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Language


Language is a systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols. The cognitive processes involved in producing and understanding linguistic communication. A system of words used to name things in a particular discipline. The mental faculty or power of vocal communication. Communication by word of mouth.

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Language Symbol Language is the Single Greatest Human Invention of all time. And it is still in early development. Language not only helps us to communicate information, language also shapes our thoughts.

Learning a New Language

Translations - Interpret

Philosophy of Language seeks to understand the way language represents Reality. Major topics in philosophy of language include: the nature of meaning, intentionality, reference, the constitution of sentences, learning, and thought.

Linguistic Relativity holds that the structure of a language affects its speakers' world view or cognition. Popularly known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, or Whorfianism, the principle is often defined to include two versions. The strong version says that language determines thought, and that linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categories, whereas the weak version says that linguistic categories and usage only influence thought and decisions.

Language of Thought Hypothesis (words shape our thoughts)

The Power of Language influences Thought and Action. The words we use to describe things—to ourselves and others—affects how we and they think and act. It’s good to remind ourselves that this powerful influence happens in all kinds of situations and most certainly with language related to teaching and learning.

Abuses of Language - Inadequate Language Harms

Learning to Read in your thirties profoundly transforms brain networks. Only a few months of reading training can modify the thalamus fundamentally. These deep structures in the thalamus and brainstem help our visual cortex to filter important information from the flood of visual input even before we consciously perceive it. It seems that the more the signal timings between the two brain regions are aligned, the better the reading capabilities. Therefore it is believed that these brain systems increasingly fine-tune their communication as learners become more and more proficient in reading and why experienced readers navigate more efficiently through a text.

The size of your vocabulary can only be effective when you use words effectively in meaningful ways. You can't use what you don't have, and you don't have what you don't use effectively.

Language and Thought Connections (you are what you know)

Language is the Machine Code of the Human Brain (Human Operating System)

Lera Boroditsky: How Language Shapes Thought (video)
Every None (youtube) 
Moments by Everynone (youtube)

The Power of Words

Language ideology studies the connections between the beliefs speakers have about language and the larger social and cultural systems they are a part of, illustrating how these beliefs are informed by and rooted in such systems. By doing so, language ideologies link the implicit as well as explicit assumptions people have about a language or language in general to their social experience and political as well as economic interests. The concept is used primarily within the fields of anthropology (esp. Linguistic anthropology), sociolinguistics, and cross-cultural studies to characterize any set of beliefs or feelings about languages as used in their social worlds.

Neuro-Linguistic Programming

Meta-Linguistics is the branch of linguistics that studies language and its relationship to other cultural behaviors. It is the study of dialogue relationships between units of speech communication as manifestations and enactments of co-existence.

The Theory of Communicative Action is a two-volume 1981 book by Jürgen Habermas, about the social sciences in a theory of language. The theory of communicative action is a critical project which reconstructs a concept of reason which is not grounded in instrumental or objectivistic terms, but rather in an emancipatory communicative act. This reconstruction proposes "human action and understanding can be fruitfully analysed as having a linguistic structure", and each utterance relies upon the anticipation of freedom from unnecessary domination. These linguistic structures of communication can be used to establish a normative understanding of society. This conception of society is used "to make possible a conceptualization of the social-life context that is tailored to the paradoxes of modernity. Max Weber (wiki)

The tool of Language gave us the ability to transfer information and knowledge to ourselves and to others. It was the first form of wireless communication. But it took thousands of years for humans to master language and to improve language in order to make communication more effectively and more efficiently. And now with the invention of computers and the internet, and the digitizing of language, more people are using language to transfer information and knowledge then any other time in human history.  But even though we use language to communicate and transfer information and knowledge every single day, 98% of people don't understand what knowledge and information is. And this lack of understanding is the single greatest source for most of our problems. If people fully understood what they were transmitting to themselves and to others, they would be a lot more careful, and more aware of what they think, and also be careful about what they say. People would then have more control, more power, more intelligence, more freedom, more potential, and more possibilities. Our full understanding of knowledge and information is the next big human transformation.

"Without a language to describe our experience, we can't communicate what we know. You can learn from your senses and experiences, but only so much, 80% of knowledge and intelligence is delivered using language." 

Reading, Writing, Communicating and Languages are very important Skills to have. If you do not become Proficient in these skills you will find it very difficult to Communicate with other people, as well as, find it very difficult to communicate with yourself. For one of the most important things you will learn about language is that it is also used to communicate inward as well as outward. So learning to read, write and communicate at a high level of proficiency is extremely important. These Skills open the doors of opportunity in all directions, doors that will normally not be visible unless you are a very good reader, writer and communicator.

If you didn't have the words to describe something, then how would you understand it?


Languages


Only about 2,400 of the world's roughly 7,200 Languages and Dialects have writing systems. 

Proto-Language in the tree model of historical linguistics is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and unattested, from which a number of attested, or documented, known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, or slow modification of the proto-language into languages that form a language family. In the strict sense, a proto-language is the latest common ancestor of a language family, immediately before the start of the family's divergence into the attested daughter languages. It is therefore equivalent with the ancestral language or parental language of a language family.

List of Languages by total number of Speakers (wiki)
List of Languages by number of Native Speakers (wiki)

Computer Languages (programming code)

Sign Language (hand signals)

Language Proficiency is the ability of an individual to speak or perform in an acquired language. Native-level fluency is estimated to be between 20,000–40,000 words, but basic conversational fluency might only require as little as 3,000 words.

Fluency means the smoothness or flow with which sounds, syllables, words and phrases are joined together when speaking quickly.

Specific Language Impairment is diagnosed when a child's language does not develop normally and the difficulties cannot be accounted for by generally slow development, physical abnormality of the speech apparatus, autism spectrum disorder, acquired brain damage or hearing loss. Twin studies have shown that it is strongly genetic. Usually, language impairment is resulted from mutation in genes.

