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Remember is to recall knowledge from memory; have a recollection. The process of recovering information by mental effort. The Cognitive Processes whereby past experience is remembered. The power of retaining and recalling past experiences, Information and Knowledge. Summon to return. Exercise, or have the power of, memory. Keep in mind for attention or consideration. Go back to something earlier. Memory has the ability to encode, store and recall information.

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Learning Methods
Memory Improving Techniques
Memory Flaws

Experience is the accumulation of Knowledge or Skill that results from direct participation in events or activities. Have firsthand knowledge of states, situations, emotions, or sensations.

If you don't remember the things that matter, then having a good memory doesn't matter. If you don't learn the things that matter, then learning will not matter. First you have to learn everything that is valuable that would increase your understanding of yourself and the world around you. Then you have to strengthen the most important information that you have stored in your memories, and also keep adding to your knowledge base by continually adding more valuable knowledge and information that you can find and get your hands on. Remember to Count the things that matter. "Forgetting only becomes bad when you forgot the things that matter."

One of the failures of Rote Learning is Garbage in, Garbage Out. The dangerous part of forcing students to memorize irrelevant and unimportant information, is that it tricks the student into thinking that this information is important, which much of it is not, at least not at this time in their life. So now the student doesn't know what's important, which is a kind of forced brain damage, and the unsuspecting student has no idea how ignorant they truly are.

Our Memory gives us incredible abilities. But if your memory is not used properly, or if you don't understand your ability to remember, you will never experience the memories true power, which is to continually develop a person into being more intelligent each day as their life progresses. So it's not how much you can remember, it's knowing how to extract the most important information and knowledge from your experiences, and remembering those details, so that they are correctly applied to future moments in time. So how do you choose what to remember? Information Literacy, define what's important.

Memory Types

Memory Processes (wiki)

Explicit Memory (or Declarative Memory) is one of the two main types of long-term human memory. It is the conscious, intentional recollection of factual information, previous experiences and concepts. Explicit memory can be divided into two categories: episodic memory, which stores specific personal experiences, and semantic memory, which stores factual information.

Implicit Memory is one of the two main types of Long-Term Human Memory. It is acquired and used unconsciously, and can affect thoughts and behaviours. One of its most common forms is Procedural Memory, which helps people performing certain tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.

Episodic Memory is the memory of Autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated. It is the collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place. For example, if one remembers the party on his or her 6th birthday, this is an episodic memory. They allow an individual to figuratively travel back in time to remember the event that took place at that particular time and place. Episodic memory allows previous experiences to be relived or rehearsed once resources are available so it can be reanalyzed with new knowledge or additional experiences.

Semantic Memory is one of the two types of declarative or explicit memory (our memory of facts or events that is explicitly stored and retrieved). Semantic memory refers to general world knowledge that we have accumulated throughout our lives. This general knowledge (facts, ideas, meaning and concepts) is intertwined in experience and dependent on culture. Semantic memory is distinct from episodic memory, which is our memory of experiences and specific events that occur during our lives, from which we can recreate at any given point. For instance, semantic memory might contain information about what a cat is, whereas episodic memory might contain a specific memory of petting a particular cat. We can learn about new concepts by applying our knowledge learned from things in the past. The counterpart to declarative, or explicit memory, is procedural memory, or implicit memory.

Short-Term Memory is the capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time. The duration of short-term memory (when rehearsal or active maintenance is prevented) is believed to be in the order of seconds.

Long-Term Memory - Storage of Memories

Baddeley proposed a model of working memory in 1974, in an attempt to describe a more accurate model of short-term memory.

Memory Consolidation

Working Memory is information that can be quickly recalled, "always on your mind" - "off the top of my head".
Loss of Brain Synchrony may explain Working Memory Limits and Working Memory Capacity. The total number of images a person can hold in working memory at the same time – varies between individuals but averages about seven. New study tries to understand what causes the memory to have this intrinsic limit. The researchers found that trying to retain too much information in our working memory leads to a communication breakdown between parts of the brain responsible for maintaining it. Using sophisticated mathematical techniques, they found that the regions essentially work as a committee, without much hierarchy, to keep working memory going. They also found changes as working memory approached and then exceeded capacity. In particular, the researchers found that above capacity the PFC’s coupling to the FEF and LIP at low frequency stopped. Prefrontal Cortex (PFC), Frontal Eye Fields (FEF), Lateral Intraparietal Area (LIP). As previous studies have suggested that the PFC’s role might be to employ low-frequency waves to provide the feedback the keeps the working memory system in sync, the researchers suggest that when that signal breaks down, the whole enterprise may as well. This observation may also explain why memory capacity has a finite limit.

Metamemory a type of metacognition, is both the introspective knowledge of one’s own memory capabilities (and strategies that can aid memory) and the processes involved in memory self-monitoring. This self-awareness of memory has important implications for how people learn and use memories. Reflecting on Memories Improves Memory Quality. Being able to assess our own memories helps us to avoid errors and prompts us to collect more information to fill the gaps. The ability to assess memory quality appears in children. A Brain Knows When It Can't Remember.

Introspective is examining your own sensory and perceptual experiences.

Affective Emotional Memory requires actors to call on the memory of details from a similar situation (or more recently a situation with similar emotional) and import those feelings to those of their characters.

Sensory Memory is being taken in by sensory receptors and processed by the nervous system.

Spatial Intelligence (understanding 3 dimensional spaces)

Body Memory is a hypothesis that the body itself is capable of storing memories, as opposed to only the brain.

Body Smart (understanding how your body moves)

Autobiographical Memory is the ability to remember almost everyday of your life along with the exact dates when things happened. It's a memory system consisting of episodes recollected from an individual's life, based on a combination of episodic (personal experiences and specific objects, people and events experienced at particular time and place) and semantic (general knowledge and facts about the world) memory. It is thus a type of explicit memory. Autobiographical memories only comes with the power of speech. Language helps provide a structure, or organization, for our memories that is a narrative. By creating a story, the experience becomes more organized, and therefore easier to remember over time. The visual cortex is the key to having a good memory, especially when remembering numbers. Some blind people are great with math because they use the visual cortex. Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory.

Calendrical Calculation is the ability to calculate Calendar Dates far into the past and far into the future just using the mind.

The Boy Who Can't Forget (Medical Documentary) - Real Stories (youtube)

First Memories

Visual Memory describes the relationship between perceptual processing and the encoding, storage and retrieval of the resulting neural representations.  Blind Mathematicians (PDF)

Hyperthymesia is the condition of possessing an extremely detailed autobiographical memory. Hyperthymestics remember an abnormally vast number of their life experiences. Not Total Recall, but close.

Iconic Memory is the visual sensory memory (SM) register pertaining to the visual domain and a fast-decaying store of visual information.

Eidetic Memory or Photographic Memory is an ability to vividly recall images from memory after only a few instances of exposure, with high precision for a brief time after exposure, without using a mnemonic device. Although the terms eidetic memory and photographic memory may be used interchangeably, they are also distinguished, with eidetic memory referring to the ability to view memories like photographs for a few minutes, and photographic memory referring to the ability to recall page or text numbers, or similar, in great detail. In the case of distinguishing the concepts, eidetic memory has been documented while photographic memory is a popular culture myth that has never been demonstrated to exist.

Mind Maps - Imagery

Memoir is a collection of memories that an individual writes about moments or events, both public or private, that took place in the subject's life. The assertions made in the work are understood to be factual. Truth

Prospective Memory is a form of memory that involves remembering to perform a planned action or intention at some future point in time.

