is to recall knowledge from
memory; have a recollection. The process of
by mental effort. The Cognitive
is remembered. The power of
and recalling past
Summon to return. Exercise, or have the power of, memory.
Keep in mind for attention or consideration. Go back to
something earlier. Memory has the ability to encode
store and recall information.
MethodsImprove Memory Techniques
is the accumulation of
that results from
direct participation in events or activities. Have
firsthand knowledge of states, situations, emotions, or
sensations.If you don't remember the things that matter, then having a good memory
. If you don't learn the things that matter, then learning will not matter. First you have to learn everything that is valuable that
would increase your understanding of yourself and the world around you.
Then you have to strengthen
the most important information that you have
stored in your memories, and also keep adding to your knowledge base by
continually adding more valuable
knowledge and information
that you can find and get your hands on. Remember to
the things that matter. "Forgetting only becomes bad when you
forgot the things that matter."
One of the failures of
in, Garbage Out
. The dangerous
part of forcing students to memorize
irrelevant and unimportant
information, is that it tricks the student into thinking
that this information is important, which much of it is not, at least
at this time in their life
. So now the student doesn't know
what's important, which is a kind of forced brain damage, and the
unsuspecting student has no idea how ignorant they truly are.
gives us incredible abilities. But
if your memory is not used properly
or if you don't understand your ability to remember, you will never
experience the memories true power, which is to continually develop a
person into being more intelligent each day as their life progresses. So
it's not how much you can remember, it's knowing how to extract the most
important information and knowledge from your experiences, and remembering
those details, so that they are correctly applied to future moments in
time. So how do you choose what to remember?
, define what's important.
) is one of the two main types of
long-term human memory. It is the conscious, intentional recollection of
factual information, previous experiences and concepts. Explicit memory
can be divided into two categories: episodic memory, which stores specific
personal experiences, and semantic memory, which stores
is one of the two main types of
Long-Term Human Memory
. It is acquired and used
unconsciously, and can affect thoughts and
. One of its most
common forms is procedural memory, which helps people performing certain
tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.
is a type of implicit memory (unconscious memory) and long-term
memory which aids the performance of particular types of tasks without
previous experiences. 10,000
- Rote Learning
is the memory of
events (times, places, associated emotions,
and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be
explicitly stated. It is the collection of past personal experiences that
occurred at a particular time and place. For example, if one remembers the
party on his or her 6th birthday, this is an episodic memory. They allow
an individual to figuratively travel back in time to remember the event
that took place at that particular time and place. Episodic memory allows
previous experiences to be relived or rehearsed once resources are
available so it can be
reanalyzed with new knowledge
or additional experiences.
is one of the two types of
declarative or explicit memory (our memory of facts or events that is
explicitly stored and retrieved). Semantic memory refers to general world
knowledge that we have accumulated throughout our lives. This general
knowledge (facts, ideas, meaning and concepts) is intertwined in
experience and dependent on culture. Semantic memory is distinct from
episodic memory, which is our memory of experiences and specific events
that occur during our lives, from which we can recreate at any given
point. For instance, semantic memory might contain information about what
a cat is, whereas episodic memory might contain a specific memory of
petting a particular cat. We can learn about new concepts by applying our
knowledge learned from things in the past. The counterpart to declarative,
or explicit memory, is procedural memory, or implicit memory.
is the capacity for holding, but not
manipulating, a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily
available state for a short period of time. The duration of short-term
memory (when rehearsal or active maintenance is prevented) is believed to
be in the order of seconds.
proposed a model of working memory in 1974, in an
attempt to describe a more accurate model of short-term memory.
is the stage of the dual memory model, and
informative knowledge can be stored for long periods of time. While
short-term and working memory persist for only about 18 to 30 seconds,
informative knowledge can remain as long-term memory indefinitely.
Long-term memory is commonly labelled as explicit memory (declarative), as
well as episodic memory, semantic memory, autobiographical memory, and
implicit memory (procedural memory). Storage
type of metacognition
, is both
the introspective knowledge of one’s own memory capabilities (and
strategies that can aid memory) and the processes involved in memory
of memory has important implications for how people
learn and use memories.
Affective Emotional Memory
requires actors to call on the memory of details from a similar situation
(or more recently a situation with similar emotional) and import those
feelings to those of their characters.
is being taken in by
processed by the nervous system.
is a hypothesis that the body itself is
capable of storing memories, as opposed to only the brain.
is the ability to remember almost everyday of your life along with the
exact dates when things happened. It's a memory system consisting of
episodes recollected from an individual's life, based on a combination of
episodic (personal experiences and specific objects, people and events
experienced at particular time and place) and semantic (general knowledge
and facts about the world) memory. It is thus a type of explicit memory. Autobiographical memories only
comes with the power of
helps provide a structure, or organization, for our
memories that is a narrative
creating a story, the experience becomes more organized, and therefore
easier to remember over time. The visual
is the key to having a good memory, especially when remembering
numbers. Some blind people are great with math because they use the
is the ability to calculate
far into the past and far into the future just using
the mind.The Boy Who Can't
Forget (Medical Documentary) - Real Stories
describes the relationship between
perceptual processing and the encoding, storage and retrieval of the
resulting neural representations.
is the condition of possessing an extremely
detailed autobiographical memory. Hyperthymestics remember an abnormally
vast number of their life experiences. Not Total Recall, but close.