Aphasia is an inability to comprehend and formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions. This damage is typically caused by a cerebral vascular accident (stroke), or head trauma, however these are not the only possible causes. To be diagnosed with aphasia, a person's speech or language must be significantly impaired in one (or several) of the four communication modalities following acquired brain injury or have significant decline over a short time period (progressive aphasia). The four communication modalities are auditory comprehension, verbal expression, reading and writing, and functional communication.

Language Module refers to a hypothesized structure in the human brain (anatomical module) or cognitive system (functional module) that some psycholinguists such as Steven Pinker claim contains innate capacities for language.

Speech Language Pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also called speech and language therapist, or speech therapist, who specializes in the evaluation and treatment of communication disorders, cognition, voice disorders, and swallowing disorders.

Lena Foundation is advanced technology to accelerate language development of children 0-5 

Over 800 languages are spoken in Papua New Guinea, a country of about six million people.

Memory Training

Indo-European Language Family Tree
Language Origins (image)
Languages Atlas
UCLA Center for Language, Interaction, and Culture
MIT Language Universal ties all languages together
Endangered Languages – The Alliance for Linguistic Diversity

The Rapidly Changing Language of American English (youtube)
Interview with William Labov, Professor of Linguistics at University of Pennsylvania and author of Dialect. David discusses the various and changing dialects and accents spoken in American English, and the political and economic factors in those 15 dialects.

How did our ancestors develop the very first language?

Universal Language may refer to a hypothetical or historical language spoken and understood by all or most of the world's population. In some contexts, it refers to a means of communication said to be understood by all living things, beings, and objects alike. It may be the idea of an international auxiliary language for communication between groups speaking different primary languages. In other conceptions, it may be the primary language of all speakers, or the only existing language. Some religious and mythological traditions state that there was once a single universal language among all people, or shared by humans and supernatural beings.

Grammar (universal)

Rosetta Project

Learning to Speak (speech)

Phrase Structure Rules are a type of rewrite rule used to describe a given language's syntax, and are closely associated with the early stages of transformational grammar, being first proposed by Noam Chomsky in 1957.

Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages promotes the documentation, maintenance, preservation, and revitalization of endangered languages worldwide through linguist-aided, community-driven multi-media language documentation projects.

Dreaming in Different Tongues: Languages and the Way We Think (youtube)

Translations

Language Interpretation

Why is the Chinese Language so simple? Why is Latin so difficult? Why Latin? (youtube)

Phoneme is one of the units of sound, or gesture in the case of sign languages, that distinguishes one word from another in a particular language. Two words that differ in meaning through a contrast of a single phoneme form, is called a minimal pair, which are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings. They are used to demonstrate that two phones constitute two separate phonemes in the language.

Why is learning the English Language better for Brain development?

Multilingualism is the use of two or more languages, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers. It is believed that multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population.

Monolingualism is the condition of being able to speak only a single language, as opposed to multilingualism. In a different context, "unilingualism" may refer to a language policy which enforces an official or national language over others.

Natural Language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation. Natural languages can take different forms, such as speech, signing, or writing. They are distinguished from constructed and formal languages such as those used to program computers or to study logic.

Language Arts is the name given to the study and improvement of the arts of language.

Musical Language

Interagency Language Roundtable Scale is a set of descriptions of abilities to communicate in a language.

Interagency Language Roundtable is an unfunded organization comprising various agencies of the United States Federal Government with the purpose of coordinating and sharing information on foreign language activities at the federal level.

Anishinaabemowin is the Language of the Three Fires Confederacy.

Mixed Language is a language that arises through the fusion of usually two source languages, normally in situations of thorough bilingualism (Meakins, 2013), so that it is not possible to classify the resulting language as belonging to either of the language families that were its sources.

Fusional Language are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single morpheme in combination with affixes to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic changes.

Morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language. In other words, it is the smallest meaningful unit of a language.

Formal Language is a set of strings of symbols together with a set of rules that are specific to it. The alphabet of a formal language is the set of symbols, letters, or tokens from which the strings of the language may be formed; frequently it is required to be finite. The strings formed from this alphabet are called words, and the words that belong to a particular formal language are sometimes called well-formed words or well-formed formulas. A formal language is often defined by means of a formal grammar such as a regular grammar or context-free grammar, also called its formation rule.

Oracy is the ability to express oneself fluently and grammatically in speech.

Animacy is a grammatical and semantic principle expressed in language based on how sentient or alive the referent of a noun is. Widely expressed, animacy is one of the most elementary principles in languages around the globe and is a distinction acquired as early as six months of age.

Semitic Languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East. Semitic languages are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia, North Africa and the Horn of Africa, as well as in often large expatriate communities in North America and Europe, with smaller communities in the Caucasus and Central Asia.

Vernacular is the native language or native dialect (usually colloquial or informal) of a specific population, especially as distinguished from a literary, national or standard variety of the language, or a lingua franca (vehicular language) used in the region or state inhabited by that population. Some linguists use "vernacular" and "nonstandard dialect" as synonyms.

Orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language. It includes norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.

Anglosphere is a set of English-speaking nations with a similar cultural roots, based upon populations originating from the nations of the British Isles (England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Ireland), which today maintain close political and military cooperation.

Algonquin is either a distinct Algonquian language closely related to the Ojibwe language or a particularly divergent Ojibwe dialect. It is spoken, alongside French and to some extent English, by the Algonquin First Nations of Quebec and Ontario. As of 2006, there were 2,680 Algonquin speakers, less than 10% of whom were monolingual. Algonquin is the language for which the entire Algonquian language subgroup is named. The similarity among the names often causes considerable confusion. Like many Native American languages, it is strongly verb-based, with most meaning being incorporated into verbs instead of using separate words for prepositions, tense, etc.

