Learning Methods - Thinking Styles - Teaching Methods
There are many different ways a person can learn something. Some learning methods work better then
It's not just knowing the best way to learn something new, but also knowing the best state of
to be in.
The Optimal Learning State
, not starving
and being ready
to learn. (Breathe
) Being in the
is the mental state of operation in which a person
is fully immersed
in a feeling of
, full involvement, and
enjoyment in the process of the
. In essence, Flow
is characterized by complete
what one does. Being in the Zone
on what you are doing, so much so, that you are
of all the distractions
happening around you. How the information is
can also affect learning.
and knowing the
Best times to learn
If you're not in the right mind to learn, or you feel
that something is unnecessary to learn, then learning
becomes ineffective. And if the
to you is
, out of
, that also makes learning
ineffective. The bottom line is, "You can learn anything
you put your mind to
, but not everything that you
put your mind to can be learned. There is always a
something new, and there is always a preferred
of learning something
new. Did you ever wonder why you did not learn something? You know you can
learn because you have a memory, so what happened? Maybe the message was
not delivered effectively
not understood effectively, or a little both?
is your greatest strength, but
your memory can also be your greatest
Learning is not just
about remembering, learning is more about
information and knowledge correctly so
that it is used effectively and efficiently, just
is not enough.
what to Learn and When
Learning is your
Path to Power, but only if you learn which
knowledge, information and skills gives you the power.
You need to define what
is use this ability in
the most effective and most efficient way possible.
You need to
define the knowledge and information that would increase your
understanding of yourself and the world around you.
You need to
what you are
learning, so that you keep moving forward and continue to increase your
potential. Intelligence Testing
have been given a superpower
but just like all powers
, there are inherent
, so please
use your power wisely
Learn to Learn
Self Directed LearningThere are many
tools to help humans to transfer Information and knowledge into the brain
Organizing Knowledge Cognitively
is a system of grouping and
categorizing our brain to use, sort and store information. System changes
and adapts as the amount of knowledge about a particular subject changes
Learning is a skill that you
have to understand if you want learning to be effective.
is the act
of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing
behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
is intended to mean that the activity is difficult to learn for some
people. A learning curve with a steep start actually represents rapid
Computer Supported Collaborative Learning
takes place via
social interaction using a computer
through the Internet
is an educational method which
uses computers as interactive teaching devices, and to orchestrate the
allocation of human and mediated resources according to the unique needs
of each learner.
is a pedagogical approach that incorporates
and urban computing into course design and delivery.
Interactive Learning has evolved out of the hyper-growth in the use of
and virtual communication, particularly by students.
is a student-centered
teaching method that uses online learning resources to
outside the constraints of time and place among a
network of people.
Inquiry Based Learning
starts by posing
questions, problems or scenarios—rather than simply presenting established
facts or portraying a smooth path to knowledge.
Virtual Learning Environment
is a Web-based platform
for the digital aspects of courses of study,
usually within educational institutions. VLEs typically: allow
participants to be organized into cohorts, groups and roles; present
resources, activities and interactions within a course structure; provide
for the different stages of assessment; report on participation; and have
some level of integration with other institutional systems. For those who
edit them VLEs may have a de facto role as authoring and design
environments. VLEs have been adopted by almost all higher education
institutions in the anglosphere
Digital Teaching Platform
is the study and ethical practice of
facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and
managing appropriate technological processes and resources.
is to tailor education to
meet the different needs of students.
aims to develop
learner autonomy and independence by putting responsibility for the
learning path in the hands of students.
High Performing Students - Gifted
refers to learning that
is guided by metacognition (thinking about one's thinking), strategic
action (planning, monitoring, and evaluating personal progress against a
standard), and motivation to learn. "Self-regulated" describes a process
of taking control of and evaluating one's own learning and behavior.
is a formal education program in which a student learns at least in part
through delivery of content and instruction via digital and online media
with some element of student control over time, place, path, or pace.
is a learning
process designed to promote a deeper level of learning. Scaffolding is the
support given during the learning process which is tailored to the needs
of the student with the intention of helping the student achieve his/her
is a software environment to help
promote students' understanding of metacognitive skills and to reinforce
river ecosystem knowledge as part of a science curriculum. It is a
qualitative constraint system, using node-link diagrams to represent
models for teaching complex scientific and engineering domains in high
school. The system specifically focuses on reinforcing so called
self-regulatory skills that promote both self monitoring and self
assessment as one might expect of an independent learner.
is a teaching method that
strives to more directly involve students in the learning process.
is an approach to education
that draws on positive psychology's emphasis of individual strengths and
personal motivation to promote learning. Unlike traditional school
approaches in which teachers attempt to tailor their material to a
mythical "average" student, and move the class altogether using the
material through one teaching and testing style, positive schooling
teachers use techniques that focus on the well-being of individual
students. Teachers use methods such as developing tailored goals for each
student to engender learning and working with them to develop the plans
and motivation to reach their goals. Rather than pushing students to
achieve at a set grade level, seen through the emphasis of standardized
testing, this approach attempts to customize learning goals to individual
students' levels. Instead of setting students to compete against one
another, learning is viewed as a cooperative process where teachers learn
to respect their students and each student's input is valued.
that involves providing different students with different avenues to
learning (often in the same classroom) in terms of: acquiring content;
processing, constructing, or making sense of ideas; and developing
teaching materials and assessment measures so that all students within a
classroom can learn effectively, regardless of differences in ability.
Students vary in culture, socioeconomic status, language, gender,
motivation, ability/disability, personal interests and more, and teachers
must be aware of these varieties as they plan curriculum. By considering
varied learning needs, teachers can develop personalized instruction so
that all children in the classroom can learn effectively. Differentiated
classrooms have also been described as ones that respond to student
variety in readiness levels, interests and learning profiles. It is a
classroom that includes all students and can be successful. To do this, a
teacher sets different expectations for task completion for students based
upon their individual needs.
Response to intervention
is an approach to
academic and behavioral intervention used in the United States to provide
early, systematic, and appropriately intensive assistance to children who
are at risk for or already underperforming as compared to appropriate
grade- or age-level standards. RTI seeks to prevent academic and
behavioral failure through universal screening, early intervention,
frequent progress monitoring, and increasingly intensive research-based
instruction or interventions for children who continue to have difficulty.
RTI is a multileveled approach for aiding students that is adjusted and
modified as needed.
Response to intervention
Self Directed Learning
is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together.
Collaborative Information Seeking
is a field of
research that involves studying situations, motivations, and methods for
people working in collaborative groups for information seeking projects,
as well as building systems for supporting such activities. Such projects
often involve information searching or information retrieval (IR),
information gathering, and information sharing. Beyond that, CIS can
extend to collaborative information synthesis and collaborative
Collaborative Problem Solving
- Crowd Learning
Social Learning Theory
is a cognitive process
that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through
observation or direct instruction, even in the absence of motor
reproduction or direct reinforcement.
is a process of developing
and maintaining connections with people and information, and communicating
in such a way so as to support one another's learning. The central term in
this definition is connections. It takes a relational stance in which
learning takes place both in relation to others and in relation to
is an educational practice in which students interact
with other students to attain educational goals." In this context, it can
be compared to the practices that go by the name cooperative learning.
Peers can inspire more people to learn than teachers do.
is a form of mentorship that usually takes place
between a person who has lived through a specific experience (peer mentor)
and a person who is new to that experience (the peer mentee).
where feedback is given by one student to another to provide students more
opportunities to learn from each other. Two or more students work together
to check each other's work and give comments to the peer partner. Comments
from peers are called as peer feedback. Peer feedback can be in the form
of corrections, opinions, suggestions, ideas to each other. Thus, peer
feedback is a two-way process in which one cooperates with the other.
is an instructional activity that takes the form
of a dialogue between
teachers and students
regarding segments of text for
the purpose of constructing the meaning of text. Reciprocal teaching is a
reading technique which is thought to promote students' reading
comprehension. A reciprocal approach provides students with four specific
reading strategies that are actively and consciously used to support
comprehension: Questioning, Clarifying, Summarizing, and Predicting. Palincsar (1986) believes the purpose of reciprocal teaching is to
facilitate a group effort between teacher and students as well as among
students in the task of bringing meaning to the text. Reciprocal teaching
is best represented as a dialogue between teachers
and students in
which participants take turns assuming the role of teacher. Reciprocal
teaching is most effective in the context of small-group collaborative
investigation, which is maintained by the teacher or reading tutor.
is a process whereby students or their peers
or tests based
on a teacher’s benchmarks
. The practice
is employed to save teachers time and improve students' understanding of
course materials as well as improve their metacognitive skills.
are often used in
conjunction with Self- and Peer-Assessment.
Community Learning Methods
is an educational approach that
combines learning objectives with community service in order to provide a
pragmatic, progressive learning experience while meeting societal needs.
Study - Social Studying
- Example Choice
Dual Education System
in a company and vocational education at a vocational school in one
is a structured method of
combining classroom-based education with practical work experience. A
cooperative education experience, commonly known as a "co-op", provides
academic credit for structured job experience.
is an educational approach
which aims to organize classroom activities into academic and social
is the relationship
between learning and the social situation in which it occurs.
planning curriculum that
focuses on being responsive to children's interests to create meaningful
learning experiences. It can be practiced at any grade level.
occurs only when students
process new information or knowledge in such a way that it makes sense to
them in their own frames of reference (their own inner worlds of memory,
experience, and response). The mind naturally seeks meaning in context by
searching for relationships that make sense and appear useful.
Simultaneous Subject Teaching
On the Job Training
Passion Based Learning
Standards-based education stifles engagement and
in students. We
must switch from a control narrative in the classroom to a passion
narrative. Passion-based learning is about finding a “hero,” learning what
makes him/her successful, and acquiring the practices and the norms of
established practitioners in that field. The Schoolwide Enrichment Model
identifies student strengths, nurtures skills, and creates authentic
opportunities for students to utilize these skills not just as students,
but as practicing professionals providing experiences and opportunities to
work and learn with others in the fields in which they are interested.
is the process of
learning through experience, and is more specifically defined as "learning
through reflection on doing".