Recognition Memory is a subcategory of declarative memory. Essentially, recognition memory is the ability to recognize previously encountered events, objects, or people. When the previously experienced event is reexperienced, this environmental content is matched to stored memory representations, eliciting matching signals. Location-updating effect

Attention - Focus

Encoding (memory) is the ability to encode, store and recall information. Memories give an organism the capability to learn and adapt from previous experiences as well as build relationships. Encoding allows the perceived item of use or interest to be converted into a construct that can be stored within the brain and recalled later from short-term or long-term memory. Working memory stores information for immediate use or manipulation which is aided through hooking onto previously archived items already present in the long-term memory of an individual. Spaced Repetition

Memory Management is a form of resource management applied to computer memory. The essential requirement of memory management is to provide ways to dynamically allocate portions of memory to programs at their request, and free it for reuse when no longer needed. This is critical to any advanced computer system where more than a single process might be underway at any time. Several methods have been devised that increase the effectiveness of memory management. Virtual memory systems separate the memory addresses used by a process from actual physical addresses, allowing separation of processes and increasing the size of the virtual address space beyond the available amount of RAM using paging or swapping to secondary storage. The quality of the virtual memory manager can have an extensive effect on overall system performance.

Storage (memory) is the ability of the mind to store and recall information that was previously acquired. Memory is processed through three fundamental processing stages: storage, encoding, and retrieval. Storing refers to the process of placing newly acquired information into memory, which is modified in the brain for easier storage. Encoding this information makes the process of retrieval easier for the brain where it can be recalled and brought into conscious thinking. Modern memory psychology differentiates between the two distinct types of memory storage: short-term memory and long-term memory. In addition, different memory models have suggested variations of existing short- and long-term memory to account for different ways of storing memory. Human Brain Memory Capacity.

Long Term Storage of Information and Knowledge

Recall (memory) refers to the mental process of retrieval of information from the past. Along with encoding and storage, it is one of the three core processes of memory. There are three main types of recall: free recall, cued recall and serial recall. Psychologists test these forms of recall as a way to study the memory processes of humans and animals. Two main theories of the process of recall are the Two-Stage Theory and the theory of Encoding Specificity.

Testing Effect is the finding that long-term memory is increased when some of the learning period is devoted to retrieving the to-be-remembered information through testing with proper feedback. The effect is also sometimes referred to as retrieval practice, practice testing, or test-enhanced learning. Memory Improvement Tips

Memory Span is the longest list of items that a person can repeat back in correct order immediately after presentation on 50% of all trials. Items may include words, numbers, or letters. The task is known as digit span when numbers are used. Memory span is a common measure of short-term memory. It is also a component of cognitive ability tests such as the WAIS. Backward memory span is a more challenging variation which involves recalling items in reverse order. Attention.

Procedural Memory is a type of implicit memory (unconscious memory) and long-term memory which aids the performance of particular types of tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.
10,000 Hour Rule - Rote Learning

Long-Term Memory is the stage of the dual memory model, and informative knowledge can be stored for long periods of time. While short-term and working memory persist for only about 18 to 30 seconds, informative knowledge can remain as long-term memory indefinitely. Long-term memory is commonly labelled as explicit memory (declarative), as well as episodic memory, semantic memory, autobiographical memory, and implicit memory (procedural memory). Long term memories creates new structures with proteins and MRNA and different types of memories are stored in different places. Associations.

Long-Term Potentiation is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity. These are patterns of synaptic activity that produce a long-lasting increase in signal transmission between two neurons. The opposite of LTP is long-term depression, which produces a long-lasting decrease in synaptic strength. Plasticity.

Areas of the Brain used in Memory

Brain Gears Hippocampus Humans have two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain. It belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial navigation. The hippocampus is located under the Cerebral Cortex. Hippocampus is responsible for making new memories.

Hippocampus Anatomy (wiki)
The Hippocampus and Episodic Memory (youtube)

The mechanisms for pattern completion and pattern separation in the hippocampus CA3 region weighs the evidence and the whole region comes to a decision and then sends the decision out to the rest of the brain.

Region I of Hippocampus Proper (wiki)

Uncinate Fasciculus is a white matter tract in the human brain that connects parts of the limbic system such as the hippocampus and amygdala in the temporal lobe with frontal ones such as the orbitofrontal cortex.

Parahippocampal Gyrus is a grey matter cortical region of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus and is part of the limbic system. This region plays an important role in memory encoding and retrieval. It has been involved in some cases of hippocampal sclerosis.

Dentate Gyrus is part of the hippocampus and/or hippocampal formation, as some texts include the latter structure in the former or vice versa. The dentate gyrus is thought to contribute to the formation of new episodic memories, the spontaneous exploration of novel environments, and other functions. It is notable as being one of a select few brain structures currently known to have high rates of neurogenesis in adult rats (other sites include the olfactory bulb and cerebellum).

Neocortex - Brain Knowledge - Neurons (brain)

Amygdala are two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans. Shown in research to perform a primary role in the processing of memory, decision-making, and emotional reactions, the amygdalae are considered part of the limbic system.

Serotonin helps to speed Learning. And around 90% of serotonin is in the gut. You are what you eat.

Temporal Lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The temporal lobe is located beneath the lateral fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain. The temporal lobe is involved in processing sensory input into derived meanings for the appropriate retention of visual memory, language comprehension, and emotion association.

Rhythm of Memory. Inhibited neurons set the tempo for memory processes. Researchers have suspected for a long time that frequencies over 30 Hertz coordinate the synchronous cooperation of various cell networks of the brain. But how do these signals, which are known as gamma waves, occur in several places simultaneously? When they are roused from their rest, the surrounding cells are receptive to certain information. Then they are stimulated to develop a common potential for action, so
that a signal can be transmitted to other neurons. This in turn can be measured electrophysiologically as a discharge of gamma waves. The interesting aspect of this is that the micro-circuits do not interfere with one another, but can store or access various information in parallel, such as the attribute form and color of an object. This allows simultaneous, parallel processing and the storage of information. The more we know about the billions of nerve cells in the brain, the less their interaction appears spontaneous and random. Posterior Cingulate Cortex

Synchronized Brain Waves: Old Brains Come Uncoupled in Sleep: Slow Wave-Spindle Synchrony, Brain Atrophy, and Forgetting. During deep sleep, some people could have less coordination between two brain waves that are important to saving new memories. When those two brain waves were perfectly coinciding, that's when you seem to get this fantastic transfer of memory within the brain from short term vulnerable storage sites to these more permanent, safe, long-term storage sites. If it's 50 milliseconds too early, or 50 milliseconds too late, this storing mechanism actually doesn't work. People with more atrophy, the area of the brain involved in producing deep sleep, had less rhythm in the brain.

Neuroanatomy of Memory encompasses a wide variety of anatomical structures in the brain.

Neural Network (ai)

Neuroscientists Construct First Whole-brain Map Showing Electrical Connections Key to Forming Memories. Alignment between brain regions tends to strengthen with slow waves of activity but weaken at higher frequencies. Low-frequency connectivity of a brain region was associated with increased neural activity at that site. This suggests that, for someone to form new memories, two functions must happen simultaneously: brain regions must individually process a stimulus, and then those
regions must communicate with each other at low frequencies.

Tickling the Brain with Electrical Stimulation Improves Memory. Low-intensity electrical stimulation on the brain's lateral temporal cortex in the regions on the sides of the head by the temples and ears, can improve verbal short-term memory. (Temporal Lobe).

Cognitive Load (working memory)

A Brain wide Chemical Signal that Enhances Memory

Protein Kinase B or AKT, is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription and cell migration. Akt1 is involved in cellular survival pathways, by
inhibiting apoptotic processes. Akt1 is also able to induce protein synthesis pathways, and is therefore a key signaling protein in the cellular pathways that lead to skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and general tissue growth. Akt2 is an important signaling molecule in the insulin signaling pathway. It is required to induce glucose transport. The role of Akt3 is less clear, though it appears to be predominantly expressed in the brain. AKT has more recently been identified as a key player in promoting "synaptic plasticity," the brain's ability to strengthen cellular connections in response to experience.