Isolating Language is a type of language with a very low morpheme per word ratio and no inflectional morphology whatsoever. In the extreme case, each word contains a single morpheme. Currently the most widely used isolating language is Mandarin Chinese.

Synthetic Language is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in what is described as an analytic language. This linguistic classification is largely independent of morpheme-usage classifications (such as fusional, agglutinative, etc.), although there is a common tendency for agglutinative languages to exhibit synthetic properties.

Polysynthetic Language are highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone). Polysynthetic languages typically have long "sentence-words".

Indo-European Languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. There are about 445 living Indo-European languages, according to the estimate by Ethnologue, with over two-thirds (313) of them belonging to the Indo-Iranian branch. The most widely spoken Indo-European languages by native speakers are Spanish, English, Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu), Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, Persian and Punjabi, each with over 100 million speakers. Today, 46% of the human population speaks an Indo-European language natively, by far the highest of any language family.

Global Language System is the "ingenious pattern of connections between language groups", surprisingly strong and efficient network that ties together - directly or indirectly - the six billion inhabitants of the earth." The global language system draws upon the world system theory to account for the relationships between the world's languages and divides them into a hierarchy consisting of four levels, namely the peripheral, central, supercentral and hypercentral languages.

Artificial Language are languages of a typically very limited size which emerge either in computer simulations between artificial agents, robot interactions or controlled psychological experiments with humans. They are different from both constructed languages and formal languages in that they have not been consciously devised by an individual or group but are the result of (distributed) conventionalisation processes, much like natural languages. Opposed to the idea of a central designer, the field of artificial language evolution in which artificial languages are studied can be regarded as a sub-part of the more general cultural evolution studies.

Pidgin s a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, a mixture of simplified languages or a simplified primary language with other languages' elements included. It is most commonly employed in situations such as trade, or where both groups speak languages different from the language of the country in which they reside (but where there is no common language between the groups). Fundamentally, a pidgin is a simplified means of linguistic communication, as it is constructed impromptu, or by convention, between individuals or groups of people. A pidgin is not the native language of any speech community, but is instead learned as a second language. A pidgin may be built from words, sounds, or body language from multiple other languages and cultures. They allow people who have no common language to communicate with each other. Pidgins usually have low prestige with respect to other languages. Not all simplified or "broken" forms of a language are pidgins. Each pidgin has its own norms of usage which must be learned for proficiency in the pidgin. A pidgin differs from a creole, which is the first language of a speech community of native speakers, and thus has a fully developed vocabulary and grammar. Most linguists believe that a creole develops through a process of nativization of a pidgin when children of acquired pidgin-speakers learn it and use it as their native language.
List of English-Based Pidgins (wiki)

Constructed Language is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or
human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally. It is also referred to as an artificial or invented language. There are many possible reasons to create a constructed language, such as: to ease human communication (see international auxiliary language and code), to give fiction or an associated constructed setting an added layer of realism, for experimentation in the fields of linguistics, cognitive science, and machine learning, for artistic creation, and for language games.

International Auxiliary Language is a language meant for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common first language. An auxiliary language is primarily a second language.

Esperanto is a constructed international auxiliary language. It is the most widely spoken constructed language in the world.

List of Constructed Languages (wiki)

Abkhaz Phonology is a language of the Northwest Caucasian family which, like the other Northwest Caucasian languages, is very rich in consonants. Abkhaz has a large consonantal inventory that contrasts 58 consonants in the literary Abzhywa dialect, coupled with just two phonemic vowels (Chirikba 2003:18–20).Abkhaz has three major dialects, Abzhywa, Bzyp and Sadz, which differ mainly in phonology.

Toki Pona is a human language invented in 2001. It was an attempt to understand the meaning of life in 120 words.
Toki Pona is a constructed language, first published as draft on the web in 2001 and then as a complete book and e-book Toki Pona: The Language of Good in 2014. It was designed by translator and linguist Sonja Lang (formerly Sonja Elen Kisa) of Toronto.
Code-Talker Paradox

Computer Language
Body Language
Speech 

Morphological Typology is a way of classifying the languages of the world (see linguistic typology) that groups languages according to their common morphological structures. The field organizes languages on the basis of how those languages form words by combining morphemes. Analytic languages contain very little inflection, instead relying on features like word order and auxiliary words to convey meaning. Synthetic languages, ones that are not analytic, are divided into two categories: agglutinative and fusional languages. Agglutinative languages rely primarily on discrete particles (prefixes, suffixes, and infixes) for inflection, while fusional languages "fuse" inflectional categories together, often allowing one word ending to contain several categories, such that the original root can be difficult to extract. A further subcategory of agglutinative languages are polysynthetic languages, which take agglutination to a higher level by constructing entire sentences, including nouns, as one word.

Morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language. It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes. Morphology also looks at parts of speech, intonation and stress, and the ways context can change a word's pronunciation and meaning. Morphology differs from morphological typology, which is the classification of languages based on their use of words and lexicology, which is the study of words and how they make up a language's vocabulary.

Lexicology is the part of linguistics which studies words. This may include their nature and function as symbols, their meaning, the relationship of their meaning to epistemology in general, and the rules of their composition from smaller elements (morphemes such as the English -ed marker for past or un- for negation; and phonemes as basic sound units). Lexicology also involves relations between words, which may involve semantics (for example, love vs. affection), derivation (for example, fathom vs. unfathomably), use and sociolinguistic distinctions (for example, flesh vs. meat), and any other issues involved in analyzing the whole lexicon of a language.

