, a person who separates opinion from fact, a person who does not dismiss information solely based on preference, a person who does not assume but Questions, a person who can formulate information in order to obtain a logical answer, A person who can Problem Solve, a person who is knowledgeable of the Human Brain and Body, a person who possesses Discipline and Self-Control, a person who knows Good from Bad and right from wrong and lives buy it, a person who is not corruptible, a person who Never Stops Learning, a person who knows that being a Great Teacher and a Great Leader are the two greatest responsibilities of an intelligent person, a person who is constantly striving to always possess and honor the qualities of intelligence, a person who teaches the qualities of intelligence, a person who knows they will still make mistakes but now will learn from them and move on. So the next time you want to call someone intelligent remember these qualities. You should never call a child intelligent or gifted. You should instead tell them that they have the abilities to be intelligent or gifted. This way they will know that to be intelligent or gifted is a life long process that is much more then a label that someone gives you. If you find someone who considers themselves to be intelligent then show them these definitions. They should be able to prove these qualities, but a truly intelligent person should say that they are constantly striving to acquire all these qualities in order to one day possess them all and even add some new ones. I look at these qualities as the foundation of a good person.

F = T (del) Sτ
F = T (upside-down triangle or Del or Nabla Symbol) Sτ
A force to maximize future options and future freedom of Action, avoid future confinement. Knowing when to apply the correct action at the correct time.
Education Purpose
Control Theory

Being intelligent is being able to approach intellectual road blocks from new angles. Being intelligent is the ability to borrow tools from one discipline to solve problems in another. Being intelligent is having many different hobbies that can lead to creative breakthroughs. Being intelligent is being able to slow down multitasking, having one project take center stage for a series of hours or days. Leaving the other projects to linger in the margins of consciousness, but still being able to take ideas from the projects at the margins. Being intelligent is being able to think outside the box, letting the mind wander and dream, processing new information, making new connections, and developing new thinking strategies.

To determine how dysfunctional you are you first have to determine how functional you are. That's like trying to figure out how smart you are, which is not easy because intelligence is not totally defined yet, with too much of your understanding being determined by your own perception. The only way to determine intelligence is to have an exact list of questions and problems that test your skills and knowledge. How much intelligence does the IQ test really determine? Very little because it's an overall test of skills and knowledge and not an exact test of what makes a person intelligent. Define intelligence, then define the test.

Harvard Takes the 1964 Louisiana Literacy Test (youtube)    Page 1   Page 2   Page 3   (The test was a test in itself)

"I am so clever that sometimes I don't understand a single word of what I am saying." (Oscar Wilde)

"A fool thinks himself to be wise, but a wise man knows himself to be a fool." (William Shakespeare)

"You're smart, it's just that your understanding of the world is not totally accurate, or complete."

"Be careful who you call an Intellectual because intellectuals are not always intelligent, they have mostly been schooled, thus they are most likely to be still ignorant and very vulnerable to corruption."

“The key to attaining a higher level of intelligence is to make your years of study qualitatively rich. We don't simply absorb information - we internalize it and make it our own by finding some way to put this knowledge to practical use.”

"We are gradually and finally understanding just how incredibly important knowledge and information is to a human."
 Education Sayings and Quotes

Intelligent Words

Intelligent is having the capacity for Thought and reason especially to a high degree. Possessing sound Knowledge. Exercising or showing good judgment. Endowed with the capacity to Reason. Having good understanding or a high mental capacity; quick to Comprehend.  "Intelligence is making good decisions and examining things carefully. Intelligence is always learning." 
Intelligent has been defined in many different ways including one's capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, planning, creativity and problem solving. It can be more generally described as the ability to perceive information, and retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment or context.

is a person who uses intelligence rather than emotions or instinct. A person who uses the mind creatively. The capacity for rational thought or inference or discrimination.

"Intelligence is not a level of achievement, it is a way of life. And levels are just temporary steps that lead to greater and even larger steps, some of which have not yet been created."

Intelligent Types - Skills 

Executive Functions are a set of cognitive processes – including attentional control, inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, as well as reasoning, Problem Solving, and planning – that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior.

Self-Directed Learning - Artificial Intelligence

Polymath is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas; such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

Erudition is the depth, polish and breadth that education confers. The Latin word educāre means to bring out or train; hence an educated person has come to think critically and logically. An erudite person has both deep and broad familiarity with general subjects and is usually knowledgeable in a particular subject, by virtue of study and extensive reading of the subject's literature.

Phronesis a type of wisdom relevant to practical things, requiring an ability to discern how or why to act virtuously and encourage practical virtue, excellence of character, in others.

Smart is showing mental alertness and Calculation and resourcefulness. Characterized by quickness and ease in Learning.
Capable of independent and apparently intelligent action. 

Attention - Focus - Awareness

Race Condition is the behavior of an electronic, software or other system where the output is dependent on the sequence or timing of other uncontrollable events. It becomes a bug when events do not happen in the order the programmer intended.


Street Smart is a person who has a lot of common sense and knows what's going on in the world. This person knows what every type of person has to deal with daily and understands all groups of people and how to act around them. This person also knows all the current sh*t going on in the streets and the ghetto and everywhere else and knows how to make his own right decisions, knows how to deal with different situations and has his own independent state of mind. A street smart person isn't stubborn and actually listens to sh*t and understands sh*t.

Bright is being full of promise and potential. Enlighten

Brilliant is having or marked by unusual and impressive intelligence. Surpassing excellence. 10,000 Hours

Maturity (psychological) is the ability to respond to the environment in an appropriate manner. This response is generally learned rather than instinctive. Maturity also encompasses being aware of the correct time and place to behave and knowing when to act, according to the circumstances and the culture of the society one lives in. Adult development and maturity theories include the purpose in life concept, in which maturity emphasizes a clear comprehension of life's purpose, directedness, and intentionality, which contributes to the feeling that life is meaningful.

Prudent is being careful and sensible; marked by sound judgment.

Alertness is being mentally perceptive and responsive.
What is Mindset?  

Attentiveness is the trait of being considerate and thoughtful of others. The trait of being observant and paying attention.

Wise is marked by the exercise of good judgment or common sense in practical matters. Having or prompted by wisdom or discernment. Enlightenment

Wisdom is accumulated knowledge or erudition or enlightenment. The trait of utilizing knowledge and experience with common sense and insight. Ability to apply knowledge or experience or understanding or common sense and insight. The quality of being prudent and sensible. Knowing the difference between Facts and OpinionsWisdom is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight.

Conventional Wisdom is the body of ideas or explanations generally accepted as true by the public or by experts in a field.

Crazy Wisdom (wiki) Assumptions

Rationality is the quality or state of being reasonable, based on facts or reason. Rationality implies the conformity of one's beliefs with one's reasons to believe, or of one's actions with one's reasons for action.

Sage is someone who has attained the wisdom which a philosopher seeks.

Oracle was a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the gods.

Sophia is a philosophical concept regarding wisdom.


"Wisdom does not come with age, wisdom only comes from learning. And learning only comes from having access to valuable knowledge and information that increases your understanding of yourself and the world around you, and then learning how to use knowledge and information effectively and efficiently."

Solomonic is exhibiting or requiring the exercise of great wisdom, especially in making difficult decisions.
Antonym: Inferior

Sophisticated is having worldly knowledge and refinement and Social skill. Ahead in development; complex or intricate; Intellectually appealing.

Cleverness is the power of creative imagination. Intelligence as manifested in being quick and witty. Mentally quick and resourceful. Showing inventiveness and skill. 