Protein kinase C zeta type is thought to be responsible for maintaining long-term memories in the brain.

Long-Lasting Brain Proteins offer clues to how Memories Last a Lifetime. In the tiny brain space where two nerve cells meet, chemical and electric signals shuttle back and forth, a messaging system that ebbs and flows in those synaptic spaces, sometimes in ways that scientists believe aid and abet learning and memory. But because most of the proteins found in those synapses die and renew themselves so rapidly, scientists have had a hard time pinning down how synapses are stable enough
to explain the kind of learning and memory that lasts a lifetime. 164 proteins within synapses in mice that outlast neighboring proteins by weeks and months. These stable proteins, they say, may be part of the molecular machinery that governs long-term memory and learning -- as well as loss of memory.

Using Virtual Reality to Identify Brain Areas Involved in Memory. Different areas of the hippocampus are activated for different types of memories.

Acetylcholine is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a
neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells. Its name is derived from its chemical structure: it is an ester of acetic acid and choline. Parts in the body that use or are affected by acetylcholine are referred to as cholinergic. Substances that interfere with acetylcholine activity are called Anticholinergics, which is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system. Anticholinergics inhibit parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to its receptor in nerve cells. The nerve fibers of the parasympathetic system are responsible for the involuntary movement of smooth muscles present in the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, lungs, and many other parts of the body. Anticholinergics are divided into three categories in accordance with their specific targets in the central and/or peripheral nervous system: antimuscarinic agents, ganglionic blockers, and neuromuscular blockers.

Engrama are theorized to be means by which memories are stored as biophysical or biochemical changes in the brain (and other neural tissue) in response to external stimuli.

Neurons in brain regions that store memory can form networks in the absence of Synaptic Activity. Results imply that assembly of neural circuits in areas required for cognition is largely controlled by intrinsic genetic programs that operate independently of the external world.

Biologists 'transfer' a memory through RNA injection

Reading Transforms Brain Networks (words and thoughts)

Levels of Processing

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence (Body Smart)
Spatial intelligence (3D Space Smart)

Things that effect your Memory

Effects of Physical Exercise on Memory

Sleep and Memory is the cognitive process whereby experiences, learning and recognition are recalled. Memory "formation" is a product of brain plasticity, the structural changes within synapses that create associations between stimuli. Stimuli are encoded within milliseconds; however, the long-term maintenance of memories can take additional minutes, days, or even years to fully consolidate and become a stable memory (more resistant to change or interference). Therefore, the formation of a specific memory occurs rapidly, but the evolution of a memory is often an ongoing process. Memory processes have been shown to be stabilized and enhanced (sped up and/or integrated) by nocturnal sleep and even daytime naps. Certain sleep stages are noted to improve an individual's memory, although this is task specific. Generally, declarative memories are enhanced by slow-wave sleep, while non-declarative memories are enhanced by rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, although there are some inconsistencies among experimental results.

Sleeping (Knowledge)

Memory Vulnerabilities (false memories)

Information Overload

Brain Foods - Smart Drugs 

Learning Methods - 10,000 Hours

Awareness (perception)

Theories and Processes

Memory Span is the longest list of items that a person can repeat back in correct order immediately after presentation on 50% of all trials. Items may include words, numbers, or letters. The task is known as digit span when numbers are used. Memory span is a common measure of short-term memory. It is also a component of cognitive ability tests such as the WAIS. Backward memory span is a more challenging variation which involves recalling items in reverse order.

Memory Improving Skills  -  Memory Tips  -  Good Memory Techniques

One key to remembering someone's name is making a connection between their name and something that you can easily remember. (Visual Associations) To get an individual's name to go hand in hand with their face is to say their name aloud in conversation. Another way of remembering peoples names is to visualizing their names written across their foreheads after being introduced. (Baker-baker Paradox)

Memory Training (techniques)

"There should be a memory trick for remembering memory tricks."

Loci is a method of memory enhancement which uses visualizations with the use of spatial memory, familiar information about one's environment, to quickly and efficiently recall information. (Memory Palace).

Mnemonic Peg System is a memory aid that works by creating mental associations between two concrete objects in a one-to-one fashion that will later be applied to to-be-remembered information. Typically this involves linking nouns to numbers and it is common practice to choose a noun that rhymes with the number it is associated with. These will be the pegs of the system. These associations have to be memorized one time and can be applied repeatedly to new information that needs to be memorize. Mnemonic is a way of aiding the memory and recall using a rhyme, acronym, number, color, or other forms of information and so on.

Imagining an action-consequence relationship can boost memory. The next time you hear about the possibility of rain on the weather forecast, try imagining the umbrella tip being lodged in your home's door lock, blocking you from locking it. This
mental exercise could prevent you from leaving home without an umbrella.

Encoding allows the perceived item of use or interest to be converted into a construct that can be stored within the brain and recalled later from short-term or long-term memory. Working memory stores information for immediate use or manipulation which is aided through hooking onto previously archived items already present in the long-term memory of an individual.

Mnemonics is any learning technique that aids information retention in the human memory. Mnemonics make use of elaborative encoding, retrieval cues, and imagery as specific tools to encode any given information in a way that allows for efficient storage and retrieval. Mantra

Phonics (reading)

Mnemonist refers to an individual with the ability to remember and recall unusually long lists of data, such as unfamiliar names, lists of numbers, entries in books, etc.

Retrieval Practice - Long Term Memory

Visual Cortex  - Sight - Spatial Intelligence

Information Visualization - Mind Maps

Acrostics is a poem (or other form of writing) in which the first letter (or syllable, or word) of each line (or paragraph, or other recurring feature in the text) spells out a word, message or the alphabet.

EGBDF Every Good Boy Does Fine, Every Good Boy Deserves Favour or Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge.


Acronyms is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters.


Word Games

Chunking in psychology is a process by which individual pieces of information are bound together into a meaningful whole.
Break things down into more Manageable Chunks.

Memory Consolidation is a category of processes that stabilize a memory trace after its initial acquisition. Consolidation is distinguished into two specific processes, synaptic consolidation, which is synonymous with late-phase long-term potentiation and occurs within the first few hours after learning, and systems consolidation, where hippocampus-dependent memories become independent of the hippocampus over a period of weeks to years. Recently, a third process has become the focus of research, reconsolidation, in which previously-consolidated memories can be made labile again through reactivation of the memory trace.

Sensory Cues is a statistic or signal that can be extracted from the sensory input by a perceiver, that indicates the state of some property of the world that the perceiver is interested in perceiving.

Cicero is a mnemonic technique, based off of the method of loci, which allows memorization of sequential information.

Memorization is the process of committing something to memory. Mental process undertaken in order to store in memory for later recall items such as experiences, names, appointments, addresses, telephone numbers, lists, stories, poems, pictures, maps, diagrams, facts, music or other visual, auditory, or tactical information.

Context-Dependent Memory refers to improved recall of specific episodes or information when the context present at encoding and retrieval are the same.

Mnemonic Major System is a mnemonic technique used to aid in memorizing numbers. The system works by converting numbers into consonant sounds, then into words by adding vowels. The system works on the principle that images can be remembered more easily than numbers.

