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Learning Methods - Thinking Styles - Teaching Methods


There are many different ways a person can learn something. Some learning methods work better then others.

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It's not just knowing the best way to learn something new, but also knowing the best state of mind to be in. The Optimal Learning State is being rested, not starving and being ready to learn. (Breathe - Listen) Being in the Flow is the mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of the activity. In essence, Flow is characterized by complete absorption in what one does. Being in the Zone is being focused on what you are doing, so much so, that you are unaware of all the distractions happening around you. How the information is presented can also affect learning. Managing Time and knowing the Best times to learn can also help.

If you're not in the right mind to learn, or you feel that something is unnecessary to learn, then learning becomes ineffective. And if the information and knowledge presented to you is fragmented, out of sequence or incoherent, that also makes learning ineffective. The bottom line is, "You can learn anything you put your mind to, but not everything that you put your mind to can be learned. There is always a preferred sequence when learning something new, and there is always a preferred method of learning something new. Did you ever wonder why you did not learn something? You know you can learn because you have a memory, so what happened? Maybe the message was not delivered effectively, or not understood effectively, or a little both?

Your memory is your greatest strength, but your memory can also be your greatest weakness. Learning is not just about remembering, learning is more about understanding and formulating information and knowledge correctly so that it is used effectively and efficiently, just Remembering is not enough. 

Know what to Learn and When
Teaching Resources

Learning is your Path to Power, but only if you learn which knowledge, information and skills gives you the power.

First, fully understand what learning is, and then use this ability in the most effective and most efficient way possible. You have been given a superpower, but just like all powers, there are inherent responsibilities, so please use your power wisely.

Multiple Intelligences - Intelligence Testing
Competence
Thinking
Brain Plasticity
Learn to Learn
Self Directed Learning

There are many tools to help humans to transfer Information and knowledge into the brain.

Organizing Knowledge Cognitively is a system of grouping and categorizing our brain to use, sort and store information. System changes and adapts as the amount of knowledge about a particular subject changes and grows.

Learning is a skill that you have to understand if you want learning to be effective.

Learning is the act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.

Learning Curve is intended to mean that the activity is difficult to learn for some people. A learning curve with a steep start actually represents rapid progress.
Learning Pyramid
Computer Supported Collaborative Learning takes place via social interaction using a computer or through the Internet.
Teaching Machine
Adaptive Learning is an educational method which uses computers as interactive teaching devices, and to orchestrate the allocation of human and mediated resources according to the unique needs of each learner.
Interactive Learning is a pedagogical approach that incorporates social networking and urban computing into course design and delivery. Interactive Learning has evolved out of the hyper-growth in the use of digital technology and virtual communication, particularly by students.
Asynchronous Learning is a student-centered teaching method that uses online learning resources to facilitate information sharing outside the constraints of time and place among a network of people.
Inquiry Based Learning starts by posing questions, problems or scenarios—rather than simply presenting established facts or portraying a smooth path to knowledge.
Inquiry-Based Learning
Redbird Learning
Video Instructions - Video Conference
Virtual Learning Environment is a Web-based platform for the digital aspects of courses of study, usually within educational institutions. VLEs typically: allow participants to be organized into cohorts, groups and roles; present resources, activities and interactions within a course structure; provide for the different stages of assessment; report on participation; and have some level of integration with other institutional systems. For those who edit them VLEs may have a de facto role as authoring and design environments. VLEs have been adopted by almost all higher education institutions in the anglosphere
Online Learning
Digital Teaching Platform (PDF)
E-Learning is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.
Educational Technology
Digital Learning
Machine Learning

Personalized Learning is to tailor education to meet the different needs of students. Special Education
Student-Centered Learning aims to develop learner autonomy and independence by putting responsibility for the learning path in the hands of students.
Independent Learning
Hope-PC
High Performing Students - Gifted
Self-Regulated Learning refers to learning that is guided by metacognition (thinking about one's thinking), strategic action (planning, monitoring, and evaluating personal progress against a standard), and motivation to learn. "Self-regulated" describes a process of taking control of and evaluating one's own learning and behavior.
Blended Learning is a formal education program in which a student learns at least in part through delivery of content and instruction via digital and online media with some element of student control over time, place, path, or pace.
Instructional Scaffolding is a learning process designed to promote a deeper level of learning. Scaffolding is the support given during the learning process which is tailored to the needs of the student with the intention of helping the student achieve his/her learning goals.
Betty's Brain is a software environment to help promote students' understanding of metacognitive skills and to reinforce river ecosystem knowledge as part of a science curriculum. It is a qualitative constraint system, using node-link diagrams to represent models for teaching complex scientific and engineering domains in high school. The system specifically focuses on reinforcing so called self-regulatory skills that promote both self monitoring and self assessment as one might expect of an independent learner.
Active Learning is a teaching method that strives to more directly involve students in the learning process.
Positive Education is an approach to education that draws on positive psychology's emphasis of individual strengths and personal motivation to promote learning. Unlike traditional school approaches in which teachers attempt to tailor their material to a mythical "average" student, and move the class altogether using the material through one teaching and testing style, positive schooling teachers use techniques that focus on the well-being of individual students. Teachers use methods such as developing tailored goals for each student to engender learning and working with them to develop the plans and motivation to reach their goals. Rather than pushing students to achieve at a set grade level, seen through the emphasis of standardized testing, this approach attempts to customize learning goals to individual students' levels. Instead of setting students to compete against one another, learning is viewed as a cooperative process where teachers learn to respect their students and each student's input is valued.
Differentiated Instruction effective teaching that involves providing different students with different avenues to learning (often in the same classroom) in terms of: acquiring content; processing, constructing, or making sense of ideas; and developing teaching materials and assessment measures so that all students within a classroom can learn effectively, regardless of differences in ability. Students vary in culture, socioeconomic status, language, gender, motivation, ability/disability, personal interests and more, and teachers must be aware of these varieties as they plan curriculum. By considering varied learning needs, teachers can develop personalized instruction so that all children in the classroom can learn effectively. Differentiated classrooms have also been described as ones that respond to student variety in readiness levels, interests and learning profiles. It is a classroom that includes all students and can be successful. To do this, a teacher sets different expectations for task completion for students based upon their individual needs.
Knewton Personalized Learning.
Response to intervention (PDF)
Response to intervention is an approach to academic and behavioral intervention used in the United States to provide early, systematic, and appropriately intensive assistance to children who are at risk for or already underperforming as compared to appropriate grade- or age-level standards. RTI seeks to prevent academic and behavioral failure through universal screening, early intervention, frequent progress monitoring, and increasingly intensive research-based instruction or interventions for children who continue to have difficulty. RTI is a multileveled approach for aiding students that is adjusted and modified as needed. Behaviorism
Personalize Learning
Personalized Learning
Self Directed Learning
Learning Procedure

Collaborative Learning is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together.
Cone of Learning - Learning Pyamid Collaborative Information Seeking is a field of research that involves studying situations, motivations, and methods for people working in collaborative groups for information seeking projects, as well as building systems for supporting such activities. Such projects often involve information searching or information retrieval (IR), information gathering, and information sharing. Beyond that, CIS can extend to collaborative information synthesis and collaborative sense-making.
Collaborative Problem Solving
Collective Learning - Crowd Learning (essay)
Collaborative Classroom
Collaborative Internet

Social Learning
Social Learning Theory is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct instruction, even in the absence of motor reproduction or direct reinforcement.
Networked Learning is a process of developing and maintaining connections with people and information, and communicating in such a way so as to support one another's learning. The central term in this definition is connections. It takes a relational stance in which learning takes place both in relation to others and in relation to learning resources.
Mentor Mob
Peer Learning is an educational practice in which students interact with other students to attain educational goals." In this context, it can be compared to the practices that go by the name cooperative learning.
Peer Mentoring is a form of mentorship that usually takes place between a person who has lived through a specific experience (peer mentor) and a person who is new to that experience (the peer mentee).
Peer Feedback where feedback is given by one student to another to provide students more opportunities to learn from each other. Two or more students work together to check each other's work and give comments to the peer partner. Comments from peers are called as peer feedback. Peer feedback can be in the form of corrections, opinions, suggestions, ideas to each other. Thus, peer feedback is a two-way process in which one cooperates with the other.
Peer Assessment is a process whereby students or their peers grade assignments or tests based on a teacher’s benchmarks. The practice is employed to save teachers time and improve students' understanding of course materials as well as improve their metacognitive skills. Rubrics are often used in conjunction with Self- and Peer-Assessment.
Community Learning Methods
Service Learning is an educational approach that combines learning objectives with community service in order to provide a pragmatic, progressive learning experience while meeting societal needs.
Open Study - Social Studying
Study Skills
Organizational Learning
Tutoring

Demonstration Teaching - Example Choice
Dual Education System combines apprenticeships in a company and vocational education at a vocational school in one course.
Cooperative Education is a structured method of combining classroom-based education with practical work experience. A cooperative education experience, commonly known as a "co-op", provides academic credit for structured job experience.
Cooperative Learning is an educational approach which aims to organize classroom activities into academic and social learning experiences.
Situated Learning is the relationship between learning and the social situation in which it occurs.
Emergent Curriculum planning curriculum that focuses on being responsive to children's interests to create meaningful learning experiences. It can be practiced at any grade level.
Contextual Learning occurs only when students process new information or knowledge in such a way that it makes sense to them in their own frames of reference (their own inner worlds of memory, experience, and response). The mind naturally seeks meaning in context by searching for relationships that make sense and appear useful.
Simultaneous Subject Teaching
Learning Techniques Integrative Learning
Sequence Learning
Apprenticeship
Intern
On the Job Training
Passion Based Learning: Standards-based education stifles engagement and passion in students. We must switch from a control narrative in the classroom to a passion narrative. Passion-based learning is about finding a “hero,” learning what makes him/her successful, and acquiring the practices and the norms of established practitioners in that field. The Schoolwide Enrichment Model identifies student strengths, nurtures skills, and creates authentic opportunities for students to utilize these skills not just as students, but as practicing professionals providing experiences and opportunities to work and learn with others in the fields in which they are interested.
Experience
Experiential Learning  is the process of learning through experience, and is more specifically defined as "learning through reflection on doing".
Experiential Knowledge is knowledge gained through experience, as opposed to a priori (before experience) knowledge: it can also be contrasted both with propositional (textbook) knowledge, and with practical knowledge.
Experiential Education describes the process that occurs between a teacher and student that infuses direct experience with the learning environment and content.
Experience Curve Effects expresses the relationship between equations for experience and efficiency or between efficiency gains and investment in the effort.
Experience is the knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.
Informal learning referred to as learning by experience or just as experience.
Peripatetic School is walking while you learn.
Place-Based Education employing students and school staff in solving community problems. The community as one of the primary resources for learning.
Learning Outside the Classroom
Augmented Learning is an on-demand learning technique where the environment adapts to the learner. By providing remediation on-demand, learners can gain greater understanding of a topic while stimulating discovery and learning.
Total Physical Response is a language teaching method based on the coordination of language and physical movement. In TPR, instructors give commands to students in the target language, and students respond with whole-body actions.
Action Learning
Problem Based Learning is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject through the experience of solving an open-ended problem. Students learn both thinking strategies and domain knowledge
Project Based Learning  is a student-centered pedagogy that involves a dynamic classroom approach in which students acquire a deeper knowledge through active exploration of real-world challenges and problems. Students learn about a subject by working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to a complex question, challenge, or problem. It is a style of active learning and inquiry-based learning. PBL contrasts with paper-based, rote memorization, or teacher-led instruction that simply presents established facts or portrays a smooth path to knowledge by instead posing questions, problems or scenarios.
Outcome-Based Education bases each part of an educational system around goals (outcomes). By the end of the educational experience, each student should have achieved the goal. There is no single specified style of teaching or assessment in OBE; instead, classes, opportunities, and assessments should all help students achieve the specified outcomes. The role of the faculty adapts into instructor, trainer, facilitator, and/or mentor based on the outcomes targeted. Outcomes Driven Model.

