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Language


A systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols. The cognitive processes involved in producing and understanding linguistic communication. A system of words used to name things in a particular discipline. The mental faculty or power of vocal communication. Communication by word of mouth.
Language (wiki)

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Language is the Single Greatest Human Invention of all time.

Learning a New Language
Translations
Language and Thought
Philosophy of Language seeks to understand the way language represents reality. Major topics in philosophy of language include: the nature of meaning, intentionality, reference, the constitution of sentences, learning, and thought.

The tool of Language gave us the ability to transfer information and knowledge to ourselves and to others. It was the first form of wireless communication. But it took thousands of years for humans to master language and to improve language in order to make communication more effectively and more efficiently. And now with the invention of computers and the internet, and the digitizing of language, more people are using language to transfer information and knowledge then any other time in human history.  But even though we use language to communicate and transfer information and knowledge every single day, 98% of people don't understand what knowledge and information is. And this lack of understanding is the single greatest source for most of our problems. If people fully understood what they were transmitting to themselves and to others, they would be a lot more careful, and more aware of what they think, and also be careful about what they say. People would then have more control, more power, more intelligence, more freedom, more potential, and more possibilities. Our full understanding of knowledge and information is the next big human transformation.

"Without a language to describe our experience, we can't communicate what we know. You can learn from your senses and experiences, but only so much, 80% of knowledge and intelligence is delivered using language." 

Reading, writing, communicating and languages are very important Skills to have. If you do not become Proficient in these skills you will find it very difficult to Communicate with other people, as well as, find it very difficult to communicate with yourself. For one of the most important things you will learn about language is that it is also used to communicate inward as well as outward. So learning to read, write and communicate at a high level of proficiency is extremely important. These Skills open the doors of opportunity in all directions, doors that will normally not be visible unless you are a very good reader, writer and communicator.

Mastering

If you didn't have the words to describe something, then how would you understand it?


Languages

Only about 2,400 of the world's roughly 7,200 Languages and Dialects have writing systems. 

Proto-Language
List of Languages by total number of Speakers
List of Languages by number of Native Speakers
Computer Languages
Sign Language

Indo-European Language Family Tree
Language Origins
Languages Atlas
UCLA Center for Language, Interaction, and Culture
MIT Language Universal ties all languages together
Endangered Languages – The Alliance for Linguistic Diversity

The Rapidly Changing Language of American English (youtube)
Interview with William Labov, Professor of Linguistics at University of Pennsylvania and author of Dialect. David discusses the various and changing dialects and accents spoken in American English, and the political and economic factors in those 15 dialects.

How did our ancestors develop the very first language?
Universal Language

Rosetta Project
Learning to Speak
Phrase Structure Rules

Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages promotes the documentation, maintenance, preservation, and revitalization of endangered languages worldwide through linguist-aided, community-driven multi-media language documentation projects.

Over 800 languages are spoken in Papua New Guinea, a country of about six million people.
Memory Training

Dreaming in Different Tongues: Languages and the Way We Think (youtube)
Translations

Why is the Chinese Language so simple? 
Why is Latin so difficult? Phoneme
Why is learning the English Language better for Brain development?

Multilingualism
Monolingualism

Translation
Language Interpretation

Philosophy of Language

Latin
Why Latin?

Natural Language

Language Arts

Musical Language

ILR Scale
Interagency Language Roundtable

Language Proficiency
Anishinaabemowin

Mixed Language
Fusional Language

Formal Language
Oracy
Animacy
Semitic Languages

Language Module
Vernacular

Orthography
Anglosphere
Algonquin

Visual Language
Visual Literacy
Spatial Intelligence
Sign Language
Symbols

Vocabulary
Grammar
Word's

Isolating Language
Synthetic Language
Polysynthetic Language
Indo-European Languages
Global Language System

Artificial Language
Computer Language
Constructed Language
List of Constructed Languages
Body Language 

Specific Language Impairment
Aphasia
Universal Grammar
Speech Language Pathology
Speech 

Morphological Typology
Morpheme
Morphology
Lexicology
Lexicon
Facebook Language Style Guides

Lena Foundation Advanced technology to accelerate language development of children 0-5 
I love the English Language (wordpress)
List of English-Based Pidgins (wiki)
Pidgin
Abkhaz Phonology
Toki Pona is a human language I invented in 2001. It was my attempt to understand the meaning of life in 120 words.
Toki Pona



Linguistic intelligence


Word Smart

Involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. Relating to the scientific study of language.