Memory Champion Teaches You How to Memorize Anything (youtube)

The Molecular Biology of Memory Storage: A Dialogue Between Genes and Synapses

Spaced Repetition

Always review what you have learned 10 minutes after learning, 1 day after learning, 1 week after learning, 1 month after learning and 6 months after learning. People who are given information and then tell someone about it immediately, recall the details better and longer by telling someone the particulars of what they have learned, as opposed to just simply re-reading the textbook or class notes and studying it again later. Reviewing and replaying what you have learned strengthens memories. Writing out some questions for yourself about the information, then later answering them yourself, you are more likely to remember the information. Visual cue's also improve memories.

Spaced Repetition is a learning technique that incorporates increasing intervals of time between subsequent review of previously learned material in order to exploit the psychological spacing effect. Alternative names include spaced rehearsal, expanding rehearsal, graduated intervals, repetition spacing, repetition scheduling, spaced retrieval and expanded retrieval.

Spacing Effect is the phenomenon whereby learning is greater when studying is spread out over time, as opposed to studying the same amount of content in a single session. That is, it is better to use spaced presentation rather than massed presentation. Practically, this effect suggests that "cramming" (intense, last-minute studying) the night before an exam is not likely to be as effective as studying at intervals in a longer time frame. Important to note, however, is that the benefit of spaced presentations does not appear at short retention intervals, in which massed presentations tend to lead to better memory performance. This effect is a desirable difficulty; it challenges the learner but leads to better learning in the long-run.

N-Back The n-back task is a continuous performance task that is commonly used as an assessment in cognitive neuroscience to measure a part of working memory and working memory capacity. The subject is presented with a sequence of stimuli, and the task consists of indicating when the current stimulus matches the one from n steps earlier in the sequence. The load factor n can be adjusted to make the task more or less difficult. To clarify, the visual n-back test is similar to the classic memory game of "Concentration". However, instead of different items that are in a fixed location on the game board, there is only one item, that appears in different positions on the game board during each turn. "1-N" means that you have to remember the position of the item, one turn back. "2-N" means that you have to remember the position of the item two turns back, and so on.

Dual n-Back. In the dual-task paradigm, two independent sequences are presented simultaneously, typically using different modalities of stimuli, such as one auditory and one visual. The "dual n-back" is a memory sequence test in which people must remember a constantly updating sequence of visual and auditory stimuli. but instead of just recalling sounds and colors, you have to remember the current sequence and the one a few rounds back.

Dual-Task Paradigm is a procedure in experimental (neuro) psychology that requires an individual to perform two tasks simultaneously, in order to compare performance with single-task conditions. When performance scores on one and/or both tasks are lower when they are done simultaneously compared to separately, these two tasks interfere with each other, and it is assumed that both tasks compete for the same class of information processing resources in the brain. For instance, reciting poetry while riding a bike are two tasks that can be performed just as well separately as simultaneously. However, reciting poetry while writing an essay should deteriorate performance on at least one of these two tasks, because they interfere with each other. The interpretation of dual-task paradigms follows the view that human processing resources are limited and shareable and that they can be subdivided into several classes. 

Graduated Interval Recall (youtube) 


Practice is to Perform an activity or exercise a Skill repeatedly or regularly in order to improve or maintain one's Proficiency.
10,000 Hour Rule - Rote Learning

Memorizing pi doesn’t have to be done through numbers—it can also be done through words. This sentence "How I wish I could calculate pi" gives you pi to seven places. Just count the number of letters in each word—3, 1, 4, 1, 5…—and you get 3.141592. World record holder Chao Lu has recited it to 67,890 digits without an error. Sasha Volokh composed a passage that takes pi out to 167 digits. Mike Keith’s Cadaeic Cadenza takes it out to nearly 4000 digits (the last line is “I end, whispering ad infinitums").

Super-Sized Memory is Trainable and Long Lasting
The ability to perform astonishing feats of memory, such as remembering lists of several dozen words, can be learned, researchers report. After 40 days using a strategic memory improvement technique, individuals who had typical memory skills at the start and no previous memory training more than doubled their memory capacity, going from recalling an average of 26 words from a list of 72 to remembering 62. Four months later, recall performance remained high.

Training and Plasticity of Working Memory. Working memory (WM) capacity predicts performance in a wide range of cognitive tasks. Although WM capacity has been viewed as a constant trait, recent studies suggest that it can be improved by adaptive and extended training. This training is associated with changes in brain activity in frontal and parietal cortex and basal
ganglia, as well as changes in dopamine receptor density. Transfer of the training effects to non-trained WM tasks is consistent with the notion of training-induced plasticity in a common neural network for WM. The observed training effects suggest that WM training could be used as a remediating intervention for individuals for whom low WM capacity is a limiting factor for academic performance or in everyday life.

Keeping Your Memory Sharp (youtube)
Hermann Ebbinghaus (wiki)

One-month worth of memory training results in 30 minutes. A new study shows that when participants are taught an effective strategy for a working memory training task, they quickly improve their performance in the same way as those who have undergone typical working memory training without strategy instructions for a month or longer. The significance of strategies was evident also in the controls who did not receive any strategy advice: use of self-generated strategies was associated with better working memory task performance at post-test.

Trigger a Memory
Attention Restoration Theory (focus)
Flash Cards
Number Associations

What is Location-updating effect? Sometimes I have to return the room where the thought or  memory was created in order to remember what I was thinking of.

Shower Effect

Recognition Memory is a subcategory of declarative memory. Essentially, recognition memory is the ability to recognize previously encountered events, objects, or people. When the previously experienced event is reexperienced, this environmental content is matched to stored memory representations, eliciting matching signals.

Remember versus Know Judgments suggests that different processes are involved in remembering something versus knowing whether it is familiar. It appears that "remembering" and "knowing" represent relatively different characteristics of memory as well as reflect different ways of using memory.

Reading Comprehension. Read with a Purpose, Skim First, Learn Reading Mechanics, High Lighting and note taking. Think in pictures. Rehearse as you go along, Stay within your attention span and work to increase that span, Rehearse again soon.
Impression, Association, Repetition.

When remembering the details of an event, some people remember more details when they close their eyes.


The adult Brain has been estimated to store a limit of up to 2.5 Petabytes of Binary Data Equivalent.

Is the Nogo Receptor-1 (NgR1) in Brain regions linked to memory formation, storage, and the formation of lasting memories?

If you are going to do memory building exercises and memory tests then use things that are relevant to you and your life.
Use relevant numbers and make a puzzle that means something.

Brain Games (education toys)

Auditory Closed-Loop Stimulation of the Sleep Slow Oscillation Enhances Memory

Sound Stimulation at low intensities during Slow-Wave Sleep, synchronized to the rhythm of the slow brain oscillations of people who are Sleeping, enhances and boosts their memory.


Sound waves boost older adults' memory, deep sleep.
Pink Noise synced to brain waves deepens sleep and triples memory scores in older adults. Pink Noise is a signal or process with a frequency spectrum such that the power spectral density (energy or power per frequency interval) is inversely proportional to the frequency of the signal. In pink noise, each octave (halving/doubling in frequency) carries an equal amount of noise energy. The name arises from the pink appearance of visible light with this power spectrum. Within the scientific literature the term pink noise is sometimes used a little more loosely to refer to any noise with a power spectral density of the form Pink Noise where f is frequency, and 0 < α < 2, with exponent α usually close to 1. These pink-like noises occur widely in nature and are a source of considerable interest in many fields. The distinction between the noises with α near 1 and those with a broad range of α approximately corresponds to a much more basic distinction. The former (narrow sense) generally come from condensed-matter systems in quasi-equilibrium, as discussed below. The latter (broader sense) generally correspond to a wide range of non-equilibrium driven dynamical systems. The term flicker noise is sometimes used to refer to pink noise, although this is more properly applied only to its occurrence in electronic devices. Mandelbrot and Van Ness proposed the name fractional noise (sometimes since called fractal noise) to emphasize that the exponent of the power spectrum could take non-integer values and be closely related to fractional Brownian motion, but the term is very rarely used.