People don't always experience the same thing in the same way
is knowledge gained
through experience, as opposed to a priori (before experience) knowledge:
it can also be contrasted both with propositional (textbook) knowledge,
and with practical knowledge.
describes the process that occurs between a teacher and student that
infuses direct experience with the learning environment and content.
Experience Curve Effects
relationship between equations for experience and efficiency or between
efficiency gains and investment in the effort.
is the knowledge or
event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.
is a unit of measurement used in many tabletop
and role-playing video games to quantify a player character's progression
through the game. Experience points are generally awarded for the
completion of quests, overcoming obstacles and opponents, and for
referred to as learning by
experience or just as experience.
is walking while you learn.
employing students and school staff in
solving community problems
community as one of the primary resources for learning.
Learning Outside the Classroom
is an on-demand learning technique where the environment adapts to the
learner. By providing remediation on-demand, learners can gain greater
understanding of a topic while stimulating discovery and learning.
Total Physical Response
is a language
teaching method based on the coordination of language and physical
movement. In TPR, instructors give commands to students in the target
language, and students respond with whole-body actions.
is a student-centered pedagogy in which
students learn about a subject through the experience of solving an
open-ended problem. Students learn both thinking strategies and domain
Project Based Learning
is a student-centered pedagogy that involves a dynamic classroom approach
in which students acquire a deeper knowledge through active exploration of
real-world challenges and problems. Students learn about a subject by
working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to a
complex question, challenge, or problem. It is a style of active learning
and inquiry-based learning. PBL contrasts with paper-based, rote
memorization, or teacher-led instruction that simply presents established
facts or portrays a smooth path to knowledge by instead posing questions,
problems or scenarios.
bases each part of an
educational system around goals (outcomes). By the end of the educational
experience, each student should have achieved the goal. There is no single
specified style of teaching or assessment in OBE; instead, classes,
opportunities, and assessments should all help students achieve the
specified outcomes. The role of the faculty adapts into instructor,
trainer, facilitator, and/or mentor based on the outcomes targeted.
Outcomes Driven Model.
is learning to earn or
maintain professional credentials such as academic degrees to formal
coursework, conferences and informal learning opportunities situated in
Vicarious Observational Learning
that occurs through observing the behavior of others
which needs to be selective in order to be accurate.
You need to be Careful what you Learn.
an instructional strategy and a type of blended learning that reverses the
traditional learning environment by delivering instructional content,
often online, outside of the classroom. It moves activities, including
those that may have traditionally been considered homework, into the
classroom. In a flipped classroom, students watch online lectures,
collaborate in online discussions, or carry out research at home and
engage in concepts in the classroom with the guidance of a mentor.
is the idea of having students consume learning content (i.e. ‘the
lecture’) outside of the classroom, usually as homework, thereby freeing
up valuable face-to-face classroom time to reinforce materials and work on
assigned work (work that may have been homework in the traditional
classroom). This approach is also referred to as “flipping the classroom”.
Learning by Teaching
allows pupils and students to prepare and to teach
lessons, or parts of lessons. Choosing their own methods and didactic
approaches in teaching classmates that subject.
Show and Tell
is a common expression about
showing an audience something and telling them about it. It is used to
teach young children the skills of
Social Emotional Learning
Language and Thought
is the relationship between
cognitive functions and physical movement. Psychomotor learning is
demonstrated by physical skills such as movement, coordination,
manipulation, dexterity, grace, strength, speed; actions which demonstrate
the fine motor skills such as use of precision instruments or tools.
Movement in Learning
is a teaching method based on the concept that humans learn better through
is the act of rehearsing a
behavior over and over, or engaging in an activity again and again, for
the purpose of improving or mastering it, as in the phrase "practice makes
perfect". Sports teams practice to prepare for actual games.
Power Law of Practice
states that the logarithm
of the reaction time for a particular task decreases linearly with the
logarithm of the number of practice trials taken. It is an example of the
learning curve effect on performance.
is a form of practicing, to ensure that all details of the subsequent
performance are adequately prepared and coordinated.
is a form of learning in which an
organism decreases or ceases to respond to a
presentations. Essentially, the organism learns to stop responding to a
stimulus which is no longer biologically relevant.
is a learning technique that
incorporates increasing intervals of time between subsequent review of
previously learned material in order to exploit the psychological spacing
Learn without Memorizing
is a memorization technique based
on repetition. The idea is that one will be able to quickly recall the
meaning of the material the more one repeats it. Better alternatives
to just rote learning include meaningful learning
is a set of cards bearing information,
as words or numbers, on either or both sides, used in classroom drills or
in private study. One writes a question on a card and an answer overleaf.
Flashcards can bear vocabulary, historical dates, formulas or any subject
matter that can be learned via a question-and-answer format. Flashcards
are widely used as a learning drill to aid memorization by way of spaced
refers to information that is
expressed more than once.
usually refers to organized
learning that takes place in
act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources.
Learning from Mistakes
Experience Sampling Method
is when a person
stops at certain times and make notes of their experience in real time.
The point is for them to record temporal things like feelings while in the
moment (right then, not later; right there, not elsewhere)
differs from standard
supervised learning in that correct input/output pairs are never
presented, nor sub-optimal actions explicitly corrected. Further, there is
a focus on on-line performance, which involves finding a balance between
exploration (of uncharted territory) and exploitation (of current
Applied Behavior Analysis
is analyzing the
principles of learning theory and systematically applying this technology
to change behavior of social significance.
refers to a range of
differences in individuals' learning abilities.
An Explanation of Learning Styles
7 Styles of Learning
is a model-free Reinforcement Learning
. It works by learning an action-value function that
ultimately gives the expected utility of taking a given action in a given
state and following the optimal policy thereafter.
models for representing
purported structural and/or functional relationships between data,
information, knowledge, and wisdom. "Typically information is defined in
terms of data, knowledge in terms of information, and wisdom in terms of
is the study and ethical practice of
facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and
managing appropriate technological processes and resources.
vs. Classroom Learning
Personal Learning Network
is an informal
learning network that consists of the people a learner interacts with and
derives knowledge from in a personal learning environment. In a PLN, a
person makes a connection with another person with the specific intent
that some type of learning will occur because of that connection.
is a process of developing
and maintaining connections with people and information, and communicating
in such a way so as to support one another's learning. The central term in
this definition is connections. It takes a relational stance in which
learning takes place both in relation to others and in relation to
are the mental categories that
help us classify objects, events, or ideas, building on the understanding
that each object, event, or idea has a set of common relevant features.
Thus, concept learning is a strategy which requires a learner to compare
and contrast groups or categories that contain concept-relevant features
with groups or categories that do not contain concept-relevant features.
is when each person finds
identity, meaning, and purpose in life through connections to the
community, to the natural world, and to humanitarian values such as
compassion and peace. Holistic education aims to call forth from people an
intrinsic reverence for life and a passionate love of learning
seeks to know, understand and
prescribe educational policy
Philosophy of Education
examines the definition,
can refer either to the
application of philosophy
the problem of education, examining the definition, goals and meaning of
education, or to any particular vision of or approach to education.
is the branch of
psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The
study of learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioral
perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in
intelligence, cognitive development, affect, motivation, self-regulation,
and self-concept, as well as their role in learning. The field of
educational psychology relies heavily on quantitative methods, including
testing and measurement, to enhance educational activities related to
instructional design, classroom management, assessment, which serve to
facilitate learning processes in various educational settings across the
further scientific understanding of learning as well as to engage in the
design and implementation of learning innovations, and the improvement of
instructional methodologies. Research in the learning science
traditionally focuses on cognitive-psychological, social-psychological,
and cultural-psychological foundations of human learning, as well as on
the design of learning environments.
is a teaching method that
follows a consistent scientific approach or educational style to engage
the student's mind.
are instructional design
principles and how they relate to teaching and
Science of Learning
Science of Learning
Learning Theory Education
frameworks describing how information is absorbed, processed, and retained
during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as
well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world
view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained.
Scientific Methods for Learning
is a set of three hierarchical models used to classify educational
learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity. The three
lists cover the learning objectives in cognitive, affective and sensory
studies the nature of
rationality of belief, and justification.
is an emerging
scientific field that brings together researchers in cognitive
neuroscience, developmental cognitive neuroscience, educational
psychology, educational technology, education theory and other related
disciplines to explore the interactions between biological processes and
education. Researchers in educational neuroscience investigate the neural
mechanisms of reading, numerical cognition, attention and their attendant
difficulties including dyslexia, dyscalculia and ADHD as they relate to
education. Researchers in this area may link basic findings in cognitive
neuroscience with educational technology to help in curriculum
implementation for mathematics education and reading education. The aim of
educational neuroscience is to generate basic and applied research that
will provide a new transdisciplinary account of learning and teaching,
which is capable of informing education. A major goal of educational
neuroscience is to bridge the gap between the two fields through a direct
dialogue between researchers and educators, avoiding the "middlemen of the
brain-based learning industry". These middlemen have a vested commercial
interest in the selling of "neuromyths" and their supposed remedies.
is a precise and systematic
method of evaluating instructional tactics and curricula.
Education Reform Teaching
How to Study Tips
Unlearning - Relearning
is a style in which a learner
utilizes graphs, charts, maps and diagrams.
is the phenomenon of thinking
through visual processing. Described as seeing words as a series of
sequence of steps that information takes as it flows from visual sensors
to cognitive processing.
is the process of learning
improved skills of perception. These improvements range from simple
sensory discriminations (e.g., distinguishing two musical tones from one
another) to complex categorizations of spatial and temporal patterns
relevant to real-world expertise (e.g., reading, seeing relations among
chess pieces, knowing whether or not an X-ray image shows a tumor).
Sensory modalities may include visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, and
taste. Perceptual learning forms important foundations of complex
cognitive processes (i.e., language) and interacts with other kinds of
learning to produce perceptual expertise. Underlying perceptual learning
are changes in the neural circuitry. The ability for perceptual learning
is retained throughout life.
is a learning style in which a
person learns through listening. An auditory learner depends on hearing
and speaking as a main way of learning. Auditory learners must be able to
hear what is being said in order to understand and may have difficulty
with instructions that are drawn but if the writing is in a logical order
it can be easier to understand . They also use their listening and
repeating skills to sort through the information that is sent to them.