Linguistics
Structural Linguistics
Realization Linguistics
Linguistic Analysis
Phonological Awareness
Sociolinguistics
Cognitive Linguistics
Computational Linguistics
Linguistic Prescription
Phonological
Interlinguistics
Grammatical Conjugation
Coherence Linguistics
Codification
Linguistic Intelligence
Deflexion
Information Theory
Palaeography
Style
Mora (linguistics) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.
Variation
Linguistic Anthropology
Fluency
Words
Linguistic Relativity
UCLA Department of Linguistics

Computer Language
Math as a Language
Communication

Code-Talker Paradox

I don't like the Tone of your Voice
Tone Language different tones (like in music, but not as many) will change the meaning of the words, even if the pronunciation of the word is the same otherwise. a word's meaning could be different depending on which syllable is stressed
Tone (linguistics) is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning. All verbal languages use pitch to express emotional and other paralinguistic information and to convey emphasis, contrast, and other such features in what is called intonation, but not all languages use tones to distinguish words or their inflections, analogously to consonants and vowels.
Intonation (linguistics) is variation of spoken pitch that is not used to distinguish words; instead it is used for a range of
functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.
 


Language Learning


5 techniques to speak any language: Sid Efromovich at TEDxUpperEastSide (video)
Natural Language Procedures

One way to effectively learn a language is using the language in interaction with others. Use language for a purpose and learn to use the language in context. 

Language Immersion is a method of teaching a second language in which the learners’ second language (L2) is the medium of classroom instruction. Through this method, learners study school subjects, such as math, science, and social studies, in their L2. The main purpose of this method is to foster bilingualism, in other words, to develop learners' communicative competence or language proficiency in their L2 in addition to their first or native language (L1). Additional goals are the cognitive advantages to bilingualism.
Content-Based Instruction the use of subject matter as a vehicle for second or foreign language teaching/learning. Learners are exposed to a considerable amount of language through stimulating content. Learners explore interesting content and are engaged in appropriate language-dependent activities. Languages are not learned through direct instruction, but rather acquired "naturally" or automatically. CBI supports contextualized learning; learners are taught useful language that is embedded within relevant discourse contexts rather than as isolated language fragments. Hence students make greater connections with the language and what they already know. Complex information is delivered through real life context for the students to grasp well and leads to intrinsic motivation. In CBI information is reiterated by strategically delivering information at right time and situation compelling the Greater flexibility and adaptability in the curriculum can be deployed as per the student's interest.
Communicate with a Non Native English Speaker (wikihow)
Defense Language Aptitude Battery (wiki)
Translations

A new study reveals children's language development is a learnt skill and is intricately linked to their ability to recognise patterns in their environment.

Learning to Speak

Text Segmentation is the process of dividing written text into meaningful units, such as words, sentences, or topics. The term applies both to mental processes used by humans when reading text, and to artificial processes implemented in computers, which are the subject of natural language processing. The problem is non-trivial, because while some written languages have explicit word boundary markers, such as the word spaces of written English and the distinctive initial, medial and final letter shapes of Arabic, such signals are sometimes ambiguous and not present in all written languages.