Professional Development is learning to earn or maintain professional credentials such as academic degrees to formal coursework, conferences and informal learning opportunities situated in practice.
Vocational Learning

Associative Learning is the process by which someone learns an association between two stimuli, or a behavior and a stimulus. The two forms of associative learning are classical and operant conditioning. In the former, a previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly presented, together with a reflex eliciting stimuli, until eventually the neutral stimulus elicits a response on its own. In operant conditioning, a certain behavior is either reinforced or punished, which alters the probability that the behavior will reoccur.
Vicarious Observational Learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others. Needs to be Selective. Be Careful what you Learn.

Flip Teaching is an instructional strategy and a type of blended learning that reverses the traditional learning environment by delivering instructional content, often online, outside of the classroom. It moves activities, including those that may have traditionally been considered homework, into the classroom. In a flipped classroom, students watch online lectures, collaborate in online discussions, or carry out research at home and engage in concepts in the classroom with the guidance of a mentor.
Vimeo

Reverse Instruction is the idea of having students consume learning content (i.e. ‘the lecture’) outside of the classroom, usually as homework, thereby freeing up valuable face-to-face classroom time to reinforce materials and work on assigned work (work that may have been homework in the traditional classroom). This approach is also referred to as “flipping the classroom”.

Learning by Teaching allows pupils and students to prepare and to teach lessons, or parts of lessons. Choosing their own methods and didactic approaches in teaching classmates that subject.

Show and Tell is a common expression about showing an audience something and telling them about it. It is used to teach young children the skills of public speaking.

Social Constructionism
Social Emotional Learning
Language and Thought
People Smart

Psychomotor Learning is the relationship between cognitive functions and physical movement. Psychomotor learning is demonstrated by physical skills such as movement, coordination, manipulation, dexterity, grace, strength, speed; actions which demonstrate the fine motor skills such as use of precision instruments or tools.
Movement in Learning is a teaching method based on the concept that humans learn better through movement.
Kinesthetic Learning (Tactile)
Body Intelligence 

Practice Learning is the act of rehearsing a behavior over and over, or engaging in an activity again and again, for the purpose of improving or mastering it, as in the phrase "practice makes perfect". Sports teams practice to prepare for actual games.
Learning Activities Power Law of Practice states that the logarithm of the reaction time for a particular task decreases linearly with the logarithm of the number of practice trials taken. It is an example of the learning curve effect on performance.
10,000 Hours
Training
Coaching
Skill
Rehearsal is a form of practicing, to ensure that all details of the subsequent performance are adequately prepared and coordinated.
Focus
Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases to respond to a stimulus after repeated presentations. Essentially, the organism learns to stop responding to a stimulus which is no longer biologically relevant.
Memory
Spaced Repetition is a learning technique that incorporates increasing intervals of time between subsequent review of previously learned material in order to exploit the psychological spacing effect.
Memory Techniques
Learn without Memorizing
Rote Learning is a memorization technique based on repetition. The idea is that one will be able to quickly recall the meaning of the material the more one repeats it. Some of the alternatives to rote learning include meaningful learning, associative learning, and active learning.
Flashcard is a set of cards bearing information, as words or numbers, on either or both sides, used in classroom drills or in private study. One writes a question on a card and an answer overleaf. Flashcards can bear vocabulary, historical dates, formulas or any subject matter that can be learned via a question-and-answer format. Flashcards are widely used as a learning drill to aid memorization by way of spaced repetition.
Redundancy refers to information that is expressed more than once.

Outdoor Education usually refers to organized learning that takes place in the outdoors.
Adventure Schools
Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources.
Learning from Mistakes
Experience Sampling Method is when a person stops at certain times and make notes of their experience in real time. The point is for them to record temporal things like feelings while in the moment (right then, not later; right there, not elsewhere)

Reinforcement Learning differs from standard supervised learning in that correct input/output pairs are never presented, nor sub-optimal actions explicitly corrected. Further, there is a focus on on-line performance, which involves finding a balance between exploration (of uncharted territory) and exploitation (of current knowledge).
Reinforcement - Praise
Gratification Rewards
Classical Conditioning - Operant Conditioning
Applied Behavior Analysis is analyzing the principles of learning theory and systematically applying this technology to change behavior of social significance.

Learning Styles refers to a range of differences in individuals' learning abilities.
Learning Styles
An Explanation of Learning Styles
7 Styles of Learning

Q-Learning is a model-free Reinforcement Learning Technique. It works by learning an action-value function that ultimately gives the expected utility of taking a given action in a given state and following the optimal policy thereafter.

Word Cloud for Learning Aptitude - Aptitude

Hierarchy Learning models for representing purported structural and/or functional relationships between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. "Typically information is defined in terms of data, knowledge in terms of information, and wisdom in terms of knowledge"

Internet
E-Learning is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources
Online Learning vs. Classroom Learning
Personal Learning Network is an informal learning network that consists of the people a learner interacts with and derives knowledge from in a personal learning environment. In a PLN, a person makes a connection with another person with the specific intent that some type of learning will occur because of that connection.
Networked Learning is a process of developing and maintaining connections with people and information, and communicating in such a way so as to support one another's learning. The central term in this definition is connections. It takes a relational stance in which learning takes place both in relation to others and in relation to learning resources.

Concept Learning are the mental categories that help us classify objects, events, or ideas, building on the understanding that each object, event, or idea has a set of common relevant features. Thus, concept learning is a strategy which requires a learner to compare and contrast groups or categories that contain concept-relevant features with groups or categories that do not contain concept-relevant features.
Indigenous Education - Culture.
Holistic Education  each person finds identity, meaning, and purpose in life through connections to the community, to the natural world, and to humanitarian values such as compassion and peace. Holistic education aims to call forth from people an intrinsic reverence for life and a passionate love of learning

Education Theory seeks to know, understand and prescribe educational policy and practice.
Philosophy of Education examines the definition, goals and meaning of education.
Educational Philosophies
Educational Psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The study of learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioral perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in intelligence, cognitive development, affect, motivation, self-regulation, and self-concept, as well as their role in learning. The field of educational psychology relies heavily on quantitative methods, including testing and measurement, to enhance educational activities related to instructional design, classroom management, assessment, which serve to facilitate learning processes in various educational settings across the lifespan.
Learning Sciences works to further scientific understanding of learning as well as to engage in the design and implementation of learning innovations, and the improvement of instructional methodologies. Research in the learning science traditionally focuses on cognitive-psychological, social-psychological, and cultural-psychological foundations of human learning, as well as on the design of learning environments.
Didactic Method  is a teaching method that follows a consistent scientific approach or educational style to engage the student's mind.

Learning Theories are instructional design principles and how they relate to teaching and learning.
Learning Theories
Science of Learning (PDF)
Science of Learning
Learning Processes and Learning Theory's
Learning Theories (youtube)
Learning Theory Education are conceptual frameworks describing how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained.
Learning Specialists
Scientific Methods for Learning
Bloom's Taxonomy is a set of three hierarchical models used to classify educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity. The three lists cover the learning objectives in cognitive, affective and sensory domains.

Epistemology studies the nature of knowledge, the rationality of belief, and justification.
Educational Neuroscience is an emerging scientific field that brings together researchers in cognitive neuroscience, developmental cognitive neuroscience, educational psychology, educational technology, education theory and other related disciplines to explore the interactions between biological processes and education. Researchers in educational neuroscience investigate the neural mechanisms of reading, numerical cognition, attention and their attendant difficulties including dyslexia, dyscalculia and ADHD as they relate to education. Researchers in this area may link basic findings in cognitive neuroscience with educational technology to help in curriculum implementation for mathematics education and reading education. The aim of educational neuroscience is to generate basic and applied research that will provide a new transdisciplinary account of learning and teaching, which is capable of informing education. A major goal of educational neuroscience is to bridge the gap between the two fields through a direct dialogue between researchers and educators, avoiding the "middlemen of the brain-based learning industry". These middlemen have a vested commercial interest in the selling of "neuromyths" and their supposed remedies.
Precision Teaching is a precise and systematic method of evaluating instructional tactics and curricula.
Authentic Instruction

Classroom Management Learning Styles

Education Reform Teaching Styles 
Learning Disabilities
Behavior
How to Study Tips
Audio Books
Questioning
Testing
Unlearning - Relearning
Unschooling 
Extended Learning
Lesson Study
Linear vs. Non-linearWhole Brain Learning
Cognitive Science
Memory Vulnerabilities 

Visual Learning is a style in which a learner utilizes graphs, charts, maps and diagrams.
Mind Maps
Visual Thinking is the phenomenon of thinking through visual processing. Described as seeing words as a series of pictures.
Visual Processing is the sequence of steps that information takes as it flows from visual sensors to cognitive processing.
Spatial Intelligence
Perceptual Learning is the process of learning improved skills of perception. These improvements range from simple sensory discriminations (e.g., distinguishing two musical tones from one another) to complex categorizations of spatial and temporal patterns relevant to real-world expertise (e.g., reading, seeing relations among chess pieces, knowing whether or not an X-ray image shows a tumor). Sensory modalities may include visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, and taste. Perceptual learning forms important foundations of complex cognitive processes (i.e., language) and interacts with other kinds of learning to produce perceptual expertise. Underlying perceptual learning are changes in the neural circuitry. The ability for perceptual learning is retained throughout life.