Whole Body Learning
is learning material in a
kind of textbook or teaching machine or computer. The medium presents the
material in a logical and tested sequence. The text is in small steps or
larger chunks. After each step, learners are given a question to test
their comprehension. Then immediately the correct answer is shown. This
means the learner at all stages makes responses, and is given immediate
knowledge of results.
where practice is broken up
into a number of short sessions - over a longer period of time.
refers to the use of a training
schedule that includes frequent changes of task so that the performer is
constantly confronting novel representations of the to-be-learned
is an attempt to convey
information to a sleeping person, typically by playing a sound recording
to them while they sleep. Research on this has been inconclusive. Some
early studies tended to discredit the technique's effectiveness, while
others have found that the brain indeed reacts to stimuli and processes
them while we are asleep.
refers to the field in
psychology and education that is devoted to testing, measurement,
assessment, and related activities. One part of the field is concerned
with the objective measurement of skills and knowledge, abilities,
attitudes, personality traits, and educational achievement.
is when the stimulation of one
pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or
is "a collection of content
items, practice items, and assessment items that are combined based on a
single learning objective.
Theory of Mind
is the ability to attribute
mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc.—to
oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires,
intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.
Theory of Mind
is the ability to reflect on
an action so as to engage in a process of continuous learning. According
to one definition it involves "paying critical attention to the practical
values and theories which inform everyday actions, by examining practice
reflectively and reflexively. This leads to developmental insight". A key
rationale for reflective practice is that experience alone does not
necessarily lead to learning; deliberate reflection on experience is
Hybrid Education Models
Innovative Learning Designs
is a philosophical
viewpoint about the nature of knowledge. Specifically, it represents an
also known as imperative
knowledge, is the knowledge exercised in the performance of some task. See
below for the specific meaning of this term in cognitive psychology and
intellectual property law.Lateral Thinking
Learning Management System
encompassing many different
pedagogical approaches differing from that of the mainstream pedagogy
employed in a culture. Such alternative learning environments may be found
within state, charter, and independent schools as well as home-based
learning environments. Many, but not all educational alternatives
emphasize small class sizes, close relationships between students and
teachers and a sense of community.
curricula and examinations to high school students.
offers four educational
programmes for children aged 3–19. The learner profile concisely describes
the aspirations of a global community that shares the values underlying
the IB’s educational philosophy. The IB learner profile describes the
attributes and outcomes of education for international-mindedness.
Teach Learning Styles
Whole Brain Teaching
A Robot Which Children Can Teach to Write - The
Computer-Human Interaction in Learning and
Games and Toys for
Brain Based Learning
is the learning of
complex information in an incidental manner, without awareness of what has
Constructivist Teaching Methods
is based on
constructivist learning theory. Constructivist teaching is based on the
belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process
of meaning and knowledge construction as opposed to passively receiving
information. Learners are the makers of meaning and knowledge.
is the process of
reducing a text document with a computer program in order to create a
summary that retains the most important points of the original document.
is sensory stimuli below an
individual's threshold for conscious perception. A recent review of
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies shows that subliminal
stimuli activate specific regions of the brain despite participants being
unaware. Visual stimuli may be quickly flashed before an individual can
process them, or flashed and then masked, thereby interrupting the
processing. Audio stimuli may be played below audible volumes or masked by
Purposes of Learning
Music as a Teaching Tool
Teaching and Learning are the same subject
. You can't teach
unless you learn and you can't learn unless you teach, even
if you are teaching yourself. Teaching and learning are part
of the same process that's needed to transfer information.
And you need to be conscious of the process of transferring
information, you need to ask
these 5 questions, What am I learning? (define the
information?) Why am I learning this? (the importance and
value of this information?) Where am I learning this?
(options and choices?) When am I learning this? (options and
choices?) How am I learning this? (options and choices?)
These Retention Rates are not
Normal, you can remember a 100% of what you have read, hear and see, you just
have to learn how. You don't want to limit the ways that you can learn
teachers had always depended on jugyokenkyu, which translates
literally as “Lesson
,” a set of practices that Japanese teachers use to
hone their craft. A teacher first plans lessons, then teaches in
front of an audience of students and other teachers along with
at least one university observer. Then the observers talk with
the teacher about what has just taken place. Each public lesson
poses a hypothesis, a new idea about how to help children learn.
And each discussion offers a chance to determine whether it
worked. Without jugyokenkyu, it was no wonder the American
teachers’ work fell short of the model set by their best
thinkers. Without jugyokenyku, Takahashi never would have
learned to teach at all. Neither, certainly, would the rest of
The goal is to create personalized programs of instruction and
custom lesson plans that are based on the students skill level
and learning style.
tend to perform better on memory tasks,
particularly involving color, abstract patterns or words and
this can also be transferred to creative disciplines such as
Hattie Ranking Influences Effect Sizes Achievement Rangliste
An overview of the Hattie effect size list that contains 138
influences and effect sizes across all areas related to student
"Anyone who can learn can eventually become
a teacher, but not every teacher will continue to learn, Why?"
"It's easier to educate a child correctly the first time than it
"It's easier to build strong
children than to repair broken men."
Do it Right the First Time
...it's a lot easier, it's more effective,
and it also saves a lot of time,
no need to repair.
"You can lead a horse to water, but
you can't make it drink. You can present someone with an opportunity, but
you cannot force him or her to take advantage of it. You can’t teach
someone who doesn’t want to learn or grow personally."
why most people don't want to learn is because most people don't fully
understand what learning is, and also, they have never learned anything
valuable, like understanding the power that some knowledge gives you,
power that you can carry with you your entire life. Please don't stop
learning, it's the most important ability that you have, don't waste it.
Helping Adults Learn
Teaching Adults is Challenging
is the theory and practice of
education of adults.
and ImpedimentsSocial Learning
"Some things are easy to learn, and some
things are hard to learn, but they are never impossible to
"There is always
incentives and rewards
when it comes to
learning, but only if you are aware of them."
They say that
Adults cannot be made to learn. But that is exactly what they do
to children in schools, and you wonder why adults don't want to learn.
They also say that Adults will only learn when they
are internally motivated
so, which is false. Motivation is not needed to learn. And
need to be accurately measured and calculated so they fully explain the
inputs and outputs as well as the
cause and effects
at each step. Money is not a reason
, things need
to be fully explained. Remember, we are "Learning".
Four Basic Requirements for Learning
, a person needs clearly understood reasons why the knowledge is
necessary and valuable. Second
, people need the time to acquire new
knowledge and information. Third
, people need easy access to valuable
knowledge and information. Forth
, people need a way to accurately measure
their performance and have the necessary tools to test themselves.
people need to see that all their time and effort pays off, and that their
lives will continually improve. This way other people will also be
encouraged to take part in this learning journey. (Perquisites
that can help:
Understands learning. Knows several learning techniques. Knows how to
accurately identify valuable knowledge and information. Knows how to
manage Life and Time. Has read BK101.)Capacity
is the power to learn or retain knowledge; in law
the ability to understand the facts and significance of your
Capability to perform
. The maximum production
possible. The amount that can be contained.
(computer science) the amount of information (in bytes) that can
be stored on a disk drive, or in this case,
The Human Brain
Adults will only learn what they feel they need to learn. But
it's a bad idea to rely on your feelings when it comes to learning.
End of History illusion
is a psychological illusion in which
individuals of all ages believe that they have experienced significant
personal growth and changes in tastes up to the present moment, but will
not substantially grow or mature in the future. Despite recognizing that
their perceptions have evolved, individuals predict that their perceptions
will remain roughly the same in the future. The illusion is based on the
fact that at any given developmental stage, an individual can observe a
relatively low level of maturity in previous stages. The phenomenon
affects teenagers, middle-aged individuals, and seniors. In general,
people tend to see significant changes in hindsight, but fail to predict
that these changes will continue. For example, a 20-year-old's impression
of how great a change they will undergo in the next ten years will not be
as extreme as a 30-year-old's recollection of the changes they underwent
between the ages of 20 and 30. The same phenomenon is true for people of
any age. The reason for the illusion has not been studied, although
researchers speculate that a resistance or fear of change may be causal.
Adults learn by doing. Active participation
important to adult learners in comparison to children. But we
should be teaching children the same way since we all ready know this.
Adult learning is problem-based and these problems must be
realistic. Adult learners like finding solutions to problems.
Adult learning is affected by the experience each adult brings.
Adults learn best informally. Adults learn what they feel they
need to know whereas children learn from a curriculum, which is stupid,
children should have the right to learn what they need to know and want to
know, within reason of course.
Children want guidance. Adults want information that will help
them improve their situation or that of their children. Now
you're getting it. You're still a child.
People don't seek knowledge and skills they don't use, or rarely
use. If you rarely use a particular knowledge and or
skill, then people will have no incentive to learn something
new. But if you guaranteed a job to that person, and fully
explain the estimated income and the benefits from that job,
then people will have the incentive to learn new knowledge and
the incentive to learn new skills.