In linguistics, rhythm or Isochrony is one of the three aspects of prosody, along with stress and intonation. Languages can be categorized according to whether they are syllable-timed, mora-timed, or stress-timed.
Language Rhythm (PDF)
Statistical Learning in Language Acquisition
Language Acquisition


Learning a New Language - Software for Self Teaching 
Language Learning Library
Live Mocha 
Duolingo
Verbling Language Tutoring
Tinyworld: Connecting the world via Language Sharing
Tutoring - Private Language Lessons
Mango Languages
Rosetta Stone (Website)
Pimsleur Approach  (amazon)
Paul Pimsleur
Talking Dictionary

iPad App using Babble
Babbling
Applied Phonetics (youtube)
Interpretation
Speech
Sign Language
Translation Tools

How to Teach a Language (wiki)
Language Learning Principle
Learning Methods
Memory Training
Language Styles
Language Arts (wiki)
Noticing Hypothesis (wiki)

Natural Language Processing (wiki)
English Learning
Chinese Made Easy
Babbel
Speak for Yourself
LinguaStep 
Middlebury Interactive
Enduring Voices
Conversation Exchange
Russian Language Info-Graph
See Touch Learn is a Free Language Development App and
Visual Instruction Tool

Modern Language Aptitude Test designed to predict a student’s likelihood of success and ease in learning a foreign language.

Languages
Can knowing the corresponding letters and symbols of another language help you learn a new language?
Omniglot
ie languages
Esperanto  
(vocabulary, accent, grammar, pronunciation, slang)

Children learn quantifiers in the same order no matter what their language is, The existence of universal patterns in the language acquisition process that do not always coincide with the linguistic universals, according to which the world's languages are classified.


Bilingual
Benefits of Being Bilingual  

Does speaking several languages lower your vocabulary?  
Is your ability to communicate effectively hindered when not speaking your native language?

Bilingual Families
Meta-Linguistics
Metalinguistic Awareness
Code-Switching  Code
Children and Language

Second Language Acquisition
Skill-Based Theories of Second Language Acquisition
Threshold Hypothesis 

"People with a significant amount of music experience can also have the ability to learn aspects of language more easily."

Speaking Multiple Languages
Multilingualism is the use of two or more languages, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers. It is believed that multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population. More than half of all Europeans claim to speak at least one other language in addition to their mother tongue.
Polyglotism, Polyglot is the ability to master, or the state of having mastered, multiple languages.
Hyperpolyglot is someone who is both a gifted and massive language accumulator. They possess a particular neurology that's well-suited for learning languages very quickly and being able to use them.
Right Side of Brain - Left Side of Brain

Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL Score)
Secondary Level English Proficiency Test (SLEP Score)

Educational Testing Service
Computer Programming Language as a Second Language

There are over a billion people who are currently learning a second language.
Official Languages 

Australian man wakes from coma speaking fluent Mandarin but had completely forgotten English (youtube)
Foreign Accent Syndrome (wiki)

It's nice to be able to communicate in more then one language, but what's more important is that you are an effective communicator. So just don't learn a new language for conversation, learn a new language to increase your effectiveness to communicate. Just don't teach a new language, teach effective ways to communicate.
Medium of Instruction
Polylinguist
Language ideology

Words to a Human are like Code to a Computer. The more you have, the more you can do.

Lera Boroditsky: How Language Shapes Thought (video)
Every None
Phonology

The Power of Words
Dictionaries
Library Finder 
Sign Language
Writing


Translations


When you have Words with more then one Definition, and definitions with more then one word, it's hard sometimes to be understood in the way that you intended. Even people who speak the same language sometimes need a Translation. 

Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
Literal Translation is the rendering of text from one language to another one word at a time.

Language Interpretation is oral translation of speech or sign from a language into another. An interpreter is a person who converts a thought or expression in a source language into an expression with a comparable meaning in a target language either simultaneously in "real time" or consecutively when the speaker pauses after completing one or two sentences. The interpreter's objective is to convey every semantic element as well as tone and register and every intention and feeling of the message that the source-language speaker is directing to target-language recipients (except in summary interpretation, used sometimes in conferences)

Decipherment is the discovery of the Meaning of texts written in obscure languages, which are almost always ancient.
Codes

So this is not just a Foreign Language problem, this is also a communication problem.  