Lexicon is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical). In linguistics, a lexicon is a language's inventory of lexemes. The word "lexicon" derives from the Greek λεξικόν (lexicon), neuter of λεξικός (lexikos) meaning "of or for words".

English Language History

English Language gave precision and flexibility. New words bring new ideas. English language absorbed words and used words from several different languages like Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, Dutch, Spanish, Norman, and more. And now other languages in the world are using English words more often, so most languages share each others words. The English Language did not give rise to intelligence because humans were intelligent before the English language was even developed. What the English language did for humanity was to give The Power of Language to more people. English language is so versatile that you can communicate on so many different levels. It also makes it easy to transmit emotions and thoughts. It's like the English language was made for the human brain. The English language also helped people advance and learn faster because the language advanced and evolved as people learned more about how to use language effectively and efficiently. But the power of language is almost useless if people never learn how to use the power of language effectively and efficiently.

The Adventure Of English - 2003 BBC Documentary - Episode 1 - BBC Documentary (youtube) - Presented by Melvyn Bragg (8 episodes about 50 minutes each).

Alfred the Great King of Wessex from 871 to 899.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. The original manuscript of the Chronicle was created late in the 9th century, probably in Wessex, during the reign of Alfred the Great. Multiple copies were made of that one original and then distributed to monasteries across England, where they were independently updated. In one case, the Chronicle was still being actively updated in 1154.

Great Vowel Shift was a major change in the pronunciation of the English language that took place in England between 1350 and 1600. Through the Great Vowel Shift, all Middle English long vowels changed their pronunciation. English spelling was becoming standardized in the 15th and 16th centuries, and the Great Vowel Shift is responsible for many of the peculiarities of English spelling

1362 English Language starts to be used in Law (Latin was the norm).
1380 John Wickliffe (English translation of the Bible from Latin).
1435 Printing Press.
1479 Common written language spelling standards introduced.
1524 William Tyndale (English translation of the Bible from Hebrew and Greek). Translation created new English words.
1540 Bible for All. Great Bible (wiki)
1611 Kings Bible. Books of Kings (wiki)
1755 Shakespeare had thousands of quotes in the First English Dictionary, which had only 21,000 Words.

The oldest known dictionaries were Akkadian Empire cuneiform tablets with bilingual Sumerian–Akkadian wordlists, discovered in Ebla (modern Syria) and dated roughly 2300 BCE. A Chinese dictionary, the c. 3rd century BCE Erya, was the earliest surviving monolingual dictionary; Arabic dictionaries were compiled between the 8th and 14th centuries CE.

Plymouth Rock in 1620 marked the beginning of America. 2020 will mark the beginning of Intelligence.

America helped define and expand the English Language.

Noah Webster (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author. He has been called the "Father of American Scholarship and Education". In  783 his blue-backed speller books taught five generations of American children how to spell and read, secularizing their education. According to Ellis (1979), he gave Americans "a secular catechism to the nation-state." Webster's name has become synonymous with "dictionary" in the United States, especially the modern Merriam-Webster dictionary that was first published in 1828 as An American Dictionary of the English Language. Webster was born in the Western Division of Hartford (which became West Hartford, Connecticut).

Americans expanded the English Language making it even better as people migrated westward. Adding new descriptive words from native American Indians and from Spanish people from the south.

I love the English Language (wordpress)



Visual Language

Visual Language is a system of communication using visual elements. Speech as a means of communication cannot strictly be separated from the whole of human communicative activity which includes the visual and the term 'language' in relation to vision is an extension of its use to describe the perception, comprehension and production of visible signs.

Visual Literacy is the ability to interpret, negotiate, and make meaning from information presented in the form of an image, extending the meaning of literacy, which commonly signifies interpretation of a written or printed text. Visual literacy is based on the idea that pictures can be “read” and that meaning can be through a process of reading.

Spatial Intelligence
Sign Language
Body Language
Hearing Impaired Tools
Symbols

Vocabulary
Grammar
Word's



Linguistic intelligence


Word Smart

Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context. Involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. Linguist is a person who speaks several languages. A specialist in linguistics.

Linguistic Analysis is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a speech community.

Phonological Awareness refers to an individual's awareness of the phonological structure, or sound structure, of words. Phonological awareness is an important and reliable predictor of later reading ability and has, therefore, been the focus of much research.

I don't like the Tone of your Voice
Tone Language different tones (like in music, but not as many) will change the meaning of the words, even if the pronunciation of the word is the same otherwise. a word's meaning could be different depending on which syllable is stressed

Tone (linguistics) is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning. All verbal languages use pitch to express emotional and other paralinguistic information and to convey emphasis, contrast, and other such features in what is called intonation, but not all languages use tones to distinguish words or their inflections, analogously to consonants and vowels.

Intonation (linguistics) is variation of spoken pitch that is not used to distinguish words; instead it is used for a range of
functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction. Humor

Vocal Inflection
contrasts with tone, in which pitch variation does distinguish words. So when your voice rises at the end of a question, that is technically called intonation. Inflection has two meanings: it can sometimes mean intonation, modulation of the voice; change in pitch or tone of voice.

Linguistic Intelligence is an individuals' ability to understand both spoken and written language, as well as their ability to speak and write themselves. In a practical sense, linguistic intelligence is the extent to which an individual can use language, both written and verbal, to achieve goals. In addition to this, high linguistic intelligence has been linked to improved problem solving, as well as to increased abstract reasoning. In many cases, only the verbal aspects are taken into consideration. This is usually referred to as verbal intelligence or verbal fluency, and is commonly a reflection of an individual's overall linguistic intelligence. Part of Howard Gardner's multiple intelligence theory.