Can chewing the same flavored gum while studying for an exam, and then while taking the exam, increase memory performance?

Superior Memory and Higher Cortical Volumes in Unusually Successful Cognitive Aging
The Brain

UNF Researchers Show Running Barefoot Improves Working Memory

Memory Techniques
Methods for improving Memory
Memory Improvement Tips
Memorizing like the Pros
Memory Key
Memory Techniques
Memory Improvement Course
How To Improve Your Memory (youtube)
Joshua Foer: Feats of Memory anyone can do (youtube)
Memory Tips (PDF)
Memory Improvement (amazon)
Cognitive Fun

More Memory Techniques

Brain Maintenance (maintaining your internal memory bank) - Brain Food

External Memory Devices (off loading)

Senstone records your thoughts on the go. Just tap, speak and your ideas turn into organized text notes.

Memory Contests

Memory Contest
World Memory Championships
Memory Challenge
Memory Sports

Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall

Concentration Game is a card game in which all of the cards are laid face down on a surface and two cards are flipped face up over each turn. The object of the game is to turn over pairs of matching cards. Concentration can be played with any number of players or as solitaire. It is a particularly good game for young children, though adults may find it challenging and stimulating as well. The scheme is often used in quiz shows and can be employed as an educational game.

Learning Games
Word Recall Games

Recall Test is a test of memory in which participants are presented with stimuli and then, after a delay, are asked to remember as many of the stimuli as possible. Memory performance can be indicated by measuring the percentage of stimuli the participant was able to recall. An example of this would be studying a list of 10 words and later recalling 5 of them. This is a 50 percent recall. Participants' responses also may be analyzed to determine if there is a pattern in the way items are being recalled from memory. For example, if participants are given a list consisting of types of vegetables and types of fruit, their recall can be assessed to determine whether they grouped vegetables together and fruits together. Recall is also involved when a person is asked to recollect life events, such as graduating high school, or to recall facts they have learned, such as the capital of Florida.

Memory Vulnerabilities

False Memory describes a condition in which a person's identity and relationships are affected by memories that are factually incorrect but that they strongly believe.

Cognitive Bias - List of Memory Biases (wiki)

Conformity - History Misconceptions - Lying

Reconstructive Memory is a theory of elaborate memory recall proposed within the field of Cognitive Psychology, in which the act of remembering is influenced by various other cognitive processes including perception, imagination, semantic memory and beliefs, amongst others. People view their memories as being a coherent and truthful account of episodic memory and believe that their perspective is free from error during recall. However the reconstructive process of memory recall is subject to distortion by other intervening cognitive functions such as individual perceptions, social influences, and world knowledge, all of which can lead to errors during reconstruction.

Misinformation Effect happens when a person's recall of episodic memories becomes less accurate because of post-event information, like Propaganda.

Confabulation is a disturbance of memory, defined as the production of fabricated, distorted or misinterpreted memories about oneself or the world, without the conscious intention to deceive. Individuals who confabulate present incorrect memories ranging from "subtle alterations to bizarre fabrications", and are generally very confident about their recollections, despite contradictory evidence.

Source-Monitoring Error is a type of memory error where the source of a memory is incorrectly attributed to some specific recollected experience. For example, individuals may learn about a current event from a friend, but later report having learned about it on the local news, thus reflecting an incorrect source attribution. This error occurs when normal perceptual and reflective processes are disrupted, either by limited encoding of source information or by disruption to the judgment processes used in source-monitoring. Depression, high stress levels and damage to relevant brain areas are examples of factors that can cause such disruption and hence source-monitoring errors.

Henry Molaison was an American memory disorder patient who had a bilateral medial temporal lobectomy to surgically resect the anterior two thirds of his hippocampi, parahippocampal cortices, entorhinal cortices, piriform cortices, and amygdalae in an attempt to cure his epilepsy. He was widely studied from late 1957 until his death in 2008. His case played an important role in the development of theories that explain the link between brain function and memory, and in the development of cognitive neuropsychology, a branch of psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. He resided in a care institute in Windsor Locks, Connecticut, where he was the subject of ongoing investigation.

The Human Brain Recalls Visual Features in Reverse Order Than It Detects Them. Columbia study challenges traditional hierarchy of brain decoding; offers insight into how the brain makes perceptual judgments.


Forgetting Curve hypothesizes the decline of memory retention in time. This curve shows how information is lost over time when there is no attempt to retain it. A related concept is the strength of memory that refers to the durability that memory traces in the brain. The stronger the memory, the longer period of time that a person is able to recall it. A typical graph of the forgetting curve purports to show that humans tend to halve their memory of newly learned knowledge in a matter of days or weeks unless they consciously review the learned material.

Forgetting things is not always bad. A new review paper proposes that the goal of memory is not to transmit the most accurate information over time, but to guide and optimize intelligent decision making by only holding on to valuable information. Canadian Institute for Advanced Research

Autobiographical Memory

Forward Error Correction is a technique used for controlling Errors in data transmission over unreliable or noisy communication channels. The central idea is the sender encodes the message in a redundant way by using an error-correcting code (ECC).

Learning Methods - Comprehension

Spaced Repetition (recalling what you learned at different times)

Eyewitness Memory is a person's episodic memory for a crime or other dramatic event that he or she has witnessed. Eyewitness testimony is often relied upon in the judicial system. It can also refer to an individual's memory for a face, where they are required to remember the face of their perpetrator, for example. However, the accuracy of eyewitness memories is sometimes questioned because there are many factors that can act during encoding and retrieval of the witnessed event which may adversely affect the creation and maintenance of the memory for the event. Experts have found evidence to suggest that eyewitness memory is fallible. It has long been speculated that mistaken eyewitness identification plays a major role in the wrongful conviction of innocent individuals. A growing body of research now supports this speculation, indicating that mistaken eyewitness identification is responsible for more convictions of the innocent than all other factors combined. The Innocence Project determined that 75% of the 239 DNA exoneration cases had occurred due to inaccurate eyewitness testimony. It is important to inform the public about the flawed nature of eyewitness memory and the difficulties relating to its use in the criminal justice system so that eyewitness accounts are not viewed as the absolute truth.

Elizabeth Loftus: The Fiction of Memory (video)
Eyewitness (pdf)

Mistaken Identity is a defense in criminal law which claims the actual innocence of the criminal defendant, and attempts to undermine evidence of guilt by asserting that any eyewitness to the crime incorrectly thought that they saw the defendant, when in fact the person seen by the witness was someone else. The defendant may question both the memory of the witness (suggesting, for example, that the identification is the result of a false memory), and the perception of the witness (suggesting, for example, that the witness had poor eyesight, or that the crime occurred in a poorly lit place).
Social Scientists have shown that the Reliability of Eyewitness Identifications is much worse than laypersons tend to believe.
Supreme Court Releases Eyewitness Identification Criteria for Criminal Cases. 

Jury Instructions
Media Literacy

Confidence accuracy is the assumption is that as one's confidence increases so does their level of accuracy in recall.

The brain stores more details about certain moments then we are aware of. Can Hypnosis help with recall?
Memory Hypnosis

Memory Improvement and Recall Skills - Free Hypnosis Session (youtube)

Recovered-Memory Therapy is catch-all psychotherapy term for therapy using one or more method or technique for the purpose of recalling memories.

Past Life Regression is a technique that uses hypnosis to recover what practitioners believe are memories of past lives or incarnations, though others regard them as fantasies or delusions or a type of confabulation.

