by the use of
The cognitive processes involved in producing and
linguistic communication. A system of words
used to name things in a
particular discipline. The mental faculty or power of vocal communication. Communication by
Language is the Single Greatest Human
of all time.
And it is still in early development. Language not only helps us to
communicate information, language also shapes our thoughts.
Learning a New Language
seeks to understand the way language represents
Major topics in philosophy of language include: the nature of
intentionality, reference, the constitution of sentences, learning, and thought.
holds that the structure of a language affects its speakers'
. Popularly known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis
, or Whorfianism, the principle is often defined to include two versions. The
strong version says that language determines thought, and that linguistic
categories limit and determine cognitive categories, whereas the weak
version says that linguistic categories and usage only influence
Language of Thought Hypothesis
(words shape our thoughts)
The Power of Language influences Thought and
. The words we use to describe things—to ourselves and
others—affects how we and they think and act. It’s good to remind
ourselves that this powerful influence happens in all kinds of situations
and most certainly with language related to teaching and learning.
Abuses of Language
Inadequate Language Harms
Learning to Read in your thirties profoundly transforms brain networks
Only a few months of reading training can modify the
fundamentally. These deep
structures in the thalamus and brainstem help our
from the flood of visual input even before we consciously perceive it. It
seems that the more the signal timings between the two brain regions are
aligned, the better the reading capabilities. Therefore it is believed
that these brain systems increasingly fine-tune their communication as
learners become more and more
proficient in reading
and why experienced readers navigate more
efficiently through a text.
size of your vocabulary
can only be
effective when you use words effectively in meaningful ways. You can't use
what you don't have, and you don't have what you don't use effectively.
Language and Thought Connections
(you are what you know)
Language is the Machine Code of the Human
(Human Operating System)
Lera Boroditsky: How Language Shapes Thought
Moments by Everynone
The Power of Words
studies the connections between the
beliefs speakers have about language and the larger social and cultural
systems they are a part of, illustrating how these beliefs are informed by
and rooted in such systems. By doing so, language ideologies link the
implicit as well as explicit assumptions people have about a language or
language in general to their social experience and political as well as
economic interests. The concept is used primarily within the fields of
anthropology), sociolinguistics, and cross-cultural studies to
characterize any set of beliefs or feelings about languages as used in
their social worlds
is the branch of
that studies language and its relationship to other
. It is the study of dialogue
relationships between units of speech communication as manifestations and
enactments of co-existence.
The Theory of Communicative Action
is a two-volume 1981 book by
, about the social sciences in a theory of language. The theory of
communicative action is a critical project which reconstructs a concept of
reason which is not grounded in instrumental or objectivistic terms, but
rather in an emancipatory communicative act. This reconstruction proposes
"human action and understanding can be fruitfully analysed as having a
linguistic structure", and each utterance relies upon the anticipation of
freedom from unnecessary domination. These linguistic structures of
communication can be used to establish a normative understanding of
society. This conception of society is used "to make possible a
conceptualization of the social-life context that is tailored to the
paradoxes of modernity.
The tool of Language
gave us the ability to transfer information
and knowledge to ourselves and to others. It was the first form
of wireless communication. But it took thousands of years for
humans to master language and to improve language in order to make
communication more effectively and more efficiently. And now
with the invention of computers and the
, and the
, more people are using language to transfer information
and knowledge then any other time in human history. But
even though we use language to communicate and transfer
information and knowledge every single day, 98% of people don't
understand what knowledge and information is. And this lack of
understanding is the single greatest source for most of our
problems. If people fully understood what they were transmitting
to themselves and to others, they would be a lot more careful,
and more aware of what they think
, and also be careful about
. People would then have more control, more power, more
intelligence, more freedom, more potential, and more
possibilities. Our full understanding of knowledge and
information is the next big human transformation.
"Without a language to describe our experience, we can't
communicate what we know.
learn from your senses and experiences
, but only so much,
80% of knowledge and intelligence is delivered using language."
and Languages are very important
to have. If you do not become
in these skills you will find it very difficult
with other people, as well as, find it very difficult to
communicate with yourself
. For one of the most important things you will
learn about language is that it is also used to communicate inward as well
as outward. So learning to read, write and communicate at a high level of
proficiency is extremely important. These Skills open the doors of
opportunity in all directions, doors that will normally not be visible
unless you are a very good reader, writer and communicator.
If you didn't have the words to describe something, then how would you understand it?
Only about 2,400 of the world's roughly
7,200 Languages and Dialects
have writing systems.
in the tree model of historical linguistics is a language,
usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and unattested, from which a number
of attested, or documented, known languages are believed to have descended
by evolution, or slow modification of the proto-language into languages
that form a language family. In the strict sense, a proto-language is the
latest common ancestor of a language family, immediately before the start
of the family's divergence into the attested daughter languages. It is
therefore equivalent with the ancestral language or parental language of a
List of Languages by total number of Speakers
List of Languages by number of Native Speakers
is the ability of an individual to speak or perform in an
. Native-level fluency is estimated to be between
, but basic
conversational fluency might only require as little as 3,000 words.
means the smoothness or flow with which sounds,
syllables, words and phrases are joined together when speaking quickly.