Linguistic Anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of how language influences social life. It is a branch of anthropology that originated from the endeavor to document endangered languages, and has grown over the past century to encompass most aspects of language structure and use. Linguistic anthropology explores how language shapes communication, forms social identity and group membership, organizes large-scale cultural beliefs and ideologies, and develops a common cultural representation of natural and social worlds.

Orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language. It includes norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.

Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society. Sociolinguistics differs from sociology of language in that the focus of sociology of language is the effect of language on the society, while sociolinguistics focuses on the society's effect on language. Sociolinguistics overlaps to a considerable degree with pragmatics. It is historically closely related to linguistic anthropology and the distinction between the two fields has even been questioned.

Style (sociolinguistics) is a set of linguistic variants with specific social meanings. In this context, social meanings can include group membership, personal attributes, or beliefs. Linguistic variation is at the heart of the concept of linguistic style—without variation there is no basis for distinguishing social meanings. Variation can occur syntactically, lexically, and phonologically. Many approaches to interpreting and defining style incorporate the concepts of indexicality, indexical order, stance-taking, and linguistic ideology. Note that a style is not a fixed attribute of a speaker. Rather, a speaker may use different styles depending on context. Additionally, speakers often incorporate elements of multiple styles into their speech, either consciously or subconsciously, thereby creating a new style.

Cognitive Linguistics refers to the school of thought within linguistics that interprets language in terms of the concepts, sometimes universal, sometimes specific to a particular tongue, which underlie its forms.

Computational Linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective.

Linguistic Prescription is the practice of elevating one variety or manner of language use over another. It may imply that some forms are incorrect, improper, or illogical, or lack communicative effect, or are of low aesthetic value.

Phonological is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages. It has traditionally focused largely on the study of the systems of phonemes in particular languages (and therefore used to be also called phonemics, or phonematics), but it may also cover any linguistic analysis either at a level beneath the word (including syllable, onset and rime, articulatory gestures, articulatory features, mora, etc.) or at all levels of language where sound is considered to be structured for conveying linguistic meaning. Phonology also includes the study of equivalent organizational systems in sign languages.

Interlinguistics is the study of various aspects of linguistic communication between people who cannot make themselves understood by means of their different first languages. It is concerned with investigating how ethnic and auxiliary languages (lingua franca) work in such situations and with the possibilities of optimizing interlinguistic communication, for instance by use of international auxiliary languages, such as Esperanto or Interlingua. These are languages that are created by an intentional intellectual effort, usually with the aim of facilitating interlinguistic communication, but there are also interlanguages that have arisen spontaneously. These are called pidgin languages.

UCLA Department of Linguistics

Structural Linguistics is an approach to linguistics originating from the work of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and is part of the overall approach of structuralism.

Realization Linguistics is the process by which some kind of surface representation is derived from its underlying representation; that is, the way in which some abstract object of linguistic analysis comes to be produced in actual language. Phonemes are often said to be realized by speech sounds. The different sounds that can realize a particular phoneme are called its allophones.

Grammatical Conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).

Coherence Linguistics is what makes a text semantically meaningful. It is especially dealt with in text linguistics. Coherence is achieved through syntactical features such as the use of deictic, anaphoric and cataphoric elements or a logical tense structure, as well as presuppositions and implications connected to general world knowledge. The purely linguistic elements that make a text coherent are subsumed under the term cohesion.

Codification is the process of standardizing and developing a norm for a language.

Deflexion is a linguistic process related to inflectional languages. All members of the Indo-European language family belong to this kind of language and are subject to some degree of deflexional change. The process is typified by the degeneration of the inflectional structure of a language. This phenomenon has been especially strong in Western European languages, such as English, French, and others.

Information Theory

Palaeography is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents). Included in the discipline is the practice of deciphering, reading, and dating historical manuscripts, and the cultural context of writing, including the methods with which writing and books were produced, and the history of scriptoria. The discipline is important for understanding, authenticating, and dating ancient texts. However, it cannot in general be used to pinpoint dates with high precision.

Mora (linguistics) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.

Variation (linguistics) is a characteristic of language: there is more than one way of saying the same thing. Speakers may vary pronunciation (accent), word choice (lexicon), or morphology and syntax (sometimes called "grammar"). But while the diversity of variation is great, there seem to be boundaries on variation – speakers do not generally make drastic alterations in sentence word order or use novel sounds that are completely foreign to the language being spoken. Language variation does not equate with language ungrammaticality, but speakers are still (often unconsciously) sensitive to what is and is not possible in their native tongue. Language variation is a core concept in sociolinguistics. Sociolinguists investigate whether this linguistic variation can be attributed to differences in the social characteristics of the speakers using the language, but also investigate whether elements of the surrounding linguistic context promote or inhibit the usage of certain structures.

Language Complexity can be characterized as the number and variety of elements, and the elaborateness of their interrelational structure. This general characterisation can be broken down into sub-areas: Syntagmatic complexity: number of parts, such as word length in terms of phonemes, syllables etc.. Paradigmatic complexity: variety of parts, such as phoneme inventory size, number of distinctions in a grammatical category, e.g. aspect. Organizational complexity: e.g. ways of arranging components, phonotactic restrictions, variety of word orders. Hierarchic complexity: e.g. recursion, lexical–semantic hierarchies.

Languages differ in the degree to which they overtly and obligatorily mark semantic distinctions; this difference is termed as one of overspecification. Second, a particular aspect of one grammar may differ from that aspect in another's in terms of the number of rules (in phonology and syntax) or foundational elements (in terms of phonemic inventory) required to generate surface forms. Third, grammars differ in the degree to which they are festooned with irregularity and suppletion. Inflection and complexity, and whether one grammar can be more complex than another are discussed.

Words
Computer Language
Math as a Language
Communication

 

Language Learning


Different Language Signs 5 techniques to speak any Language: Sid Efromovich at TEDxUpperEastSide (video)

One way to effectively learn a language is using the language in interaction with others. Use language for a purpose and learn to use the language in context.