Auditory Learning is a learning style in which a person learns through listening. An auditory learner depends on hearing and speaking as a main way of learning. Auditory learners must be able to hear what is being said in order to understand and may have difficulty with instructions that are drawn but if the writing is in a logical order it can be easier to understand . They also use their listening and repeating skills to sort through the information that is sent to them.
Whole Body Learning

Behavior Modification

Programmed Instruction is learning material in a kind of textbook or teaching machine or computer. The medium presents the material in a logical and tested sequence. The text is in small steps or larger chunks. After each step, learners are given a question to test their comprehension. Then immediately the correct answer is shown. This means the learner at all stages makes responses, and is given immediate knowledge of results.

Distributed Practice where practice is broken up into a number of short sessions - over a longer period of time.
Varied Practice refers to the use of a training schedule that includes frequent changes of task so that the performer is constantly confronting novel representations of the to-be-learned information.

Problem Solving
Creative Thinking
Intelligence

Sleep-Learning is an attempt to convey information to a sleeping person, typically by playing a sound recording to them while they sleep. Research on this has been inconclusive. Some early studies tended to discredit the technique's effectiveness, while others have found that the brain indeed reacts to stimuli and processes them while we are asleep.
Analogies

Psychometrics refers to the field in psychology and education that is devoted to testing, measurement, assessment, and related activities. One part of the field is concerned with the objective measurement of skills and knowledge, abilities, attitudes, personality traits, and educational achievement.
Synesthesia is when the stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway.

Learning Object is "a collection of content items, practice items, and assessment items that are combined based on a single learning objective.
Imperative Programming

Logic
Wisdom
Enlightenment

Theory of Mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc.—to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.
Theory of Mind (youtube)

Reflective Practice is the ability to reflect on an action so as to engage in a process of continuous learning. According to one definition it involves "paying critical attention to the practical values and theories which inform everyday actions, by examining practice reflectively and reflexively. This leads to developmental insight". A key rationale for reflective practice is that experience alone does not necessarily lead to learning; deliberate reflection on experience is essential.
Hybrid Education Models

Innovative Learning Designs 

Constructivist Theory is a philosophical viewpoint about the nature of knowledge. Specifically, it represents an epistemological stance.
Modeling Instruction 
Procedural Knowledge also known as imperative knowledge, is the knowledge exercised in the performance of some task. See below for the specific meaning of this term in cognitive psychology and intellectual property law.
Lateral Thinking

Learning Strategies
Learning Styles (youtube)  
Learning Techniques (PDF)
Learning Management System

Alternative Education encompassing many different pedagogical approaches differing from that of the mainstream pedagogy employed in a culture. Such alternative learning environments may be found within state, charter, and independent schools as well as home-based learning environments. Many, but not all educational alternatives emphasize small class sizes, close relationships between students and teachers and a sense of community.

Advanced Placement offers college-level curricula and examinations to high school students.

International Baccalaureate offers four educational programmes for children aged 3–19. The learner profile concisely describes the aspirations of a global community that shares the values underlying the IB’s educational philosophy. The IB learner profile describes the attributes and outcomes of education for international-mindedness.

Teach Learning Styles
Whole Brain Teaching
Teachable Agents
Teachable Agents
Instructional Objectives (PDF)
A Robot Which Children Can Teach to Write - The CoWriter Project (youtube)
Computer-Human Interaction in Learning and Instruction (CHILI)
Differentiated Instruction (PDF)
Differentiated Instruction
Unhelpful Thinking Styles
Paideia
Enrichment Activities
Teaching Research
Games and Toys for Learning
Brain Based Learning
Learning Approaches
Implicit Learning is the learning of complex information in an incidental manner, without awareness of what has been learned.
Discovery Learning

Subjectivity
Objectivity
Reasoning
Cognitive Science
Cognitive Bias
Hypothetical Thinking
Praising - Punishing

Constructivist Teaching Methods is based on constructivist learning theory. Constructivist teaching is based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge construction as opposed to passively receiving information. Learners are the makers of meaning and knowledge.

Automatic Summarization is the process of reducing a text document with a computer program in order to create a summary that retains the most important points of the original document.

Subliminal Messaging is sensory stimuli below an individual's threshold for conscious perception. A recent review of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies shows that subliminal stimuli activate specific regions of the brain despite participants being unaware. Visual stimuli may be quickly flashed before an individual can process them, or flashed and then masked, thereby interrupting the processing. Audio stimuli may be played below audible volumes or masked by other stimuli.
Neurological Mechanisms
Hypnosis
Process

Purposes of Learning
Music as a Teaching Tool - Music


Teaching and learning are the same subject. You can't teach unless you learn and you can't learn unless you teach, even if you are teaching yourself. Teaching and learning are part of the same process that's needed to transfer information. And you need to be conscious of the process of transferring information, you need to ask these 5 questions, What am I learning? (define the information?) Why am I learning this? (the importance and value of this information?) Where am I learning this? (options and choices?) When am I learning this? (options and choices?) How am I learning this? (options and choices?)
W-W-W-W-H

These Retention Rates are not Normal, you can remember a 100% of what you have read, hear and see, you just have to learn how. You don't want to limit the ways that you can learn

In Japan, teachers had always depended on jugyokenkyu, which translates literally as “Lesson Study,” a set of practices that Japanese teachers use to hone their craft. A teacher first plans lessons, then teaches in front of an audience of students and other teachers along with at least one university observer. Then the observers talk with the teacher about what has just taken place. Each public lesson poses a hypothesis, a new idea about how to help children learn. And each discussion offers a chance to determine whether it worked. Without jugyokenkyu, it was no wonder the American teachers’ work fell short of the model set by their best thinkers. Without jugyokenyku, Takahashi never would have learned to teach at all. Neither, certainly, would the rest of Japan’s teachers.   NY Times

The goal is to create personalized programs of instruction and custom lesson plans that are based on the students skill level and learning style.

People with Synesthesia tend to perform better on memory tasks, particularly involving color, abstract patterns or words and this can also be transferred to creative disciplines such as music. Science Daily

Hattie Ranking Influences Effect Sizes Achievement Rangliste. (Image Chart)
An overview of the Hattie effect size list that contains 138 influences and effect sizes across all areas related to student achievement

"Anyone who can learn can eventually become a teacher, but not every teacher will continue to learn, Why?"



Teaching Adults


Teach the children so that it will not be necessary to teach the adults

"It's easier to educate a child correctly the first time than it is to re-educate an adult."  

"It's easier to build strong children than to repair broken men."  Frederick Douglass      

Do it Right the First Time ...it's a lot easier, it's more effective, and it also saves a lot of time, no need to repair.

"You can lead a horse to water, but you can't make it drink. You can present someone with an opportunity, but you cannot force him or her to take advantage of it. You can’t teach someone who doesn’t want to learn or grow personally."

The reasons why most people don't want to learn is because most people don't fully understand what learning is, and also, they have never learned anything valuable, like understanding the power that some knowledge gives you, power that you can carry with you your entire life. Please don't stop learning, it's the most important ability that you have, don't waste it.
Education Quotes

Helping Adults Learn (PDF)You can Lead a Human to Knowledge but you can't make him think
Teaching Adults is Challenging  (PDF)
Andragogy is the theory and practice of education of adults.
Neuroplasticity
Ignorance 

Education Specialist
Classroom Management
Learning Principles and Impediments
Social Learning

"Some things are easy to learn, and some things are hard to learn, but they are never impossible to learn."

"There is always incentives and rewards when it comes to learning, but only if you are aware of them."

They say that Adults cannot be made to learn. But that is exactly what they do to children in schools, and you wonder why adults don't want to learn. They also say that Adults will only learn when they are internally motivated to do so, which is false. Motivation is not needed to learn. And incentives need to be accurately measured and calculated so they fully explain the inputs and outputs as well as the cause and effects at each step. Money is not a reason, things need to be fully explained. Remember, we are "Learning".

Four Basic Requirements for Learning

First, a person needs clearly understood reasons why the knowledge is necessary and valuable. Second, people need the time to acquire new knowledge and information. Third, people need easy access to valuable knowledge and information. Forth, people need a way to accurately measure their performance and have the necessary tools to test themselves. Fifth, people need to see that all their time and effort pays off, and that their lives will continually improve. This way other people will also be encouraged to take part in this learning journey. (Perquisites that can help: Understands learning. Knows several learning techniques. Knows how to accurately identify valuable knowledge and information. Knows how to manage Life and Time. Has read BK101.)

Capacity is the power to learn or retain knowledge; in law, the ability to understand the facts and significance of your behavior. Capability to perform or produce. The maximum production possible. The amount that can be contained. (computer science) the amount of information (in bytes) that can be stored on a disk drive, or in this case, The Human Brain and its Memory.
 
Adults will only learn what they feel they need to learn. But it's a bad idea to rely on your feelings when it comes to learning.

End of History illusion is a psychological illusion in which individuals of all ages believe that they have experienced significant personal growth and changes in tastes up to the present moment, but will not substantially grow or mature in the future. Despite recognizing that their perceptions have evolved, individuals predict that their perceptions will remain roughly the same in the future. The illusion is based on the fact that at any given developmental stage, an individual can observe a relatively low level of maturity in previous stages. The phenomenon affects teenagers, middle-aged individuals, and seniors. In general, people tend to see significant changes in hindsight, but fail to predict that these changes will continue. For example, a 20-year-old's impression of how great a change they will undergo in the next ten years will not be as extreme as a 30-year-old's recollection of the changes they underwent between the ages of 20 and 30. The same phenomenon is true for people of any age. The reason for the illusion has not been studied, although researchers speculate that a resistance or fear of change may be causal.

Adults learn by doing. Active participation is especially important to adult learners in comparison to children. But we should be teaching children the same way since we all ready know this.

Adult learning is problem-based and these problems must be realistic. Adult learners like finding solutions to problems.
Adult learning is affected by the experience each adult brings.