Pay people to go to school and give them on the Job Training
just like the Military does. Except this war is a
What knowledge and skills do you use everyday? Can you read? Can
you operate a telephone? Can you operate a computer? Can you
write? Can you communicate? What increased benefits would you
get if you improved these skills?
is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an
individual or society encompassing the entirety of the
individual or society's knowledge and point of view. A world
view can include natural philosophy; fundamental, existential,
and normative postulates; or themes, values, emotions, and
Your world view depends on how much relevant knowledge and
information that you have and understand, knowledge that is accurate and
up to date. You are what you know, and if what you know is distorted and
incomplete, then your world view will become distorted and incomplete. And
the only way to overcome this
is to continually
educate yourself so that the knowledge and information you
acquire gives you a more accurate and complete understanding of
yourself and the world around you, which is one of the main
goals of BK101.To many people
make the mistake in believing that they know the answers to certain
, which usually stops a person from learning more, thus
people will never have any conformation or proof that their answers are
accurate, which is dangerous because it leaves a person vulnerable to
mistakes and also vulnerable to being
. Don't Stop
Characteristics of Adult Learners
Adult learners have characteristics that set them apart from
'traditional' school or college learners. All adults come to
courses with a variety and range of experiences, both in terms
of their working life and educational backgrounds. This impacts
on how and why they participate in learning. While each student
has individual learning needs, there are some characteristics
that are common to adult learners:
Adults have accumulated life experiences. Adults come to courses
with experiences and knowledge in diverse areas. They tend to
favor practical learning activities that enable them to draw on
their prior skills and knowledge. Adults are realistic and have
insights about what is likely to work and what is not. They are
readily able to relate new facts to past experiences and enjoy
having their talents and knowledge explored in a teaching
Adults have established
been built up over time and arrived at following experience of
families, relationships, work, community, politics, etc. These
views cannot be dismissed and must be respected.
is theory regarding human memory.
occurs in learning when there is an interaction between the
new material and transfer effects of past learned behavior, memories or
thoughts that have a negative influence
comprehending the new material. Bringing to memory old knowledge has the
effect of impairing both the speed of learning and memory performance.
There are two main kinds of interference:
is when past memories inhibit an individual’s
full potential to retain new memories. And
occurs when newly learned information
interferes with and impedes the recall of previously learned information.
This is because most people never learned what
, so most people don't have the knowledge or skills to
learn things, so they will never continue to learn, and gradually become
more and more intelligent each day. This is why schools fail. They don't
teach students what learning is, or do they teach what valuable knowledge
You learn how to swim so that you don't have to worry about
drowning. You learn how to ride a bike so that you have the freedom to
travel anytime that you want. You learn how learn so that you can
understand more about yourself and the world around you, so you never have
to worry about your ignorance keeping you from having a life that you
choose, or stopping you from pursuing your dreams.
are intrinsically motivated. But just being born with motivation will not
help you until you learn things that are valuable and important. When
you're hungry you are motivated to eat, but it f you eat unhealthy food,
then you will suffer and die early.
Learners increase their
effort when motivated
by a need, an interest, or a desire to
learn. They are also motivated by the relevance of the material
to be addressed and learn better when material is related to
their own needs and interests. For learners to be fully engaged
in learning their attention must be fully focused on the
Individual differences. Adults learn at various rates and in
different ways according to their intellectual ability,
educational level, personality and cognitive learning styles.
Teaching strategies must anticipate and accommodate differing
comprehension rates of learners.
Adults learn best in a democratic, participatory and
collaborative environment . Adults need to be actively involved
in determining how and what they will learn, and they need
active, not passive, learning experiences.
Adult students are mature people and prefer to be treated as
such. Being 'lectured at' causes resentment and frustration.
Adults are goal oriented / relevancy oriented. Adults need to
know why they are learning something. Adults have needs that are
concrete and immediate. They can be impatient with long
discussions on theory and like to see theory applied to
practical problems. They are task or
subject-centred. Adults tend to be more interested in theory
when it is linked to practical application.
Adults are autonomous and
. They are self-reliant
learners and prefer to work at their own pace. Individuals learn
best when they are ready to learn and when they have identified
their own learning needs. Where a student is directed by someone
else to attend a course, e.g. by an employer, then that
individual may not be ready to learn or may not see the value in
participating on that course. This can lead to a mismatch of
goals between all parties - student, employer and trainer.
Adults are practical and problem-solvers. Adults are more
impatient in the pursuit of learning objectives. They are less
tolerant of work that does not have immediate and direct
application to their objectives. Problem based learning
exercises are welcomed as they build on prior experience and
provide opportunity for practical application of
Adults are sometimes tired when they attend classes. Many
students are juggling classes with work, family, etc. They,
therefore, appreciate varied teaching methods that add interest
and a sense of liveliness to the class.
Adults may have logistical considerations, including:
Family and caring responsibilities including childcare and/or
Social commitments, Time
Transportation, Lack of knowledge and skills.
. Adults frequently worry about being the oldest
person in a class and are concerned about the impact this may
have on their ability to participate with younger students.
Creating an environment where all participants feel they have a
valuable contribution can work to allay such concerns.
Adults may have insufficient
. Students come to class
with varying levels of confidence. Some may have had poor prior
experiences of education leading to feelings of inadequacy and
fear of study and failure. This can manifest itself in many
ways, as indicated in the next section.
Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning
The following list presents the basic principles that
underlie effective learning. These principles are distilled from research
from a variety of disciplines.
Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning
Students’ prior knowledge can help or hinder learning
Students come into courses with knowledge, beliefs, and
attitudes gained in other courses and through daily life. As students
bring this knowledge to bear in our classrooms, it influences how they
filter and interpret what they are learning. If students’ prior knowledge
is robust and accurate and activated at the appropriate time, it provides
a strong foundation for building new knowledge. However, when knowledge is
inert, insufficient for the task, activated inappropriately, or
inaccurate, it can interfere with or impede new learning.
How students organize knowledge influences how they learn and
apply what they
Students naturally make connections between pieces of knowledge.
that are accurately and
organized, students are better able to retrieve and apply their
effectively and efficiently. In contrast, when knowledge is
inaccurate or random ways, students can fail to retrieve or
Students’ motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they
do to learn.
As students enter college and gain greater autonomy over what,
when, and how
they study and learn,
plays a critical role in
guiding the direction,
intensity, persistence, and quality of the learning behaviors in
engage. When students find positive value in a learning goal or
to successfully achieve a desired learning outcome, and perceive
their environment, they are likely to be strongly motivated to
To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills,
them, and know when to apply what they have learned.
Students must develop not only the component skills and
knowledge necessary to
perform complex tasks, they must also practice combining and
integrating them to
develop greater fluency and automaticity. Finally, students must
learn when and
how to apply the skills and knowledge they learn. As
instructors, it is
important that we develop conscious awareness of these elements
of mastery so as
to help our students learn more effectively.
Goal-directed practice coupled with targeted feedback enhances
the quality of
Learning and performance are best fostered when students engage
in practice that
focuses on a specific goal or criterion, targets an appropriate
challenge, and is of sufficient quantity and frequency to meet
criteria. Practice must be coupled with feedback that explicitly
about some aspect(s) of students’ performance relative to
criteria, provides information to help students progress in
criteria, and is given at a time and frequency that allows it to
Students’ current level of development interacts with the
social, emotional, and
intellectual climate of the course to impact learning.
Students are not only intellectual but also social and emotional
they are still developing the full range of intellectual,
social, and emotional
skills. While we cannot control the developmental process, we
can shape the
intellectual, social, emotional, and physical aspects of
classroom climate in
developmentally appropriate ways. In fact, many studies have
shown that the
climate we create has implications for our students. A negative
impede learning and performance, but a positive climate can
To become self-directed learners, students must learn to monitor
their approaches to learning.
Learners may engage in a variety of metacognitive processes to
control their learning—assessing the task at hand, evaluating
strengths and weaknesses, planning their approach, applying and
various strategies, and reflecting on the degree to which their
is working. Unfortunately, students tend not to engage in these
naturally. When students develop the skills to engage these
processes, they gain
intellectual habits that not only improve their performance but
effectiveness as learners.
Anderson, J. R., Conrad, F. G., Corbett, A. T. (1989).
the LISP tutor. Cognitive Science, 13(4), 467-505.
Bandura, A. (1989). Self-regulation of motivation and action
internal standards and goal systems. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Goal
personality and social psychology (pp. 19-85). Hillsdale, NJ:
Carver, C.S. & Scheier, M.F. (1998). On the self-regulation of
New York: Cambridge University Press.
Clement, J.J. (1982). Students’ preconceptions in introductory
American Journal of Physics, 50, 66-71.
DiSessa, A. (1982). Unlearning Aristotelian physics: A study of
knowledge-based learning. Cognitive Science, 6, 37-75.
Dweck, C.S. (2002). Beliefs that make smart people dumb. In R.J.
(Ed.), Why smart people can be so stupid (pp. 24-41). New Haven,
Ford, M.E. (1992). Motivating humans: Goals, emotions and
beliefs. Newbury Park, CA:
Sage Publications, Inc.
Healy, A. F., & Sinclair, G. P. (1996). The long-term retention
and instruction (pp. 525-564).
n E. L. Bjork, & R. A. Bjork
(Eds.) Memory. San
Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Hidi, S. & Renninger K.A. (2004). Interest, a motivational
combines affective and cognitive functioning.
In D. Y. Dai & R.
(Eds.), Motivation, emotion, and cognition: Integrative
intellectual functioning and development
(pp. 89-115). Mahwah,
Holyoak, K. J. (1984). Analogical thinking and human
intelligence. In R.
J. Sternberg (Ed.), Advances in the Psychology of Human
Intelligence, Vol. 2
(pp. 199-230). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kuh, G.D., Kinzie, J., Schuh, J.H., Whitt, E.J. & Associates.
Student Success in College: Creating Conditions That Matter. San
Matlin, M. W. (1989). Cognition. NY, NY: Harcourt, Brace,
National Research Council (2001). Knowing What Students Know:
and Design of Educational Assessment. Washington, DC: National
National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind,
and School. Washington, DC:
National Academy Press.
Nelson, T. A. (1992). Metacognition. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Pascarella, E.T. & Terenzini, P. (2005). How College Affects
Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Schommer, M. (1994). An emerging conceptualization of
beliefs and their role in learning. In R. Barner & P. Alexander
about text and instruction with text
(pp. 25-40). Hillsdale, NJ:
Singley, M. K., & Anderson, J. R. (1989). The Transfer of
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Steele, C.M. & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the
test performance of African Americans.
Journal of Personality
Psychology, 69 (5), 797-811.
Walton, G. M., & Cohen, G. L. (2007). A question of belonging:
fit, and achievement.
Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 92 (1),
Wiggins, G. (1998). Educative Assessment: Designing Assessments
and Improve Student Performance, Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.