False Memory is a psychological phenomenon in which a person recalls a memory that did not actually occur. But only if the questions are not Misleading the person to create false memories.

Forty percent of people have a fictional first memory. As many of these memories dated before the age of two and younger, the authors suggest that these fictional memories are based on remembered fragments of early experience -- such as a pram, family relationships and feeling sad -- and some facts or knowledge about their own infancy or childhood which may have been derived from photographs or family conversations. As a result, what a rememberer has in mind when recalling these early memories is a mental representation consisting of remembered fragments of early experience and some facts or knowledge about their own childhood, instead of actual memories. Over time, such mental representations come to be recollectively experienced when they come to mind and so for the individual they quite simply are 'memories' with content strongly tied to a particular time. In particular, fictional very early memories were seen to be more common in middle-aged and older adults and about 4 in 10 of this group have fictional memories for infancy.

Anomic Aphasia problems with recalling words or names. Refresh your memory with important information.

Serial Position Effect is the tendency of a person to recall the first and last items in a series best, and the middle items worst.

Interference Theory - Adult Learning

Brain Vulnerabilities
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor 

Traumatic Memories - When memories become a curse instead of a blessing. 

Reconsolidation Therapy

Flashback is a psychological phenomenon in which an individual has a sudden, usually powerful, re-experiencing of a past experience or elements of a past experience. These experiences can be happy, sad, exciting, or any other emotion one can consider. The term is used particularly when the memory is recalled involuntarily, and/or when it is so intense that the person "relives" the experience, unable to fully recognize it as memory and not something that is happening in "real time".

Cryptomnesia occurs when a forgotten memory returns without it being recognized as such by the subject, who believes it is something new and original. It is a memory bias whereby a person may falsely recall generating a thought, an idea, a song, or a joke, not deliberately engaging in plagiarism but rather experiencing a memory as if it were a new inspiration.

Déjà vu is the phenomenon of having the strong sensation that an event or experience currently being experienced has already been experienced in the past, "already seen". Déjà vu is a feeling of familiarity, and déjà vécu (the feeling of having "already lived through" something) is a feeling of recollection.

Emotion and Memory can have a powerful effect on humans and animals. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled more often and with more clarity and detail than neutral events.

Stress - Trauma - Brain Plasticity

Repressed Memory are memories that have been unconsciously blocked due to the memory being associated with a high level of stress or trauma. The theory postulates that even though the individual cannot recall the memory, it may still be affecting them consciously. These memories can emerge later into the consciousness.

Psychological Repression is the psychological attempt made by an individual to direct one's own desires and impulses toward pleasurable instincts by excluding the desire from one's consciousness and holding or subduing it in the unconscious. In psychoanalytic theory repression plays a major role in many mental illnesses, and in the psyche of the average person.

It's better to deal with a bad memory and understand it then it is to just try to about forget it. Once you have come to terms with a bad experience, the less likely you will be negatively effected by recalling that bad memory. And you will also be more likely to remember the good memeories more often. Then eventually all bad memories will lose their grip on your well being. This is a learned skill, the good news is that everyone is capable of learning. Changing Bad Habits

Forgetting is the apparent loss or modification of information already encoded and stored in an individual's long term memory. It is a spontaneous or gradual process in which old memories are unable to be recalled from memory storage. Forgetting also helps to reconcile the storage of new information with old knowledge. Problems with remembering, learning and retaining new information are a few of the most common complaints of older adults. Memory performance is usually related to the active functioning of three stages. These three stages are encoding, storage and retrieval. Many different factors influence the actual process of forgetting. An example of one of these factors could be the amount of time the new information is stored in the memory. Events involved with forgetting can happen either before or after the actual memory process. The amount of time the information is stored in the memory, depending on the minutes hours or even days, can increase or decrease depending on how well the information is encoded. Studies show that retention improves with increased rehearsal. This improvement occurs because rehearsal helps to transfer information into long term memory – practice makes perfect.

Memory Erasure is the selective artificial removal of memories or associations from the mind. There are many reasons that research is being done on the selective removal of memories. Potential patients for this research include patients suffering from psychiatric disorders such as post traumatic stress disorder, or substance use disorder, among others. Memory erasure has been shown to be possible in some experimental conditions; some of the techniques currently being investigated are: drug-induced amnesia, selective memory suppression, destruction of neurons, interruption of memory, reconsolidation, and the disruption of specific molecular mechanisms.

Catastrophic Forgetting is the tendency of an artificial neural network to completely and abruptly forget previously learned information upon learning new information.

Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma. Amnesia can also be caused temporarily by the use of various sedatives and hypnotic drugs. The memory can be either wholly or partially lost due to the extent of damage that was caused. There are two main types of amnesia: retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia. Retrograde amnesia is the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an accident or operation. In some cases the memory loss can extend back decades, while in others the person may lose only a few months of memory. Anterograde amnesia is the inability to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term store. People with this type of amnesia cannot remember things for long periods of time. These two types are not mutually exclusive. Both can occur within a patient at one time.

Childhood Amnesia is the inability of adults to retrieve episodic memories which are memories of specific events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, and where) before the age of 2–4 years, as well as the period before age 10 of which adults retain fewer memories than might otherwise be expected, given the passage of time.

Posthypnotic Amnesia is the inability in hypnotic subjects to recall events that took place while under hypnosis. This can be achieved by giving individuals a suggestion during hypnosis to forget certain material that they have learned either before or during hypnosis. Individuals who are experiencing post-hypnotic amnesia cannot have their memories recovered once put back under hypnosis and is therefore not state dependent. Nevertheless, memories may return when presented with a pre-arranged cue. This makes post-hypnotic amnesia similar to psychogenic amnesia as it disrupts the retrieval process of memory. It has been suggested that inconsistencies in methodologies used to study post-hypnotic amnesia cause varying results.

Psychogenic Amnesia is a memory disorder characterized by sudden retrograde autobiographical memory loss, said to occur for a period of time ranging from hours to years. More recently, "dissociative amnesia" has been defined as a dissociative disorder "characterized by retrospectively reported memory gaps. These gaps involve an inability to recall personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature." In a change from the DSM-IV to the DSM-5, dissociative fugue is now subsumed under dissociative amnesia.

The Man With The Seven Second Memory (Medical Documentary) Clive Wearing has one of the worst cases of amnesia in the world. (youtube) (he still remembers how to walk, play the piano and remembers how to talk, still retains a vocabulary.)

Too much activity in one of the brain's key memory regions is bad for your memory and attention. Hippocampal neural disinhibition causes attentional and memory deficits.

Reality - Awareness

Involuntary Memory also known as involuntary explicit memory, involuntary conscious memory, involuntary aware memory, and most commonly, involuntary autobiographical memory, is a subcomponent of memory that occurs when cues encountered in everyday life evoke recollections of the past without conscious effort. Voluntary memory, its binary opposite, is characterized by a deliberate effort to recall the past.

Every time that you recall a memory you may change that memory a little. So don't lie.

Explicit or Explicit Memory, such as memories of a person’s own life and general facts about the world. This is knowledge you are very aware of and can talk about. The other type of memory, non-declarative, is commonly called Implicit Memory. This is information that’s difficult to verbalize but enables someone to ride a bike or to bow a viola or apply skilled brushstrokes.
Muscle memory doesn’t rely on the Hippocampus, it's stored in a separate place or in a separate way. Skill-related knowledge is a possible subcategory of declarative knowledge.

She can't remember her marriage, but can tell you how to fly a plane (youtube) 

"You don't have to change or suppress memories, you just need to change how you remember those memories, and also, create new and better memories so that the not so good memories become distant and less significant. One example is when you install new and better software, you will eventually forget all those bad experiences that you had with the old software."