Adults learn best informally. Adults learn what they feel they need to know whereas children learn from a curriculum, which is stupid, children should have the right to learn what they need to know and want to know, within reason of course.
Children want guidance. Adults want information that will help them improve their situation or that of their children. Now you're getting it. You're still a child.

People don't seek knowledge and skills they don't use, or rarely use. If you rarely use a particular knowledge and or
skill, then people will have no incentive to learn something new. But if you guaranteed a job to that person, and fully explain the estimated income and the benefits from that job, then people will have the incentive to learn new knowledge and the incentive to learn new skills.  

Pay people to go to school and give them on the Job Training, just like the Military does. Except this war is a war against ignorance.

What knowledge and skills do you use everyday? Can you read? Can you operate a telephone? Can you operate a computer? Can you write? Can you communicate? What increased benefits would you get if you improved these skills?

World View is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the entirety of the individual or society's knowledge and point of view. A world view can include natural philosophy; fundamental, existential, and normative postulates; or themes, values, emotions, and ethics.

Your world view depends on how much relevant knowledge and information that you have and understand, knowledge that is accurate and up to date. You are what you know, and if what you know is distorted and incomplete, then your world view will become distorted and incomplete. And the only way to overcome this ignorance is to continually educate yourself so that the knowledge and information you acquire gives you a more accurate and complete understanding of yourself and the world around you, which is one of the main goals of BK101.

To many people make the mistake in believing that they know the answers to certain questions, which usallly stops a person from learning more, thus people will never have any conformation or proof that their answers are accurate, which is dangerous because it leaves a person vulnerable to mistakes and also vulnerable to being manipulated. Don't Stop Learning

Characteristics of Adult Learners
Adult learners have characteristics that set them apart from 'traditional' school or college learners. All adults come to courses with a variety and range of experiences, both in terms of their working life and educational backgrounds. This impacts on how and why they participate in learning. While each student has individual learning needs, there are some characteristics that are common to adult learners: Adults have accumulated life experiences. Adults come to courses with experiences and knowledge in diverse areas. They tend to favor practical learning activities that enable them to draw on their prior skills and knowledge. Adults are realistic and have insights about what is likely to work and what is not. They are readily able to relate new facts to past experiences and enjoy having their talents and knowledge explored in a teaching situation. Adults have established opinions, values and beliefs which have been built up over time and arrived at following experience of families, relationships, work, community, politics, etc. These views cannot be dismissed and must be respected. 

Interference Theory is theory regarding human memory. Interference occurs in learning when there is an interaction between the new material and transfer effects of past learned behavior, memories or thoughts that have a negative influence in comprehending the new material. Bringing to memory old knowledge has the effect of impairing both the speed of learning and memory performance. There are two main kinds of interference: Proactive interference is when past memories inhibit an individual’s full potential to retain new memories. And Retroactive interference occurs when newly learned information interferes with and impedes the recall of previously learned information. This is because most people never learned what learning is, so most people don't have the knowledge or skills to learn things, so they will never continue to learn, and gradually become more and more intelligent each day. This is why schools fail. They don't teach students what learning is, or do they teach what valuable knowledge is.

You learn how to swim so that you don't have to worry about drowning. You learn how to ride a bike so that you have the freedom to travel anytime that you want. You learn how learn so that you can understand more about yourself and the world around you, so you never have to worry about your ignorance keeping you from having a life that you choose, or stopping you from pursuing your dreams. Freedom, Power, Control, Potential and Endless Possibilities.

Adults are intrinsically motivated. But just being born with motivation will not help you until you learn things that are valuable and important. When you're hungry you are motivated to eat, but it f you eat unhealthy food, then you will suffer and die early.

Learners increase their effort when motivated by a need, an interest, or a desire to learn. They are also motivated by the relevance of the material to be addressed and learn better when material is related to their own needs and interests. For learners to be fully engaged in learning their attention must be fully focused on the material presented.

Individual differences. Adults learn at various rates and in different ways according to their intellectual ability, educational level, personality and cognitive learning styles. Teaching strategies must anticipate and accommodate differing comprehension rates of learners.

Adults learn best in a democratic, participatory and collaborative environment . Adults need to be actively involved in determining how and what they will learn, and they need active, not passive, learning experiences.

Adult students are mature people and prefer to be treated as such. Being 'lectured at' causes resentment and frustration.
Adults are goal oriented / relevancy oriented. Adults need to know why they are learning something. Adults have needs that are concrete and immediate. They can be impatient with long discussions on theory and like to see theory applied to practical problems. They are task or problem-centred rather than subject-centred. Adults tend to be more interested in theory when it is linked to practical application.

Adults are autonomous and self-directed. They are self-reliant learners and prefer to work at their own pace. Individuals learn best when they are ready to learn and when they have identified their own learning needs. Where a student is directed by someone else to attend a course, e.g. by an employer, then that individual may not be ready to learn or may not see the value in participating on that course. This can lead to a mismatch of goals between all parties - student, employer and trainer.
Adults are practical and problem-solvers. Adults are more impatient in the pursuit of learning objectives. They are less tolerant of work that does not have immediate and direct application to their objectives. Problem based learning exercises are welcomed as they build on prior experience and provide opportunity for practical application of materials/theories covered.
Adults are sometimes tired when they attend classes. Many students are juggling classes with work, family, etc. They, therefore, appreciate varied teaching methods that add interest and a sense of liveliness to the class.

Adults may have logistical considerations, including:
Family and caring responsibilities including childcare and/or eldercare, Careers, Social commitments, Time, Money, Schedules,
Transportation, Lack of knowledge and skills.

Ageing concerns. Adults frequently worry about being the oldest person in a class and are concerned about the impact this may have on their ability to participate with younger students. Creating an environment where all participants feel they have a valuable contribution can work to allay such concerns.  

Learning Analytics

Adults may have insufficient confidence. Students come to class with varying levels of confidence. Some may have had poor prior experiences of education leading to feelings of inadequacy and fear of study and failure. This can manifest itself in many ways, as indicated in the next section.

Null Substantive Presentation


Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning

The following list presents the basic principles that underlie effective learning. These principles are distilled from research from a variety of disciplines.

Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning
Learning Impediments (PDF)

Students’ prior knowledge can help or hinder learning.

Students come into courses with knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes gained in other courses and through daily life. As students bring this knowledge to bear in our classrooms, it influences how they filter and interpret what they are learning. If students’ prior knowledge is robust and accurate and activated at the appropriate time, it provides a strong foundation for building new knowledge. However, when knowledge is inert, insufficient for the task, activated inappropriately, or inaccurate, it can interfere with or impede new learning.

Stages of Learning

How students organize knowledge influences how they learn and apply what they know.

Students naturally make connections between pieces of knowledge. When those connections form knowledge structures that are accurately and meaningfully organized, students are better able to retrieve and apply their knowledge effectively and efficiently. In contrast, when knowledge is connected in inaccurate or random ways, students can fail to retrieve or apply it appropriately.

Students’ motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they do to learn.

As students enter college and gain greater autonomy over what, when, and how they study and learn, motivation plays a critical role in guiding the direction, intensity, persistence, and quality of the learning behaviors in which they engage. When students find positive value in a learning goal or activity, expect to successfully achieve a desired learning outcome, and perceive support from their environment, they are likely to be strongly motivated to learn.

To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills, practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they have learned.

Students must develop not only the component skills and knowledge necessary to perform complex tasks, they must also practice combining and integrating them to develop greater fluency and automaticity. Finally, students must learn when and how to apply the skills and knowledge they learn. As instructors, it is important that we develop conscious awareness of these elements of mastery so as to help our students learn more effectively.

Goal-directed practice coupled with targeted feedback enhances the quality of students’ learning.

Learning and performance are best fostered when students engage in practice that focuses on a specific goal or criterion, targets an appropriate level of challenge, and is of sufficient quantity and frequency to meet the performance criteria. Practice must be coupled with feedback that explicitly communicates about some aspect(s) of students’ performance relative to specific target criteria, provides information to help students progress in meeting those criteria, and is given at a time and frequency that allows it to be useful.

Students’ current level of development interacts with the social, emotional, and intellectual climate of the course to impact learning.

Students are not only intellectual but also social and emotional beings, and they are still developing the full range of intellectual, social, and emotional skills. While we cannot control the developmental process, we can shape the intellectual, social, emotional, and physical aspects of classroom climate in developmentally appropriate ways. In fact, many studies have shown that the climate we create has implications for our students. A negative climate may impede learning and performance, but a positive climate can energize students’ learning.

To become self-directed learners, students must learn to monitor and adjust their approaches to learning.

Learners may engage in a variety of metacognitive processes to monitor and control their learning—assessing the task at hand, evaluating their own strengths and weaknesses, planning their approach, applying and monitoring various strategies, and reflecting on the degree to which their current approach is working. Unfortunately, students tend not to engage in these processes naturally. When students develop the skills to engage these processes, they gain intellectual habits that not only improve their performance but also their effectiveness as learners.

Bibliography
Anderson, J. R., Conrad, F. G., Corbett, A. T. (1989).
Skill acquisition and the LISP tutor. Cognitive Science, 13(4), 467-505.
Bandura, A. (1989). Self-regulation of motivation and action through internal standards and goal systems. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Goal concepts in personality and social psychology (pp. 19-85). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Carver, C.S. & Scheier, M.F. (1998). On the self-regulation of behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Clement, J.J. (1982). Students’ preconceptions in introductory mechanics. American Journal of Physics, 50, 66-71.
DiSessa, A. (1982). Unlearning Aristotelian physics: A study of knowledge-based learning. Cognitive Science, 6, 37-75.
Dweck, C.S. (2002). Beliefs that make smart people dumb. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), Why smart people can be so stupid (pp. 24-41). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Ford, M.E. (1992). Motivating humans: Goals, emotions and personal agency beliefs. Newbury Park, CA:
Sage Publications, Inc.
Healy, A. F., & Sinclair, G. P. (1996). The long-term retention of training and instruction (pp. 525-564).
n E. L. Bjork, & R. A. Bjork (Eds.) Memory. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Hidi, S. & Renninger K.A. (2004). Interest, a motivational variable that combines affective and cognitive functioning.
In D. Y. Dai & R. J. Sternberg
(Eds.), Motivation, emotion, and cognition: Integrative perspectives on intellectual functioning and development
(pp. 89-115). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Holyoak, K. J. (1984). Analogical thinking and human intelligence. In R.
J. Sternberg (Ed.), Advances in the Psychology of Human Intelligence, Vol. 2 (pp. 199-230). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kuh, G.D., Kinzie, J., Schuh, J.H., Whitt, E.J. & Associates. (2005).
Student Success in College: Creating Conditions That Matter. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Matlin, M. W. (1989). Cognition. NY, NY: Harcourt, Brace, Janovich.
National Research Council (2001). Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington, DC:
National Academy Press.
Nelson, T. A. (1992). Metacognition. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Pascarella, E.T. & Terenzini, P. (2005). How College Affects Students. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Schommer, M. (1994). An emerging conceptualization of epistemological
beliefs and their role in learning. In R. Barner & P. Alexander (Eds.), Beliefs about text and instruction with text
(pp. 25-40). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Singley, M. K., & Anderson, J. R. (1989). The Transfer of Cognitive Skill. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Steele, C.M. & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans.
Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 69 (5), 797-811.
Walton, G. M., & Cohen, G. L. (2007). A question of belonging: race, social fit, and achievement.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92 (1), 82-96.
Wiggins, G. (1998). Educative Assessment: Designing Assessments to Inform and Improve Student Performance, Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.