Linear learners learn most
thoroughly and efficiently, when material is presented to them
in a logical, ordered progression
. They will often attack
problem solving with a series of ordered steps. They often will
understand in part before understanding the whole. They prefer
to start off with the simplest concept or part of a problem, and
work through to the more difficult parts until the whole
solution is found. Many teachers and instructors follow a linear
If your instructor moves from one topic to another,
make sure you rewrite your notes, and fill in the gaps in your
notes. This may require borrowing another student's notes, or
actually visiting the professor outside of the classroom. If the
instructor skips around and does not follow a logical or
chronological progression, you may want to rewrite the subject
matter according to a logical progression that makes sense to
you. Always outline the subject matter.
Linear vs. Non-linear Learning
refers to finding the linear approximation to a function at a given point.
In the study of dynamical systems, linearization is a method for assessing
the local stability of an equilibrium point of a system of nonlinear
differential equations or discrete dynamical systems.
Right Brain Parallel - Left Brain Serial
Holistic learners work through
material most thoroughly and efficiently in "fits and starts."
They may often feel overwhelmed with confusion for a while, but
understanding will often suddenly click. When the material does
suddenly click in understanding, the holistic learner will
usually not only see the big picture, but in a more clear and
creative perspective that other learners may not. Often,
holistic learners will take more time to understand information
than their peers. This can often be so discouraging, that a
holistic learner may be more tempted to give up on a particular
subject. However, when holistic learners do finally understand
the material given, more extensively. Holistic learners are
usually extremely creative. Suggestions:
Remember you are not slow or stupid; rather, you
just think differently than other students. Maintain confidence!
If you stick to it, you will get it, and most likely retain the
information and be able to practically apply the subject matter
the rest of your life. Read all the subheadings, summaries, and
glossary or bold-face terms before reading the chapter. Pay
special attention to the chapter outline or overview. Set aside
an entire evening for one subject and plunge into that subject.
Once you have finished with that subject, move on to the next
subject. Do not try to study one chapter of one subject, and
then one chapter of another. Try taking subjects that are hard
for you in summer school when you are juggling fewer courses.
Relate the subject matter to the other subjects, concepts, or
ideas of which you are understand or in which you are confident.
Personalize and apply the subject matter to your world.
Authoritarian vs Authoritative Teaching Polya and Lakatos
Effective Learning and Teaching
Objective of Education Is Learning, Not Teaching
Teacher's In-Depth Content Knowledge
Teaching Knowledge Test
The Research Council on Mathematics Learning
Don't ever underestimate the Power of Learning
Everything can be Learned, which means that everything can be
The Power to
is our greatest gift. Learning is something that we
are born with. We learned to walk, and we learned to talk, and
we did this without anyone having to explain to us how learning
works, because we are
. But even though learning is a natural ability, and a
natural skill in itself, in order to maximize the enormous
amount of benefits that come from learning, you have to learn
the right things at the right time, and in the right way.
Learning is a powerful tool when its used effectively and
efficiently. But if learning is
neglected or abused
by learning the wrong things at the
wrong time, and in the wrong ways, then the benefits, and the
power and the potential of learning, is minimized. And this
is when people struggle and make mistakes, which causes all the
problems that we see today, and all the problems that we have
observed throughout human history. When we finally understand
our gift to learn, we will then see improvements all over the
planet, continually for as long as we live. And we can easily
confirm this fact by observing all the advancements that we have
made in the last 100 years, all because we used our gift to
learn. If you keep learning a little each day, then you will
become a little smarter each day, and you will become a little
more aware each day, and become a little more happier each day,
and you will have a little more control each day, you will have
a little more freedom each day, a little more power each day,
you will have a little more potential each day, and eventually,
you will have endless possibilities from which to choose from,
for the rest of your life.
You could say that
Learning is a Gift from God
, or you could even say that
learning is a gift from life itself
, because Life itself
wanted to survive, as it has from the beginning. So maybe life figured it
out that if we can quickly learn to adapt to changes, we will have a much
better chance avoiding extinction. Because 99% of all life has gone
extinct since the beginning of our planet. And after each extinction life
has always bounce back a little stronger, and a little smarter. And here
we are today. Let us not forsake our gift to learn, we have it for a
The Power to Learn is within Everyone,
Everyone has the Power to Learn.
Everyone has the Ability to Learn
You're very capable of learning
anything you want, anything you put your mind to, you can learn.
That means that you have the ability to solve every problem in
your life and have the ability to solve every problem that this
world is currently suffering from. So never underestimate the
importance of knowledge. Intelligence not only gives you more
options and more opportunities, it will also give you an endless
supply of happiness. And remember that learning only begins with
school, the real important learning happens outside school where
you can explore and learn whatever you want, whenever you want
and learn as much as you want. And you'll want to learn as much
as you can, because knowledge is power and potential all rolled
up into one.
CognitionPrinciples of Learning
"Learning is like climbing a
mountain, the higher you climb the more you can see, and the more
you can see the more you can learn, and the more you can learn about what is
beyond the horizon, the more visible things will become."
Hacking Knowledge: 77 Ways to Learn Faster, Deeper, and Better
It's like talking to someone who speaks a different
language then you, you don't understand a word they say.
That's because you don't have the necessary knowledge,
information and experience with that particular language in
order to understand it. But anyone can learn to understand a new
language, because the brain has the ability to learn new
learn anything. Anything that can be communicated
through language can be learned. That is why knowing how to
is so extremely important.
Learning works best when you can
request information and knowledge as you need it.
But what if you don't know what information and knowledge is
That is why having a teacher, mentor or tutor can be so
It's great when you learn something new for the first time,
especially when you learn something that you know is valuable or beneficial,
that's a great feeling.
Now imagine learning something valuable everyday. Imagine always having something to look forward to everyday.
Something that will make your day. Something that will give you a better understanding of yourself and the world around
you. Imagine becoming a little smarter each day, a little more wiser each day, a little
more intelligent each day, and become more aware, with more abilities, and more possibilities.
Imagine being able to solve every problem on the planet.
Imagine having more freedom and more control over your life.
Imagine a world full of endless possibilities. Imagine that you are starting your learning journey today.
Visit this website once a day, or visit this website once a week and copy
and paste a weeks worth of reading, or link to a few films to watch.
Convert Webpage to Read Offline
to read webpages offline later.
If using Firefox Browser,
Right Click on the page that you want to read later, and
then click on Save Page As, and then download folder to
smartphone to read later.
Please remember that there is a sequence to learning, a
chronological order. Something's you
have to learn first before you can understand new knowledge and new information.
Sometimes you will find yourself going back to read something again because you now
have more information and knowledge to understand it more. This is normal. But you
always have to remember that learning the right things at the right time is
important. Like first understanding what learning is and knowing how to be an
effective learner. And then learning how to read. And then learning how to comprehend
what you are reading. And then reading the most valuable knowledge and information
that you can find. And then learning what things you need to learn first and what things you
need to learn second, and so on.
Learning should never be a chore or a burden.
Just like eating healthy food everyday,
you need to consume healthy knowledge everyday. Having a healthy mind and a healthy body
gives you incredible potential.
And you will also be intelligent as you can possibly be. Imagine the possibilities
"If you can learn anything
you want, then you can be anything you want, learn to be."
so easy a
caveman can do it
"Learning can be as easy as learning a new
"When learning, you don't always feel
the benefits when it's happening. Sometimes there is a delayed
reaction. Because we have to process information."
"Everyone can learn, but not everyone
learns in the same way, or at the same speed, or at the same
time, or do they learn the same things as you."
take learning for granted, and too many people
don't even understand how important learning is, that is the
failure of our education system. Our ability to learn is one of
the most important aspects of human life."
“if reading itself is a skill, it must
be possible to break this down into different level of component
A world without words
Even when we knew very little
about learning we were still able to reach the minds of some of
, they have taught us so much about how we
learn, and we still have a long way to go.
Victor of Aveyron
was a French feral child who was found at
the age of around twelve. (c. 1788 – 1828).
The Wild Child
tells the story of a child who spends the
first eleven or twelve years of his life with little or no human contact.
Genie Feral Child
is the pseudonym for a feral child who was
a victim of severe abuse, neglect, and social isolation. Her circumstances
are prominently recorded in the annals of linguistics and abnormal child
psychology. (born 1957).
A Man Without Words
is a book and case study of a
27-year-old deaf man whom Schaller teaches to
for the first time,
challenging the Critical Period Hypothesis that humans cannot learn
language after a certain age.
was an American author, political activist, and
lecturer. She was the first deaf-blind person to earn a bachelor of arts
degree. The story of how Keller's teacher,
, broke through the isolation imposed by a near complete lack
of language, allowing the girl to blossom as she learned to communicate,
has become widely known through the dramatic depictions of the play and
The Miracle Worker
. Her birthplace in West Tuscumbia, Alabama, is now
a museum and sponsors an annual "Helen Keller Day". Her birthday on June
27 is commemorated as Helen Keller Day in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania
and was authorized at the federal level by presidential proclamation by
President Jimmy Carter in 1980, the 100th anniversary of her birth. A
prolific author, Keller was well-traveled and outspoken in her
convictions. A member of the Socialist Party of America and the Industrial
Workers of the World, she campaigned for women's suffrage, labor rights,
socialism, antimilitarism, and other similar causes. She was inducted into
the Alabama Women's Hall of Fame in 1971 and was one of twelve inaugural
inductees to the Alabama Writers Hall of Fame on June 8, 2015. Helen
proved to the world that deaf people could all learn to communicate and
that they could survive in the hearing world. She also taught that deaf
people are capable of doing things that hearing people can do. She is one
of the most famous deaf people in history and she is an idol to many deaf
people in the world. (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968).
is a human child who has lived isolated from
human contact from a very young age where they have little or no
experience of human care, behavior, or, crucially, of human language. Some
feral children have been confined by people (usually their own parents),
and in some cases this child abandonment was due to the parents’ rejection
of a child's severe intellectual or physical impairment. Feral children
may have experienced severe abuse or trauma before being abandoned or
Disturbing Cases Of Feral Children
Martin Pistorius: How my mind came back to life — and no one
refers to the
idea that individuals are born without
built-in mental content and that therefore all knowledge comes
from experience or perception. I believe that people are born
with a certain amount of information, just not enough. Thus they
can never overcome being abandoned or left alone.
is a philosophical and epistemological doctrine
that holds that the mind is born with
and that therefore the
is not a "blank slate" at birth. The mind may not be a
blank slate, but there is still not enough knowledge and
information that would allow you to learn enough on your own.