We understand our world by how we interpret our memories and our ability to use that information and knowledge from those memories effectively. Even though we share the same experiences, this does not mean that we share the same memories.
Sometimes we remember things a little differently even though we experience the same things. And we edit our memories based on what we learn, and you can't be a good editor if you never learn how to be a good editor. There are skills involved.

We can't always trust our early memories to be accurate - sometimes they will have been moulded by later conversations about the event, sometimes creating imaginary memories.

Smoking Tobacco damages the brain by impairing its blood supply, and by the accumulation of abnormal proteins which impair the brain's ability to process and relay information. 

High-Fat and Trans Fats creates stress hormones influence an area of the brain area that controls working memory.

Chronic Stress can be harmful. Regular exposure to elevated glucocorticoids (a hormone released by the adrenal gland) also causes our brain cells to reduce receptors, making brain cells less capable of responding to neurochemical (brain chemicals) cues. Anxiety and Depression everyday stress increase cortisol levels in the brain, which causes our brain cells to lose synapses (the bridges that connect our brain cells to one another), and make it more difficult to create and retrieve memories.
Infections when the body is fighting infections the memory is not at its best. Viruses

Prescription Drugs also can reduce your ability to remember. 

Hot flashes also can reduce your ability to remember. Dysfunctional thyroid can also reduce your ability to remember.

Scientists have found in a study of 3,000 people living in France, that those who worked rotating shifts performed significantly worse in memory and cognitive speed tests than people who had worked regular hours.
Not Getting Enough Sleep

Researchers found participants who engaged in artistic hobbies such as painting, drawing or sculpture in both middle and old age were 73 percent less likely to develop mild cognitive impairment than those who didn't.

Does being over-reliant on computers, search engines and cell phones to remember things, weaken people's memories? That depends on what you are using your Working Memory for. You don't want to memorize useless information or irrelevant details, but you do want to memorize the important knowledge and skills that provide you with the best control and awareness. If you don't need to be technology dependent, then you should be Brain Dependent, and use technology to expand your abilities, and not use technologies to lower your abilities. Digital Amnesia comes from Technology Abuse.

Metamemory is a type of metacognition, is both the introspective knowledge of one’s own memory capabilities (and strategies that can aid memory) and the processes involved in memory self-monitoring. This self-awareness of memory has important implications for how people learn and use memories. When studying, for example, students make judgments of whether they have successfully learned the assigned material and use these decisions, known as "judgments of learning", to allocate study time.

"When I see kids memorizing presidents names and countries, it's like child abuse. I would rather see kids use their memory to remember the most important things, things that will make their lives richer, fuller and more meaningful."

Scrabble Champ Wins French Tournament After Memorizing French Dictionary, but he can't speak French.

"If your memory is not making you smarter each day, then you're remembering insignificant details, or, insignificant details where force on you by some educational institution, or by the media, or by another person, which of course includes you." 

"Just because you remember something does not mean that you learned something, why?"

If you don't fully understand what information and knowledge is to a human, then you will never be effective enough when teaching. You have to Learn the right things in the right order, and at the right time. So what are the right things? And how should you remember them? This is exactly what I'm working on, and so should you. The more people who try to answer this question the better. We can then compare notes and learn even more.

Self Directed Learning

Everything that you learn will require a good Memory. It is extremely important that you learn how to use your memory and know exactly how the human brain stores, retains, and retrieves memories, information and knowledge. Everything that you are and everything that you will become is closely related to ' what you remember, why you remember it, how you remember it, and when you remember it '. Understanding is often the best way to remember but memorization does not always mean that you will
understand, or does it mean that you will remember the right things at the right time.

"Even with so much to remember and so much to make sense, It's choosing what to remember that will always make a difference. Our memory is so important, we need to use it every day, Never take it for granted, for there's always a price to pay."

Poem about Memory

Little Things to Remember

Remember that your memory is an amazing gift, use it wisely, for it has unlimited potential.
Remember that you can learn anything that you want, as long as can read, listen and learn effectively.
Remember to learn something new everyday, especially things that are important and informative.
Remember to learn things in logically ordered steps, at the right time and in the right way.
Remember to not to believe everything that you read, hear or see, analyze information carefully.
Remember that intelligence is a journey, and if you stop learning, you will never know how great you can be.
Remember to dream and to visualize, think of new ideas, no matter how big or how small they are.
Remember to write about anything that you feel like writing about. Writing down your thoughts can be liberating and immortal.
Remember to write down things that you want to do, and things that you need to do. Responsibilities. 
Remember to read your things to do list everyday, and take the steps to reach your goals.
Remember to keep things simple, learn to manage time, use moderation, and learn to stay balanced.
Remember to always eat healthy foods, and do not over eat. Learn to savor the moment.
Remember to drink enough clean water everyday.
Remember to practice good hygiene.
Remember to exercise and to be active, but know your limitations.
Remember to rest when you're tired. Learn to relax every part of your body, especially the face and the stomach area.
Remember to do different breathing exercises throughout the day, understand how they effect you, focus only on your breathing.
Remember to exercise your focus and attention, staying sharp takes practice.
Remember to be aware of yourself, and your surroundings, several times a day. Keep an open mind.
Remember that you have vulnerabilities, so learn what they are.
Remember to understand how you feel, and that you can control your feelings.
Remember that you have abilities, and you also have a brain, which means that you have controls, so don't stress yourself.
Remember to relax and take breaks, but don't sit for long periods of time.
Remember to be nice to the planet, it's the only home we have, and we share it with all life forms.
Remember to be nice to people, learn to be honest, especially with yourself. Take an Oath.
Remember to Learn how to respect other people, and learn how to respect yourself.
Remember to Learn how to Forgive, and learn why forgiveness is important.
Remember to Learn how to understand people and learn to understand yourself.
Remember to Learn how to understand and control your emotions, and learn how to understand the emotions of others, especially when others have trouble controlling their emotions.
Remember to not allow other people to control your thinking, and don't allow outside forces to intrude on your wellbeing.
Remember to Learn how to control your fears. Thinking logically is a lot healthier then worrying.
Remember to keep in touch with people, even if its only for a moment.
Remember to love.
Remember to love yourself, be proud but be modest.
Remember that mistakes and accidents can happen, and the only time that you fail is when you don't learn from your mistakes. Remember to learn from experiences, good or bad.
Remember to share your knowledge.
Remember to laugh, especially at yourself.
Remember to listen to music, practice dancing, or play learning games or do something entertaining. Celebrate life.
Remember that you can solve any problem, as long as you learn how to solve it.
Remember to measure value and cost accurately.
Remember, as long as you keep learning, you will always have control, power, freedom, potential and possibilities.
Remember to Remember.

"Little Things To Remember was a book that I started working on in 2008. I stopped working on the book when this website became more important. I will finish the book one day, though it will not be the same book that I started out with."

Would you rather lose all of your old memories, or lose your ability to make new memories?

It's not just what you remember, but more importantly, it's how you perceive that memory. Is your opinion of that memory correct?

The amazing thing about our memory is that it stores information, just like a computer, well almost.

The amazing thing about our memory is that it stores and saves our experiences, our knowledge, and our information. And all you have to do to recall your past experiences, knowledge and information, is to ask for it, and some how the information you asked for is retrieved and presented to you in the form of internal images, emotions and information. Wow, this thing is awesome! The human memory is an incredible tool with amazing abilities. But the memory has certain vulnerabilities. Like not being able to remember something when you need to, or remembering the wrong things at the wrong time. So is our memory a little imperfect, or is it just that we're not using our memory properly? In order to ask that question you would first have to answer this question, "what are the best ways to use our memory, effectively and efficiently?" First you want your information to be organized and easy to locate when needed. So learning the right things at the right time, in the right way, is a must. Second, you want to control the flow of information. You want to recall the right information at the right time. Third, you only want to see the information that you've requested. You don't want irrelevant information to suddenly appear in your mind and distract you from accessing more important information that you need. Fourth, you want to make sure that your current information is continually updated when needed, which is almost always needed. Fifth, you have to make sure that the perception of your stored information is logical. And in order to make sure that your information is logically perceived is to learn logical information and learn how to perceive it properly. Easier said then done but it can be done. The power of your memory is directly related to the quality of information and knowledge that you learn, as long as it learned at the right time and in the right way.