is the visual sensory memory (SM) register
pertaining to the visual domain and a fast-decaying store of visual
is an ability to vividly recall images
from memory after only a few instances of exposure, with high precision
for a brief time after exposure, without using a mnemonic device. Although
the terms eidetic memory and photographic memory may be used
interchangeably, they are also distinguished, with eidetic memory
referring to the ability to view memories like photographs for a few
minutes, and photographic memory referring to the ability to recall page
or text numbers, or similar, in great detail. In the case of
distinguishing the concepts, eidetic memory has been documented while
photographic memory is a popular culture myth that has never been
demonstrated to exist.Mind
is a collection of memories that an individual writes about moments or
events, both public or private, that took place in the subject's life. The
assertions made in the work are understood to be factual.
is a form of memory that involves
remembering to perform a planned action or intention at some future point
is a subcategory of declarative memory. Essentially, recognition memory is
the ability to recognize previously encountered events, objects, or
people. When the previously experienced event is reexperienced, this
environmental content is matched to stored memory representations,
eliciting matching signals. Location-updating effect
is the ability to encode, store and recall information. Memories give an
organism the capability to learn and adapt from previous experiences as
well as build relationships. Encoding allows the perceived item of use or
interest to be converted into a construct that can be stored within the
brain and recalled later from short-term or long-term memory. Working
memory stores information for immediate use or manipulation which is aided
through hooking onto previously archived items already present in the
long-term memory of an individual.
is the ability of the mind to store and recall information that was
previously acquired. Memory is processed through three fundamental
processing stages: storage, encoding, and retrieval. Storing refers to the
process of placing newly acquired information into memory, which is
modified in the brain for easier storage. Encoding this information makes
the process of retrieval easier for the brain where it can be recalled and
brought into conscious thinking. Modern memory psychology differentiates
between the two distinct types of memory storage: short-term memory and
long-term memory. In addition, different memory models have suggested
variations of existing short- and long-term memory to account for
different ways of storing memory.
Long Term Storage
of Information and Knowledge
refers to the mental process of retrieval of
information from the past. Along with encoding and storage, it is one of
the three core processes of memory. There are three main types of recall:
free recall, cued recall and serial recall. Psychologists test these forms
of recall as a way to study the memory processes of humans and animals.
Two main theories of the process of recall are the Two-Stage Theory and
the theory of Encoding Specificity.
Areas of the Brain used in Memory
Humans have two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain. It belongs to
and plays important roles in the consolidation of
information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial
navigation. The hippocampus is located under the
Hippocampus and Episodic Memory
The mechanisms for pattern completion and pattern separation in
CA3 region weighs the evidence and the whole
region comes to a decision and then sends the decision out to
the rest of the brain.
Region I of Hippocampus Proper
is part of the hippocampus and/or hippocampal formation,
as some texts include the latter structure in the former or vice versa.
The dentate gyrus is thought to contribute to the formation of new
episodic memories, the spontaneous exploration of novel environments, and
other functions. It is notable as being one of a select few brain
structures currently known to have high rates of neurogenesis in adult
rats (other sites include the olfactory bulb and cerebellum).
are two almond-shaped groups of nuclei
located deep and medially within the temporal lobes
of the brain in
complex vertebrates, including humans. Shown in research to perform a
primary role in the processing of memory, decision-making, and
, the amygdalae are considered part of the
is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral
cortex in the brain of mammals. The temporal lobe is located beneath the
lateral fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain. The
temporal lobe is involved in processing sensory input into derived
meanings for the appropriate retention of visual memory,
, and emotion association.
Neuroanatomy of Memory
encompasses a wide variety of
anatomical structures in the brain.
A Brain wide Chemical Signal that Enhances Memory
is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and
body of many types of animals, including humans, as a
neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to
other cells. Its name is derived from its chemical structure: it is an
ester of acetic acid and choline. Parts in the body that use or are
affected by acetylcholine are referred to as cholinergic. Substances that
interfere with acetylcholine activity are called
, which is a substance that blocks the
neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous
system. Anticholinergics inhibit parasympathetic nerve impulses by
selectively blocking the binding of the
acetylcholine to its receptor in nerve cells. The
nerve fibers of the parasympathetic system are responsible for the
involuntary movement of smooth muscles present in the gastrointestinal
tract, urinary tract, lungs, and many other parts of the body.
Anticholinergics are divided into three categories in accordance with
their specific targets in the central and/or peripheral nervous system:
antimuscarinic agents, ganglionic blockers, and neuromuscular blockers.
are theorized to be means by which memories are stored as
biophysical or biochemical
changes in the brain (and other neural tissue)
in response to external stimuli.
Levels of Processing
Things that effect your Memory
Effects of Physical Exercise on Memory
Sleep and Memory
is the cognitive process whereby
experiences, learning and recognition are recalled. Memory "formation" is
a product of brain plasticity, the structural changes within synapses that
create associations between stimuli. Stimuli are encoded within
milliseconds; however, the long-term maintenance of memories can take
additional minutes, days, or even years to fully consolidate and become a
stable memory (more resistant to change or interference). Therefore, the
formation of a specific memory occurs rapidly, but the evolution of a
memory is often an ongoing process. Memory processes have been shown to be
stabilized and enhanced (sped up and/or integrated) by nocturnal sleep and
even daytime naps. Certain sleep stages are noted to improve an
individual's memory, although this is task specific. Generally,
declarative memories are enhanced by slow-wave sleep, while
non-declarative memories are enhanced by rapid eye movement (REM) sleep,
although there are some inconsistencies among experimental results.
is the longest list of items that a person
can repeat back in correct order immediately after presentation on 50% of
all trials. Items may include words, numbers, or letters. The task is
known as digit span when numbers are used. Memory span is a common measure
of short-term memory. It is also a component of cognitive ability tests
such as the WAIS. Backward memory span is a more challenging variation
which involves recalling items in reverse order.