Linear Learners
Linear learners learn most thoroughly and efficiently, when material is presented to them in a logical, ordered progression. They will often attack problem solving with a series of ordered steps. They often will understand in part before understanding the whole. They prefer to start off with the simplest concept or part of a problem, and work through to the more difficult parts until the whole solution is found. Many teachers and instructors follow a linear progression.
Suggestions: If your instructor moves from one topic to another, make sure you rewrite your notes, and fill in the gaps in your notes. This may require borrowing another student's notes, or actually visiting the professor outside of the classroom. If the instructor skips around and does not follow a logical or chronological progression, you may want to rewrite the subject matter according to a logical progression that makes sense to you. Always outline the subject matter.

Linear vs. Non-linear Learning (PDF)
Linearization refers to finding the linear approximation to a function at a given point. In the study of dynamical systems, linearization is a method for assessing the local stability of an equilibrium point of a system of nonlinear differential equations or discrete dynamical systems.
Right Brain Parallel - Left Brain Serial
Lineal Thinking

Holistic Learners
Holistic learners work through material most thoroughly and efficiently in "fits and starts." They may often feel overwhelmed with confusion for a while, but understanding will often suddenly click. When the material does suddenly click in understanding, the holistic learner will usually not only see the big picture, but in a more clear and creative perspective that other learners may not. Often, holistic learners will take more time to understand information than their peers. This can often be so discouraging, that a holistic learner may be more tempted to give up on a particular subject. However, when holistic learners do finally understand the material given, more extensively. Holistic learners are usually extremely creative.
Suggestions: Remember you are not slow or stupid; rather, you just think differently than other students. Maintain confidence! If you stick to it, you will get it, and most likely retain the information and be able to practically apply the subject matter the rest of your life. Read all the subheadings, summaries, and glossary or bold-face terms before reading the chapter. Pay special attention to the chapter outline or overview. Set aside an entire evening for one subject and plunge into that subject. Once you have finished with that subject, move on to the next subject. Do not try to study one chapter of one subject, and then one chapter of another. Try taking subjects that are hard for you in summer school when you are juggling fewer courses. Relate the subject matter to the other subjects, concepts, or ideas of which you are understand or in which you are confident. Personalize and apply the subject matter to your world.

Authoritarian vs Authoritative Teaching Polya and Lakatos
Effective Learning and Teaching

The Objective of Education Is Learning, Not Teaching
Teacher's In-Depth Content Knowledge
Lee Shulman

Teaching Knowledge Test (PDF)
Polya (PDF) 
The Research Council on Mathematics Learning (PDF)


Don't ever underestimate the Power of Learning

Everything can be Learned, which means that everything can be improved.

The Power to Learn is our greatest gift. Learning is something that we are born with. We learned to walk, and we learned to talk, and we did this without anyone having to explain to us how learning works, because we are born to learn. But even though learning is a natural ability, and a natural skill in itself, in order to maximize the enormous amount of benefits that come from learning, you have to learn the right things at the right time, and in the right way. Learning is a powerful tool when its used effectively and efficiently. But if learning is neglected or abused by learning the wrong things at the wrong time, and in the wrong ways, then the benefits, and the power and the potential of learning, is minimized. And this is when people struggle and make mistakes, which causes all the problems that we see today, and all the problems that we have observed throughout human history. When we finally understand our gift to learn, we will then see improvements all over the planet, continually for as long as we live. And we can easily confirm this fact by observing all the advancements that we have made in the last 100 years, all because we used our gift to learn. If you keep learning a little each day, then you will become a little smarter each day, and you will become a little more aware each day, and become a little more happier each day, and you will have a little more control each day, you will have a little more freedom each day, a little more power each day, you will have a little more potential each day, and eventually, you will have endless possibilities from which to choose from, for the rest of your life.

You could say that Learning is a Gift from God, or you could even say that learning is a gift from life itself, because Life itself wanted to survive, as it has from the beginning. So maybe life figured it out that if we can quickly learn to adapt to changes, we will have a much better chance avoiding extinction. Because 99% of all life has gone extinct since the beginning of our planet. And after each extinction life has always bounce back a little stronger, and a little smarter. And here we are today. Let us not forsake our gift to learn, we have it for a reason.

Learning Methods


The Power to Learn is within Everyone,  Everyone has the Power to Learn.

Everyone has the Ability to Learn
You're very capable of learning anything you want, anything you put your mind to, you can learn. That means that you have the ability to solve every problem in your life and have the ability to solve every problem that this world is currently suffering from. So never underestimate the importance of knowledge. Intelligence not only gives you more options and more opportunities, it will also give you an endless supply of happiness. And remember that learning only begins with school, the real important learning happens outside school where you can explore and learn whatever you want, whenever you want and learn as much as you want. And you'll want to learn as much as you can, because knowledge is power and potential all rolled up into one.

Cognition
Principles of Learning

"Learning is like climbing a mountain, the higher you climb the more you can see, and the more you can see the more you can learn, and the more you can learn about what is beyond the horizon, the more visible things will become."

Hacking Knowledge: 77 Ways to Learn Faster, Deeper, and Better

It's like talking to someone who speaks a different language then you, you don't understand a word they say. That's because you don't have the necessary knowledge, information and experience with that particular language in order to understand it. But anyone can learn to understand a new language, because the brain has the ability to learn new languages, and learn anything. Anything that can be communicated through language can be learned. That is why knowing how to read effectively is so extremely important. 

Learning works best when you can request information and knowledge as you need it. But what if you don't know what information and knowledge is needed? That is why having a teacher, mentor or tutor can be so valuable.

It's great when you learn something new for the first time, especially when you learn something that you know is valuable or beneficial, that's a great feeling. Now imagine learning something valuable everyday. Imagine always having something to look forward to everyday. Something that will make your day. Something that will give you a better understanding of yourself and the world around you. Imagine becoming a little smarter each day, a little more wiser each day, a little more intelligent each day, and become more aware, with more abilities, and more possibilities. Imagine being able to solve every problem on the planet. Imagine having more freedom and more control over your life. Imagine a world full of endless possibilities. Imagine that you are starting your learning journey today.

Visit this website once a day, or visit this website once a week and copy and paste a weeks worth of reading, or link to a few films to watch.

Convert Webpage to Read Offline
Get Pocket to read webpages offline later.
If using Firefox Browser, Right Click on the page that you want to read later, and then click on Save Page As, and then download folder to smartphone to read later.

Please remember that there is a sequence to learning, a chronological order. Something's you have to learn first before you can understand new knowledge and new information. Sometimes you will find yourself going back to read something again because you now have more information and knowledge to understand it more. This is normal. But you always have to remember that learning the right things at the right time is extremely important. Like first understanding what learning is and knowing how to be an effective learner. And then learning how to read. And then learning how to comprehend what you are reading. And then reading the most valuable knowledge and information that you can find. And then learning what things you need to learn first and what things you need to learn second, and so on. Learning should never be a chore or a burden. Just like eating healthy food everyday, you need to consume healthy knowledge everyday. Having a healthy mind and a healthy body gives you incredible potential. And you will also be intelligent as you can possibly be. Imagine the possibilities

"If you can learn anything you want, then you can be anything you want, learn to be."

"Learning is so easy a caveman can do it."

"Learning can be as easy as learning a new word"

"When learning, you don't always feel the benefits when it's happening. Sometimes there is a delayed reaction. Because we have to process information."

"Everyone can learn, but not everyone learns in the same way, or at the same speed, or at the same time, or do they learn the same things as you."

"Too many people take learning for granted, and too many people don't even understand how important learning is, that is the failure of our education system. Our ability to learn is one of the most important aspects of human life."

“if reading itself is a skill, it must be possible to break this down into different level of component skills categories.”

Sub-Skills Approach (PDF)
Component Skills (PDF)


Feral

A world without words

Even when we knew very little about learning we were still able to reach the minds of some of the most unique people, they have taught us so much about how we learn, and we still have a long way to go.

Victor of Aveyron was a French feral child who was found at the age of around twelve. (c. 1788 – 1828).
The Wild Child tells the story of a child who spends the first eleven or twelve years of his life with little or no human contact.
Genie Feral Child is the pseudonym for a feral child who was a victim of severe abuse, neglect, and social isolation. Her circumstances are prominently recorded in the annals of linguistics and abnormal child psychology. (born 1957).
A Man Without Words is a book and case study of a 27-year-old deaf man whom Schaller teaches to sign for the first time, challenging the Critical Period Hypothesis that humans cannot learn language after a certain age.
Helen Keller was an American author, political activist, and lecturer. She was the first deaf-blind person to earn a bachelor of arts degree. The story of how Keller's teacher, Anne Sullivan, broke through the isolation imposed by a near complete lack of language, allowing the girl to blossom as she learned to communicate, has become widely known through the dramatic depictions of the play and film The Miracle Worker. Her birthplace in West Tuscumbia, Alabama, is now a museum and sponsors an annual "Helen Keller Day". Her birthday on June 27 is commemorated as Helen Keller Day in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania and was authorized at the federal level by presidential proclamation by President Jimmy Carter in 1980, the 100th anniversary of her birth. A prolific author, Keller was well-traveled and outspoken in her convictions. A member of the Socialist Party of America and the Industrial Workers of the World, she campaigned for women's suffrage, labor rights, socialism, antimilitarism, and other similar causes. She was inducted into the Alabama Women's Hall of Fame in 1971 and was one of twelve inaugural inductees to the Alabama Writers Hall of Fame on June 8, 2015. Helen proved to the world that deaf people could all learn to communicate and that they could survive in the hearing world. She also taught that deaf people are capable of doing things that hearing people can do. She is one of the most famous deaf people in history and she is an idol to many deaf people in the world. (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968).
Feral Child is a human child who has lived isolated from human contact from a very young age where they have little or no experience of human care, behavior, or, crucially, of human language. Some feral children have been confined by people (usually their own parents), and in some cases this child abandonment was due to the parents’ rejection of a child's severe intellectual or physical impairment. Feral children may have experienced severe abuse or trauma before being abandoned or running away.
Solitary Confinement
Introvert
10 Disturbing Cases Of Feral Children (youtube)
Experiences
Martin Pistorius: How my mind came back to life — and no one knew (video)
Brain Plasticity 

Tabula Rasa refers to the epistemological idea that individuals are born without built-in mental content and that therefore all knowledge comes from experience or perception. I believe that people are born with a certain amount of information, just not enough. Thus they can never overcome being abandoned or left alone.