Problem Solving
Self-Directed Learning

Resourcefulness is the quality of being able to cope with a difficult situation. The ability to deal resourcefully with Unusual Problems.  

Advanced is being at a higher level in training or knowledge or skill; Ahead in development; complex or intricate. Farther along in physical or mental development; Ahead of the times. (of societies) highly developed especially in technology or industry. Contribute to the progress or growth of; Develop in a positive way; Move forward.

Know Better is to be wise enough, experienced enough, or well trained enough not to have done something wrong. To be wise enough to behave in a more responsible or acceptable way. You can know better, but, if you don't apply the right information at the right time, then knowing better will not help you, so you will most likely make the same mistakes again and again. It's a Process, a Procedure.

Profundity is having deep insight; great depth of knowledge or thought. Wisdom that is recondite and abstruse and profound. Intellectual depth; penetrating knowledge; keen insight; etc. The intellectual ability to penetrate deeply into ideas.

Experience is the accumulation of knowledge or skill that results from direct participation in events or activities. The content of direct observation or participation in an event.  Go or live through. Have firsthand knowledge of states, situations, emotions, or sensations.  Go through (mental or physical states or experiences) Undergo an emotional sensation or be in a particular state of mind. Experience is the knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.

Training - Skill
Experience does not always mean that you are learning the right things

Discernment is the cognitive condition of someone who understands. Delicate discrimination (especially of esthetic values) Perception of that which is obscure. The mental ability to understand and discriminate between relations. The trait of judging wisely and objectively.


Genius is someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality. Unusual mental ability. Someone who is dazzlingly Skilled in any field. Exceptional Creative ability. A Natural Talent. Genius is a person who displays exceptional intellectual ability, creative productivity, universality in genres or originality, typically to a degree that is associated with the achievement of new advances in a domain of knowledge. Most great works of Genius happen between the ages of 30 and 40 years of age.

Savant Syndrome
Aptitude Testing

Logic is having reasoned and Reasonable Judgment. The principles that guide reasoning within a given field or situation. A System of Reasoning. The branch of philosophy that analyzes inference. The system of operations performed by a computer that underlies the machine's representation of logical operations

Logic is generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of arguments. A valid argument is one where there is a specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the argument and its conclusion.

Modal Logic classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing modality.

Relevance Logic is a kind of non-classical logic requiring the antecedent and consequent of implications to be relevantly related. They may be viewed as a family of substructural or modal logics.

Pretzel Logic
is fallible, twisted or circular reasoning that when dissected is wrong, does not make sense or does not explain the situation rationally.

Logicians is a person, such as a philosopher or a mathematician, whose topic of scholarly study is logic.

Formulation Logic are simple, first-order logic knowledge representations of natural language sentences formed by the conjunction of concept predicates related through shared arguments.

First-Order Logic is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science

Interpretation Logic is an assignment of meaning to the symbols of a formal language.

Subjective Logic is a type of probabilistic logic that explicitly takes uncertainty and belief ownership into account.

Logical Fallacy is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system, for example propositional logic.

Classical Logic identifies a class of formal logics that have been most intensively studied and most widely used.


Resolution Logic is a rule of inference leading to a refutation theorem-proving technique for sentences in propositional logic and first-order logic. In other words, iteratively applying the resolution rule in a suitable way allows for telling whether a propositional formula is satisfiable and for proving that a first-order formula is unsatisfiable. Attempting to prove a satisfiable first-order formula as unsatisfiable may result in a nonterminating computation; this problem doesn't occur in propositional logic

Substructural Logic is a logic lacking one of the usual structural rules (e.g. of classical and intuitionistic logic), such as weakening, contraction, exchange or associativity. Two of the more significant substructural logics are relevant logic and linear logic.

Logical Positivism asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.

Computational Logic

Logical is being capable of or reflecting the capability for correct and valid reasoning. Based on known statements or events or conditions. Marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts. Capable of thinking and expressing yourself in a clear and consistent manner.

Control Theory

Reasoning is thinking that is coherent and logical. Endowed with the capacity to reason. Decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion.

Deductive Reasoning determines whether the truth of a conclusion can be determined for that rule, based solely on the truth of the premises. (deductive logic, logical deduction, bottom up logic)

Inductive Reasoning attempts to support a determination of the rule. It hypothesizes a rule after numerous examples are taken to be a conclusion that follows from a precondition in terms of such a rule.

Abductive Reasoning is a form of logical inference which goes from an observation to a theory which accounts for the observation, ideally seeking to find the simplest and most likely explanation. In abductive reasoning, unlike in deductive reasoning, the premises do not guarantee the conclusion. One can understand abductive reasoning as "inference to the best explanation".

Analogical Reasoning or analogy, is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. In a narrower sense, analogy is an inference or an argument from one particular to another particular, as opposed to deduction, induction, and abduction, where at least one of the premises or the conclusion is general. The word analogy can also refer to the relation between the source and the target themselves, which is often, though not necessarily, a similarity, as in the biological notion of analogy.

How Logical Are You? (Psychology of Reasoning) (youtube)
Automated Reasoning Systems (Cornell University)
Logical Reasoning

Valid Reasoning verbal inferencing using assumptions and conclusions.

Causal Reasoning is the process of identifying causality: the relationship between a cause and its effect.

Motivated Reasoning is an emotion-biased decision-making phenomenon studied in cognitive science and social psychology. This term describes the role of motivation in cognitive processes such as decision-making and attitude change in a number of paradigms, including: Cognitive dissonance reduction, Beliefs about others on whom one's own outcomes depend. Evaluation of evidence related to one's own outcomes.

Reasoning System is a software system that generates conclusions from available knowledge using logical techniques such as deduction and induction.

Axiom is a statement (in mathematics often shown in symbolic form) that is so evident or well-established, that it is accepted without controversy or question.

Procedural Reasoning System is a framework for constructing real-time reasoning systems that can perform complex tasks in dynamic environments.

Dual Process Theory provides an account of how a phenomenon can occur in two different ways, or as a result of two different processes.

Case Based Reasoning - Problem Solving

Rationality is the quality or state of being reasonable, based on facts or reason. Rationality implies the conformity of one's beliefs with one's reasons to believe, or of one's actions with one's reasons for action. "Rationality" has different specialized meanings in economics, sociology, psychology, evolutionary biology, and political science.

Rationalism is the view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive".

Rational Choice Theory

Counterintuitive is a statement that does not seem likely to be true when assessed using intuition, common sense, or gut feelings.

Evidence Based Practice
Motivated Reasoning
Decision Making

Processing Fluency is the ease with which information is processed. Perceptual fluency is the ease of processing stimuli based on manipulations to perceptual quality. Retrieval fluency is the ease with which information can be retrieved from memory

Folk Science describes ways of understanding and predicting the natural and social world, without the use of rigorous methodologies.

Backward Chaining is an inference method that can be described (in lay terms) as working backward from the goal(s). It is used in automated theorem provers, inference engines, proof assistants and other artificial intelligence applications. In game theory, its application to (simpler) subgames in order to find a solution to the game is called backward induction. In chess, it is called retrograde analysis, and it is used to generate tablebases for chess endgames for computer chess. Backward chaining is implemented in logic programming by SLD resolution. Both rules are based on the modus ponens inference rule. It is one of the two most commonly used methods of reasoning with inference rules and logical implications – the other is forward chaining. Backward chaining systems usually employ a depth-first search strategy.