Memory Improving Skills - Memory Tips -
Good Memory Techniques
One key to remembering someone's name is making a connection
between their name and something that you can easily remember.
) To get an individual's
name to go hand in hand with their face is to say their name
aloud in conversation.
Another way of remembering peoples names is to visualizing their
names written across their foreheads after being introduced.
Paradox) Memory Training
"There should be a memory trick for
remembering memory tricks."
is a method of memory enhancement which uses
visualizations with the use of
familiar information about one's environment, to quickly and efficiently
recall information. (Memory Palace).
Mnemonic Peg System
is a memory aid that works by creating
mental associations between two concrete objects in a one-to-one fashion
that will later be applied to to-be-remembered information. Typically this
involves linking nouns to numbers and it is common practice to choose a
noun that rhymes with the number it is associated with. These will be the
pegs of the system. These associations have to be memorized one time and
can be applied repeatedly to new information that needs to be memorize.
allows the perceived item of use or interest to be converted into a
construct that can be stored within the brain and recalled later from
short-term or long-term memory. Working memory stores information for
immediate use or manipulation which is aided through hooking onto
previously archived items already present in the long-term memory of an
is any learning technique that aids information
retention in the human memory. Mnemonics make use of elaborative encoding,
retrieval cues, and imagery as specific tools to encode any given
information in a way that allows for efficient storage and retrieval.
refers to an individual with the ability to
remember and recall unusually long lists of data, such as unfamiliar
names, lists of numbers, entries in books, etc.
is a poem (or other form of writing) in which the first letter (or
syllable, or word) of each line (or paragraph, or other recurring feature
in the text) spells out a word, message or the alphabet.
Every Good Boy Deserves Favour or Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge.
is a word or name formed as an abbreviation
from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual
in psychology is a process by which individual pieces of information are
bound together into a
Break things down into
more Manageable Chunks.
is a category of processes that stabilize a memory trace after
its initial acquisition. Consolidation is distinguished into two specific
processes, synaptic consolidation, which is synonymous with late-phase
long-term potentiation and occurs within the first few hours after
learning, and systems consolidation, where hippocampus-dependent memories
become independent of the hippocampus over a period of weeks to years.
Recently, a third process has become the focus of research,
reconsolidation, in which previously-consolidated memories can be made
labile again through reactivation of the memory
is a statistic or signal that can be extracted
from the sensory input by a perceiver, that indicates the state of some
property of the world that the perceiver is interested in perceiving.
is a mnemonic technique, based off of the method of
loci, which allows memorization of sequential information.
is the process of committing something to
memory. Mental process undertaken in order to store in memory for later
recall items such as experiences, names, appointments, addresses,
telephone numbers, lists, stories, poems, pictures, maps, diagrams, facts,
music or other visual, auditory, or tactical information.
refers to improved recall of specific episodes or information when the
context present at encoding and retrieval are the same.
Mnemonic Major System
is a mnemonic technique used to aid in
memorizing numbers. The system works by converting numbers into consonant
sounds, then into words by adding vowels. The system works on the
principle that images can be remembered more easily than numbers.
Teaches You How to Memorize Anything
The Molecular Biology of Memory Storage: A Dialogue Between
Genes and Synapses
Always review what you have learned 10 minutes after learning, 1
day after learning, 1 week after learning, 1 month after
learning and 6 months after learning
. People who are
given information and then tell someone about it immediately, recall the
details better and longer by telling someone the particulars of what they
have learned, as opposed to just simply re-reading the textbook or class
notes and studying it again later.
Reviewing and replaying
what you have learned strengthens memories.
Writing out some questions for yourself about the information, then later
answering them yourself, you are more likely to remember the information.
Visual cue's also improve memories.
is a learning technique that incorporates
increasing intervals of time between subsequent review of previously
learned material in order to exploit the psychological spacing effect.
Alternative names include spaced rehearsal, expanding rehearsal, graduated
intervals, repetition spacing, repetition scheduling, spaced retrieval and
an activity or exercise a
regularly in order to improve or maintain one's
10,000 Hour Rule
Memorizing pi doesn’t have to be done through numbers—it can
also be done through words. This sentence "How I wish I could
calculate pi" gives you pi to seven places. Just count the
number of letters in each word—3, 1, 4, 1, 5…—and you get
3.141592. World record holder
has recited it to
67,890 digits without an error
. Sasha Volokh composed a
passage that takes pi out to 167 digits. Mike Keith’s Cadaeic
Cadenza takes it out to nearly 4000 digits (the last line is “I
end, whispering ad infinitums").
Super-Sized Memory is Trainable and Long Lasting
The ability to perform astonishing feats of memory, such as remembering
lists of several dozen words, can be learned, researchers report. After 40
days using a strategic memory improvement technique, individuals who had
typical memory skills at the start and no previous memory training more
than doubled their memory capacity, going from recalling an average of 26
words from a list of 72 to remembering 62. Four months later, recall
performance remained high.
Training and Plasticity of Working Memory
. Working memory (WM)
capacity predicts performance in a wide range of cognitive tasks. Although
WM capacity has been viewed as a constant trait, recent studies suggest
that it can be improved by adaptive and extended training. This training
is associated with changes in brain activity in frontal and parietal
cortex and basal
ganglia, as well as changes in dopamine receptor
density. Transfer of the training effects to non-trained WM tasks is
consistent with the notion of training-induced plasticity in a common
neural network for WM. The observed training effects suggest that WM
training could be used as a remediating intervention for individuals for
whom low WM capacity is a limiting factor for academic performance or in
Keeping Your Memory Sharp
Trigger a Memory
Attention Restoration Theory
What is Location-updating effect?