"Everything can be explained, maybe not
in the same amount of time that was used for other people, or in
the same way as other people, but everything that is explained
can be explained. So if you don't understand it now, don't
worry, because you will eventually understand it because that is
a fact of learning, but only if you keep at it."
"Not wanting to learn is a learning
disability, but luckily it's one of the easiest learning
disabilities to correct."
"Learning should never be a chore. It
should always be about learning to be more valuable and learning
to be more productive in your life. The rewards are endless."
"Most people love to have experiences,
but not many people enjoy the experience of learning,
why?..they're both extremely important."
"Sometimes people don't know what
questions to ask
, and other times, people believe they know the
answers, so they don't bother asking questions."
"Learning benefits you in similar ways
that eating healthy benefits you. When you eat good food you are
rewarded with energy and good health. When you learn something
new that improves your abilities and your understanding, you are
rewarded with a more potential and a more improved life. And
learning accumulates, so it will continue to be rewarding, just
like always eating healthy."
Though there are many
different ways that a person can learn, the important thing is,
to be able to learn in multiple ways. So no matter how the
information is presented, you will still have the ability to
analyze the information correctly, so that you can maximize the
benefits and increase your potential.
The fact is
You can learn anything you want
As long as you are given the time and the necessary information
in the correct sequence, you can learn anything. So whether
you're learning in a classroom, online, or anywhere, the place
where you learn is not so important, what's important is before you
start learning 'anything' is knowing
will the information be Presented?
the information be in the correct sequence based upon your current level
of knowledge and understanding? Can you correctly analyze if the
information presented needs to be reorganized to match your
current level of knowledge and understanding?
Can you correctly
identify what related information is needed that would help you
better understand the information presented so that you can use
this information effectively and efficiently? And, do you have
access to related information that you will need that is not
presented in this particular course, book or lecture? If you
have struggled with learning in your past it's because you have
not understood the questions above. And when you have understood
the questions above there are still a few more questions you
need to answer because
Knowing How to Learn
is just one thing. You have to know
what to learn? When to learn it? Where to learn it? And you have
to know, Why you need to learn it? And after that you should
also know the answers to these other important questions too...
Is the information relevant to your current needs? Do you know
what your current needs are?
Education Questions to Ask
Does obtaining this new skill set match your current
Is the information relevant to the current needs of your family
Is the information relevant to the current needs of your
What problems are you planning to solve with this information
that you will gain from this particular course, book or lecture?
If you were the teacher how would you present this information
differently, and Why would you present this information
Purposes of Education
So now you are ready to learn, and you are also now ready to
improve yourself and improve the world around you.
"Learning can be as easy as
breathing, you don't need to think about it, you just do it.
Breathing keeps you alive, and so does continually learning."
"Learning on your own is not easy, but
going to a University or an expensive school is not a guarantee
that you will learn the right things at the right time, or even
learn anything useful for your needs. A good teacher helps,
that's if you can find one. But learning to
is really the only sure way that you will be
successful on all your learning journeys."
Learning should not be a chore or be
. The only time that learning is boring is when you're in
school. Outside of school learning is awesome because you're
learning things that you want to learn, and you're learning
things when you want to learn them. 80% of the most valuable
knowledge and information is outside schools, this is why
continually learning is absolutely necessary. But you're not
going to learn much outside school unless you know how to find
the most valuable information and knowledge. So you have to be
active everyday in your search for knowledge. When you wake up
you should be saying "what new and interesting things will I
learn today?" But remember, knowledge and information is not
looking for you, or will it magically appear, so you have to be
actively explore all the right sources of information you can
find. So no more
worrying about passing a test that proves very little, because
Life is the test of your knowledge, and when life is a struggle,
or when life becomes to good to be true, then that means that
more learning is necessary. Don't associate learning with being
in school because you learn very little in school, and also,
schools give learning a bad name because they make learning seem
boring, which it isn't. You should associate learning as an
opportunity to acquire a new skill that gives you more
abilities. Learning is a gift that keeps on giving long after
you have learned something new, because you can recall it from
your memory. Learning is supposed to be fun, if it isn't, then
you're probably not doing it right, or you're not learning
something important, or you have
that are more important to learn first
Learning is supposed to be exhilarating and fun
if learning is not fun for you, then you most likely have a
or you are a
victim of some kind of abused from either bad schools or bad parenting or
a little of both.
"If the brain becomes more connected and
integrated after learning, and as a result, the person also
becomes a more effective learner, then what should a person be
learning? What knowledge and information would the brain best
utilize as it becomes more connected and more integrated?"
"People usually want to learn things
that are important to them, but that's only when people
accurately understand what's important to them. It's not just
knowing how to learn, it's knowing what to learn and when to
learn it. When learning is fragmented it becomes more difficult
to learn, and this is one of the reasons why too many people get
from learning because it becomes to much of a chore for them.
This is what our current education is doing, and this is why we
need to improve education."
Your mind is something that you can
fully control, but you have to
learn how to control your mind, and that takes time and
language is the same
, but some of the words will have
different meanings because they are internally translated into
the correct chemical responses or electrical signals in the
brain, signals that will be used to activate the correct
response or activate the correct action that is needed.
The way information and knowledge is presented to a person
one of the most important elements of the teaching process. It's
part logic and part mind mapping. It's showing relevant and
related information by grouping them together in certain
categories and subcategories, so that the person can quickly and
easily determine if more information is needed that would give
an overall better understanding of the information and knowledge
presented. But certain knowledge described in a certain
way may not match your understanding. So you have to arrange the
information in a way that helps you to understand it better. So
you must learn that when information is presented to you, you
might have to rearrange that particular knowledge in order to
help you personally understand it better.
Organized Personal Education
, it's a great way to learn. You
may hear the terms Learning Menus, Customizing Content and
, but remember the most important factors
are, is the information and knowledge relevant to your learning
needs and priorities?
Personal Learning Environments
and managing appropriate technological processes and resources
to enhance learning.
is a physical setting in which teaching
and learning occur.
of information according to preset
specifications. Determine the arrangement of information for
is the arrangement of visual elements on a page, generally
involves organizational principles of composition to achieve
specific communication objectives. Deciding on the overall
arrangement of text and images, and possibly on the
. It requires intelligence, sentience, and
, and is informed by
culture, psychology, and what the document authors and editors
wish to communicate
is an example of
, in which
people react to a particular choice in different ways depending
on how it is presented.
Student Approaches to Learning
is a theory that students
will take a different approach to how they study, depending upon
the perceived objectives of the course they are studying.
Sometimes you need to change your learning methods and
in order to understand a particular knowledge. It's up to you to find out
learning method, or methods, works best.
are the properties of an
which relate to the amount of computational
resources used by the algorithm. An algorithm must be analysed
to determine its resource usage. Algorithmic efficiency can be
thought of as analogous to engineering productivity for a
repeating or continuous process.
is the process of modifying a software
system to make some aspect of it work more efficiently or use
fewer resources. In general, a computer program may be optimized
so that it executes more rapidly, or is capable of operating
with less memory storage or other resources, or draw less power.
"If something feels over whelming
and you can't understand something enough, don't worry, that's
normal. It's just your minds way of saying "Hey we need more
information", in order to understand this correctly. So that
feeling you get from not knowing is not to alarm you, it's just
a way of making you aware so you can ask questions like "How
important is this new void of information?", and, what would be
the first step towards understanding this new information?"
"if you teach something that can be
interpreted in the wrong way, then that is ineffective teaching.
Many things can be interpreted in the wrong way, so defining the
interpretation, and also defining the misinterpretations, will
make knowledge and information a higher chance of being
understood more accurately."
Take Several deep breaths almost every hour that
you're awake, especially when
you're not physically active enough, and especially when you are
learning. This will help increase oxygen levels in your blood
and in your
. It will also help to relax your body and clear the
mind. It will also help increase your brain waves, or cycles per
second, into the
can also enhance the performance of students.
Changing the state of mind to operate Beta, Alpha and Theta can
also enhance learning, cognition and creativity, while at the
same time staying in a relaxed state.
observed in the hippocampus.
for a few moments, then take a deep breath
at a count of 4, hold that breath for 4 seconds, then exhale
that breath for a count of 4 seconds, and then repeat these deep
breaths 4 more times.
There are other
that may work better for you, so you will have to do some
is a simple breathing technique to alleviate stress
Now that you have done your deep
breathing exercise, it's time to quite your thoughts. Now
focus and keep
on breathing normally through the nose.
Calmly and comfortably breath in and out. Your brain will
that bring you into a tranquil and alert state
of mind. (7 cps)
Music can stimulate
learning. The music should be playing in the background so that
is not to loud that it becomes distracting. Listening
to music with 50 to 80 beats per minute
has a calming effect on
the mind that is conducive to logical thought, allowing the
brain to learn and remember new facts. Studies have shown that
classical music targets the part of the brain that stimulates
spatial-temporal reasoning, which is useful in solving math
Lyric-Free Music can be less distracting.
are a set of research results indicating that
listening to Mozart's music may induce a short-term improvement on the
performance of certain kinds of mental tasks known as "spatial-temporal
For some the best sound for
. Or take a
break every few hours and listen to music for 15 minutes.
is the scientific study of sound perception. More
specifically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological and
physiological responses associated with sound (including speech and
). It can be further categorized as a branch
of psychophysics. Psychoacoustics received its name from a field within
psychology—i.e., recognition science—which deals with all kinds of human
perceptions. It is an interdisciplinary field of many areas, including
psychology, acoustics, electronic engineering, physics, biology,
physiology, and computer science.You will
have to experiment with different types of music to see which ones inspire
learning without distracting you.