Rational Agent is an agent that has clear preferences, models uncertainty via expected values of variables or functions of variables, and always chooses to perform the action with the optimal expected outcome for itself from among all feasible actions. A rational agent can be anything that makes decisions, typically a person, firm, machine, or software. Rational agents are also studied in the fields of cognitive science, ethics, and philosophy, including the philosophy of practical reason.

The misunderstood limits of folk science: an illusion of explanatory depth
Logical Positivism
Arguments - Debates

Reasonable Doubt
Probable Cause

Moral Certainty is a concept of intuitive probability. It means a very high degree of probability, sufficient for action, but short of absolute or mathematical certainty.

Probability - Statistics
Determinism - Indeterminism

The Goal is Maximization Optimal Decision and Mathematical Optimization.

Analogical Modeling is a formal theory of exemplar based analogical reasoning.

Can your decisions become more rational when thought in another language? A university of Chicago study showed that Korean citizens who thought in foreign languages reduced their overall bias. Why?

Reason is a rational motive for a belief or action. An explanation of the cause of some phenomenon. The capacity for Rational thought or inference or discrimination.  The state of having good sense and sound judgment. A justification for something existing or happening.  A fact that logically justifies some premise or conclusion. Show to be right by providing justification or proof. Defend, explain, clear away, or make excuses for by reasoning. Decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion. Think logically. Knowing the difference between Facts and Opinions. Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.

Mental Operations are operations that affect mental contents. Initially, operations of reasoning have been the object of logic alone.

Eliminative Materialism is certain classes of mental states that most people believe in do not exist.
Levels of Thinking
Thinking Styles

Understanding is to Know and comprehend the nature or meaning of. To become aware of through the Senses. Characterized by understanding based on comprehension and discernment and empathy. Perceive an Idea or Situation mentally. 

Reading Comprehension 

Understanding is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical object, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to think about it and use concepts to deal adequately with that object. Understanding is a relation between the knower and an object of understanding. Understanding implies abilities and dispositions with respect to an object of knowledge sufficient to support intelligent behavior. PDF

Type I - Type II Errors (lie)
Perspicacity is a penetrating discernment—a clarity of vision or intellect which provides a deep understanding and insight.

Sense is to comprehend. Sound practical judgment. The faculty through which the external world is fully understood. Become aware of, not through the senses but instinctively. A natural appreciation or ability. A general conscious awareness. Perceive by a physical sensation, e.g., coming from the skin or muscles. Detect some circumstance or entity automatically. The meaning of a word or expression; the way in which a word or expression or situation can be interpreted.
Sense Making (PDF)

Inference is the reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or making a logical judgment on the basis of circumstantial evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of direct observation. Knowing the difference between Facts and Opinions.  
Inference are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to conclusions.

List of Rules of Inference (wiki)
Super Rationality or Perfect Rationality is acting in a way that maximizes utility.

Analyzes is to consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order to discover essential features or meaning. Make a mathematical, chemical, or grammatical analysis of; break down into components or essential features. Break down into components or essential features.

Data Analysis - Information Literacy - Observations

Analysis is an investigation of the component parts of a whole and their relations in making up the whole. The abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations.

Analysis is an investigation of the component parts of a whole and their relations in making up the whole. The abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations. A form of literary criticism in which the structure of a piece of writing is analyzed. A branch of mathematics involving calculus and the theory of limits; sequences and series and integration and differentiation. A set of Techniques for exploring underlying motives and a method of treating various Mental Disorders.

Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it.

Analytics is the discovery, interpretation, and communication of meaningful patterns in data. Especially valuable in areas rich with recorded information, analytics relies on the simultaneous application of statistics, computer programming and operations research to quantify performance. Analytics often favors data visualization to communicate insight.

Intelligence Analysis is the application of individual and collective cognitive methods to weigh data and test hypotheses within a secret socio-cultural context. The analyst must correlate the similarities among deceptions and extract a common truth.

Analytical Skills is the ability to visualize, articulate, conceptualize or solve both complex and uncomplicated problems by making decisions that are sensible given the available information. Such skills include demonstration of the ability to apply logical thinking to breaking complex problems into their component parts.

Sigmund Freud

Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. It can assist an organization, program, project or any other intervention or initiative to assess any aim, realisable concept/proposal, or any alternative, to help in decision-making; or to ascertain the degree of achievement or value in regard to the aim and objectives and results of any such action that has been completed. The primary purpose of evaluation, in addition to gaining insight into prior or existing initiatives, is to enable reflection and assist in the identification of future change.


Physical Examination is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. It generally follows the taking of the medical history—an account of the symptoms as experienced by the patient. Together with the medical history, the physical examination aids in determining the correct diagnosis and devising the treatment plan. This data then becomes part of the medical record.

Self-Directed Learning

Processing is preparing or putting through a prescribed procedure. Subject to a process or treatment, with the aim of readying for some purpose, improving, or remedying a condition. Perform mathematical and logical operations on (data) according to programmed instructions in order to obtain the required information. Deal with in a routine way. 

Information Processing
Problem Solving

Pragmatic is concerned with practical matters. Guided by practical Experience and observation rather than Theory.
Pragmatism Consider the practical effects of the objects of your conception. Then, your conception of those effects is the whole of your conception of the object.

Fundamental is being or involving basic Facts or principles. Far-reaching and thoroughgoing in effect especially on the nature of something. Any Factor that could be considered important to the understanding of a particular business.


Abstraction is a conceptual process by which general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.

Abstract Structure

Formal System any well-defined system of abstract thought based on the model of mathematics.

Formal Methods are a particular kind of mathematically based techniques for the specification, development and verification of software and hardware systems.

Extrapolate is to gain knowledge of (an area not known or experienced) by extrapolating. Estimate the value of. Draw from specific cases for more general cases. Extend the application of (a method or conclusion, esp. one based on statistics) to an unknown situation by assuming that existing trends will continue or similar methods will be applicable.

Extrapolation is the process of estimating, beyond the original observation range, the value of a variable on the basis of its relationship with another variable.

Judgment is the capacity to assess situations or circumstances shrewdly and to draw sound conclusions. The mental ability to understand and discriminate between relations. The act of judging or assessing a person or situation or event.  The cognitive process of reaching a decision or drawing conclusions. 

is to evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, value or significance of.

Judgment is the evaluation of evidence to make a decision.

Accusation is a formal charge of wrongdoing brought against a person; the act of imputing blame or guilt. An assertion that someone is guilty of a fault or offence.

Decision Making
Legal Terms
Morals - Ethics
What is a Judge?
Why Punish?

Sound Judgment is the capacity to assess situations or circumstances shrewdly and to draw sound conclusions.

Correct is free from error; adapting to fact or truth.  In accord with accepted standards of usage or procedure. To achieve accuracy. Alter or regulate so as to achieve accuracy or conform to a standard.

Explanation is a statement that makes something comprehensible by describing the relevant structure or operation or circumstances etc.. Thought that makes something comprehensible. The act of explaining; making something plain or intelligible.
Explanation (wiki)

Define is to determine the essential quality of.  Give a definition for the meaning of a word. Determine the nature of.

Directions is a message describing how something is to be done. Something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action. A formal statement of a command or injunction to do something. The concentration of attention or energy on something. Showing the way. 

Guide is someone who shows the way by leading or advising. Something that offers basic information or instruction. Someone who can find paths through unexplored territory.

Delineate is having something represented accurately or precisely. Show the form or outline of. Determine the essential quality of. Trace the shape of. Make a mark or lines on a surface. Describe in vivid detail.