Specific Language Impairment
is diagnosed when a child's language does not develop normally and the
difficulties cannot be accounted for by generally slow development,
physical abnormality of the speech apparatus, autism spectrum disorder,
acquired brain damage or hearing loss. Twin studies have shown that it is
strongly genetic. Usually, language impairment is resulted from mutation
is an inability to comprehend and formulate language
because of damage to specific brain regions. This damage is typically
caused by a cerebral vascular accident (stroke), or head trauma, however
these are not the only possible causes. To be diagnosed with aphasia, a
person's speech or language must be significantly impaired in one (or
several) of the four communication modalities following acquired brain
injury or have significant decline over a short time period (progressive
aphasia). The four communication modalities are auditory comprehension,
verbal expression, reading and writing, and functional communication.
refers to a hypothesized structure in the human brain
(anatomical module) or cognitive system (functional module) that some
psycholinguists such as Steven Pinker claim contains innate capacities for
Speech Language Pathology
is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a
speech-language pathologist (SLP), also called speech and language
therapist, or speech therapist, who specializes in the evaluation and
treatment of communication disorders, cognition, voice disorders, and
is advanced technology to accelerate language
development of children 0-5
Over 800 languages are spoken in
Papua New Guinea
, a country of about six million people.
Indo-European Language Family Tree
for Language, Interaction, and Culture
MIT Language Universal ties all languages together
Endangered Languages – The Alliance for Linguistic Diversity
The Rapidly Changing Language of American English
Interview with William Labov, Professor of Linguistics at University of
Pennsylvania and author of Dialect. David discusses the various and
changing dialects and accents spoken in American English, and the
political and economic factors in those 15 dialects.
did our ancestors develop the very first language
may refer to a hypothetical or historical
language spoken and understood by all or most of the world's population.
In some contexts, it refers to a means of communication said to be
understood by all living things, beings, and objects alike. It may be the
idea of an international auxiliary language for communication between
groups speaking different primary languages. In other conceptions, it may
be the primary language of all speakers, or the only existing language.
Some religious and mythological traditions state that there was once a
single universal language among all people, or shared by humans and
ProjectLearning to Speak
Phrase Structure Rules
are a type of rewrite rule used to
describe a given language's syntax, and are closely associated with the
early stages of transformational grammar, being first proposed by Noam
Chomsky in 1957.
Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages
documentation, maintenance, preservation, and revitalization of
endangered languages worldwide through linguist-aided,
community-driven multi-media language documentation projects.
in Different Tongues: Languages and the Way We Think
Why is the
so simple? Why
is one of the units of sound, or gesture in the case
of sign languages, that distinguishes one word from another in a
particular language. Two words that differ in
through a contrast of a single
phoneme form, is called a
, which are pairs of words or phrases in a particular
language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme,
toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings. They are used to
demonstrate that two phones constitute two separate phonemes in the
Why is learning the
better for Brain development?
is the use of two or more languages, either by an individual speaker or by
a community of speakers. It is believed that multilingual speakers
outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population.
is the condition of being able to speak only
a single language, as opposed to multilingualism. In a different context,
"unilingualism" may refer to a language policy which enforces an official
or national language over others.
is any language that has evolved naturally
in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or
premeditation. Natural languages can take different forms, such as speech,
signing, or writing. They are distinguished from constructed and formal
languages such as those used to program computers or to study logic.
is the name given to the study and improvement
of the arts of language.
Interagency Language Roundtable Scale
is a set of descriptions of
abilities to communicate in a language.
Interagency Language Roundtable
is an unfunded organization comprising various agencies of the United
States Federal Government with the purpose of coordinating and sharing
information on foreign language activities at the federal level.
is the Language of the Three Fires Confederacy.
is a language that arises through the fusion of
usually two source languages, normally in situations of thorough
bilingualism (Meakins, 2013), so that it is not possible to classify the
resulting language as belonging to either of the language families that
were its sources.
are a type of synthetic languages,
distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a
single morpheme in combination with affixes to denote multiple
grammatical, syntactic, or semantic changes.
is the smallest grammatical unit in a language. In
other words, it is the smallest meaningful unit of a language.
is a set of strings of symbols together with a set of rules that
are specific to it. The alphabet of a formal language is the set of
symbols, letters, or tokens from which the strings of the language may be
formed; frequently it is required to be finite. The strings formed from
this alphabet are called words, and the words that belong to a particular
formal language are sometimes called well-formed words or well-formed
formulas. A formal language is often defined by means of a formal grammar
such as a regular grammar or context-free grammar, also called its
the ability to express oneself fluently and grammatically in speech.
is a grammatical and semantic principle expressed in
language based on how sentient or alive the referent of a noun is. Widely
expressed, animacy is one of the most elementary principles in languages
around the globe and is a distinction acquired as early as six months of
are a branch of the Afroasiatic language
family originating in the Middle East. Semitic languages are spoken by
more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia, North Africa and
the Horn of Africa, as well as in often large expatriate communities in
North America and Europe, with smaller communities in the Caucasus and
is the native language or native dialect (usually
colloquial or informal) of a specific population, especially as
distinguished from a literary, national or standard variety of the
language, or a lingua franca (vehicular language) used in the region or
state inhabited by that population. Some linguists use "vernacular" and
"nonstandard dialect" as synonyms.
is a set of conventions for writing a language.
It includes norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks,
emphasis, and punctuation.
is a set of English-speaking nations with a
similar cultural roots, based upon populations originating from the
nations of the British Isles (England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland,
and Ireland), which today maintain close political and military
is either a distinct Algonquian language closely
related to the Ojibwe language or a particularly divergent Ojibwe dialect.
It is spoken, alongside French and to some extent English, by the
Algonquin First Nations of Quebec and Ontario. As of 2006, there were
2,680 Algonquin speakers, less than 10% of whom were monolingual.