Sometimes I have to return the
room where the thought or memory was created in order to
remember what I was thinking of.
is a subcategory of declarative memory. Essentially, recognition memory is
the ability to recognize previously encountered events, objects, or
people. When the previously experienced event is reexperienced, this
environmental content is matched to stored memory representations,
eliciting matching signals.
Remember versus Know Judgments
suggests that different
processes are involved in remembering something versus knowing whether it
is familiar. It appears that "remembering" and "knowing
represent relatively different characteristics of memory as well as
reflect different ways of using memory.
Read with a Purpose, Skim First, Learn
and note taking.
Think in pictures
Rehearse as you go along, Stay within your
and work to increase that span,
Impression, Association, Repetition.
When remembering the details of an event, some
people remember more details when they close their eyes.
The adult Brain
estimated to store a limit of up to 2.5
Nogo Receptor-1 (NgR1)
regions linked to
memory formation, storage, and the formation of lasting
If you are going to do memory
building exercises and memory tests then use things that are
relevant to you and your life.
Use relevant numbers and make a
puzzle that means something.
Auditory Closed-Loop Stimulation of the Sleep Slow Oscillation
at low intensities
during Slow-Wave Sleep
synchronized to the rhythm of the slow brain oscillations of
people who are
, enhances and boosts their
Sound waves boost older adults'
memory, deep sleep.
synced to brain waves deepens sleep and triples memory scores in
older adults. Pink Noise is a signal or process with a frequency spectrum
such that the power spectral density (energy or power per frequency
interval) is inversely proportional to the frequency of the signal. In
pink noise, each octave (halving/doubling in frequency) carries an equal
amount of noise energy. The name arises from the pink appearance of
visible light with this power spectrum. Within the scientific literature
the term pink noise is sometimes used a little more loosely to refer to
any noise with a power spectral density of the form
where f is frequency, and 0 < α < 2, with exponent α usually close to 1.
These pink-like noises occur widely in nature and are a source of
considerable interest in many fields. The distinction between the noises
with α near 1 and those with a broad range of α approximately corresponds
to a much more basic distinction. The former (narrow sense) generally come
from condensed-matter systems in quasi-equilibrium, as discussed below.
The latter (broader sense) generally correspond to a wide range of
non-equilibrium driven dynamical systems. The term flicker noise is
sometimes used to refer to pink noise, although this is more properly
applied only to its occurrence in electronic devices. Mandelbrot and Van
Ness proposed the name fractional noise (sometimes since called fractal
noise) to emphasize that the exponent of the power spectrum could take
non-integer values and be closely related to fractional Brownian motion,
but the term is very rarely used.
chewing the same flavored gum
while studying for an exam, and
then while taking the exam, increase memory performance?
Memory and Higher Cortical Volumes in Unusually Successful
Cognitive AgingThe Brain
UNF Researchers Show Running Barefoot Improves Working Memory
Methods for improving Memory
Memory Improvement Tips
Memorizing like the Pros
Memory Improvement Course
How To Improve Your Memory
Joshua Foer: Feats of Memory anyone
World Memory Championships
Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for
encoding and recall
is a card game in which
all of the cards are laid face down on a surface and two cards are flipped
face up over each turn. The object of the game is to turn over pairs of
matching cards. Concentration can be played with any number of players or
as solitaire. It is a particularly good game for young children, though
adults may find it challenging and stimulating as well. The scheme is
often used in quiz shows and can be employed as an educational game.
Word Recall Games
is a test of memory in which
participants are presented with stimuli and then, after a delay, are asked
to remember as many of the stimuli as possible. Memory performance can be
indicated by measuring the percentage of stimuli the participant was able
to recall. An example of this would be studying a list of 10 words and
later recalling 5 of them. This is a 50 percent recall. Participants'
responses also may be analyzed to determine if there is a pattern in the
way items are being recalled from memory. For example, if participants are
given a list consisting of types of vegetables and types of fruit, their
recall can be assessed to determine whether they grouped vegetables
together and fruits together. Recall is also involved when a person is
asked to recollect life events, such as graduating high school, or to
recall facts they have learned, such as the capital of Florida.
describes a condition in which a person's
identity and relationships are affected by memories that are factually
incorrect but that they strongly
. Cognitive Bias
List of Memory Biases
is a theory of elaborate memory recall proposed within the field
of Cognitive Psychology, in which the act of remembering is influenced by
various other cognitive processes
including perception, imagination,
semantic memory and beliefs, amongst others. People view their memories as
being a coherent and truthful account of episodic memory and believe that
their perspective is free from error during recall. However the
reconstructive process of memory recall is subject to distortion by other
intervening cognitive functions such as individual
, and world knowledge
, all of which can lead to errors during
happens when a person's recall of
episodic memories becomes less accurate because of post-event information,
is a disturbance of memory, defined as
the production of fabricated, distorted or misinterpreted memories about
oneself or the world, without the conscious intention to deceive.
Individuals who confabulate present incorrect memories ranging from
"subtle alterations to bizarre fabrications", and are generally very
confident about their recollections, despite contradictory evidence.
is a type of memory
where the source of a
memory is incorrectly attributed to some specific recollected experience.