SAMUEL BARBER -
Adagio for Strings, Op. 11
Chet Baker ~ Every
Time We Say Goodbye
Study Music Alpha
Waves: Relaxing Studying Music, Brain Power, Focus Concentration Music,
Study Music for
Concentration, Instrumental Music, Classical Music, Work Music, Relax,
Music | Mozart with Alpha Study Aid Embedded - Alpha BiNaural Beats
Space Sound Odyssey
| Deep White Noise For Focus, Power Naps or Sleep
Philip Glass -
Music - STUDY FOCUS CONCENTRATE - HELP YOU WORK FAST
Jurassic Park Theme 1000 percent Slower
Beiber - U Smile (800% Slower) [HQ]
as a Learning and Teaching Tool
: I am now ready to learn, I am relaxed, focused and
I have a
Heightened Sense of Curiosity
right before you go to sleep, and learning one hour before you
go to Sleep
Activation of the
Ventral Tegmental Area
is essential to motivation, performance,
measures brain waves to produce a
signal that can be used as feedback to teach
Real Life Examples
are powerful, as long as you learn them in the right order
at the right time. Just like computer code
it has to be in the
right order and at the right time
but I also like knowing the details and the
of different learning methods.
"You have to be patient with peoples lack of knowledge and
. But your patience should not be passive because
you still need to communicate effectively and at least try to
educate that person or persons. You don't want to miss an
opportunity to teach someone even if that person is not
receptive to learning. This is when the teacher needs to get
creative in their teaching methods, There is always a way in.
Like a 4 number combination lock, you have to try the right
combination of teaching methods in order to unlock the brains
ability to understand the information that you are trying to
communicate. There is always a way in, the brain was built this
way, I guess it was the only way to insure its survival. The
genius of its design still amazes me today."
"We all have brains, but not everyone has enough
knowledge in order to use the brain correctly so that would it
fully utilize the brains incredible potential." -
Keep Learning My Friends
"Remember that schools and colleges are mostly just basic job skills. The real education is outside school. 80% of the worlds most
important information and knowledge is
beyond the classroom
Passing the Baton
Learn to Learn
- Learning How to Learn
There's a lot to know about learning because it does not always
come natural. Most of the time you have to chose to learn
because learning is a process that you have to initiate. And if
you don't understand
the process of learning
, you will not learn effectively.
Learning is more then
. Though at times learning may seem effortless, it does not mean
that you have learned effectively or
correctly. So just knowing that you can learn, and proving it
, says absolutely nothing about your
understanding of learning, or how effective you are as a
learner. We have to create a test that would be a measurement of
learning, and not just your ability to remember facts. So not
only will you understand How to Learn, you will also know Why
you Learn, When you Learn, and Where you Learn.
Logically Ordered Steps
Learning is the same as Life Long Eating
The process of using your mind
to consider something carefully. Endowed with the capacity to
. Judge or regard; look upon;
. Expect, believe,
or suppose. Use or exercise the mind or one's power of
reason in order to make inferences, decisions, or arrive at a
solution or judgments. Recall
; have a recollection.
. Focus one's
on a certain state.
Have in mind as a purpose.
reflecting. Dispose the mind in a certain way.
Have or formulate
in the mind. Be capable of
Bring into a given condition by mental preoccupation.
can refer to the ideas or arrangements of
that result from thinking, the
act of producing thoughts, or the process of producing thoughts.
You are what you think
Language and Thought
, we think in the language
we speak. Can you think without using words or
Language of Thought Hypothesis
states that thinking takes
place in a language of thought (LOT): cognition and cognitive processes
are only 'remotely plausible' when expressed as a system of
representations that is "tokened" by a linguistic or semantic structure
and operated upon by means of a combinatorial syntax. Linguistic tokens
used in mental language describe elementary concepts which are operated
upon by logical rules establishing causal connections to allow for complex
thought. Syntax as well as semantics have a causal effect on the
properties of this system of mental representations. These
are not present in the brain in the same way as symbols are present on
paper; rather, the LOT is supposed to exist at the cognitive level, the
level of thoughts and concepts. The LOTH has wide-ranging significance for
a number of domains in cognitive science. It relies on a version of
functionalist materialism, which holds that mental representations are
actualized and modified by the individual holding the propositional
attitude, and it challenges eliminative materialism and connectionism. It
implies a strongly rationalist model of cognition in which many of the
fundamentals of cognition are innate. This describes the nature of thought
as possessing "language-like" or compositional structure (sometimes known
as mentalese). On this view, simple concepts combine in systematic ways
(akin to the rules of grammar in language) to build thoughts. In its most
basic form, the theory states that thought, like language, has syntax.
Outline of Thought
, thought (also called thinking) – the mental
process in which beings form psychological associations and models of the
world. Thinking is manipulating information, as when we form concepts,
engage in problem solving, reason and make decisions. Thought, the act of
thinking, produces thoughts. A thought may be an idea, an image, a sound
or even an emotional feeling that arises from the brain.
List of Thought Processes
is profound thinking
about something. In a religious sense, contemplation is usually a type of
"cognition about cognition", "thinking about thinking
", or "knowing about
" and higher order thinking skills. It comes from the root word
"meta", meaning beyond. It can take many forms; it includes knowledge
about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for
problem solving. There are generally two components of metacognition:
knowledge about cognition, and regulation of cognition.
Train of thought
refers to the interconnection in the
of ideas expressed during a
connected discourse or thought, as well as the sequence itself, especially
in discussion how this sequence leads from one idea to another.
is to explore the potential consequences of the
principle in question: "A thought experiment is a device with which one
performs an intentional, structured process of intellectual deliberation
in order to speculate, within a specifiable problem domain, about
(or antecedents) for a designated antecedent (or consequent).
is a device, system or object of inputs and outputs (or transfer
characteristics), in which a person has no knowledge
of its internal
workings. Almost anything might be referred to as a black box: a
transistor, an algorithm, or the human brain.
Divergent Thinking - Convergent Thinking
is diverging from another or from a standard
. Tending to move apart
in different directions.
Have no limits as a mathematical series. Extend in a different
direction. Be at variance with; be out of line with.
is a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by
exploring many possible solutions. It is often used in conjunction with
its cognitive colleague, convergent thinking, which follows a particular
set of logical steps to arrive at one solution, which in some cases is a
‘correct’ solution. By contrast, divergent thinking typically occurs in a
spontaneous, free-flowing, 'non-linear' manner, such that many ideas are
generated in an emergent cognitive fashion. Many possible solutions are
explored in a short amount of time, and unexpected connections are drawn.
After the process of divergent thinking has been completed, ideas and
information are organized and structured using convergent thinking.
is tending to come together from different directions. Direct one's
attention on something.
Bring into focus or alignment; to converge or cause to converge;
of ideas or emotions.
Become focused or come into focus.
is to arranged in a line. Intend
(something) to move towards a certain goal. Give directions to; point somebody into a certain direction.
Direct the course.
Straightforward in means or manner or behavior or language or
Similar in nature or effect or relation to another quantity
through an indirect and creative approach, using
that is not
immediately obvious and involving ideas that may not be obtainable by
using only traditional step-by-step logic.
is the process of giving careful thought to something.
that should be kept in mind when making a
is a further development of
the well known lateral thinking processes, focusing even more on
explorations—looking for what can be rather than for what is.
Parallel ProcessingModes of thinking:
abstract, analytic, conceptual, concrete, convergent, creative,
critical, deductive, divergent, strategic, synthetic, tactical,
and also computational and procedural. How you approach a
problem and how you see it. Having step-by-step set of
directions are important, but sometimes you need a different
approach. One heuristic way for solving a complex problem is to
break the problem into smaller, more manageable problems, where
you can utilize brainstorming and collaboration.
"We rarely give much thought to certain things, even though our
brains never stop thinking. Why?"
Thinking Outside the Box
is a metaphor that
means to think differently, unconventionally, or from a new perspective.
This phrase often refers to novel or creative thinking.
“I think, therefore I'll think.”
Life is made up of
, the more layers you can see, and the
more layers you can understand, the better your
decisions will be, the better your actions will
be. In order to see the bigger picture
need to learn
and gain knowledge.
There are levels of
and levels of
understanding. (Quick thinking but not
quick to Judge.
High and Low Level
are terms used to
classify, describe and point to specific goals of a systematic operation,
though its uses also vary depending on the context. high-level is used to
describe operations that are more abstract in nature, where overall goals
and systemic features are typically more concerned with the wider, macro
system as a whole. Alternatively, a low-level description is one that
describes more specific individual components of a systematic operation,
focusing on the details of rudimentary micro functions rather than macro,
complex processes. Low-level classification is typically more concerned
with individual components within the system and how they operate.
Abstraction (computer science)
technique for arranging complexity of computer systems. It works by
establishing a level of complexity on which a person interacts with the
system, suppressing the more complex details below the current level. The
programmer works with an idealized interface (usually well defined) and
can add additional levels of functionality that would otherwise be too
complex to handle.
Principle of Abstraction
is the amount of
complexity by which a system is viewed or programmed. The higher the
level, the less detail. The lower the level, the more detail.
level of abstraction is the entire system
. The next level would be a
handful of components, and so on, while the lowest level could be millions
Your conscience should have primary
top-level thinking that keeps the mind from
straying too far from your main objectives and
from becoming unaware of it self or your
Stack Data Structure
is an abstract data
type that serves as a
collection of elements
, with two principal operations: push, which
adds an element to the collection, and pop, which removes the most
recently added element that was not yet removed.
is a stack data structure that
stores information about the active subroutines of a computer program.
. This is not the same thing as
being on a different level then someone else or
being level headed. This also does not imply
that always being conscious is always
having an understanding of many things. But the
true beauty of Awareness is that it is an
endless sea of
Everyone is on
. Even though you may feel your
on the top level, there are always levels above
you that are undiscovered. Computers have all
these layers of information, or code. And you
can interact with different levels while working
on a single plane. Desktop Windows is one
example, or when using imaging software where
you can work on many layers of information all
How many files do you have open?
random or organized? Do things on your desktop
last longer then they should?
"I always liked thinking. I
love to spend hours just thinking. And one of
the things I learned about thinking is that the
more I learned the more enjoyable my thoughts
became, and also the more productive my thoughts
Learning is extremely important to
Serial Arrangements of Sensory
Flow of Thought
and Bottom-Up Design
are both strategies of
information processing and knowledge ordering, used in a variety of fields
including software, humanistic and scientific theories (see systemics),
and management and organization. In practice, they can be seen as a style
of thinking, teaching, or leadership.