How to Teach a Language (PDF)

Language Immersion is a method of teaching a second language in which the learners’ second language (L2) is the medium of classroom instruction. Through this method, learners study school subjects, such as math, science, and social studies, in their L2. The main purpose of this method is to foster bilingualism, in other words, to develop learners' communicative competence or language proficiency in their L2 in addition to their first or native language (L1). Additional goals are the cognitive advantages to bilingualism.

Content-Based Instruction the use of subject matter as a vehicle for second or foreign language teaching/learning. Learners are exposed to a considerable amount of language through stimulating content. Learners explore interesting content and are engaged in appropriate language-dependent activities. Languages are not learned through direct instruction, but rather acquired "naturally" or automatically. CBI supports contextualized learning; learners are taught useful language that is embedded within relevant discourse contexts rather than as isolated language fragments. Hence students make greater connections with the language and what they already know. Complex information is delivered through real life context for the students to grasp well and leads to intrinsic motivation. In CBI information is reiterated by strategically delivering information at right time and situation compelling the Greater flexibility and adaptability in the curriculum can be deployed as per the student's interest.

Language Acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language acquisition is one of the quintessential human traits, because non-humans do not communicate by using language. Language acquisition usually refers to first-language acquisition, which studies infants' acquisition of their native language. This is distinguished from second-language acquisition, which deals with the acquisition (in both children and adults) of additional languages. The capacity to successfully use language requires one to acquire a range of tools including phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and an extensive vocabulary. Language can be vocalized as in speech, or manual as in sign. Human language capacity is represented in the brain. Even though human language capacity is finite, one can say and understand an infinite number of sentences, which is based on a syntactic principle called recursion. Evidence suggests that every individual has three recursive mechanisms that allow sentences to go indeterminately. These three mechanisms are: relativization, complementation and coordination. Furthermore, there are actually two main guiding principles in first-language acquisition, that is, speech perception always precedes speech production and the gradually evolving system by which a child learns a language is built up one step at a time, beginning with the distinction between individual phonemes.

Communicate with a Non Native English Speaker (wikihow)

Modern Language Aptitude Test is designed to predict a student’s likelihood of success and ease in learning a foreign language.

Defense Language Aptitude Battery is a test used by the United States Department of Defense to test an individual's potential for learning a foreign language and thus determining who may pursue training as a military linguist. It consists of 126 multiple-choice questions and the test is scored out of a possible 164 points. The test is composed of five audio sections and one visual section. As of 2009, the test is completely web-based. The test does not attempt to gauge a person's fluency in a given language, but rather to determine their ability to learn a language. The test will give the service member examples of what a selection of words or what a portion of a word means, then asks the test taker to create a specific word from the samples given.

Translations

A new study reveals children's language development is a learnt skill and is intricately linked to their ability to recognise patterns in their environment.

Learning to Speak

Text Segmentation is the process of dividing written text into meaningful units, such as words, sentences, or topics. The term applies both to mental processes used by humans when reading text, and to artificial processes implemented in computers, which are the subject of natural language processing. The problem is non-trivial, because while some written languages have explicit word boundary markers, such as the word spaces of written English and the distinctive initial, medial and final letter shapes of Arabic, such signals are sometimes ambiguous and not present in all written languages.

In linguistics, rhythm or Isochrony is one of the three aspects of prosody, along with stress and intonation. Languages can be categorized according to whether they are syllable-timed, mora-timed, or stress-timed.

Language Rhythm (PDF)

Statistical Learning in Language Acquisition is the ability for humans and other animals to extract statistical regularities from the world around them to learn about the environment. Although statistical learning is now thought to be a generalized learning mechanism, the phenomenon was first identified in human infant language acquisition.

Learning a New Language - Software for Self Teaching 
Language Learning Library
Live Mocha 
Duolingo
Verbling Language Tutoring
Tinyworld: Connecting the world via Language Sharing
Native Monks tutors of over 130 different languages.
Tutoring - Private Language Lessons
Mango Languages
Rosetta Stone (Website)
Pimsleur Approach  (amazon)
Paul Pimsleur
Talking Dictionary

Babbling is a stage in child development and a state in language acquisition during which an infant appears to be experimenting with uttering articulate sounds, but does not yet produce any recognizable words. Babbling begins shortly after birth and progresses through several stages as the infant's repertoire of sounds expands and vocalizations become more speech-like. Infants typically begin to produce recognizable words when they are around 12 months of age, though babbling may continue for some time afterward. Babbling can be seen as a precursor to language development or simply as vocal experimentation. The physical structures involved in babbling are still being developed in the first year of a child's life. This continued physical development is responsible for some of the changes in abilities and variations of sound babies can produce. Abnormal developments such as certain medical conditions, developmental delays, and hearing impairments may interfere with a child's ability to babble normally. Though there is still disagreement about the uniqueness of language to humans, babbling is not unique to the human species.

Speak for Yourself AAC iPad app using Babble (youtube)
The "Babble" feature allows users to explore vocabulary by opening every word in the application by touching one button. Just as a baby, practicing to speak, "babbles" by exploring his mouth's motor movements and hearing the sounds produced, the user can explore the words available in Speak for Yourself with alternative motor movements (e.g. using his hand). The user can be returned to their customized setting by touching the same button to turn "babble" off.

Children learn quantifiers in the same order no matter what their language is, The existence of universal patterns in the language acquisition process that do not always coincide with the linguistic universals, according to which the world's languages are classified.

Children and Language

Natural Language Procedures is a set of procedures used by behavior analysts. These procedures are used to mirror the natural areas of language use for children. Behavior analysts language training procedures run along a continuum from highly restrictive such as discrete trial training to very nonrestrictive conversationally-based strategies. Natural language falls in the middle of these procedures.