For example, individuals may learn about a current event from a friend,
but later report having learned about it on the local news, thus
reflecting an incorrect source attribution. This error occurs when normal
perceptual and reflective processes are disrupted, either by limited
encoding of source information or by disruption to the judgment processes
used in source-monitoring. Depression, high stress levels and damage to
relevant brain areas are examples of factors that can cause such
disruption and hence source-monitoring errors.
was an American memory disorder patient who
had a bilateral medial temporal lobectomy to surgically resect the
anterior two thirds of his hippocampi, parahippocampal cortices,
entorhinal cortices, piriform cortices, and amygdalae in an attempt to
cure his epilepsy. He was widely studied from late 1957 until his death in
2008. His case played an important role in the development of theories
that explain the link between brain function and memory, and in the
development of cognitive neuropsychology, a branch of psychology that aims
to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to
specific psychological processes. He resided in a care institute in
Windsor Locks, Connecticut, where he was the subject of ongoing
hypothesizes the decline of memory retention in time. This curve shows how
information is lost over time when there is no attempt to retain it. A
related concept is the strength of memory that refers to the durability
that memory traces in the brain. The stronger the memory, the longer
period of time that a person is able to recall it. A typical graph of the
forgetting curve purports to show that humans tend to halve their memory
of newly learned knowledge in a matter of days or weeks unless they
consciously review the learned material.
Forward Error Correction
is a technique used for controlling
in data transmission
over unreliable or noisy communication channels. The central idea is the
sender encodes the message in a redundant way by using an error-correcting
is the phenomenon whereby learning is greater
when studying is spread out over time, as opposed to studying the same
amount of content in a single session. That is, it is better to use
than massed presentation. Practically, this effect suggests that "cramming
(intense, last-minute studying) the night before an exam is not likely to
be as effective as studying at intervals in a longer time frame. Important
to note, however, is that the benefit of spaced presentations does not
appear at short retention intervals, in which massed presentations tend to
lead to better memory performance. This effect is a desirable difficulty;
it challenges the learner but leads to better learning in the long-run.
is a person's episodic memory for a crime
or other dramatic event that he or she has witnessed. Eyewitness testimony
is often relied upon in the judicial system. It can also refer to an
individual's memory for a face, where they are required to remember the
face of their perpetrator, for example. However, the accuracy of
eyewitness memories is sometimes questioned because there are many factors
that can act during encoding and retrieval of the witnessed event which
may adversely affect the creation and maintenance of the memory for the
event. Experts have found evidence to suggest that eyewitness memory is
. It has long been
speculated that mistaken eyewitness identification plays a major role in
the wrongful conviction of innocent individuals. A growing body of
research now supports this speculation, indicating that mistaken
eyewitness identification is responsible for more convictions of the
innocent than all other factors combined. The Innocence Project determined
that 75% of the 239 DNA exoneration cases had occurred due to inaccurate
eyewitness testimony. It is important to inform the public about the
flawed nature of eyewitness memory and the difficulties relating to its
use in the criminal justice system so that eyewitness accounts are not
viewed as the absolute truth.
Elizabeth Loftus: The Fiction of Memory
is a defense in
which claims the actual innocence of the criminal
defendant, and attempts to undermine evidence of guilt by asserting that
to the crime incorrectly
thought that they saw the defendant, when in fact the person seen by the
witness was someone else. The defendant may question both the memory of
the witness (suggesting, for example, that the identification is the
result of a false memory), and the perception of the witness (suggesting,
for example, that the witness had poor eyesight, or that the crime
occurred in a poorly lit place).
Social Scientists have shown that the
Reliability of Eyewitness Identifications
is much worse than
laypersons tend to believe.
Supreme Court Releases
Eyewitness Identification Criteria
for Criminal Cases.
is the assumption
that as one's confidence increases so does their level of
accuracy in recall.
The brain stores more details
about certain moments then we are aware of. Can Hypnosis help
Improvement and Recall Skills - Free Hypnosis Session
is catch-all psychotherapy term for
therapy using one or more method or technique for the purpose of recalling
Past Life Regression
is a technique that uses hypnosis to recover what
practitioners believe are memories of past lives or incarnations, though
others regard them as fantasies or delusions or a type of confabulation.
is a psychological phenomenon in which a person
recalls a memory that did not actually occur.
only if the questions are not Misleading the person to create
problems with recalling words or names. Refresh your memory with important
Serial Position Effect
is the tendency of a person to recall
the first and last items in a series best, and the middle items worst
- Adult LearningBrain
VulnerabilitiesBrain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
When memories become a curse instead
of a blessing.
is a psychological phenomenon in which an individual has a sudden, usually
powerful, re-experiencing of a past experience or elements of a past
experience. These experiences can be happy, sad, exciting, or any other
emotion one can consider. The term is used particularly when the memory is
recalled involuntarily, and/or when it is so intense that the person
"relives" the experience, unable to fully recognize it as memory and not
something that is happening in "real time".
occurs when a forgotten memory returns without it being recognized as such
by the subject, who believes it is something new and original. It is a
memory bias whereby a person may falsely recall generating a thought, an
idea, a song, or a joke, not deliberately engaging in plagiarism but
rather experiencing a memory as if it were a new inspiration.
is the phenomenon of having the strong sensation that an
event or experience currently being experienced has already been
experienced in the past, "already seen". Déjà vu is a feeling of
familiarity, and déjà vécu
feeling of having "already lived through" something) is a feeling of
Emotion and Memory
can have a powerful effect on humans and
animals. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical
memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled
more often and with more clarity and detail than neutral events.
are memories that have been unconsciously blocked due
to the memory being associated with a high level of stress or trauma. The
theory postulates that even though the individual cannot recall the
memory, it may still be affecting them consciously. These memories can
emerge later into the consciousness.
is the psychological attempt made by an
individual to direct one's own
desires and impulses
toward pleasurable instincts by excluding the desire from one's
consciousness and holding or subduing it in the unconscious. In
psychoanalytic theory repression plays a major role in many mental
illnesses, and in the psyche of the average person.
It's better to
deal with a bad memory and understand it then it is to just try to about
forget it. Once you have come to terms with a bad experience, the less
likely you will be negatively effected by recalling that bad memory. And
you will also be more likely to remember the good memeories more often.