Algonquin is the language for which the entire Algonquian language
subgroup is named. The similarity among the names often causes
considerable confusion. Like many Native American languages, it is
strongly verb-based, with most meaning being incorporated into verbs
instead of using separate words for prepositions, tense, etc.
is a type of language with a very low
morpheme per word ratio and no inflectional morphology whatsoever. In the
extreme case, each word contains a single morpheme. Currently the most
widely used isolating language is Mandarin Chinese.
is a language with a high
morpheme-per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in
what is described as an analytic language. This linguistic classification
is largely independent of morpheme-usage classifications (such as fusional,
agglutinative, etc.), although there is a common tendency for
agglutinative languages to exhibit synthetic properties.
are highly synthetic languages, i.e.
languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that
have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).
Polysynthetic languages typically have long "sentence-words".
are a language family of several
hundred related languages and dialects. There are about 445 living
Indo-European languages, according to the estimate by Ethnologue, with
over two-thirds (313) of them belonging to the Indo-Iranian branch. The
most widely spoken Indo-European languages by native speakers are Spanish,
English, Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu), Portuguese, Bengali, Russian,
Persian and Punjabi, each with over 100 million speakers. Today, 46% of
the human population speaks an Indo-European language natively, by far the
highest of any language family.
Global Language System
is the "ingenious pattern of
connections between language groups", surprisingly strong and efficient
network that ties together - directly or indirectly - the six billion
inhabitants of the earth." The global language system draws upon the world
system theory to account for the relationships between the world's
languages and divides them into a hierarchy consisting of four levels,
namely the peripheral, central, supercentral and hypercentral languages.
are languages of a typically very
limited size which emerge either in computer simulations between
artificial agents, robot interactions or controlled psychological
experiments with humans. They are different from both constructed
languages and formal languages in that they have not been consciously
devised by an individual or group but are the result of (distributed)
conventionalisation processes, much like natural languages. Opposed to the
idea of a central designer, the field of artificial language evolution in
which artificial languages are studied can be regarded as a sub-part of
the more general cultural evolution studies.
s a grammatically simplified means of communication
that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in
common: typically, a mixture of simplified languages or a simplified
primary language with other languages' elements included. It is most
commonly employed in situations such as trade, or where both groups speak
languages different from the language of the country in which they reside
(but where there is no common language between the groups). Fundamentally,
a pidgin is a simplified means of linguistic communication, as it is
constructed impromptu, or by convention, between individuals or groups of
people. A pidgin is not the native language of any speech community, but
is instead learned as a second language. A pidgin may be built from words,
sounds, or body language from multiple other languages and cultures. They
allow people who have no common language to communicate with each other.
Pidgins usually have low prestige with respect to other languages. Not all
simplified or "broken" forms of a language are pidgins. Each pidgin has
its own norms of usage which must be learned for proficiency in the
pidgin. A pidgin differs from a creole, which is the first language of a
speech community of native speakers, and thus has a fully developed
vocabulary and grammar. Most linguists believe that a creole develops
through a process of nativization of a pidgin when children of acquired
pidgin-speakers learn it and use it as their native language.
List of English-Based Pidgins
is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have
been consciously devised for human or
instead of having developed naturally. It is also referred to as an
artificial or invented language. There are many possible reasons to create
a constructed language, such as: to ease human communication (see
international auxiliary language and code), to give fiction or an
associated constructed setting an added layer of realism, for
experimentation in the fields of linguistics, cognitive science, and
machine learning, for artistic creation, and for language games.
International Auxiliary Language
is a language meant for communication
between people from different nations who do not share a common first
language. An auxiliary language is primarily a second language.
is a constructed international auxiliary language.
It is the most widely spoken constructed language in the world.
List of Constructed Languages
is a language of the Northwest Caucasian family which, like the
other Northwest Caucasian languages, is very rich in consonants. Abkhaz
has a large consonantal inventory that contrasts 58 consonants in the
literary Abzhywa dialect, coupled with just two phonemic vowels (Chirikba
2003:18–20).Abkhaz has three major dialects, Abzhywa, Bzyp and Sadz, which
differ mainly in phonology.
is a human language invented in 2001. It was an
attempt to understand the meaning of life in 120 words.
is a constructed language, first published as
draft on the web in 2001 and then as a complete book and e-book Toki Pona:
The Language of Good in 2014. It was designed by translator and linguist
Sonja Lang (formerly Sonja Elen Kisa) of Toronto.
is a way of classifying the languages
of the world (see linguistic typology) that groups languages according to
their common morphological structures. The field organizes languages on
the basis of how those languages form words by combining morphemes.
Analytic languages contain very little inflection, instead relying on
features like word order and auxiliary words to convey meaning. Synthetic
languages, ones that are not analytic, are divided into two categories:
agglutinative and fusional languages. Agglutinative languages rely
primarily on discrete particles (prefixes, suffixes, and infixes) for
inflection, while fusional languages "fuse" inflectional categories
together, often allowing one word ending to contain several categories,
such that the original root can be difficult to extract. A further
subcategory of agglutinative languages are polysynthetic languages, which
take agglutination to a higher level by constructing entire sentences,
including nouns, as one word.
is the study of
, how they are formed,
and their relationship to other words in the same language. It analyzes
the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words,
prefixes, and suffixes. Morphology also looks at parts of speech,
intonation and stress, and the ways context can change a word's
pronunciation and meaning. Morphology differs from morphological typology,
which is the classification of languages based on their use of words and
lexicology, which is the study of words and how they make up a language's
is the part of linguistics which studies words.