Describe is to represent in words especially with sharpness and detail. To give an account or representation of in words. Give a description of.

Determine is to establish after a calculation, investigation, experiment, survey, or study. Reach, make, or come to a decision about something. Find out, learn, or determine with certainty, usually by making an inquiry or other effort.

Alternative is one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen. Serving or used in place of another. Necessitating a choice between mutually exclusive possibilities. The freedom or right to choose.

Intelligible is something capable of being apprehended or understood. Express clearly, and loud enough to be heard distinctly.

Logical Argument is a course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating a truth or falsehood; the methodical process of logical reasoning.
Valid - Debate

Justification is something (such as a fact or circumstance) that shows an action to be reasonable or necessary. A statement in explanation of some action or belief. The act of defending or explaining or making excuses for by reasoning.
Theory of Justification

Principles are a basic generalization that is accepted as true and that can be used as a basis for reasoning or conduct. A rule or standard especially of good behavior. A basic Truth or Law or assumption. A rule or law concerning a natural phenomenon or the function of a complex system. Rule of personal conduct. (law) an explanation of the fundamental reasons (especially an explanation of the working of some device in terms of laws of nature) Knowing the differences between a Lie, an Error and a Belief. Principle is a law or rule that has to be, or usually is to be followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an inevitable consequence of something, such as the laws observed in nature or the way that a system is constructed. The principles of such a system are understood by its users as the essential characteristics of the system, or reflecting system's designed purpose, and the effective operation or use of which would be impossible if any one of the principles was to be ignored.

Morals - Ethics

Conclusion is a position or opinion or judgment reached after consideration. An intuitive assumption. The proposition arrived at by logical reasoning (such as the proposition that must follow from the major and minor premises of a syllogism).

Motivation Words
Learning Words
Valid Words
Problem Solving Words

Think Lightbulb

I still love you, even knowing that you only have a Half a Brain. But I would love you a lot more if you had a whole brain that was full of valuable knowledge and information. Then when we are together, we would have more potential, more options, more control, more power, more freedom, and more possibilities...Well, that's what whole brain people do any way, just sayin.

How would you explain intelligence to someone who isn't intelligent?

Smart and intelligent cannot be used to describe a person unless you explain why. Smart and intelligent only describes a particular action, an action that is known to be logical. That was a smart thing to do, that was an intelligent thing to do. So to say "That Person is Smart", you have to say why? Did they do a smart thing, or is it they can do particular things that require specialized knowledge? So in order to be smart or intelligent you have to perform intelligent actions. So only that particular action is smart and not necessarily the person performing the action. But if you would like to be considered smart then you would have to be known as the person who performed the most intelligent actions. And to prove that you would have to be extremely intelligent." Good luck...it's not a problem, it's a challenge...

albert einstein
You're very bright and aware, keep learning...
Einstein Essay

Human Operating System (HOS)

HOS is another way of describing your base knowledge. The constructs that you use when understanding yourself and the world around you.

The Human Brain is the most powerful machine on the world, so it makes perfect sense that the most powerful machine in the world should have the most powerful software in the world.

Cognitive Architecture is a comprehensive computer model structure of the human mind.

Conceptual Framework is an analytical tool used to make conceptual distinctions and organize ideas. Strong conceptual frameworks capture something real and do this in a way that is easy to remember and apply.

Operational Intelligence is a category of real-time dynamic, business analytics that delivers visibility and insight into data, streaming events and business operations. OI solutions run queries against streaming data feeds and event data to deliver analytic results as operational instructions. OI provides organizations the ability to make decisions and immediately act on these analytic insights, through manual or automated actions.

Cognitive Robotics is endowing a robot with intelligent behavior by providing it with a processing architecture that will allow it to learn and reason about how to behave in response to complex goals in a complex world.

Hierarchy (learning styles)

Action Selection is a way of characterizing the most basic problem of intelligent systems: what to do next?

Intelligent Agent is an autonomous entity which observes through sensors and acts upon an environment using actuators and directs its activity towards achieving goals.

Intelligent Control is a class of control techniques that use various artificial intelligence computing approaches like neural networks, Bayesian probability, fuzzy logic, Machine Learning, evolutionary computation and genetic algorithms.

Artificial Intelligence

What would be the Human Algorithm for Learning? You would have to write a lot of Procedures.

Patch (computing) is a piece of software designed to update a computer program or its supporting data, to fix or improve it.

Organizing Knowledge Cognitively is a system of grouping and categorizing our brain to use, sort and store information. System changes and adapts as the amount of knowledge about a particular subject changes and grows.

Artificial Curiosity and Creativity

Artificial Brain research that aims to develop software and hardware with cognitive abilities similar to those of the animal or human brain.

Human Operators Manual has been updated.

Human Life Operators Manual (youtube - Tom Shadyac, Michael D. Palm sented Life's Operating Manual)

Human Source Code - Refactoring The Human Body - Machine Language

Pattern Recognition
Machine Learning
Feed Back
Predictive Analytics
Category-Based Intrinsic Motivation (PDF)

Mindfulness is being aware of your thoughts, being aware of how you feel. An examination of the mind, questioning accuracy.

Mind is the set of cognitive faculties that enables consciousness, perception, thinking, judgment, and memory—a characteristic of humans, but which also may apply to other life forms. 

Language of Thought Hypothesis (language controls thinking, similar to the way that computer software controls processes)

This is your working memory, the constructs of reality. Awareness is more then a skill that one needs to learn, awareness is about having a full understanding of cause and effect, and how everything in this world, in one way or another, is connected.

Remembrance Agent are a set of applications that watch over a user’s shoulder and suggest information relevant to the current situation. While query-based memory aids help with direct recall, remembrance agents are an augmented associative memory. For example, the word-processor version of the RA continuously updates a list of documents relevant to what’s being typed or read in an emacs buffer. These suggested documents can be any text files that might be relevant to what you are currently writing or reading. They might be old emails related to the mail you are currently reading, or abstracts from papers and newspaper articles that discuss the topic of your writing.

Working Memory
Working memory is the system responsible for the transient holding and processing of new and already-stored information, recalling past experiences and knowledge from memory. To Keep in mind for attention or consideration. This is an important process for reasoning, comprehension, learning and memory updating. Thinking, Processing, Output. Working memory is a theoretical framework that refers to structures and processes used for temporarily storing and manipulating information. What information do we have? What information are we receiving? What is the appropriate action? Most of the time people are in automatic mode, and rarely use the processing power of the human brain. That's because not enough people are teaching this skill or learning this skill. Memory Consolidation is when existing memories are recalled and modified with new knowledge.

Working Memory (PDF)
Development of Autonomy in Adolescence (PDF)

Automaticity is the ability to do things without occupying the mind with the low-level details required, allowing it to become an automatic response pattern or habit. It is usually the result of learning, repetition, and practice.
Automatic - Autonomy
Habits - Routines

Cognitive Load refers to the total amount of mental effort being used in the working memory. Intrinsic cognitive load is the effort associated with a specific topic. Extraneous cognitive load refers to the way information or tasks are presented to a learner. And, germane cognitive load refers to the work put into creating a permanent store of knowledge, or a schema.

Schema is an Organized Pattern of Thought or Behavior.


Manual Controls and Automation 

Procedural Memory is a type of implicit memory (unconscious memory) and long-term memory which aids the performance of
particular types of tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences. Procedural memory guides the processes we perform and most frequently resides below the level of conscious awareness. When needed, procedural memories are automatically retrieved and utilized for the execution of the integrated procedures involved in both cognitive and motor skills, from tying shoes to flying an airplane to reading. Procedural memories are accessed and used without the need for conscious control or attention. Procedural memory is created through procedural learning or, repeating a complex activity over and over again until all of the relevant neural systems work together to automatically produce the activity. Implicit procedural learning is essential for the development of any motor skill or cognitive activity.