Then eventually all bad memories will lose their grip on your well being.
This is a learned skill, the good news is that
everyone is capable of
. Changing Bad Habits
is the apparent loss or modification of
information already encoded and stored in an individual's long term
memory. It is a spontaneous or gradual process in which old memories are
unable to be recalled from memory storage. Forgetting also helps to
reconcile the storage of new information with old knowledge. Problems with
remembering, learning and retaining new information are a few of the most
common complaints of older adults. Memory performance is usually related
to the active functioning of three stages. These three stages are
encoding, storage and retrieval. Many different factors influence the
actual process of forgetting. An example of one of these factors could be
the amount of time the new information is stored in the memory. Events
involved with forgetting can happen either before or after the actual
memory process. The amount of time the information is stored in the
memory, depending on the minutes hours or even days, can increase or
decrease depending on how well the information is encoded. Studies show
that retention improves with increased rehearsal. This improvement occurs
because rehearsal helps to transfer information into long term memory –
practice makes perfect
is the selective artificial removal of memories or associations from the
mind. There are many reasons that research is being done on the selective
removal of memories. Potential patients for this research include patients
suffering from psychiatric disorders such as post traumatic stress
disorder, or substance use disorder, among others. Memory erasure has been
shown to be possible in some experimental conditions; some of the
techniques currently being investigated are: drug-induced amnesia,
selective memory suppression, destruction of neurons, interruption of
memory, reconsolidation, and the disruption of specific molecular
is the tendency of an
to completely and abruptly forget previously learned
information upon learning new information.
is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological
trauma. Amnesia can also be caused temporarily by the use of various
sedatives and hypnotic drugs. The memory can be either wholly or partially
lost due to the extent of damage that was caused. There are two main types
of amnesia: retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia. Retrograde amnesia
is the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a
particular date, usually the date of an accident or operation. In some
cases the memory loss can extend back decades, while in others the person
may lose only a few months of memory. Anterograde amnesia is the inability
to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term
store. People with this type of amnesia cannot remember things for long
periods of time. These two types are not mutually exclusive. Both can
occur within a patient at one time.
is the inability of adults to retrieve episodic memories which
are memories of specific events (times, places, associated emotions, and
other contextual who, what, when, and where) before the age of 2–4 years,
as well as the period before age 10 of which adults retain fewer memories
than might otherwise be expected, given the passage of time.
is the inability in hypnotic subjects to recall events that took place
while under hypnosis. This can be achieved by giving individuals a
suggestion during hypnosis to forget certain material that they have
learned either before or during hypnosis. Individuals who are experiencing
post-hypnotic amnesia cannot have their memories recovered once put back
under hypnosis and is therefore not state dependent. Nevertheless,
memories may return when presented with a pre-arranged cue. This makes
post-hypnotic amnesia similar to psychogenic amnesia as it disrupts the
retrieval process of memory. It has been suggested that inconsistencies in
methodologies used to study post-hypnotic amnesia cause varying results.
is a memory disorder characterized by sudden retrograde autobiographical
memory loss, said to occur for a period of time ranging from hours to
years. More recently, "dissociative amnesia" has been defined as a
dissociative disorder "characterized by retrospectively reported memory
gaps. These gaps involve an inability to recall personal information,
usually of a traumatic or stressful nature." In a change from the DSM-IV
to the DSM-5, dissociative fugue is now subsumed under dissociative
The Man With
The Seven Second Memory (Medical Documentary)
Clive Wearing has one of
the worst cases of amnesia in the world. (youtube) (he still remembers how
to walk, play the piano and remembers how to talk, still retains a
Too much activity in one of the brain's key memory regions is bad for your
memory and attention
. Hippocampal neural disinhibition causes
attentional and memory deficits.
also known as involuntary explicit
memory, involuntary conscious memory, involuntary aware memory,
and most commonly, involuntary autobiographical memory, is a
subcomponent of memory that occurs when cues encountered in
everyday life evoke recollections of the past without conscious
effort. Voluntary memory, its binary opposite, is characterized
by a deliberate effort to recall the past.
, such as memories of a person’s own
life and general facts about the world. This is knowledge you are very
aware of and can talk about. The other type of memory, non-declarative, is
. This is information that’s difficult to
verbalize but enables someone to ride a bike or to bow a viola or apply
doesn’t rely on the
, it's stored in a separate place or in a
separate way. Skill-related knowledge is a possible subcategory of
She can't remember
her marriage, but can tell you how to fly a plane
"You don't have to change
or suppress memories, you just need to
change how you remember
, and also, create new and better memories so that
the not so good memories become distant and less significant.
One example is when you install new and better software, you
will eventually forget all those bad experiences that you had
with the old software."
We understand our world by how we interpret our memories
and our ability to use that information and knowledge from those memories
Even though we share the same experiences
, this does not mean that we
share the same memories.
Sometimes we remember things a little
differently even though we experience the same things. And we edit our
memories based on what we learn, and you can't be a good editor if you
never learn how to be a good editor. There are skills involved.
can't always trust our early memories to be accurate - sometimes they will
have been moulded by later conversations about the event, sometimes
creating imaginary memories.
damages the brain by impairing its blood supply, and by
the accumulation of abnormal proteins which impair the brain's ability to
process and relay information.
and Trans Fats
stress hormones influence an area of the brain area that
controls working memory.
can be harmful. Regular exposure to elevated glucocorticoids (a
hormone released by the adrenal gland) also causes our brain
cells to reduce receptors, making brain cells less capable of
responding to neurochemical (brain chemicals) cues.