Should we have a universal procedure for translation?  
Translation sometimes needs more then just a single translation.
Speak the word, and then the definition that you want to be heard.
First: I say something, then it's translated. (this is for complex translations, this is not for simple answer translation)
Second:
Then the person receiving the translation needs to confirm that what is being translated is understood.
Third:
Then it may need to be translated back in the words that this particular language uses to explain what is being said.
Forth
: Then I might have to use different words to be translated. And this process continues until a full understanding is accomplished.   

Universal Principles in the Repair of Communication Problems
Translation Criticism (wiki)

Source Text is a text (sometimes oral) from which information or ideas are derived. In translation, a source text is the original text that is to be translated into another language.
Speech Recognition enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers and computerized devices such as those categorized as smart technologies and robotics. It is also known as "automatic speech recognition" (ASR), "computer speech recognition", or just "speech to text" (STT).
Interface Hypothesis in adult second language acquisition is an attempt to explain non-target-like linguistic behavior that persists even among highly advanced speakers. For adult second language learners, acquiring grammatical properties within a given linguistic area, such as phonology, syntax, or semantics, should not be problematic. Interfacing between those modules, such as communicating between the syntax and semantic systems, should likewise be feasible. However, grammatical operations where the speaker is required to interface between an internal component of the grammar, and an external component, such as pragmatics or discourse information, will prove to be very difficult, and will not be acquired completely by the second language learner, even at very advanced levels.
Languages
Learning to Speak

Language Translation Tools (google)
Speak and Translate
Live Translation Services
Translations

Write in a language that you’re learning and native speakers will correct your mistakes.

Smartphone Apps  -  Translation Tools
Voice Translation App
i Translate App
i Translate Voice
Google Android Translation App
Google
My Phrazer
701 Translator
Languages are available in Skype Translator
Meet the Pilot: Smart Earpiece Language Translator A world without language barriers: The Pilot is an earpiece which translates between languages.

Waverly Labs smart earpiece capable of translating between users speaking a different language.
The Pilot: Smart Earpiece Language Translator

Word Lens translates printed words from one language to another with your smartphone's video camera, in real time, no network connection needed!
Word Lens Translator

Internet calling and chat and has a text-to-text translation service for its messaging App

More Apps  

12-Language Talking Translator (amazon)
Universal Translator (wiki)

Translate instantly by pointing your camera. With the Translate app, you can translate text in images, either in a picture you've taken or imported, or just by pointing your camera. You can translate text you see around you just by pointing your camera lens at it.
Artificial Intelligence
Question and Answer Platforms

"Every act of Communication is an act of Translation.” (Gregory Rabassa)

Interpreter Symbol 
Interpreting Services Symbol

Interpret is an oral translation of speech or sign from a language into another. Translation studies is the systematic study of the theory, description and application of interpretation and translation.
Interpretation is the assignment of meanings to various concepts, symbols, or objects under consideration. An assignment of meaning to the symbols of a formal language.
Language Interpretations is oral translation of speech or sign from a language into another.

Interpreter Services

Interpreter (computing) is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without previously compiling them into a machine language program. An interpreter generally uses one of the following strategies for program execution: Parse the source code and perform its behavior directly. Translate source code into some efficient intermediate representation and immediately execute this. Explicitly execute stored precompiled code made by a compiler which is part of the interpreter system.

Meanings
Tutoring Websites

"Hearing accurately and understanding correctly doesn't always happens. So listening must be the responsibility of both people.
Listen to your own words and as well as the words spoken by other people."


Communication
Learning to Speak
Speech
Talking
Speaking Effectively
Communication
Nonverbal Communication
Body Language
Listening
Hearing Accurately when other People Speak
Hearing Difficulties

Is Thinking and Talking to Yourself the same thing?



The Thinker Man