Applied Phonetics (youtube)
Interpretation
Speech
Sign Language
Translation Tools

Language Learning Principle
Learning Methods
Memory Training
Language Styles

Language Arts is the study and improvement of the arts of language. The primary divisions in language arts are literature and language, where language in this case refers to both linguistics, and specific languages. The five strands of the language arts are reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing (visual literacy).

Noticing Hypothesis is a concept in second-language acquisition where learners cannot learn the grammatical features of a language unless they notice them. Noticing alone does not mean that learners automatically acquire language; rather, the hypothesis states that noticing is the essential starting point for acquisition. There is debate over whether learners must consciously notice something, or whether the noticing can be subconscious to some degree.

Natural Language Processing is a field of computer science, artificial intelligence, and computational linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages and, in particular, concerned with programming computers to fruitfully process large natural language corpora. Challenges in Natural Language Processing frequently involve natural language understanding, natural language generation (frequently from formal, machine-readable logical forms), connecting language and machine perception, managing human-computer dialog systems, or some combination thereof.

English Learning
Chinese Made Easy
Babbel
Speak for Yourself
LinguaStep 
Middlebury Interactive
Enduring Voices
Conversation Exchange

Russian Language Info-Graph (image)

See Touch Learn is a Free Language Development App and Visual Instruction Tool.

Languages

Can knowing the corresponding letters and symbols of another language help you learn a new language?
Omniglot
ie languages
(vocabulary, accent, grammar, pronunciation, slang)



Bilingual


Bilingual is a person who can speak two languages fluently.

Multilingualism is the use of two or more languages, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers. It is believed that multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population. More than half of all Europeans claim to speak at least one other language in addition to their mother tongue.

Polyglotism, Polyglot is the ability to master, or the state of having mastered, multiple languages.

Polylinguist is a person who is fluent in numerous languages.

Hyperpolyglot is someone who is both a gifted and massive language accumulator. They possess a particular neurology that's well-suited for learning languages very quickly and being able to use them.

Benefits of Being Bilingual

Study Reveals How Language Develops in Bilingual Children. When bilingual children learn any two languages from birth each language proceeds on its own independent course, at a rate that reflects the quality of the children’s exposure to each language. Spanish skills become vulnerable as children’s English skills develop, but English is not vulnerable to being taken over by Spanish. In their longitudinal data, the researchers found evidence that as the children developed stronger skills in English, their rates of Spanish growth declined. Spanish skills did not cause English growth to slow, so it’s not a matter of necessary trade-offs between two languages. One well established fact about monolingual development is that the size of children’s vocabularies and the grammatical complexity of their speech are strongly related.

Does speaking several languages lower your vocabulary?

Is your ability to communicate effectively hindered when not speaking your native language?

Bilingual Families

Metalinguistic Awareness refers to the ability to objectify language as a process as well as an artifact. The concept of metalinguistic awareness is helpful to explaining the execution and transfer of linguistic knowledge across languages (e.g. code switching as well as translation among bilinguals). Metalinguistics can be classified as the ability to consciously reflect on the nature of language, by using the following skills: An awareness that language has a potential greater than that of simple symbols (it goes beyond the meaning). An awareness that words are separable from their referents (meaning resides in the mind, not in the name, i.e. Sonia is Sonia, and I will be the same person even if somebody calls me another name). An awareness that language has a structure that can be manipulated (realizing that language is malleable: you can change and write things in many different ways (for example, if something is written in a grammatically incorrect way, you can change it)).

Code-Switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation. Multilinguals, speakers of more than one language, sometimes use elements of multiple languages when conversing with each other. Thus, code-switching is the use of more than one linguistic variety in a manner consistent with the syntax and phonology of each variety. Code

Children and Language

Second Language Acquisition is the process by which people learn a second language. Second-language acquisition is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. The field of second-language acquisition is a subdiscipline of applied linguistics, but also receives research attention from a variety of other disciplines, such as psychology and education.

Second Languages that are popular in each Country (Info-Graph Image)

Skill-Based Theories of Second Language Acquisition are theories of second-language acquisition based on models of skill acquisition in cognitive psychology. These theories conceive of second-language acquisition as being learned in the same way as any other skill, such as learning to drive a car or play the piano. That is, they see practice as the key ingredient of language acquisition. The most well-known of these theories is based on John Anderson's adaptive control of thought model.

Threshold Hypothesis is a hypothesis concerning second language acquisition that stated that a minimum threshold in language proficiency must be passed before a second-language speaker can reap any benefits from language. It also states that, in order to gain proficiency in a second language, the learner must also have passed a certain and age appropriate level of competence in his or her first language. Set forth in a study by Cummins (1976).

"People with a significant amount of music experience can also have the ability to learn aspects of language more easily."

Right Side of Brain - Left Side of Brain

Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL Score)
Secondary Level English Proficiency Test (SLEP Score)

Educational Testing Service
Computer Programming Language as a Second Language

There are over a billion people who are currently learning a second language.
Official Languages 

Australian man wakes from coma speaking fluent Mandarin but had completely forgotten English (youtube)

Foreign Accent Syndrome is a rare medical condition in which patients develop speech patterns that are perceived as a foreign accent that is different from their native accent, without having acquired it in the perceived accent's place of origin.

It's nice to be able to communicate in more then one language, but what's more important is that you are an effective communicator. So just don't learn a new language for conversation, learn a new language to increase your effectiveness to communicate. Just don't teach a new language, teach effective ways to communicate.