Anxiety and Depression everyday stress increase cortisol levels in the brain, which causes our
brain cells to lose synapses (the bridges that connect our brain
cells to one another), and make it more difficult to create and
Infections when the body is fighting infections the
memory is not at its best.
also can reduce your ability to remember.
Hot flashes also can reduce your ability to remember.
Dysfunctional thyroid can also
reduce your ability to remember.
Scientists have found in a study of 3,000 people
living in France, that those who worked
performed significantly worse in memory and
cognitive speed tests
than people who had worked regular
hours.Not Getting Enough Sleep
Researchers found participants who engaged in
such as painting, drawing or sculpture in
both middle and old age were 73 percent less likely to develop
mild cognitive impairment than those who didn't.
Does being over-reliant on computers, search engines and cell phones to
remember things, weaken people's memories? That depends on what
you are using your
for. You don't want to memorize useless
information or irrelevant details, but you do want to memorize
the important knowledge and skills that provide you with the
best control and awareness. If you don't need to be technology
dependent, then you should be
, and use technology to expand your
abilities, and not use technologies to lower your abilities.
is a type of metacognition, is both the
introspective knowledge of one’s own memory capabilities (and
strategies that can aid memory) and the processes involved in
memory self-monitoring. This self-awareness of memory has
important implications for how people learn and use memories.
When studying, for example, students make judgments of whether
successfully learned the assigned material and use these
decisions, known as "judgments of learning", to allocate study
"When I see kids memorizing presidents names and countries, it's like child
abuse. I would rather see kids use their memory to remember the
most important things, things that will make their lives richer,
fuller and more meaningful."
Scrabble Champ Wins French Tournament After Memorizing French Dictionary, but he
can't speak French.
"If your memory is not making you smarter each day, then you're remembering
insignificant details, or, insignificant details where force on
you by some educational institution, or by the media, or by
another person, which of course includes you."
"Just because you remember something does not mean that you learned something, why?"
If you don't fully understand what
information and knowledge is to a human, then you will never be
effective enough when teaching. You have to
right things in the right order
, and at the right time. So
what are the right things? And how should you remember them?
This is exactly what I'm working on, and so should you. The more
people who try to answer this question the better. We can then
compare notes and learn even more.
Self Directed Learning
Everything that you learn will require a good Memory. It is extremely
important that you learn how
to use your memory
and know exactly how the human brain
stores, retains, and retrieves memories, information and
knowledge. Everything that you are and everything that you will
become is closely related to ' what you remember, why you
remember it, how you remember it, and when you remember it '.
Understanding is often the best way to remember but memorization
does not always mean that you will
understand, or does it mean that you will remember the right
things at the right time.
"Even with so much to remember and so much
to make sense, It's choosing what to remember that will always
make a difference.
Our memory is so important, we need to use it every day, Never
take it for granted, for there's always a price to pay."
Poem about Memory
Little Things to Remember
Remember that your
is an amazing
gift, use it wisely, for it has unlimited potential.
you can learn anything
that you want, as long as can
something new everyday
, especially things that are
important and informative
Remember to learn things in logically ordered steps, at the
right time and in the right way.
not to believe everything that you read, hear or see
Remember that intelligence is a journey, and if you stop
learning, you will never know how great you can be.
and to visualize, think of
no matter how big or how small they are.
about anything that you feel like writing about.
Writing down your thoughts can be liberating and immortal.
write down things
that you want to do, and things that you
need to do. Responsibilities.
Remember to read your things to do list everyday, and take the
steps to reach your
Remember to keep things
, use moderation, and learn to stay balanced.
Remember to always
eat healthy foods
and do not over eat
. Learn to savor the moment.
Remember to drink enough
Remember to practice
, but know your limitations.
to relax every part of your body, especially the face and the
Remember to do different
throughout the day, understand how
they effect you, focus only on your breathing.
Remember to exercise your focus and attention, staying sharp
Remember to be
, and your surroundings, several times a day.
Keep an open mind.
Remember that you have vulnerabilities, so learn what they are.
Remember to understand how you feel, and that
control your feelings
Remember that you have abilities, and you also have a brain,
which means that you have
controls, so don't stress yourself.
relax and take breaks
don't sit for long
Remember to be
nice to the planet
, it's the only home we have, and we share
it with all life forms.
nice to people
, learn to be honest, especially with
yourself. Take an
Remember to Learn how to respect other people, and learn how to
Remember to Learn how to Forgive, and learn why forgiveness is
Remember to Learn how to understand people and learn to
Remember to Learn how to understand and
control your emotions
, and learn how to
understand the emotions of others
, especially when others
have trouble controlling their emotions.
Remember to not allow other people to control your thinking, and
don't allow outside forces to intrude on your wellbeing.
Remember to Learn how to control your fears. Thinking logically
is a lot healthier then worrying.
Remember to keep in touch with people, even if its only for a
, be proud but be modest.
Remember that mistakes and accidents can happen, and the only time
that you fail is when you don't learn from your mistakes.
Remember to learn from experiences, good or bad.
Remember to share your knowledge.
Remember to laugh
especially at yourself.
Remember to listen to
, practice dancing, or
or do something
you can solve any problem
, as long as you learn how to solve
value and cost accurately.
Remember, as long as you keep learning, you will always have
control, power, freedom, potential and possibilities.
Remember to Remember.
Things To Remember
was a book that I started working on in
2008. I stopped working on the book when this website became
more important. I will finish the book one day, though it will
not be the same book that I started out with."
Would you rather lose all of your old memories, or lose your ability to make new memories?
It's not just what you remember, but more importantly, it's how you
that memory. Is your opinion of that memory correct?
The amazing thing about our memory is that it stores information, just like a computer, well almost.