Innatism is a philosophical and epistemological doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas / knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a "blank slate" at birth. The mind may not be a blank slate,  but there is still not enough knowledge and information that would allow you to learn enough on your own.

"Everything can be explained, maybe not in the same amount of time that was used for other people, or in the same way as other people, but everything that is explained can be explained. So if you don't understand it now, don't worry, because you will eventually understand it because that is a fact of learning, but only if you keep at it."

"Not wanting to learn is a learning disability, but luckily it's one of the easiest learning disabilities to correct."

"Learning should never be a chore. It should always be about learning to be more valuable and learning to be more productive in your life. The rewards are endless."

"Most people love to have experiences, but not many people enjoy the experience of learning, why?..they're both extremely important."

"Sometimes people don't know what questions to ask, and other times, people believe they know the answers, so they don't bother asking questions."

"Learning benefits you in similar ways that eating healthy benefits you. When you eat good food you are rewarded with energy and good health. When you learn something new that improves your abilities and your understanding, you are rewarded with a more potential and a more improved life. And learning accumulates, so it will continue to be rewarding, just like always eating healthy."

Though there are many different ways that a person can learn, the important thing is, to be able to learn in multiple ways. So no matter how the information is presented, you will still have the ability to analyze the information correctly, so that you can maximize the benefits and increase your potential.

The fact is You can learn anything you want. As long as you are given the time and the necessary information in the correct sequence, you can learn anything. So whether you're learning in a classroom, online, or anywhere, the place where you learn is not so important, what's important is before you start learning 'anything' is knowing How will the information be Presented?
Will the information be in the correct sequence based upon your current level of knowledge and understanding? Can you correctly analyze if the information presented needs to be reorganized to match your current level of knowledge and understanding?

Can you correctly identify what related information is needed that would help you better understand the information presented so that you can use this information effectively and efficiently? And, do you have access to related information that you will need that is not presented in this particular course, book or lecture? If you have struggled with learning in your past it's because you have not understood the questions above. And when you have understood the questions above there are still a few more questions you need to answer because Knowing How to Learn is just one thing. You have to know what to learn? When to learn it? Where to learn it? And you have to know, Why you need to learn it? And after that you should also know the answers to these other important questions too...

Is the information relevant to your current needs? Do you know what your current needs are? 
Education Questions to Ask?
Does obtaining this new skill set match your current Goals?   Experience Point
Is the information relevant to the current needs of your family and your Community?
Is the information relevant to the current needs of your Planet Risk Assessment
What problems are you planning to solve with this information that you will gain from this particular course, book or lecture?
If you were the teacher how would you present this information differently, and Why would you present this information differently?  

Purposes of Education
Education Reform Ideas

So now you are ready to learn, and you are also now ready to improve yourself and improve the world around you.

"Learning can be as easy as breathing, you don't need to think about it, you just do it. Breathing keeps you alive, and so does continually learning."

"Learning on your own is not easy, but going to a University or an expensive school is not a guarantee that you will learn the right things at the right time, or even learn anything useful for your needs. A good teacher helps, that's if you can find one. But learning to teach yourself is really the only sure way that you will be successful on all your learning journeys."

Learning should not be a chore or be boring. The only time that learning is boring is when you're in school. Outside of school learning is awesome because you're learning things that you want to learn, and you're learning things when you want to learn them. 80% of the most valuable knowledge and information is outside schools, this is why continually learning is absolutely necessary. But you're not going to learn much outside school unless you know how to find the most valuable information and knowledge. So you have to be active everyday in your search for knowledge. When you wake up you should be saying "what new and interesting things will I learn today?" But remember, knowledge and information is not looking for you, or will it magically appear, so you have to be actively explore all the right sources of information you can find. So no more worrying about passing a test that proves very little, because Life is the test of your knowledge, and when life is a struggle, or when life becomes to good to be true, then that means that more learning is necessary. Don't associate learning with being in school because you learn very little in school, and also, schools give learning a bad name because they make learning seem boring, which it isn't. You should associate learning as an opportunity to acquire a new skill that gives you more abilities. Learning is a gift that keeps on giving long after you have learned something new, because you can recall it from your memory. Learning is supposed to be fun, if it isn't, then you're probably not doing it right, or you're not learning something important, or you have other things that are more important to learn first.

"If the brain becomes more connected and integrated after learning, and as a result, the person also becomes a more effective learner, then what should a person be learning? What knowledge and information would the brain best utilize as it becomes more connected and more integrated?"

"People usually want to learn things that are important to them, but that's only when people accurately understand what's important to them. It's not just knowing how to learn, it's knowing what to learn and when to learn it. When learning is fragmented it becomes more difficult to learn, and this is one of the reasons why too many people get discourage
from learning because it becomes to much of a chore for them. This is what our current education is doing, and this is why we need to improve education."

Your mind is something that you can fully control, but you have to learn how to control your mind, and that takes time and knowledge. The language is the same, but some of the words will have different meanings because they are internally translated into the correct chemical responses or electrical signals in the brain, signals that will be used to activate the correct response or activate the correct action that is needed.

The way information and knowledge is presented to a person is one of the most important elements of the teaching process. It's part logic and part mind mapping. It's showing relevant and related information by grouping them together in certain categories and subcategories, so that the person can quickly and easily determine if more information is needed that would give an overall better understanding of the information and knowledge presented. But certain knowledge described in a certain way may not match your understanding. So you have to arrange the information in a way that helps you to understand it better. So you must learn that when information is presented to you, you might have to rearrange that particular knowledge in order to help you personally understand it better. Home Organized Personal Education, it's a great way to learn. You may hear the terms Learning Menus, Customizing Content and Curriculum Mapping, but remember the most important factors are, is the information and knowledge relevant to your learning needs and priorities?

Personal Learning Environments is creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources to enhance learning. Learning Environment is a physical setting in which teaching and learning occur.

Presentations
Interfaces
Mind Maps
Associations

Format is the organization of information according to preset specifications. Determine the arrangement of information for display.

Page Layout is the arrangement of visual elements on a page, generally involves organizational principles of composition to achieve specific communication objectives. Deciding on the overall arrangement of text and images, and possibly on the size or shape of the medium. It requires intelligence, sentience, and creativity, and is informed by culture, psychology, and what the document authors and editors wish to communicate and emphasize.

Framing Effect is an example of cognitive bias, in which people react to a particular choice in different ways depending on how it is presented.

Student Approaches to Learning is a theory that students will take a different approach to how they study, depending upon the perceived objectives of the course they are studying.

Sometimes you need to change your learning methods and thinking styles in order to understand a particular knowledge. It's up to you to find out which learning method, or methods, works best. 

Algorithmic Efficiency are the properties of an algorithm which relate to the amount of computational resources used by the algorithm. An algorithm must be analysed to determine its resource usage. Algorithmic efficiency can be thought of as analogous to engineering productivity for a repeating or continuous process.

Program Optimization is the process of modifying a software system to make some aspect of it work more efficiently or use fewer resources. In general, a computer program may be optimized so that it executes more rapidly, or is capable of operating with less memory storage or other resources, or draw less power.

"If something feels over whelming and you can't understand something enough, don't worry, that's normal. It's just your minds way of saying "Hey we need more information", in order to understand this correctly. So that feeling you get from not knowing is not to alarm you, it's just a way of making you aware so you can ask questions like "How important is this new void of information?", and, what would be the first step towards understanding this new information?"

"if you teach something that can be interpreted in the wrong way, then that is ineffective teaching. Many things can be interpreted in the wrong way, so defining the interpretation, and also defining the misinterpretations, will make knowledge and information a higher chance of being understood more accurately."


Breathe

Take Several deep breaths almost every hour that you're awake, especially when you're not physically active enough, and especially when you are learning. This will help increase oxygen levels in your blood and in your Brain. It will also help to relax your body and clear the mind. It will also help increase your brain waves, or cycles per second, into the Beta State. Learning in Alpha State can also enhance the performance of students. Changing the state of mind to operate Beta, Alpha and Theta can also enhance learning, cognition and creativity, while at the same time staying in a relaxed state.  
Theta Rhythm is observed in the hippocampus.

First relax for a  few moments, then take a deep breath at a count of 4, hold that breath for 4 seconds, then exhale that breath for a count of 4 seconds, and then repeat these deep breaths 4 more times. 

There are other Breathing Exercises that may work better for you, so you will have to do some research.

Breathe Project is a simple breathing technique to alleviate stress and anxiety.

Brain Food
Brain Games

Now that you have done your deep breathing exercise, it's time to quite your thoughts. Now focus and keep your attention on breathing normally through the nose. Calmly and comfortably breath in and out. Your brain will naturally release Endorphins, Benzodiazepines and other Neuropeptides that bring you into a tranquil and alert state of mind. (7 cps)


Music

Music can stimulate learning. The music should be playing in the background so that the music is not to loud that it becomes distracting. Listening to music with 50 to 80 beats per minute has a calming effect on the mind that is conducive to logical thought, allowing the brain to learn and remember new facts. Studies have shown that classical music targets the part of the brain that stimulates spatial-temporal reasoning, which is useful in solving math problems.

Lyric-Free Music can be less distracting.

Mozart Effect are a set of research results indicating that listening to Mozart's music may induce a short-term improvement on the performance of certain kinds of mental tasks known as "spatial-temporal reasoning".