This may include their nature and function as symbols, their meaning,
the relationship of their meaning to epistemology in general, and the
rules of their composition from smaller elements (morphemes such as the
English -ed marker for past or un- for negation; and phonemes as basic
sound units). Lexicology also involves relations between words, which may
involve semantics (for example, love vs. affection), derivation (for
example, fathom vs. unfathomably), use and sociolinguistic distinctions
(for example, flesh vs. meat), and any other issues involved in analyzing
the whole lexicon of a language.
is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as
nautical or medical). In linguistics, a lexicon is a language's inventory
of lexemes. The word "lexicon" derives from the Greek λεξικόν (lexicon),
neuter of λεξικός (lexikos) meaning "of or for words".
English Language History
English Language gave precision and flexibility. New words bring new
ideas. English language absorbed words and used words from several
different languages like Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, Dutch, Spanish,
, and more. And now other languages in the world are using
English words more often, so most languages share each others words. The English Language did not give rise to intelligence
because humans were intelligent before the English language was even
developed. What the English language did for humanity was to give
The Power of Language
to more people. English
language is so versatile that you can communicate on so many different
levels. It also makes it easy to transmit emotions and thoughts. It's like
the English language was made for the human brain. The English language
also helped people advance and learn faster because the language advanced
and evolved as people learned more about how to use language effectively
and efficiently. But the power of language
is almost useless if people
never learn how to use the power of language effectively and efficiently.
The Adventure Of
- 2003 BBC Documentary - Episode 1 - BBC Documentary (youtube)
- Presented by Melvyn Bragg (8 episodes about 50 minutes each).
Alfred the Great
King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
is a collection of annals in
chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. The original
manuscript of the Chronicle was created late in the 9th century, probably
in Wessex, during the reign of Alfred the Great. Multiple copies were made
of that one original and then distributed to monasteries across England,
where they were independently updated. In one case, the Chronicle was
still being actively updated in 1154.
Great Vowel Shift
was a major change in the pronunciation of the
English language that took place in England between 1350 and 1600. Through
the Great Vowel Shift, all Middle English long vowels changed their
pronunciation. English spelling was becoming standardized in the 15th and
16th centuries, and the Great Vowel Shift is responsible for many of the
peculiarities of English spelling
starts to be used in Law (Latin was the norm).
(English translation of the Bible from Latin).
1479 Common written language spelling standards introduced.
(English translation of the Bible from Hebrew and
Greek). Translation created new English words.
1540 Bible for All.
1611 Kings Bible.
Books of Kings
had thousands of quotes in the
First English Dictionary
, which had only 21,000 Words.
The oldest known
were Akkadian Empire cuneiform tablets with bilingual
Sumerian–Akkadian wordlists, discovered in Ebla (modern Syria) and dated
roughly 2300 BCE. A Chinese dictionary, the c. 3rd century BCE Erya, was
the earliest surviving monolingual dictionary; Arabic dictionaries were
compiled between the 8th and 14th centuries CE.
in 1620 marked the beginning of America.
mark the beginning of Intelligence.
America helped define and expand the English Language
(October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook
pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and
prolific author. He has been called the "Father of American Scholarship
and Education". In 783 his
blue-backed speller books
taught five generations of American children
how to spell and read, secularizing their education. According to Ellis
(1979), he gave Americans "a secular catechism to the nation-state."
Webster's name has become synonymous with "dictionary" in the United
States, especially the modern Merriam-Webster dictionary that was first
published in 1828 as An American Dictionary of the English Language.
Webster was born in the Western Division of Hartford (which became West
Americans expanded the English Language
making it even better as people migrated westward. Adding new descriptive
words from native American Indians and from Spanish people from the south.
I love the English Language
is a system of communication using visual
elements. Speech as a means of communication cannot strictly be separated
from the whole of human communicative activity which includes the visual
and the term 'language' in relation to vision is an extension of its use
to describe the perception, comprehension and production of visible signs.
is the ability to interpret, negotiate, and make meaning from
information presented in the form of an image, extending the meaning of
literacy, which commonly signifies interpretation of a written or printed
text. Visual literacy is based on the idea that pictures can be “read” and
that meaning can be through a process of reading.
Hearing Impaired ToolsSymbols
is the scientific study
of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning,
and language in context.
sensitivity to spoken
, the ability to
, and the capacity to use language to
is a person who speaks
. A specialist in linguistics.
is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is
actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a
refers to an individual's awareness
of the phonological structure, or sound structure, of words. Phonological
awareness is an important and reliable predictor of later reading ability
and has, therefore, been the focus of much research.
I don't like the Tone of your Voice
different tones (like in music
but not as many) will change the meaning of the words, even if the
pronunciation of the word is the same otherwise. a
could be different
depending on which syllable is stressed
is the use of pitch in language to distinguish
lexical or grammatical meaning
verbal languages use pitch to express emotional and other paralinguistic
information and to convey emphasis, contrast, and other such features in
what is called intonation, but not all languages use tones to distinguish
words or their inflections, analogously to consonants and vowels.
is variation of spoken pitch that is not used
to distinguish words; instead it is used for a range of
as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the
difference between statements and questions, and between different types
of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken
message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.
contrasts with tone, in which pitch variation does distinguish words. So
when your voice rises at the end of a question, that is technically called
intonation. Inflection has two meanings: it can sometimes mean intonation,
modulation of the voice; change in pitch or tone of voice.