Medium of Instruction is a language used in teaching. It may or may not be the official language of the country or territory. If the first language of students is different from the official language, it may be used as the medium of instruction for part or all of schooling. Bilingual or multilingual education may involve the use of more than one language of instruction. UNESCO considers that "providing education in a child's mother tongue is indeed a critical issue".

Words to a Human are like Code to a Computer. The more you have, the more you can do.

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages. It has traditionally focused largely on the study of the systems of phonemes in particular languages (and therefore used to be also called phonemics, or phonematics), but it may also cover any linguistic analysis either at a level beneath the word (including syllable, onset and rime, articulatory gestures, articulatory features, mora, etc.) or at all levels of language where sound is considered to be structured for conveying linguistic meaning. Phonology also includes the study of equivalent organizational systems in sign languages.

The Power of Words
Dictionaries
Library Finder 
Sign Language
Writing


Translations


Interpreter SymbolTranslation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.

Translation Studies is the systematic study of the theory, description and application of interpretation and translation.

Literal Translation is the rendering of text from one language to another one word at a time.

Interpret is an oral translation of speech or sign from a language into another.

Interpretation is the assignment of meanings to various concepts, symbols, or objects under consideration. An assignment of meaning to the symbols of a formal language. Touch

Language Interpretation is oral translation of speech or sign from a language into another.

Interpreter is a person who converts a thought or expression in a source language into an expression with a comparable meaning in a target language either simultaneously in "real time" or consecutively when the speaker pauses after completing one or two sentences. The Interpreter's objective is to convey every semantic element as well as tone and register and every intention and feeling of the message that the source-language speaker is directing to target-language recipients (except in summary interpretation, used sometimes in conferences).

Interpreter (computing) - Code

When you have Words with more then one Definition, and definitions with more then one word, it's hard sometimes to be understood in the way that you intended. Even people who speak the same language sometimes need a Translation. 

Decipherment is the discovery of the Meaning of texts written in obscure languages, which are almost always ancient.
Codes

So this is not just a Foreign Language problem, this is also a communication problem.  

We should have a Universal Procedure for Translation
  
Translation sometimes needs more then just a single translation. Speak the word, and then the definition that you want to be heard.
First: I say something, then it's translated. (this is for complex translations, this is not for a simple answer translation)
Second:
Then the person receiving the translation needs to confirm that what is being translated is understood.
Third:
Then it may need to be translated back in the words that this particular language uses to explain what is being said.
Forth
: Then you might have to use different words to be translated. And this process continues until a full understanding is accomplished.

Double Translation is when you translate a piece of Latin into English. Then, without the Latin, you would translate their English translation back into Latin. The final translation of Latin was supposed to match the original Latin as closely as possible. Google Translate can't deal with double translation.

Lost in Translation is when some languages don't have the words that describe what the other language is trying to communicate. So understanding from one language to another can be difficult.

Universal Principles in the Repair of Communication Problems

Multimedia Translation also sometimes referred to as Audiovisual translation, is a specialized branch of translation which
deals with the transfer of multimodal and multimedial texts into another language and/or culture. and which implies the use of a multimedia electronic system in the translation or in the transmission process.

Translation Criticism is the systematic study, evaluation, and interpretation of different aspects of translated works. It is an interdisciplinary academic field closely related to literary criticism and translation theory.

Source Text is a text (sometimes oral) from which information or ideas are derived. In translation, a source text is the original text that is to be translated into another language.

Speech Recognition enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers and computerized devices such as those categorized as smart technologies and robotics. It is also known as "automatic speech recognition" (ASR),"computer speech recognition", or just "speech to text" (STT).

Interface Hypothesis in adult second language acquisition is an attempt to explain non-target-like linguistic behavior that persists even among highly advanced speakers. For adult second language learners, acquiring grammatical properties within a given linguistic area, such as phonology, syntax, or semantics, should not be problematic. Interfacing between those modules, such as communicating between the syntax and semantic systems, should likewise be feasible. However, grammatical operations where the speaker is required to interface between an internal component of the grammar, and an external component, such as pragmatics or discourse information, will prove to be very difficult, and will not be acquired completely by the second language learner, even at very advanced levels.

Translation Tools and Apps
Interpreting Services Symbol
Voice Translation App
i Translate App
i Translate Voice
My Phrazer
701 Translator
Languages are available in Skype Translator

Travis - I speak 80 languages, so can you! The personal voice translator that lets you instantly communicate in over 80 languages.

Meet the Pilot: Smart Earpiece Language Translator. A world without language barriers: The Pilot is an earpiece which translates between languages.

CLIK- Wireless Earbuds with Voice Translation

Waverly Labs smart earpiece capable of translating between users speaking a different language.

Word Lens translates printed words from one language to another with your smartphone's video camera, in real time, no network connection needed! Translate instantly by pointing your camera. With the Translate app, you can translate text in images, either in a picture you've taken or imported, or just by pointing your camera. You can translate text you see around you just by pointing your camera lens at it.

Internet calling and chat and has a text-to-text translation service for its messaging App
More Apps  

Language Translation Tools (google)
Google Android Translation App
Google (translate)

Speak and Translate
Live Translation Services
Translations

Write in a language that you’re learning and native speakers will correct your mistakes.

12-Language Talking Translator (amazon)
Universal Translator (wiki)

Artificial Intelligence
Question and Answer Platforms

"Every act of Communication is an act of Translation.” (Gregory Rabassa)

Meanings
Tutoring Websites

"Hearing accurately and understanding correctly doesn't always happens. So listening must be the responsibility of both people.
Listen to your own words and as well as the words spoken by other people."


Communication

Languages
Learning to Speak - Speech
Speaking Effectively - Talking
Communication
Nonverbal Communication
Body Language
Listening
Hearing Accurately when other People Speak
Hearing Difficulties

Is Thinking and Talking to Yourself the same thing?



The Thinker Man