10,000 Rule
Rote Learning

Our brains have a basic algorithm that enables our intelligence, scientists say.

Imagine using a computer without an Operating System and having no interface between Applications, Programs, other Software, system controls and Hardware, and at the same time having no coordination or management of priorities. You would have a very difficult time trying to accomplish even the simplest task. Now imagine a Human without an operating system. Well you can’t, because you don’t know what a Human Operating System is yet. Just like if you never used a computer you would have no idea what it would be like using a computer without an operating system. Most of us have a crappie operating system already thanks to our dysfunctional education system. We should have been given an Open Sourced Operating System instead of a Monopolized and dysfunctional operating system. So let me give you a brief description of what a Human Operating System is like, or supposed to be like. Remember that the original definition of a computer was “A human who preformed calculations”. But when the electronic computer was developed then the definition changed or evolved. Not understanding the immediate similarities between a computer and a Human Brain was a huge mistake. While the computer went through incredible advances and improvements in a short period of time, the human counter part did not. In less then 50 years an ENIAC computer went from being the size of a house and costing 3 million dollars to the size of a book costing less then $500.00. Of course the Moore's Law was not followed or most likely ignored when we designed cars and other consumer items. Because If cars had gone through those same improvements a car today would get a thousand miles to the gallon and cost the same as a computer. This was obviously Planned Obsolescence, which is a blatant crime that is still happening today. (Pyramids of Waste aka The Light bulb Conspiracy, 2010). So if we made the same advances and improvements in educating the human brain we would have hundreds of millions of intellectuals solving all the worlds problems. But sadly today we only have a few thousand intellectuals that are mostly being exploited and underutilized. 

Machine Code is a set of instructions executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU). Each instruction performs a very specific task, such as a load, a jump, or an ALU operation on a unit of data in a CPU register or memory. Every program directly executed by a CPU is made up of a series of such instructions.
Word Matrix

Source Code is any collection of computer instructions, (possibly with comments), written using a human-readable computer language, usually as ordinary text.
Code - Programming

Software is encoded information or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built.

An HOS will need to be activated, like a Mindset.


Robot Operating System

An OS needs software to be loaded in sequential order. In order for human to develop, development must be in sequential order. That means that education and what we learn should have sequential order. But no one has defined what to learn or when to learn it. Computer programmers wrote the code for an operating system, teachers will write the language for a learning system. The code in our DNA makes us who we are physically, and we didn't even have to write our DNA code because some one already wrote the code for us. But humans must manually input knowledge and information, because we are not born with the knowledge that helps us form our personalities, and helps us understand ourselves and the world around us. This is why an education must be high quality, developing humans into intelligent people should be the goal. Computer programmers wrote the code to make computers fully functional, God or evolution wrote the DNA code for humans so that humans could be fully functional. That is why we need a high quality education, so that every human mind is developed to be fully functional. We have already witnessed the benefits of a good education, we just haven't defined what a good education should be, but we are close.

Windows operating system has roughly 50 million lines of code.

"We update our appliances, our TV's, our phones, our computers, but we never update our brains, why? Why did everything else improved fairly quickly except for our education institutions?"

Now lets get back to the Human Operating System or H.O.S. for short. Lets start by examining the similarities between a computer and the Human brain. Both are used to process information, perform calculations, store information and carry out responsibilities and priorities. A computer is also doing things behind the scenes just like the Human Brain does. Like when the brain tells the heart to beat faster or slower, telling the lungs to breath more air, and telling the immune system to fight infections. A computer has many parts. A Human brain also has many parts. Knowing and understanding computer parts helps with maintaining its proper operation. Knowing and understanding the parts of the human brain will also have the same benefit. What happens to a human when they don’t get their regular updates of information and knowledge like computers do when they get their regular updates of virus definitions? Well people also get 'The Blue Screen of Death'. People have that blank stare of ignorance on their face, not knowing what to do and not knowing what to say. Is this just a computer malfunction or people just behaving badly? 

Harmonic Thought (youtube)

Why is the Human Brain similar to a Quantum Computer?

Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, and intentions to non-human entities and is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology.

Mind Files

It's not so unusual to think that there are similarities between a computer and a human brain, after all, computers are made by humans. And the humans who designed these computers have a high degree of knowledge about language and logic. So your computer engineer and your computer programmers possess a system of tools and language that are very useful to educators. Teaching a computer has some of the same instruction elements as teaching a human. The language, the structure, the organizing, the processing, the allocating, the actions and the desired outputs. If people understood how a computer works, understood its language and its computational abilities, understood how the system works and communicates, you can easily see similarities in its logic, logic that was created by a human. To come up with a source code was understanding how we learn. If you look at the whole computer as a engineering design, you see effective ways to process information. 

The Internet
(Time-Based Structure - Space-Based Structure)
Why is Behavior like a Computer Program?

Fragmented is having been divided; Having the unity destroyed. Break or cause to break into pieces.

File System Fragmentation is the tendency of a file system to lay out the contents of files non-contiguously to allow in-place modification of their contents. It is a special case of data fragmentation. File system fragmentation increases disk head movement or seek time, which are known to hinder throughput. In addition, file systems cannot sustain unlimited fragmentation. The correction to existing fragmentation is to reorganize files and free space back into contiguous areas, a process called defragmentation.

Fragmentation (computing) is a phenomenon in which storage space is used inefficiently, reducing capacity or performance and often both. The exact consequences of fragmentation depend on the specific system of storage allocation in use and the particular form of fragmentation. In many cases, fragmentation leads to storage space being "wasted", and in that case the term also refers to the wasted space itself. For other systems (e.g. the FAT file system) the space used to store given data (e.g. files) is the same regardless of the degree of fragmentation (from none to extreme).
Emptying Disk Space

Defragmentation is a process that reduces the amount of fragmentation. It does this by physically organizing the contents of the mass storage device used to store files into the smallest number of contiguous regions (fragments). It also attempts to create larger regions of free space using compaction to impede the return of fragmentation. Some defragmentation utilities try to keep smaller files within a single directory together, as they are often accessed in sequence. Defragmentation is advantageous and relevant to file systems on electromechanical disk drives. The movement of the hard drive's read/write heads over different areas of the disk when accessing fragmented files is slower, compared to accessing the entire contents of a non-fragmented file sequentially without moving the read/write heads to seek other fragments.

Working Together

Luke 11:17 "Any kingdom divided against itself will be ruined, and a house divided against itself will fall." 

You don't need a Computer Chip implanted in your Body

Information is verified Facts and Data that are correct and free from error. (words, letters, numbers, diagrams, symbols)

is Skills Learned through Experience and the Ability to Process and Understand Information correctly. More

is the ability to apply knowledge and Information into the correct Action to achieve a Goal
Wisdom is showing good Reasoning and good judgment by Measurement or Research. Wisdom is also understanding the future and the different events that might happen, being Aware of Trends because some changes might be indications that bigger changes are coming so good Preparation and Planning is needed.

Computer Programming is a language with a set of instructions that computers (or person) use to perform specific operations or to exhibit desired behaviors. Computer Programming - Coding

Program is a series of steps to be carried out or goals to be accomplished.  A system of projects or services intended to meet a public need.