is an individuals' ability to understand both spoken and written language,
as well as their ability to speak and write themselves. In a practical
sense, linguistic intelligence is the extent to which an individual can
use language, both written and verbal, to achieve goals. In addition to
this, high linguistic intelligence has been linked to improved problem
solving, as well as to increased abstract reasoning. In many cases, only
the verbal aspects are taken into consideration. This is usually referred
to as verbal intelligence or verbal fluency, and is commonly a reflection
of an individual's overall linguistic intelligence. Part of Howard
is the interdisciplinary study of
how language influences social life. It is a branch of anthropology that
originated from the endeavor to document endangered languages, and has
grown over the past century to encompass most aspects of language
structure and use. Linguistic anthropology explores how language shapes
communication, forms social identity and group membership, organizes
large-scale cultural beliefs and ideologies, and develops a common
cultural representation of natural and social worlds.
set of conventions for writing a language. It includes norms of spelling,
hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.
is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society,
including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language
is used, and the effects of language use on society. Sociolinguistics
differs from sociology of language in that the focus of sociology of
language is the effect of language on the society, while sociolinguistics
focuses on the society's effect on language. Sociolinguistics overlaps to
a considerable degree with pragmatics. It is historically closely related
to linguistic anthropology and the distinction between the two fields has
even been questioned.
is a set of linguistic variants with specific
social meanings. In this context, social meanings can include group
membership, personal attributes, or beliefs. Linguistic variation is at
the heart of the concept of linguistic style—without variation there is no
basis for distinguishing social meanings. Variation can occur
syntactically, lexically, and phonologically. Many approaches to
interpreting and defining style incorporate the concepts of indexicality,
indexical order, stance-taking, and linguistic ideology. Note that a style
is not a fixed attribute of a speaker. Rather, a speaker may use different
styles depending on context. Additionally, speakers often incorporate
elements of multiple styles into their speech, either consciously or
subconsciously, thereby creating a new style.
refers to the school of thought within
linguistics that interprets language in terms of the concepts, sometimes
universal, sometimes specific to a particular tongue, which underlie its
is an interdisciplinary field
concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language
from a computational perspective.
is the practice of elevating one
variety or manner of language use over another. It may imply that some
forms are incorrect, improper, or illogical, or lack communicative effect,
or are of low aesthetic value.
is a branch of linguistics concerned with the
systematic organization of sounds in languages. It has traditionally
focused largely on the study of the systems of phonemes in particular
languages (and therefore used to be also called phonemics, or phonematics),
but it may also cover any linguistic analysis either at a level beneath
the word (including syllable, onset and rime, articulatory gestures,
articulatory features, mora, etc.) or at all levels of language where
sound is considered to be structured for conveying linguistic meaning.
Phonology also includes the study of equivalent organizational systems in
is the study of various aspects of
linguistic communication between people who cannot make themselves
understood by means of their different first languages. It is concerned
with investigating how ethnic and auxiliary languages (lingua franca) work
in such situations and with the possibilities of optimizing
interlinguistic communication, for instance by use of international
auxiliary languages, such as Esperanto or Interlingua. These are languages
that are created by an intentional intellectual effort, usually with the
aim of facilitating interlinguistic communication, but there are also
interlanguages that have arisen spontaneously. These are called pidgin
Department of Linguistics
is an approach to linguistics originating from
the work of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and is part of the
overall approach of structuralism.
is the process by which some kind of surface representation is derived
from its underlying representation; that is, the way in which some
abstract object of linguistic analysis comes to be produced in actual
language. Phonemes are often said to be realized by speech sounds. The
different sounds that can realize a particular phoneme are called its
is the creation of derived forms of
a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form
according to rules of grammar
is what makes a text semantically
. It is especially dealt with
in text linguistics. Coherence is achieved through syntactical features
such as the use of deictic, anaphoric and cataphoric elements or a logical
tense structure, as well as presuppositions and implications connected to
general world knowledge. The purely linguistic elements that make a text
coherent are subsumed under the term cohesion.
is the process of standardizing and developing a norm for a language.
is a linguistic process related to inflectional
languages. All members of the Indo-European language family belong to this
kind of language and are subject to some degree of deflexional change. The
process is typified by the degeneration of the inflectional structure of a
language. This phenomenon has been especially strong in Western European
languages, such as English, French, and others.
is the study of ancient and historical
handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not
the textual content of documents). Included in the discipline is the
practice of deciphering, reading, and dating historical manuscripts, and
the cultural context of writing, including the methods with which writing
and books were produced, and the history of scriptoria. The discipline is
important for understanding, authenticating, and dating ancient texts.
However, it cannot in general be used to pinpoint dates with high
is a unit in phonology that determines syllable
weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.
is a characteristic of language: there is more
than one way of saying the same thing. Speakers may vary pronunciation
(accent), word choice (lexicon), or morphology and syntax (sometimes
called "grammar"). But while the diversity of variation is great, there
seem to be boundaries on variation – speakers do not generally make
drastic alterations in sentence word order or use novel sounds that are
completely foreign to the language being spoken. Language variation
does not equate with language ungrammaticality, but speakers are still
(often unconsciously) sensitive to what is and is not possible in their
native tongue. Language variation is a core concept in sociolinguistics.