The amazing thing about our memory is that it stores and saves our experiences, our knowledge, and our information.
And all you have to do to recall your past experiences, knowledge and
information, is to ask for it, and some how the information you
asked for is retrieved and presented to you in the form of
internal images, emotions and information. Wow, this thing is awesome! The human memory is an incredible tool
with amazing abilities. But the memory has certain
vulnerabilities. Like not being able to remember something when
you need to, or remembering the wrong things at the wrong time.
So is our memory a little imperfect, or is it just that we're
not using our memory properly? In order to ask that question you
would first have to answer this question, "what are the best
ways to use our memory, effectively and efficiently?" First you
want your information to be organized and easy to locate when
needed. So learning the right things at the right time, in the
right way, is a must. Second, you want to control the flow of
information. You want to recall the right information at the
right time. Third, you only want to see the information that
you've requested. You don't want irrelevant information to
suddenly appear in your mind and distract you from accessing
more important information that you need. Fourth, you want to
make sure that your current information is continually updated
when needed, which is almost always needed. Fifth, you have to
make sure that the perception of your stored information is
logical. And in order to make sure that your information is
is to learn logical information and
learn how to perceive it properly. Easier said then done but it can be
done. The power of your memory is directly related to the quality of
information and knowledge that you learn, as long as it learned at the
right time and in the right way.
The adult brain has been
estimated to store
of up to 2.5
Equivalent. Kim Peek
, the real Rain Man, shows just how much information
and knowledge a human brain can handle, it seems almost
shows just how incredible Human Brain
processing abilities are.
seems to make certain processing
abilities stand out more. It's not that they have enhanced
abilities, it's just that Autistic people use human brain
abilities more effectively. 99% of all humans have these
abilities, so it's just learning how to use them.
also shows the
enormous memory capacity of the Human Brain.
Immersed in Old Memories
Once in a while you have to visit old memories. Just to
see what you can remember. Sometimes sparking old memories by
playing songs that you use to listened to as a child, or looking
at old photographs. I can see my younger self saying, "Remember
me, I was you once. It's been a while since we talked, so, how
have you been?" It's good to think about things that you have
not thought of in a long time. Even though they may bring back
sad memories, I believe that you have to go back once in a while
and see how much you can still remember. Like an exercise for
your memory. Age
Regression in Therapy
Have you ever heard a song that sparked a distant memory?
Why do songs connect us to moments in time?
Emotion and MemoryTraumatic
helps us to Remember
is a collection of memories that an individual writes
about moments or events, both public or private, that took place
in the subject's life.
Why do some things go into our long-term
memory, it's not like I asked my brain to store this
information, it seems to save it on its own, unless
subconsciously or consciously there's a trigger that activates
the release of
Protein Kinase A
that's used in creating long-term memories.
We know there are control mechanisms in long-term memory because
some people have the ability to remember what they see in
incredible detail when they want to. It's like a computer, you
don't have to know how it works, you just have to know how to
operate it. But you don't have to remember everything in detail,
you just have to remember what's important.
CAMP Response Element
Are memories stored as protein signatures?
Memory reconsolidation and
extinction have distinct temporal and biochemical signatures.
J Neurosci. 2004 May 19;24(20):4787-95.
Suzuki A1, Josselyn SA, Frankland PW, Masushige S, Silva AJ,
Abstract and Concrete
Memory retrieval is not a passive phenomenon. Instead, it
triggers a number of processes that either reinforce or alter
stored information. Retrieval is thought to activate a second
cascade (reconsolidation) that requires
. Here, we show that the temporal dynamics
of memory reconsolidation are dependent on the strength and age
of the memory, such that younger and weaker memories are more
easily reconsolidated than older and stronger memories. We also
report that reconsolidation and extinction, two opposing
processes triggered by memory retrieval, have distinct
biochemical signatures: pharmacological antagonism of either
cannabinoid receptor 1 or L-type voltage-gated calcium channels
blocks extinction but not reconsolidation. These studies
demonstrate the dynamic nature of memory processing after
retrieval and represent a first step toward a molecular
dissection of underlying mechanisms.
Songs About Remembering
- Always Something There to remind me
Streisand - The Way We Were (1975)
Songs about looking back on fond memories
"I don't remember every day of my life, but
I do remember a lot of the good days and a lot of the bad days.
But of course I remember the good days a lot more then the bad
days. But when I do remember the bad days, It makes remembering
the good days that much better. Remembering the bad days also
helps you to appreciate the good days a lot more. So it's good
to remember, even if some of those memories aren't so good."
Remembering is part of your
. You have to recall information from your past in
order to understand the moment that you are in. All that you see
is what you have learned to see. Some people learn to see more.
So what would happen if you looked at the world with no memory?
Exercise, or have the power of, memory. Recall knowledge from
memory; have a recollection.
Keep in mind for attention or consideration.
The process of giving careful thought to something. Information
that should be kept in mind when making a decision.
Kind and considerate regard for others. A considerate and
Make sense of; assign a meaning to. Give an interpretation or
explanation to. Create an image or likeness of.
Restate (words) from one language into another language. Make
sense of a language.
Be reasonable or logical or comprehensible.
Capable of being comprehended or understood.
Kind and considerate regard for others. The trait of thinking
carefully before acting. A considerate and thoughtful act.
A long and thoughtful observation. A calm, lengthy, intent
A calm, lengthy, intent consideration. Expression without words.
A remark expressing careful consideration.
The image of something as reflected by a mirror (or other
The ability to reflect beams or rays.
The phenomenon of a propagating wave (light or sound).
A likeness in which left and right are reversed.
(mathematics) a transformation in which the direction of one
axis is reversed.