Computer Program is a sequence of instructions that a computer can interpret and execute.  Similar to Learning

Cognitive Process is the performance of some composite Cognitive Activity: An operation that affects mental contents. 

Operating System is a set of instructions that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs, input and output and Memory Allocation. Acts as an intermediary between programs. A collection of software (Information) that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a vital component of the System Software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function.  Software that controls the execution of computer programs and may provide various services. Time-sharing operating systems Schedule Tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently make a system call to an OS function or be interrupted by it. Operating systems can be found on almost any device that contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers.

Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) used to control machinery, scientific instruments, industrial systems and appliances. Has very little user-interface capability and no end-user utilities.

Single-User Operating System has a reliable single hard-wired program designed to run one program at a time so that it runs on time consistently to insure safe operation.

Single-User Multi-Tasking Operating System runs several programs in operation at the same time. Like desktop and laptop computers, and humans.

Multi-User Operating System allows for input from several different users at the same time. 

Robot Operating System is a collection of software frameworks for robot software development, (see also Robotics middleware) providing operating system-like functionality on a heterogeneous computer cluster. ROS provides standard operating system services such as hardware abstraction, low-level device control, implementation of commonly used functionality, message-passing between processes, and package management. Running sets of ROS-based processes are represented in a graph architecture where processing takes place in nodes that may receive, post and multiplex sensor, control, state, planning, actuator and other messages. Despite the importance of reactivity and low latency in robot control, ROS, itself, is not a real-time OS (RTOS), though it is possible to integrate ROS with real-time code. The lack of support for real-time systems is being addressed in the creation of ROS 2.0. Software in the ROS Ecosystem can be separated into three groups: language-and platform-independent tools used for building and distributing ROS-based software; ROS client library implementations such as roscpp, rospy, and roslisp; packages containing application-related code which uses one or more ROS client libraries.


Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system, whose Interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, present or future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions.

Operating is to perform as expected when applied. (computer science) Data Processing in which the result is completely specified by a rule (especially the processing that results from a single instruction)

System is an organized structure for arranging or classifying. A Procedure or process for obtaining an objective. A complex of methods or rules governing behavior. An ordered manner; orderliness by virtue of being methodical and well organized. Instrumentality that combines interrelated interacting artifacts designed to work as a coherent entity. Systems

Organize is to cause to be structured or ordered or operating according to some principle or idea. Arrange by Systematic Planning and united effort. Mental Orientation An integrated set of attitudes and beliefs. A person's Awareness of self with regard to position and time and place and personal relationships. Organizing

Planning is an act of formulating a program for a definite course of action. Have the will and intention to carry out some action. The cognitive process of thinking about what you will do in the event of something happening. Make a design of; plan out in systematic, often graphic form. The act or process of drawing up plans or layouts for some project or enterprise. 
Planning - Managing

Input - Process - Output

Binary is a pre-compiled, pre-linked program that is ready to run under a given operating system; a binary for one operating system will not run on a different operating system.
Data - Digital

The computer operating system software is a written language that explains and defines its responsibilities when controlling applications, programs, other software, system controls, hardware and so on and so on. The Human Operating System is also an Assembly Language that also explains and defines its responsibilities. The Human Operating System language is based on Logic that helps with carrying out human responsibilities and human functions. The Computer Operating System language is for mechanical operations that interface with the computer responsibilities and computer functions. The computer operating system language took years to write and went through many changes and advances and is still improving. The Human Operating System language will also take years to write and will also go through many improvements and advances. Most of the Human Operating System language has already been written but it needs to be organized and written in the proper language in order for it to be correctly processed by the human brain. Just like the computer language ‘COBOL’ that is used to communicate actions and commands before it is converted into its raw binary code of zero’s and ones, the Human Operating System language will also need some conversion in order for it to be correctly understood by the human brain.
Operating System Source Code 

PLATO System (Programmed Logic for Automated Teaching Operations)
Turing Test

Cohesion (computer science) refers to the degree to which the elements of a module belong together. Thus, cohesion measures the strength of relationship between pieces of functionality within a given module. For example, in highly cohesive systems functionality is strongly related.

Encapsulation (object-oriented programming) is used to refer to one of two related but distinct notions, and sometimes to the combination thereof: A language mechanism for restricting direct access to some of the object's components. A language construct that facilitates the bundling of data with the methods (or other functions) operating on that data.

Encapsulation (networking) is a method of designing modular communication protocols in which logically separate functions in the network are abstracted from their underlying structures by inclusion or information hiding within higher level objects.

Orthogonal: Not pertinent to the matter under consideration. Statistically unrelated. Having a set of mutually perpendicular axes; meeting at right angles.

Object-oriented Programming is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self"). Object Oriented Programming (youtube)

Procedural Programming is a programming paradigm, derived from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call. Procedures, also known as routines, subroutines, or functions (not to be confused with mathematical functions, but similar to those used in functional programming), simply contain a series of computational steps to be carried out. Any given procedure might be called at any point during a program's execution, including by other procedures or itself.

Computer Programmers wrote millions of lines of code in order for the computer operating system to work. Just think if programmers were used to write educational lessons for the Human Operating System. We just don’t need programmers for that. We need educators, teachers and intellectuals. That is why literacy is one of the most important skills every human should possess. Books and the written word was the single greatest advancement in human history to date. When more humans had access to knowledge and books, which took hundreds of years, we had the most prevalent advancements in our history. Now our important advancements will come from understanding this knowledge and how we use it.

"In mathematics, Orthogonality describes the property two vectors have when they are perpendicular to each other. Each vector will advance indefinitely into space, never to intersect. Well designed software is orthogonal. Each of its components can be altered without effecting other components. Making precise changes with predictable outcomes is easy."   Jason Coffin

Computer Brain Similarities

More Similarities Between a Computer and the Human Brain
The neural networks in computers are actually similar to the synapses and neurons in the human brain. And the Integrated Circuits, or IC’s, of a computer are also similar in design to synapses and neurons, which are also either on or off. Humans have a processor similar in design as a computer does. The similarities between a computer and a human are uncanny. So in a sense we have actually been, accidentally or indirectly, building a Human Operating System, and in a way being totally unaware of these accomplishments. Neural connectionists will become teachers and not just programmers. Of course the Human Operating System is not a new idea. Just like many inventions and innovations in our past we are just again realizing the true potential of our knowledge. Computational theory of mind, connectionism, cognitive psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience and philosophy of mind have all been around for a long time. So instead of humans mostly running off their Radom Access Memory, or RAM, we should all have a Human Operating System that helps us govern our lives and keeps us aware and continually learning while at the same time improving ourselves and our world. The human brain is a Hard Drive. Some people are walking around with a few hundred Gigs of information while others are walking around with thousands of Gigs of information. People with less information will always be at a disadvantage internally and externally.  

"The brain works somewhat like both a computer and a chemical factory. Brain cells produce electrical signals and send them from cell to cell along pathways called circuits. As in a computer, these circuits receive, process, store, and retrieve information. Unlike a computer, however, the brain creates its electrical signals by chemical means. The proper functioning of the brain depends on many complicated chemical substances produced by brain cells."

"People will normally look at software before they load it on to their computer, but for some reason people don't bother to carefully look at the information that they take into their mind on a daily basis. It's like reading without having any comprehension. If you are not fully aware of what you're feeding into your mind, then learning doesn't exist."

"If you consume healthy food, it will give you energy for a day, but if you consume a little bit of knowledge each day, you will have energy for your entire life."

How many Questions do you think you need to ask in order to fully understand something?