Sociolinguists investigate whether this linguistic variation can be
attributed to differences in the social characteristics of the speakers
using the language, but also investigate whether elements of the
surrounding linguistic context promote or inhibit the usage of certain
can be characterized as the number and variety of elements,
and the elaborateness of their interrelational structure. This general
characterisation can be broken down into sub-areas: Syntagmatic
complexity: number of parts, such as word length in terms of phonemes,
syllables etc.. Paradigmatic complexity: variety of parts, such as phoneme
inventory size, number of distinctions in a grammatical category, e.g.
aspect. Organizational complexity: e.g. ways of arranging components,
phonotactic restrictions, variety of word orders. Hierarchic complexity:
e.g. recursion, lexical–semantic hierarchies.
in the degree to which they overtly and obligatorily
mark semantic distinctions; this difference is termed as one of
overspecification. Second, a particular aspect of one grammar may differ
from that aspect in another's in terms of the number of rules (in
phonology and syntax) or foundational elements (in terms of phonemic
inventory) required to generate surface forms. Third, grammars differ in
the degree to which they are festooned with irregularity and suppletion.
Inflection and complexity, and whether one grammar can be more complex
than another are discussed.
as a LanguageCommunication
5 techniques to speak any
Language: Sid Efromovich at
One way to effectively learn a language is using the language in
interaction with others. Use language for a purpose and learn to use the
language in context.
How to Teach a Language
is a method of teaching a second language
in which the learners’ second language
(L2) is the medium of classroom
instruction. Through this method, learners study school subjects, such as
math, science, and social studies, in their L2. The main purpose of this
method is to foster bilingualism, in other words, to develop learners'
communicative competence or language proficiency in their L2 in addition
to their first or native language (L1). Additional goals are the cognitive
advantages to bilingualism.
the use of subject
matter as a vehicle for second or foreign language teaching/learning.
Learners are exposed to a considerable amount of language through
stimulating content. Learners explore interesting content and are engaged
in appropriate language-dependent activities. Languages are not learned
through direct instruction, but rather acquired "naturally" or
automatically. CBI supports contextualized learning; learners are taught
useful language that is embedded within relevant discourse contexts rather
than as isolated language fragments. Hence students make greater
connections with the language and what they already know. Complex
information is delivered through real life context for the students to
grasp well and leads to intrinsic motivation. In CBI information is
reiterated by strategically delivering information at right time and
situation compelling the Greater flexibility and adaptability in the
curriculum can be deployed as per the student's interest.
is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and
comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to
communicate. Language acquisition is one of the quintessential human
traits, because non-humans do not communicate by using language. Language
acquisition usually refers to first-language acquisition, which studies
infants' acquisition of their native language. This is distinguished from
second-language acquisition, which deals with the acquisition (in both
children and adults) of additional languages. The capacity to successfully
use language requires one to acquire a range of tools including phonology,
morphology, syntax, semantics, and an extensive vocabulary. Language can
be vocalized as in speech, or manual as in sign. Human language capacity
is represented in the brain. Even though human language capacity is
finite, one can say and understand an infinite number of sentences, which
is based on a syntactic principle called recursion. Evidence suggests that
every individual has three recursive mechanisms that allow sentences to go
indeterminately. These three mechanisms are: relativization,
complementation and coordination. Furthermore, there are actually two main
guiding principles in first-language acquisition, that is, speech
perception always precedes speech production and the gradually evolving
system by which a child learns a language is built up one step at a time,
beginning with the distinction between individual phonemes.
Communicate with a Non Native English Speaker
Modern Language Aptitude Test
is designed to predict a
student’s likelihood of success and
a foreign language.
Defense Language Aptitude Battery
is a test used by the United States Department of Defense to
test an individual's potential for learning a foreign language and thus
determining who may pursue training as a military linguist. It consists of
126 multiple-choice questions and the test is scored out of a possible 164
points. The test is composed of five audio sections and one visual
section. As of 2009, the test is completely web-based. The test does not
attempt to gauge a person's fluency in a given language, but rather to
determine their ability to learn a language. The test will give the
service member examples of what a selection of words or what a portion of
a word means, then asks the test taker to create a specific word from the
A new study reveals children's language development is a learnt skill and
is intricately linked to their ability to recognise patterns in their
Learning to Speak
is the process of dividing written text into
meaningful units, such as words, sentences, or topics. The term applies
both to mental processes used by humans when reading text, and to
artificial processes implemented in computers, which are the subject of
natural language processing. The problem is non-trivial, because while
some written languages have explicit word boundary markers, such as the
word spaces of written English and the distinctive initial, medial and
final letter shapes of Arabic, such signals are sometimes ambiguous and
not present in all written languages.
is one of the three aspects of prosody, along with stress
and intonation. Languages can be categorized according to whether they are
syllable-timed, mora-timed, or stress-timed.
Statistical Learning in Language Acquisition
is the ability for humans
and other animals to extract statistical regularities from the world
around them to learn about the environment. Although statistical learning
is now thought to be a generalized learning mechanism, the phenomenon was
first identified in human infant language acquisition.
Learning a New Language -
Software for Self Teaching
Language Learning Library
Tinyworld: Connecting the world via Language Sharing
of over 130 different languages.
Private Language Lessons
is a stage in child development and a state in
language acquisition during which an infant appears to be experimenting
with uttering articulate sounds, but does not yet produce any recognizable
words. Babbling begins shortly after birth and progresses through several
stages as the infant's repertoire of sounds expands and vocalizations
become more speech-like. Infants typically begin to produce recognizable
words when they are around 12 months of age, though babbling may continue
for some time afterward. Babbling can be seen as a precursor to language
development or simply as vocal experimentation. The physical structures
involved in babbling are still being developed in the first year of a
child's life. This continued physical development is responsible for some
of the changes in abilities and variations of sound babies can produce.