Nerve Cells are
Arranged in Layers
in the peripheral nervous system, the myelin sheath of
each axon in a nerve is wrapped in a delicate protective sheath known as
the endoneurium. Within the nerve, axons targeting the same anatomical
location bundled together into groups known as fascicles, each surrounded
by another protective sheath known as the perineurium. Several fascicles
may be in turn bundled together with a blood supply and fatty tissue
within yet another sheath, the epineurium. This grouping structure is
analogous to the muscular organization system of epimysium, perimysium and
Conscious Competence Model
Conscious Competence Ladder
Four Stages of Competence
Assessing Higher Order Thinking Skills
The Measurement of Perceptual Load and Reserve
Modularity of Mind
is the notion that a mind may, at least in part,
be composed of innate neural structures
or modules which have distinct established evolutionarily developed
Modular brains help organisms learn new skills
without forgetting old skills
Levels of Understanding:
is the active acquisition of information from a
primary source. In living beings, observation
science, observation can also involve the recording of data via the use of
. The term may also refer to any data collected during the
scientific activity. Observations can be qualitative, that is, only the
absence or presence of a property is noted, or quantitative if a numerical
value is attached to the observed phenomenon by counting or measuring
is a quotation that is encapsulated inside
, forming a hierarchy with multiple levels. When focusing
on a certain quotation, one must interpret it within its scope. Nested
quotation can be used in literature (as in nested narration), speech, and
computer science (as in "meta"-statements that refer to other statements
as strings). Nested quotation can be very confusing until evaluated
carefully and until each quotation level is put into perspective.
is an area in which something acts or
operates or has power or control. The state of the environment in which a
Visible Light Communication
is a data communications
variant which uses visible
between 400 and 800 THz (780–375 nm). VLC is a subset of
wireless communications technologies
Levels of Processing Effect
describes memory recall of
stimuli as a function of the depth of mental processing. Deeper levels of
analysis produce more elaborate, longer lasting, and stronger
than shallow levels of analysis. Depth of
falls on a
shallow to deep continuum. Shallow processing (e.g., processing based on
phonemic and orthographic components) leads to a fragile memory trace that
is susceptible to rapid decay. Conversely, deep processing (e.g., semantic
processing) results in a more durable memory trace.
surfaces are triangular
and converge to a single point at the top, making
the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense. The base of a pyramid
can be trilateral, quadrilateral, or any polygon shape, meaning that a
pyramid has at least three outer triangular surfaces (at least four faces
including the base). The square pyramid, with square base and four
triangular outer surfaces, is a common version.
for representing purported structural and/or functional relationships
between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. "Typically information
is defined in terms of data, knowledge in terms of information, and
in terms of knowledge".
Layers (digital image editing)
are used in digital image editing to
separate different elements of an image. A layer can be compared to a
transparency on which imaging effects or images are applied and placed
over or under an image. Today they are an integral feature of image
is an abstraction in which software providing
generic functionality can be selectively changed by additional
user-written code, thus providing application-specific software. A
software framework is a universal, reusable software environment that
provides particular functionality as part of a larger software platform to
facilitate development of software applications, products and solutions.
Software frameworks may include support programs, compilers, code
libraries, tool sets, and application programming interfaces (APIs) that
bring together all the different components to enable development of a
project or system.
Levels (video gaming)
is the total space available to the
during the course of completing a discrete objective.
specifies the shared protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a
communications network. The application layer abstraction is used in both
of the standard models of computer networking: the Internet Protocol Suite
(TCP/IP) and the Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model).
is a conceptual model that
characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a
or computing system without regard to their underlying
internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of
diverse communication systems with standard protocols. The model
partitions a communication system into abstraction layers. The original
version of the model defined seven layers.
is a comprehensive computer model
of the human mind.
is an analytical tool
with several variations and contexts. It is used to make conceptual
distinctions and organize ideas. Strong conceptual frameworks capture
something real and do this in a way that is easy to remember and apply.
Functional Software Architecture
architectural model that identifies enterprise functions, interactions and
corresponding IT needs. These functions can be used as reference by
different domain experts to develop IT-systems as part of a co-operative
information-driven enterprise. In this way both software engineers and
enterprise architects are able to create an information-driven, integrated
Language of Thought Hypothesis
nature of thought as possessing "language-like" or compositional structure
(sometimes known as mentalese). On this view, simple concepts combine in
systematic ways (akin to the rules of grammar in language) to build
thoughts. In its most basic form, the theory states that thought, like
language, has syntax.
Human Operating System
is the thought processes
involved in formulating a problem and expressing its solution(s) in such a
way that a computer—human or machine—can effectively carry out. 1) Problem
Formulation (abstraction), 2) Solution Expression (automation), and 3)
Solution Execution & Evaluation (analyses) captured by the figure to the
is a category that expresses
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
The Restless Mind
7 Distinct Layers of the
Manas = Instinctual body
Manas = Instinctual breath
Manas = Instinctual mind
Buddhi = Discriminative intellect
Smriti = memory
Ahamkara = ego
Purusha = self
refers to the arrangement or
in a way that implies importance. Visual hierarchy influences the
order in which the human eye perceives what it sees. This order is created
by the visual contrast between forms in a
field of perception
with highest contrast to their surroundings are recognized first by the
human mind. The term visual hierarchy is used most frequently in the
discourse of the visual arts fields, notably so within the field of
is an arrangement of items (objects,
etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above,"
"below," or "at the same level as" one another.
Cognitive Hierarchy Theory
is a behavioral
model originating in behavioral economics and
that attempts to
describe human thought processes in strategic games. CHT aims to improve
upon the accuracy of predictions made by standard analytic methods
(including backwards induction and iterated elimination of dominated
strategies), which can deviate considerably from actual experimental
Neural top down control of physiology
the direct regulation by the brain of physiological functions (in addition
to smooth muscle and glandular ones) This regulation occurs through the
sympathetic and parasympathetic system
(the autonomic nervous system), and
their direct innervation of body organs and tissues that starts in the
brainstem. There is also a noninnervation hormonal control through the
hypothalamus and pituitary (HPA). These lower brain areas are under
control of cerebral cortex ones. Such cortical regulation differs between
its left and right sides. Pavlovian conditioning shows that brain control
over basic cell level physiological function can be learnt.
Top-down modulation of
attention by emotion
is a data model in which the data is
The data is stored as records
which are connected to one another through
. A record is a
collection of fields
, with each field containing only
for representing purported
structural and/or functional relationships
between data, information,
knowledge, and wisdom. "Typically information is defined in terms of data,
knowledge in terms of information, and wisdom in terms of knowledge" (wisdom hierarchy, knowledge hierarchy, information hierarchy).
Real-time Control System
is a reference model
architecture, suitable for many software-intensive, real-time control
problem domains. RCS is a reference model architecture that defines the
types of functions that are required in a real-time intelligent control
system, and how these functions are related to each other.
is the powerful and compelling
process for producing everyday business documents – to-the-point memos,
clear reports, successful proposals, or dynamic presentations.
in the seven-layer OSI model of
computer networking, the physical layer or layer 1 is the first and lowest
layer. This layer may be implemented by a PHY. The physical layer consists
of the basic networking hardware transmission technologies of a network.
It is a fundamental layer underlying the logical data structures of the
higher level functions in a network. Due to the plethora of available
hardware technologies with widely varying characteristics, this is perhaps
the most complex layer in the OSI architecture.
Data Link Layer
is the second layer of the
seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. This layer is the protocol
layer that transfers data between adjacent network nodes in a wide area
network (WAN) or between nodes on the same local area network (LAN)
segment. The data link layer provides the functional and procedural means
to transfer data between network entities and might provide the means to
detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the physical layer.
is the lowest layer in the
, commonly known as TCP/IP, the networking architecture of
the Internet. It is described in RFC 1122 and RFC 1123. The link layer is
the group of methods and communications protocols that only operate on the
link that a host is physically connected to. The link is the physical and
logical network component used to interconnect hosts or nodes in the
network and a link protocol is a suite of methods and standards that
operate only between adjacent network nodes of a local area network
segment or a wide area network connection.
is the examination of one's
own conscious thoughts and feelings
the process of
introspection relies exclusively on observation of one's mental state,
while in a spiritual context it may refer to the examination of one's
. Introspection is closely related to human self-reflection and is
contrasted with external observation.
is the ease with which
information is processed. Perceptual fluency is the ease of
stimuli based on manipulations to perceptual quality. Retrieval fluency is
the ease with which information can be retrieved from
is the ensemble of activities of planning and monitoring the performance
of a business process
. The term usually refers to the management of
business processes and manufacturing processes. Business process
management (BPM) and business process reengineering are interrelated, but
Levels of Processing Effect
refers to models and
tools for supporting the management
at the individual or at
the collective level (cf. attention economy), and at the short-term (quasi
real time) or at a longer term (over periods of weeks or months).
are a set of
including attentional control
, inhibitory control,
cognitive flexibility, as well as reasoning, problem solving, and planning
– that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and
successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen
goals. Executive functions gradually develop and change across the
lifespan of an individual and can be improved at any time over the course
of a person's life. Similarly, these cognitive processes can be adversely
affected by a variety of events which affect an individual.
describes a pattern of thought or
behavior that organizes categories
of information and the
among them. It can also be described as a mental
ideas, a framework representing some aspect of the world, or a system of
organizing and perceiving new information. Schemata influence attention
and the absorption of new knowledge: people are more likely to notice
things that fit into their schema, while re-interpreting contradictions to
the schema as exceptions or distorting them to fit. Schemata have a
tendency to remain unchanged, even in the face of contradictory
information. Schemata can help in understanding the world and the rapidly
changing environment. People can organize new perceptions into schemata
quickly as most situations do not require complex thought when using
schema, since automatic thought is all that is required.
the Senses Mental Status Examination
Simultaneous Subject Learning
Building Blocks of Life
Being able to see all the different
layers of information that exist in our universe
gives us a better understanding of ourselves and the world
around us. This also gives us a chance to understand even more
of what we see and experience.
Very Low Frequency