Before the Human Operating System language is written here are a few things that will outline some of its structure.

The Human Operating System will be continually learning and improving so it will never become stagnate or repetitive.
Human Operating System will not be able to keep you from making mistakes, but it will make you better at learning from mistakes.
Human Operating System will not dehumanize you or deprive you of human qualities, but it will make you more aware of how important those qualities are.
Human Operating System will not keep you from spontaneity, but it will make you more aware of your actions.
Human Operating System will not stop you from loving, but it will make you more aware of how important love is.
Human Operating System will have complete knowledge and control of the human brain, for this is where the Human Operating System resides, communicates and moves through the metaphysical world.
Human Operating System will have complete knowledge and control of the human body that it operates in, for this is how it communicates and moves through the physical world.
Human Operating System will be a coordinator and manager of responsibilities and priorities and act like a conscience.
The Human Operating System will be a Collective Intelligent Consensus where everyone is a contributor.
The Human Operating System is not Mind Control or in anyway Mind Programming. The Human Operating System is Systems Management, Operational Intelligence or Mind Management with some elements becoming Automatic but always flexible. You are the manager who is in control of your mind. If you do not know how to manage your own mind then you are vulnerable to manipulation and propaganda, which can create a distorted sense of reality. And when your sense of reality becomes distorted you are always vulnerable to mind controlling manipulation. A great source of mind controlling manipulation is your TV, If you do not believe this or realize this, it means that you have a distorted sense of reality and are very vulnerable to manipulation and propaganda. You are not a free thinker, your are merely a robot waiting for your next command.
The Human Operating System (HOS) will consist of all the Disciplines in Basic Knowledge 101 as well as a Conceptual Framework made up of Thought Processes, Thinking Styles, Inductive Reasoning, Abductive Reasoning, Deductive Reasoning and Cognitive Abilities to help increase the capacity to think logically about the relationships among concepts and situations and to justify and ultimately prove the correctness of a mathematical procedure or assertion. More .

When the HOS is created, it will also be used as Artificial Intelligence, the only difference is AI will have fixed parameters, because knowing what AI is supposed to do creates stability and consistency, something that you can count on, unlike a human. Ai will be like having a very intelligent friend who keeps you aware and up to date.

Continued from above HOS..  (off on a tangent)
It’s kind of weird that the Windows OS is very similar to our dysfunctional education system. They both Stifled Innovation and hindered improvements and growth, which of course harms everyone, and everything. We can no longer afford to allow this to continue. If we are to improve and prosper we need to do what’s right for the good of everyone and not just what’s right for the sake of a single corporation, or a few individuals. The separation of State and People is ridicules and absurd. If a law infringes on the rights and freedoms of the individual, our groups of individuals, then that is not a law for it is an attack on itself. America has more lawyers then most nations combined, and this is the best that we can come up with? If you cannot fully explain your reasoning then you have no reason to be there. The power of decision needs to be openly debated and not decided in the dark behind closed doors. But, here we are.


The Internet is reconnecting people to the worlds most valuable knowledge and information that was either lost or misplaced.

The Internet is the combined intelligence of millions of people from all over the world. You would be a fool not to be part of it. It is truly the single greatest resource that we have. But at the moment not enough people are using the internet correctly or effectively. But once we improve that, we will immediately start seeing the power of the internet come alive. Millions of people coming together to use their collective skills and intelligence to make improvements, and to repair the damage that we have done to ourselves and to our planet. This will create jobs for everyone, it will help connect people to needed services, it will help people locate food and water, it will give people access to information and give people access to education, which has already begun. But it's not at the rate that would ultimately utilize the potential of every man, women and child on the planet. But we are getting there. And once we do, the 21st century is going to be the biggest defining moment in human history. This will be way beyond the Coming of Age or a Rite of Passage. It is Enlightenment on the grandest scale.

Emergence is a process whereby larger entities arise through interactions among smaller or simpler entities such that the larger entities exhibit properties the smaller/simpler entities do not exhibit.

Collective Intelligence is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making. Not Popular Belief

Collective Wisdom is shared knowledge arrived at by individuals and groups.

Collective Memory is the shared pool of knowledge and information in the memories of two or more members of a social group.

Collective Consciousness is the set of shared beliefs, ideas and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society.

Network Economy products and services are created and value is added through social networks operating on large or global scales.

Sharing (sharing economy)
Public Service

Wisdom of the Crowd is the collective opinion of a group of individuals rather than that of a single expert.

Global Brain interconnects all humans and their technological artifacts.  As this network stores ever more information, takes over ever more functions of coordination and communication from traditional organizations, and becomes increasingly intelligent, it increasingly plays the role of a brain for the planet Earth.

World Brain help world citizens make the best use of universal information resources and make the best contribution to world peace.

Swarm Intelligence is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, natural or artificial.

Mass Communication is the study of how people and entities relay information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time.

Citizen Science
Artificial Neural Network

Grid Computing is the collection of computer resources from multiple locations to reach a common goal.

Distributed Computing is a model in which components located on networked computers communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages.

Consortium is an association of two or more individuals, companies, organizations or governments (or any combination of these entities) with the objective of participating in a common activity or pooling their resources for achieving a common goal.


Collective intentionality characterizes the intentionality that occurs when two or more individuals undertake a task together. Examples include two individuals carrying a heavy table up a flight of stairs or dancing a tango.

Group Cognition is a group of people produce a sequence of utterances that performs a cognitive act.

Collective Action refers to action taken together by a group of people whose goal is to enhance their status and achieve a common objective.

Open-Source Intelligence is intelligence collected from publicly available sources.

Centrality is to identify the most important vertices within a graph.

Collaborative Intelligence characterizes multi-agent, distributed systems where each agent, human or machine, is uniquely positioned, with autonomy to contribute to a problem-solving network. Collaborative autonomy of organisms in their ecosystems makes evolution possible.

Mass Collaboration is a form of collective action that occurs when large numbers of people work independently on a single project, often modular in its nature. Such projects typically take place on the internet using social software and computer-supported collaboration tools such as wiki technologies, which provide a potentially infinite hypertextual substrate within which the collaboration may be situated.

Collaborative Innovation Network is a social construct used to describe innovative teams.

Consensus Decision-Making

Socially Distributed Cognition deploys models of the extended mind by taking as the fundamental unit of analysis "a collection of individuals and artifacts and their relations to each other in a particular work practice"

Social Learning - Social Capital

Commons-Based Peer Production describes a new model of socioeconomic production in which large numbers of people work cooperatively (usually over the Internet). Commons-based projects generally have less rigid hierarchical structures than those under more traditional business models. Often—but not always—commons-based projects are designed without a need for financial compensation for contributors.

E-Science is computationally intensive science that is carried out in highly distributed network environments, or science that uses immense data sets that require grid computing; the term sometimes includes technologies that enable distributed collaboration, such as the Access Grid.

Open Governance (RT)

Knowledge Forum is an educational software designed to help and support knowledge building communities.

Buddy System
Sharing Economy
Working Together
Social Networks
Internet Protections
Collaboration Tools
Knowledge Preservation
Sharing Open Data 
Knowledge Management

Knowledge Exchange (PDF)

One mind can't do it all, but 7 billion minds Working Together could. The internet gives us the ability to connect all of us. A Whole Brain. A brain that can connect to all of its parts.

Internet is more then an amazing tool, the internet is also a symbol of human power and potential. Because we know that when we work together we are stronger, and when we work together we are also more effective, and we are also more efficient. The internet is a realization of Human Intelligence. Because we now know that When we make communication and collaboration easier, we can solve any problem. Merging the Power of Multiple Brains  Peer-to-Peer Knowledge Sharing

"It's not the connection that makes you smarter, it's how you use that connection that makes you smarter."

Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity, which enables these objects to collect and exchange data. The Internet of Things allows objects to be sensed and controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure, creating opportunities for more direct integration between the physical world and computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit.

The Education of Things is learning about all the things that you can control, internally and externally, resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit.

The Connection of Things is learning about all the different ways that things are connected in our world, understanding cause and effects and how all actions and inactions have an effect, whether they are internally or externally, or near or far away.

Cyber-Physical System (CPS) is a system of collaborating computational elements controlling physical entities. Today, a precursor generation of cyber-physical systems can be found in areas as diverse as aerospace, automotive, chemical processes, civil infrastructure, energy, healthcare, manufacturing, transportation, entertainment, and consumer appliances. This generation is often referred to as embedded systems. In embedded systems the emphasis tends to be more on the computational elements, and less on an intense link between the computational and physical elements.
The Natural Physical System is the Environment.

Embedded System is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today. Percent of all microprocessors being manufactured are used in embedded systems.

The Environmental System is a network of natural embedded systems.

The Internet of Things (IoT)

One of the great things about the internet is that you could have information and knowledge that is not that valuable to you or someone near you, but on the other side of the planet, that information and knowledge could be extremely valuable. And you only have to share that bit of information and knowledge only once, because it can be shared and copied over and over again, in almost the exact same way that our DNA gets passed on.

The internet is a mimic of life.
Development Learning Network

"Another great thing about the internet is that knowledge and information can be easily translated now, which makes even more knowledge and information accessible to more people. But even though the internet can be translated into many different languages, there are still many languages that have not yet been translated and digitized, and there are still over four billion people who don’t have access to the internet."

People want information and knowledge that's easy to follow, whether in conversation, education, videos or in writing. And we have already been working on improving this problem, using websites and the internet. We can make a website that makes information easy to follow, and at the same time, dynamic enough to handle a more experienced user who's looking for unique services and information.

"When you educate people, you liberate people. When people are more knowledgeable about themselves and the world around them, people make better decisions and make better choices. We need to use our communication tools like TV, Radio and Newspapers more effectively, so that we can Communicate our most valuable knowledge and information and give people more access to the Facts, this way people will finally have the means to make the necessary improvements that are needed."

"When I'm online and I find something interesting that I'm reading, I usually ask "what can I learn from this?" And since I do most of my reading online, I can instantly get more information about the subject that I'm reading about, which means I learn a lot more about the subject and have a much better understanding about the subject. The internet is awesome. It's the greatest learning tool on the planet."

Idea for a Book to Write

One of my best friends is a machine, but it's more then a machine, it's a connection to human collective intelligence..So The most Intelligent person I know is the Internet Machine. But the internet is not really a person, it's persons. A collective intelligence made up of millions of people collaborating. After all, we are the strongest when we work together, and we are the smartest when we put our heads together. Enormous  potential and strength is staring us right in the face, it's time to wake up and pay attention. You will never have a single machine or a single human that is capable of answering every question that you have, but collectively, our potential to learn increases by one thousand percent. Let go of your ego, let go of the self and embrace the whole, our true strength awaits us.

I spent the first 48 years of my life socializing and experiencing as many things as I could. But I didn't learn enough just socializing and experiencing. My most important and valuable learning came from reading. And everything important that I read I saved on BK101. That saves every human on earth over 50,000 hours of work. Which was the time I spent locating valuable knowledge and information, collecting valuable knowledge and information, organizing valuable knowledge and information and sharing valuable knowledge and information. I also save you the time from having to learn all the necessary skills that was needed in order to Locate, collect, organize and share valuable knowledge and information. And when you add up all the human knowledge that other people shared, this human potential is worth trillions of dollars, which you could easily deposit into your own personal bank called the Human Brain. I could have never done this without Standing on the Shoulder's of Giants, but now the Giant just got a whole lot bigger. This is more then the Elephant in the Room, which is an idiom for an obvious problem or risk no one wants to discuss, or a condition of groupthink no one wants to challenge. It is based on the idea/thought that something as conspicuous as an elephant can appear to be overlooked in codified social interactions, and that the sociology/psychology of repression also operates on the macro scale. This is our future, our hope, our power, our potential, our love of life.

"Collaborating and working with people can be very productive and insightful. But when I'm alone I can focus better on getting things done, so I work better on my own. And that's one the the great things about the internet, I can be alone but still be connected to millions of people, it's freaking brilliant."

Human Search Engine

"Taking your work home with you is not always a bad thing, you need time to think."

Father, the Sleeper has Awaken (youtube)

"Waking up is not just what you do after you sleep, it's also what you do after you realize that you were never fully awake."


A tremendous Leap Forward, but this time we can actually see where we are going...

To say that the internet is the reason for people being radicalized is very ignorant, and a dangerous lie. That is like saying that phone lines radicalized people. People on the internet did not click on an add and accidentally get radicalized, oops my bad. People don't seek out radicalized ideas. People are searching for answers. And sometimes people come across the wrong information at the wrong time. So books could radicalize people, schools could radicalize people, religion could radicalize people, TV could radicalize people, and people could radicalize people. The internet is our savior. But it is not without problems. People misuse technology. And people don't have enough skills and knowledge to accurately analyze information. So don't blame the tools moron. Blame our ineffective schools and our irresponsible media outlets.

Saying that the internet is radicalized people is like saying that electricity is radicalizing people. Plus it's just stupid to use the internet to say how bad the internet is. It's like shooting someone with a gun just to say how dangerous a gun is. Anything can be misused, that includes technology, that includes money, that includes power. We don't blame power when a politician commits a crime, we blame the person who is too ignorant to use something effectively and efficiently. and morally. When we improving education this ignorant behavior will cease to exist, as well as all ignorant behavior.

"The internet helping people become radicalized is like saying that too much freedom is the reason for radicalization. That's when they take away our freedoms, then everyone gets punished, except for the people doing the punishing of course."

There are many things involved that create violence. People get radicalized by there experiences and from the misinterpretation of information. Talk to any radical and they will all have a story about when they experienced a traumatic event that changed them, usually the death of family or friends, and also knowing others who have lost people close to them. All humans take to a cause, because they feel that they have no other choices. People who start a revolution are not radicals. They feel threatened, and they feel they have no other choice but to fight. To blame this behavior on some inanimate object is insane. I truly know that people want to make a difference, and they want to stop this insane violence, and to stop this insane behavior, but we can't attack things that are doing more good then harm. You want to dispute the horrible schools we have, then I'm right there with you. But if you want to attack the technology that people use to share knowledge and information, and if you want to attack peoples right to communicate, and you want to attack peoples right to inform themselves, then you will create more anger and many more problems. Millions of people have signed petitions already committing themselves to protecting the internet. We don't want to attack our ability to communicate just because some people ignorantly believe that is the cause of our problems. And because of the internet, you will not be able to hide that ignorance. So my suggestion. Help us improve education, help us improve life for every person on the planet. Help us improve the methods for informing the public so that people are more aware of their choices and options, so they become the masters of their own destinies, and not controlled by some outside ignorant behavior.

Artificial Intelligence Ai


Controls - Automation

Questions to ask Machines

There is No Future in War

Machine Learning

Search Technology




Do you need a Computer Chip implanted in your Brain?

"If you are to benefit from someone's thinking, then you better give them time to think."

The Thinker Man