Abnormal developments such as certain medical conditions, developmental
delays, and hearing impairments may interfere with a child's ability to
babble normally. Though there is still disagreement about the uniqueness
of language to humans, babbling is not unique to the human species.
Speak for Yourself AAC iPad app using Babble
feature allows users to explore vocabulary by opening every word in the
application by touching one button. Just as a baby, practicing to speak,
"babbles" by exploring his mouth's motor movements and hearing the sounds
produced, the user can explore the words available in Speak for Yourself
with alternative motor movements (e.g. using his hand). The user can be
returned to their customized setting by touching the same button to turn
Children learn quantifiers in the same order no matter what their language
, The existence of universal patterns in the language acquisition
process that do not always coincide with the linguistic universals,
according to which the world's languages are classified.
Children and Language
is a set of procedures used by behavior
analysts. These procedures are used to mirror the natural areas of
language use for children. Behavior analysts language training procedures
run along a continuum from highly restrictive such as discrete trial
training to very nonrestrictive conversationally-based strategies. Natural
language falls in the middle of these procedures.
Language Learning Principle
is the study and improvement of the arts of language. The primary
divisions in language arts are literature and language, where language in
this case refers to both linguistics, and specific languages. The five
strands of the language arts are reading, writing, speaking, listening,
and viewing (visual literacy).
is a concept in second-language
acquisition where learners cannot learn the grammatical features of a
language unless they notice them. Noticing alone does not mean that
learners automatically acquire language; rather, the hypothesis states
that noticing is the essential starting point for acquisition. There is
debate over whether learners must consciously notice something, or whether
the noticing can be subconscious to some degree.
Natural Language Processing
is a field of computer science,
artificial intelligence, and computational linguistics concerned with the
interactions between computers and human (natural) languages and, in
particular, concerned with programming computers to fruitfully process
large natural language corpora. Challenges in Natural Language Processing
frequently involve natural language understanding, natural language
generation (frequently from formal, machine-readable logical forms),
connecting language and machine perception, managing human-computer dialog
systems, or some combination thereof.
Chinese Made Easy
Russian Language Info-Graph
See Touch Learn
is a Free Language Development App
Visual Instruction Tool.
Can knowing the corresponding letters and symbols of another language help you learn a new language?
(vocabulary, accent, grammar, pronunciation, slang)
is a person who can
speak two languages fluently.
is the use of two or more languages, either by an individual speaker or by
a community of speakers. It is believed that multilingual speakers
outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population. More than half
of all Europeans claim to speak at least one other language in addition to
their mother tongue.
, Polyglot is the ability to master, or the state
of having mastered, multiple languages.
is a person who is fluent in numerous
someone who is both a gifted and massive language accumulator. They
possess a particular neurology that's well-suited for learning languages
very quickly and being able to use them.
Benefits of Being Bilingual
Reveals How Language Develops in Bilingual Children
. When bilingual
children learn any two languages from birth each language proceeds on its
own independent course, at a rate that reflects the quality of the
children’s exposure to each language. Spanish skills become vulnerable as
children’s English skills develop, but English is not vulnerable to being
taken over by Spanish. In their longitudinal data, the researchers found
evidence that as the children developed stronger skills in English, their
rates of Spanish growth declined. Spanish skills did not cause English
growth to slow, so it’s not a matter of necessary trade-offs between two
languages. One well established fact about monolingual development is that
the size of children’s vocabularies and the grammatical complexity of
their speech are strongly related.
several languages lower your vocabulary?
Is your ability to communicate effectively hindered when not
speaking your native language?
refers to the ability to
objectify language as a process as well as an artifact. The concept of
metalinguistic awareness is helpful to explaining the execution and
transfer of linguistic knowledge across languages (e.g. code switching as
well as translation among bilinguals). Metalinguistics can be classified
as the ability to consciously reflect on the nature of language, by using
the following skills: An awareness that language has a potential greater
than that of simple symbols (it goes beyond the meaning). An awareness
that words are separable from their referents (meaning resides in the
mind, not in the name, i.e. Sonia is Sonia, and I will be the same person
even if somebody calls me another name). An awareness that language has a
structure that can be manipulated (realizing that language is malleable:
you can change and write things in many different ways (for example, if
something is written in a grammatically incorrect way, you can change
occurs when a speaker
alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the
context of a single conversation. Multilinguals, speakers of more than one
language, sometimes use elements of multiple languages when conversing
with each other. Thus, code-switching is the use of more than one
linguistic variety in a manner consistent with the syntax and phonology of
each variety. Code
Children and Language
Second Language Acquisition
is the process by which people
learn a second language. Second-language acquisition is also the
scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. The field of
second-language acquisition is a subdiscipline of applied linguistics, but
also receives research attention from a variety of other disciplines, such
as psychology and education.
Second Languages that are popular in each Country
Skill-Based Theories of Second Language Acquisition
theories of second-language acquisition based on models of skill
acquisition in cognitive psychology. These theories conceive of
second-language acquisition as being learned in the same way as any other
skill, such as learning to drive a car or play the piano. That is, they
see practice as the key ingredient of language acquisition. The most
well-known of these theories is based on John Anderson's adaptive control
of thought model.
is a hypothesis concerning second
language acquisition that stated that a minimum threshold in language
proficiency must be passed before a second-language speaker can reap any
benefits from language. It also states that, in order to gain proficiency
in a second language, the learner must also have passed a certain and age
appropriate level of competence in his or her first language. Set forth in
a study by Cummins (1976).