For some the best sound for Productivity is Silence. Or take a break every few hours and listen to music for 15 minutes.

Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception. More specifically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological and physiological responses associated with sound (including speech and music). It can be further categorized as a branch of psychophysics. Psychoacoustics received its name from a field within psychology—i.e., recognition science—which deals with all kinds of human perceptions. It is an interdisciplinary field of many areas, including psychology, acoustics, electronic engineering, physics, biology, physiology, and computer science.

You will have to experiment with different types of music to see which ones inspire learning without distracting you.
SAMUEL BARBER - Adagio for Strings, Op. 11 (youtube)
Chet Baker ~ Every Time We Say Goodbye (youtube)
Study Music Alpha Waves: Relaxing Studying Music, Brain Power, Focus Concentration Music, 161  (youtube)
Study Music for Concentration, Instrumental Music, Classical Music, Work Music, Relax, E103 (youtube)
Classical Study Music | Mozart with Alpha Study Aid Embedded - Alpha BiNaural Beats (youtube)
Space Sound Odyssey | Deep White Noise For Focus, Power Naps or Sleep (youtube)
Philip Glass - Glassworks (complete)
Brain Music - STUDY FOCUS CONCENTRATE - HELP YOU WORK FAST (youtube)
Jurassic Park Theme 1000 percent Slower (sound cloud)
Justin Beiber - U Smile (800% Slower) [HQ] (youtube)

Music as a Learning and Teaching Tool

Meditation Sounds

Affirmation: I am now ready to learn, I am relaxed, focused and I have a Heightened Sense of Curiosity.

Inspiration
Visualization  

Practicing right before you go to sleep, and learning one hour before you go to Sleep
 
Memory Consolidation
Memory

Activation of the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) and Mesolimbic Networks is essential to motivation, performance, and learning.

Neurofeedback Training measures brain waves to produce a signal that can be used as feedback to teach self-regulation of brain function.

Real Life Examples

Words are powerful, as long as you learn them in the right order at the right time. Just like computer code it has to be in the right order and at the right time.

I like Structure but I also like knowing the details and the Complexities of different learning methods.

Teaching Resources
Online Schools
Information Literacy
Brain

"You have to be patient with peoples lack of knowledge and understanding. But your patience should not be passive because you still need to communicate effectively and at least try to educate that person or persons. You don't want to miss an opportunity to teach someone even if that person is not receptive to learning. This is when the teacher needs to get creative in their teaching methods, There is always a way in. Like a 4 number combination lock, you have to try the right combination of teaching methods in order to unlock the brains ability to understand the information that you are trying to communicate. There is always a way in, the brain was built this way, I guess it was the only way to insure its survival. The genius of its design still amazes me today."

"We all have brains, but not everyone has enough knowledge in order to use the brain correctly so that would it fully utilize the brains incredible potential." - Keep Learning My Friends

"Remember that schools and colleges are mostly just basic job skills. The real education is outside school. 80% of the worlds most important information and knowledge is beyond the classroom walls."

Passing the Baton



Learn to Learn  - Learning How to Learn

There's a lot to know about learning because it does not always come natural. Most of the time you have to chose to learn because learning is a process that you have to initiate. And if you don't understand the process of learning, you will not learn effectively. Learning is more then just remembering. Though at times learning may seem effortless, it does not mean that you have learned effectively or correctly. So just knowing that you can learn, and proving it with good grades, says absolutely nothing about your understanding of learning, or how effective you are as a learner. We have to create a test that would be a measurement of learning, and not just your ability to remember facts. So not only will you understand How to Learn, you will also know Why you Learn, When you Learn, and Where you Learn.
Logically Ordered Steps

Life Long Learning is the same as Life Long Eating



Thinking


The process of using your mind to consider something carefully. Endowed with the capacity to reason. Judge or regard; look upon; judge. Expect, believe, or suppose. Use or exercise the mind or one's power of reason in order to make inferences, decisions, or arrive at a solution or judgments. Recall knowledge from memory; have a recollection. Imagine or visualize. Focus one's attention on a certain state. Have in mind as a purpose. Decide by pondering, reasoning, or reflecting. Dispose the mind in a certain way. Have or formulate in the mind. Be capable of conscious thought. Bring into a given condition by mental preoccupation.

Thought can refer to the ideas or arrangements of ideas that result from thinking, the act of producing thoughts, or the process of producing thoughts.

Language and Thought, we think in the language we speak. Can you think without using words or Language?

Outline of Thought, thought (also called thinking) – the mental process in which beings form psychological associations and models of the world. Thinking is manipulating information, as when we form concepts, engage in problem solving, reason and make decisions. Thought, the act of thinking, produces thoughts. A thought may be an idea, an image, a sound or even an emotional feeling that arises from the brain.

List of Thought Processes (wiki)

Metacognition is "cognition about cognition", "thinking about thinking", or "knowing about knowing" and higher order thinking skills. It comes from the root word "meta", meaning beyond. It can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving. There are generally two components of metacognition: knowledge about cognition, and regulation of cognition.

Train of thought refers to the interconnection in the sequence of ideas expressed during a connected discourse or thought, as well as the sequence itself, especially in discussion how this sequence leads from one idea to another.

Thought Experiment is to explore the potential consequences of the principle in question: "A thought experiment is a device with which one performs an intentional, structured process of intellectual deliberation in order to speculate, within a specifiable problem domain, about potential consequents (or antecedents) for a designated antecedent (or consequent).

Black Box is a device, system or object of inputs and outputs (or transfer characteristics), in which a person has no knowledge
of its internal workings. Almost anything might be referred to as a black box: a transistor, an algorithm, or the human brain.
Brain Processing 


Divergent Thinking -  Convergent Thinking


Divergent:
Diverging from another or from a standard. Tending to move apart in different directions. Have no limits as a mathematical series. Extend in a different direction. Be at variance with; be out of line with.
Divergent Thinking is a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions. It is often used in conjunction with its cognitive colleague, convergent thinking, which follows a particular set of logical steps to arrive at one solution, which in some cases is a ‘correct’ solution. By contrast, divergent thinking typically occurs in a spontaneous, free-flowing, 'non-linear' manner, such that many ideas are generated in an emergent cognitive fashion. Many possible solutions are explored in a short amount of time, and unexpected connections are drawn. After the process of divergent thinking has been completed, ideas and information are organized and structured using convergent thinking.
Systems Thinking

Convergent:
Tending to come together from different directions. Direct one's attention on something. Bring into focus or alignment; to converge or cause to converge; of ideas or emotions. Become focused or come into focus.


Lineal Thinking


Lineal:
Arranged in a line.  Intend (something) to move towards a certain goal. Give directions to; point somebody into a certain direction.  Direct the course. Straightforward in means or manner or behavior or language or action. Similar in nature or effect or relation to another quantity without deviation.
Lateral Thinking is solving problems through an indirect and creative approach, using reasoning that is not immediately obvious and involving ideas that may not be obtainable by using only traditional step-by-step logic.
Linear Learners
Holistic Learners

Consideration:
The process of giving careful thought to something. Information that should be kept in mind when making a Decision.

Parallel Thinking is a further development of the well known lateral thinking processes, focusing even more on explorations—looking for what can be rather than for what is.
Parallel Processing

Modes of thinking: abstract, analytic, conceptual, concrete, convergent, creative, critical, deductive, divergent, strategic, synthetic, tactical, and also computational and procedural. How you approach a problem and how you see it. Having step-by-step set of directions are important, but sometimes you need a different approach. One heuristic way for solving a complex problem is to break the problem into smaller, more manageable problems, where you can utilize brainstorming and collaboration.

"We rarely give much thought to certain things, even though our brains never stop thinking. Why?"

Intelligence
Knowledge
Inspiration
Problem Solving
Thinking Styles

Thinking Outside the Box is a metaphor that means to think differently, unconventionally, or from a new perspective. This phrase often refers to novel or creative thinking.


“I think, therefore I'll think.”   Ayn Rand


Thinking in Levels

Life is made up of layers, the more layers you can see, and the more layers you can understand, the better your decisions will be, the better your actions will be. To see the bigger picture, you have to learn and gain knowledge.

There are levels of Communication and levels of understanding. (Quick thinking but not quick to Judge. Race Condition)

High and Low Level are terms used to classify, describe and point to specific goals of a systematic operation, though its uses also vary depending on the context. high-level is used to describe operations that are more abstract in nature, where overall goals and systemic features are typically more concerned with the wider, macro system as a whole. Alternatively, a low-level description is one that describes more specific individual components of a systematic operation, focusing on the details of rudimentary micro functions rather than macro, complex processes. Low-level classification is typically more concerned with individual components within the system and how they operate.
Abstraction (computer science) is a technique for arranging complexity of computer systems. It works by establishing a level of complexity on which a person interacts with the system, suppressing the more complex details below the current level. The programmer works with an idealized interface (usually well defined) and can add additional levels of functionality that would otherwise be too complex to handle.
Principle of Abstraction is the amount of complexity by which a system is viewed or programmed. The higher the level, the less detail. The lower the level, the more detail. The highest level of abstraction is the entire system. The next level would be a handful of components, and so on, while the lowest level could be millions of objects

Hierarchy

Your conscience should have primary top-level thinking that keeps the mind from straying too far from your main objectives and from becoming unaware of it self or your surroundings.  

Stack Data Structure is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations: push, which adds an element to the collection, and pop, which removes the most recently added element that was not yet removed.
Call Stack is a stack data structure that stores information about the active subroutines of a computer program.
Matrix

A Conscious Conscience. This is not the same thing as being on a different level then someone else or being level headed. This also does not imply that always being conscious is always obtainable.

Awareness is having an understanding of many things. But the true beauty of Awareness is that it is an endless sea of discoveries. 

Everyone is on different levels. Even though you may feel your on the top level, there are always levels above you that are undiscovered. Computers have all these layers of information, or code. And you can interact with different levels while working on a single plane. Desktop Windows is one example, or when using imaging software where you can work on many layers of information all at once. 

Computer Vision - Networks

How many files do you have open? Is it random or organized? Do things on your desktop last longer then they should?

"I always liked thinking. I love to spend hours just thinking. And one of the things I learned about thinking is that the more I learned the more enjoyable my thoughts became, and also the more productive my thoughts became.
Learning is extremely important to thinking."