"People with a significant amount of
can also have the ability to learn aspects of language more
- Left Side of Brain
Test of English as a Foreign Language
Secondary Level English Proficiency Test
Educational Testing Service
Programming Language as a Second Language
There are over a billion people who are currently learning a
man wakes from coma speaking fluent Mandarin but had completely
Foreign Accent Syndrome
is a rare medical condition in
which patients develop speech patterns that are perceived as a foreign
accent that is different from their native accent, without having acquired
it in the perceived accent's place of origin.
It's nice to be able to
communicate in more then one language, but what's more important
is that you are an effective communicator. So just don't learn a
new language for conversation, learn a new language to increase
your effectiveness to communicate. Just don't teach a new
language, teach effective ways to communicate.
Medium of Instruction
is a language
used in teaching. It may or may not be the official language of the
country or territory. If the first language of students is different from
the official language, it may be used as the medium of instruction for
part or all of schooling. Bilingual or multilingual education may involve
the use of more than one language of instruction. UNESCO considers that
"providing education in a child's mother tongue is indeed a critical
. The more you have, the more you can do.
is a branch of
concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in
languages. It has traditionally focused largely on the study of the
systems of phonemes in particular languages (and therefore used to be also
called phonemics, or phonematics), but it may also cover any linguistic
analysis either at a level beneath the word (including syllable, onset and
, articulatory features, mora, etc.) or at all levels of
language where sound is considered to be structured for conveying
linguistic meaning. Phonology also includes the study of equivalent
organizational systems in sign
The Power of Words
Library Finder Sign Language
by means of an equivalent target-language text.
is the systematic study of the theory, description and
application of interpretation and translation.
is the rendering of text from one language to
another one word at a time.
is an oral translation of speech or sign from a language into another.
is the assignment of
to various concepts,
, or objects
under consideration. An assignment of meaning to the symbols of a formal
is oral translation of speech or
sign from a language into another. Interpreter
is a person who converts
a thought or expression in a source language into an expression with a
comparable meaning in a target language either simultaneously in "real
time" or consecutively when the speaker pauses after completing one or two
objective is to convey every semantic element
as well as tone and register and every intention and feeling of the
message that the source-language speaker is directing to target-language
recipients (except in summary interpretation, used sometimes in
When you have
with more then one
definitions with more then one word, it's hard sometimes to be
understood in the way that you intended. Even people who speak the
same language sometimes need a
is the discovery of the Meaning
texts written in obscure languages, which are almost always ancient.
So this is not just a
problem, this is also a
We should have a Universal Procedure for
Translation sometimes needs more then just a single translation.
Speak the word, and then the definition that you want to be heard.
I say something, then it's translated. (this is for complex translations,
this is not for a simple answer translation)
Then the person receiving the translation needs
to confirm that what is being translated is understood.
Then it may need to be translated back in the
words that this particular language uses to explain what is
: Then you might have to use different words to be
translated. And this process continues until a full understanding is
is when you translate a piece of Latin into
English. Then, without the Latin, you would translate their English
translation back into Latin. The final translation of Latin was supposed
to match the original Latin as closely as possible. Google Translate can't
deal with double translation.Lost in
is when some languages don't have the words that
describe what the other language is trying to communicate. So
understanding from one language to another can be difficult.
Principles in the Repair of Communication Problems
also sometimes referred to as Audiovisual
translation, is a specialized branch of translation which
the transfer of multimodal and multimedial texts into another language
and/or culture. and which implies the use of a multimedia electronic
system in the translation or in the transmission process.
is the systematic study, evaluation,
and interpretation of different aspects of translated works. It is an
interdisciplinary academic field closely related to literary criticism and
is a text (sometimes oral) from which
information or ideas are derived. In translation, a source text is the
original text that is to be translated into another language.
enables the recognition and translation of spoken
language into text by computers and computerized devices such as those
categorized as smart technologies and robotics. It is also known as
"automatic speech recognition" (ASR),"computer speech recognition
just "speech to text" (STT).
in adult second language acquisition is
an attempt to explain non-target-like linguistic behavior that persists
even among highly advanced speakers. For adult second language learners,
acquiring grammatical properties within a given linguistic area, such as
phonology, syntax, or semantics, should not be problematic.
between those modules, such as communicating between the syntax and
semantic systems, should likewise be feasible. However, grammatical
operations where the speaker is required to interface between an internal
component of the grammar, and an external component, such as pragmatics or
discourse information, will prove to be very difficult, and will not be
acquired completely by the second language learner, even at very advanced
Translation Tools and Apps
Voice Translation App
Languages are available in Skype Translator
- I speak 80 languages, so can you! The personal voice
translator that lets you instantly communicate in over 80 languages.
Meet the Pilot: Smart Earpiece Language Translator
. A world without
is an earpiece which translates between
CLIK- Wireless Earbuds with Voice Translation
smart earpiece capable of translating between users
speaking a different language.
translates printed words from one
language to another with your smartphone's video camera, in real
time, no network
Translate instantly by pointing your camera. With the Translate
app, you can translate text in images, either in a picture
you've taken or imported, or just by pointing your camera. You
can translate text you see around you just by pointing your
camera lens at it.
and chat and has a text-to-text translation service for its
Language Translation Tools
Google Android Translation App
Speak and Translate
Write in a language
that you’re learning and native speakers will correct your
12-Language Talking Translator
Question and Answer Platforms
act of Communication is an act of
"Hearing accurately and understanding
correctly doesn't always happens. So listening must be the
responsibility of both people.
Listen to your own words and as well as the words spoken by
Learning to Speak
Accurately when other People Speak
Is Thinking and Talking to Yourself the