Linear Cause-Effect-Response Framework  -  Serial Arrangements of Sensory Cortical Areas  -  Functional Aspects

Logical Flow of Thought  -  Connection Patterns 

Top-Down and Bottom-Up Design are both strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering, used in a variety of fields including software, humanistic and scientific theories (see systemics), and management and organization. In practice, they can be seen as a style of thinking, teaching, or leadership.
Divergent Thinking
Lateral Thinking
Problem Solving 

Nerve Cells are Arranged in Layers
Perineurium 
Perineurium In the peripheral nervous system, the myelin sheath of each axon in a nerve is wrapped in a delicate protective sheath known as the endoneurium. Within the nerve, axons targeting the same anatomical location bundled together into groups known as fascicles, each surrounded by another protective sheath known as the perineurium. Several fascicles may be in turn bundled together with a blood supply and fatty tissue within yet another sheath, the epineurium. This grouping structure is analogous to the muscular organization system of epimysium, perimysium and endomysium.

Conscious Competence Model
Conscious Competence Ladder
Four Stages of Competence

Assessing Higher Order Thinking Skills
The Measurement of Perceptual Load and Reserve Capacity

Modularity of Mind is the notion that a mind may, at least in part, be composed of innate neural structures or modules which have distinct established evolutionarily developed functions
Modular brains help organisms learn new skills without forgetting old skills

Levels of Understanding: Intellectual Understanding, Mental Realization.

Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source. In living beings, observation employs the senses. In science, observation can also involve the recording of data via the use of instruments. The term may also refer to any data collected during the scientific activity. Observations can be qualitative, that is, only the absence or presence of a property is noted, or quantitative if a numerical value is attached to the observed phenomenon by counting or measuring.

Nested Quotation is a quotation that is encapsulated inside another quotation, forming a hierarchy with multiple levels. When focusing on a certain quotation, one must interpret it within its scope. Nested quotation can be used in literature (as in nested narration), speech, and computer science (as in "meta"-statements that refer to other statements as strings). Nested quotation can be very confusing until evaluated carefully and until each quotation level is put into perspective.

Visible Light Communication is a data communications variant which uses visible light between 400 and 800 THz (780–375 nm). VLC is a subset of optical wireless communications technologies.

Levels of Processing Effect describes memory recall of stimuli as a function of the depth of mental processing. Deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer lasting, and stronger memory traces than shallow levels of analysis. Depth of processing falls on a shallow to deep continuum. Shallow processing (e.g., processing based on phonemic and orthographic components) leads to a fragile memory trace that is susceptible to rapid decay. Conversely, deep processing (e.g., semantic processing) results in a more durable memory trace.

Pyramid is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral, quadrilateral, or any polygon shape, meaning that a pyramid has at least three outer triangular surfaces (at least four faces including the base). The square pyramid, with square base and four triangular outer surfaces, is a common version.
Thinking

DIKW Pyramid for representing purported structural and/or functional relationships between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. "Typically information is defined in terms of data, knowledge in terms of information, and wisdom in terms of knowledge"

Layers (digital image editing) are used in digital image editing to separate different elements of an image. A layer can be compared to a transparency on which imaging effects or images are applied and placed over or under an image. Today they are an integral feature of image editors.
Framework (software) is an abstraction in which software providing generic functionality can be selectively changed by additional user-written code, thus providing application-specific software. A software framework is a universal, reusable software environment that provides particular functionality as part of a larger software platform to facilitate development of software applications, products and solutions. Software frameworks may include support programs, compilers, code libraries, tool sets, and application programming interfaces (APIs) that bring together all the different components to enable development of a project or system.
Levels (video gaming) is the total space available to the player during the course of completing a discrete objective.

Application Layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network. The application layer abstraction is used in both of the standard models of computer networking: the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) and the Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model)

OSI Model is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to their underlying internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of diverse communication systems with standard protocols. The model partitions a communication system into abstraction layers. The original version of the model defined seven layers.

Cognitive Architecture is a comprehensive computer model structure of the human mind.
Conceptual Framework  is an analytical tool with several variations and contexts. It is used to make conceptual distinctions and organize ideas. Strong conceptual frameworks capture something real and do this in a way that is easy to remember and apply.
Functional Software Architecture is an architectural model that identifies enterprise functions, interactions and corresponding IT needs. These functions can be used as reference by different domain experts to develop IT-systems as part of a co-operative information-driven enterprise. In this way both software engineers and enterprise architects are able to create an information-driven, integrated organizational environment.
Language of Thought Hypothesis describes the nature of thought as possessing "language-like" or compositional structure (sometimes known as mentalese). On this view, simple concepts combine in systematic ways (akin to the rules of grammar in language) to build thoughts. In its most basic form, the theory states that thought, like language, has syntax.
Human Operating SystemThinking Man

Computational Thinking is the thought processes involved in formulating a problem and expressing its solution(s) in such a way that a computer—human or machine—can effectively carry out. 1) Problem Formulation (abstraction), 2) Solution Expression (automation), and 3) Solution Execution & Evaluation (analyses) captured by the figure to the right.
Problem Solving
Causality 

Grammatical Tense is a category that expresses time reference.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Knowledge
Knowledge Management

The Restless Mind (PDF)

7 Distinct Layers of the Mind:
Manas = Instinctual body
Manas = Instinctual breath
Manas = Instinctual mind
Buddhi = Discriminative intellect
Smriti = memory
Ahamkara = ego
Purusha = self

Visual Hierarchy refers to the arrangement or presentation of elements in a way that implies importance. Visual hierarchy influences the order in which the human eye perceives what it sees. This order is created by the visual contrast between forms in a field of perception. Objects with highest contrast to their surroundings are recognized first by the human mind. The term visual hierarchy is used most frequently in the discourse of the visual arts fields, notably so within the field of graphic design.

Hierarchical Organization

Hierarchy is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above," "below," or "at the same level as" one another.

Cognitive Hierarchy Theory is a behavioral model originating in behavioral economics and game theory that attempts to describe human thought processes in strategic games. CHT aims to improve upon the accuracy of predictions made by standard analytic methods (including backwards induction and iterated elimination of dominated strategies), which can deviate considerably from actual experimental outcomes.

Neural top down control of physiology concerns the direct regulation by the brain of physiological functions (in addition to smooth muscle and glandular ones) This regulation occurs through the sympathetic and parasympathetic system (the autonomic nervous system), and their direct innervation of body organs and tissues that starts in the brainstem. There is also a noninnervation hormonal control through the hypothalamus and pituitary (HPA). These lower brain areas are under control of cerebral cortex ones. Such cortical regulation differs between its left and right sides. Pavlovian conditioning shows that brain control over basic cell level physiological function can be learnt.
Top-down modulation of attention by emotion

Hierarchical Model is a data model in which the data is organized into a tree-like structure. The data is stored as records which are connected to one another through Links. A record is a collection of fields, with each field containing only one value.
DIKW Pyramid for representing purported structural and/or functional relationships between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. "Typically information is defined in terms of data, knowledge in terms of information, and wisdom in terms of knowledge" ( wisdom hierarchy, knowledge hierarchy, information hierarchy)
Real-time Control System is a reference model architecture, suitable for many software-intensive, real-time control problem domains. RCS is a reference model architecture that defines the types of functions that are required in a real-time intelligent control system, and how these functions are related to each other.
Minto Principle is the powerful and compelling process for producing everyday business documents – to-the-point memos, clear reports, successful proposals, or dynamic presentations.
Systems Thinking

Physical Layer In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the physical layer or layer 1 is the first and lowest layer. This layer may be implemented by a PHY. The physical layer consists of the basic networking hardware transmission technologies of a network. It is a fundamental layer underlying the logical data structures of the higher level functions in a network. Due to the plethora of available hardware technologies with widely varying characteristics, this is perhaps the most complex layer in the OSI architecture.
Data Link Layer is the second layer of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. This layer is the protocol layer that transfers data between adjacent network nodes in a wide area network (WAN) or between nodes on the same local area network (LAN) segment. The data link layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and might provide the means to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the physical layer.
Link Layer is the lowest layer in the Internet Protocol Suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, the networking architecture of the Internet. It is described in RFC 1122 and RFC 1123. The link layer is the group of methods and communications protocols that only operate on the link that a host is physically connected to. The link is the physical and logical network component used to interconnect hosts or nodes in the network and a link protocol is a suite of methods and standards that operate only between adjacent network nodes of a local area network segment or a wide area network connection.

Introspection is the examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings. In psychology the process of introspection relies exclusively on observation of one's mental state, while in a spiritual context it may refer to the examination of one's soul. Introspection is closely related to human self-reflection and is contrasted with external observation.

Processing Fluency is the ease with which information is processed. Perceptual fluency is the ease of processing stimuli based on manipulations to perceptual quality. Retrieval fluency is the ease with which information can be retrieved from memory.

Process Management is the ensemble of activities of planning and monitoring the performance of a business process. The term usually refers to the management of business processes and manufacturing processes. Business process management (BPM) and business process reengineering are interrelated, but not identical.
Levels of Processing Effect (PDF)

Attention Management refers to models and tools for supporting the management of attention at the individual or at the collective level (cf. attention economy), and at the short-term (quasi real time) or at a longer term (over periods of weeks or months).

Executive Functions are a set of cognitive processes – including attentional control, inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, as well as reasoning, problem solving, and planning – that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals. Executive functions gradually develop and change across the lifespan of an individual and can be improved at any time over the course of a person's life. Similarly, these cognitive processes can be adversely affected by a variety of events which affect an individual.

Schema describes a pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them. It can also be described as a mental structure of preconceived ideas, a framework representing some aspect of the world, or a system of organizing and perceiving new information. Schemata influence attention and the absorption of new knowledge: people are more likely to notice things that fit into their schema, while re-interpreting contradictions to the schema as exceptions or distorting them to fit. Schemata have a tendency to remain unchanged, even in the face of contradictory information. Schemata can help in understanding the world and the rapidly changing environment. People can organize new perceptions into schemata quickly as most situations do not require complex thought when using schema, since automatic thought is all that is required.

Awareness
Beyond the Senses
Mental Status Examination
Simultaneous Subject Learning
Creative Thinking
Comprehension
Reasoning
Decision Making
Intelligence
Intrapersonal Intelligence (people smart)
Matrix
Building Blocks of Life
Tiny Machines


Being able to see all the different layers of information that exist in our universe gives us a better understanding of ourselves and the world around us. This also gives us a chance to understand even more of what we see and experience.   
Very Low Frequency

Layers of the Sun


Information goes Deep





The Thinker Man