Memory Storage Capacity of the Human Brain

The Adult Brain has been estimated to store a limit of up to 2.5 Petabytes of Binary Data Equivalent. Humans also have enormous Information Capacity in DNA, so information is not just in our brains, it's in our whole body. And humans also have the ability to carry in their pockets large amounts of External Memory Capacity.

Kim Peek, the real Rain Man, shows just how much information and knowledge a human brain can handle, it seems almost limitless.

Daniel Tammet shows just how incredible Human Brain processing abilities are.

Autistic Savant or High-functioning Autism seems to make certain processing abilities stand out more. It's not that they have enhanced abilities, it's just that Autistic people use certain human brain abilities more effectively. 99% of all humans have these abilities, so it's just learning how to use them.

Autobiographical memory also shows the enormous memory capacity of the Human Brain.

Learning Methods - AI (artificial intelligence)

Procedural Memory - Memory Management

Logic Gate

"That saying that humans only use 10% of their Brain, that is now a fact. People only know 10% of the 100% of what is known in 2017. People are being under utilized, and you can see the negative effects throughout society. The great awakening is about people finally taking the activity of learning seriously. The human brain has enormous memory capacity, more then a million computers added together. Use it or lose it, which is another fact of life."

Immersed in Old Memories

Once in a while you have to visit old memories. Just to see what you can remember. Sometimes sparking old memories by playing songs that you use to listened to as a child, or looking at old photographs. I can see my younger self saying, "Remember me, I was you once. It's been a while since we talked, so, how have you been?" It's good to think about things that you have not thought of in a long time. Even though they may bring back sad memories, I believe that you have to go back once in a while and see how much you can still remember. Like an exercise for your memory.  

Age Regression in Therapy

Have you ever heard a song that sparked a distant memory?
Why do songs connect us to moments in time?

Rosy Retrospection
Emotion and Memory
Traumatic Memories
Music helps us to Remember

A Memoir is a collection of memories that an individual writes about moments or events, both public or private, that took place in the subject's life.

Why do some things go into our long-term memory, it's not like I asked my brain to store this information, it seems to save it on its own, unless subconsciously or consciously there's a trigger that activates the release of Protein Kinase A that's used in creating long-term memories. We know there are control mechanisms in long-term memory because some people have the ability to remember what they see in incredible detail when they want to. It's like a computer, you don't have to know how it works, you just have to know how to operate it. But you don't have to remember everything in detail, you just have to remember what's important.

"I like it how your brain reminds you what you were thinking about a few minutes ago. I was thinking about doing something and then I got distracted, but a few minutes later, my thoughts returned to that action that I was thinking about doing. Thanks Brain, I knew I could count on you."

CREB is a cellular transcription factor. It binds to certain DNA sequences called cAMP response elements (CRE), thereby increasing or decreasing the transcription of the genes. CREB was first described in 1987 as a cAMP-responsive transcription factor regulating the somatostatin gene.

CAMP Response Element is the response element for CREB which contains the highly conserved nucleotide sequence, 5'-TGACGTCA-3’. CRE sites are typically found upstream of genes, within the promoter or enhancer regions. There are approximately 750,000 palindromic and half-site CREs in the human genome. However, the majority of these sites remain unbound due to cytosine methylation[9] which physically obstructs protein binding.

Transcription Factor is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence. The function of TFs is to regulate - turn on and off - genes in order to make sure that they are expressed in the right cell at the right time and in the right amount throughout the life of the cell and the organism. Groups of TFs function in a coordinated fashion to direct cell division, cell growth, and cell death throughout life; cell migration and organization (body plan) during embryonic development; and intermittently in response to signals from outside the cell, such as a hormone. There are up to 2600 TFs in the human genome. TFs work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator), or blocking (as a repressor) the recruitment of RNA polymerase (the enzyme that performs the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA) to specific genes.

Activator is a protein (transcription factor) that increases gene transcription of a gene or set of genes. Most activators are DNA-binding proteins that bind to enhancers or promoter-proximal elements. Most activators function by binding sequence-specifically to a DNA site located in or near a promoter and making protein–protein interactions with the general transcription machinery (RNA polymerase and general transcription factors), thereby facilitating the binding of the general transcription machinery to the promoter. The DNA site bound by the activator is referred to as an "activator site". The part of the activator that makes protein–protein interactions with the general transcription machinery is referred to as an "activating region". The part of the general transcription machinery that makes protein–protein interactions with the activator is referred to as an "activation target".

Repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers. A DNA-binding repressor blocks the attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter, thus preventing transcription of the genes into messenger RNA. An RNA-binding repressor binds to the mRNA and prevents translation of the mRNA into protein. This blocking of expression is called repression.

Engram are theorized to be means by which memories are stored as biophysical or biochemical changes in the brain (and other neural tissue) in response to external stimuli. The existence of engrams is posited by some scientific theories to explain the persistence of memory and how memories are stored in the brain. The existence of neurologically defined engrams is not significantly disputed, though their exact mechanism and location has been a focus of persistent research for many decades.


Are memories stored as protein signatures?

Memory reconsolidation and extinction have distinct temporal and biochemical signatures.
J Neurosci. 2004 May 19;24(20):4787-95.
Suzuki A1, Josselyn SA, Frankland PW, Masushige S, Silva AJ, Kida S.


Memory retrieval is not a passive phenomenon. Instead, it triggers a number of processes that either reinforce or alter stored information. Retrieval is thought to activate a second memory consolidation cascade (reconsolidation) that requires protein synthesis. Here, we show that the temporal dynamics of memory reconsolidation are dependent on the strength and age of the memory, such that younger and weaker memories are more easily reconsolidated than older and stronger memories. We also report that reconsolidation and extinction, two opposing processes triggered by memory retrieval, have distinct biochemical signatures: pharmacological antagonism of either cannabinoid receptor 1 or L-type voltage-gated calcium channels blocks extinction but not reconsolidation. These studies demonstrate the dynamic nature of memory processing after retrieval and represent a first step toward a molecular dissection of underlying mechanisms.

Songs About Remembering

Naked Eyes - Always Something There to remind me (youtube)
Barbra Streisand - The Way We Were (1975) (youtube)
The Plimsouls - A Million Miles Away (youtube)
Songs about looking back on fond memories

"I don't remember every day of my life, but I do remember a lot of the good days and a lot of the bad days. But of course I remember the good days a lot more then the bad days. But when I do remember the bad days, It makes remembering the good days that much better. Remembering the bad days also helps you to appreciate the good days a lot more. So it's good to remember, even if some of those memories aren't so good."

Remembering is part of your awareness. You have to recall information from your past in order to understand the moment that you are in. All that you see is what you have learned to see. Some people learn to see more. So what would happen if you looked at the world with no memory?

Remember is to exercise, or have the power of, memory. Recall knowledge from memory; have a recollection. Keep in mind for attention or consideration.

Consideration is the process of giving careful thought to something. Information that should be kept in mind when making a decision. Kind and considerate regard for others. A considerate and thoughtful act.

Interpret is to make sense of; assign a meaning to. Give an interpretation or explanation to. Create an image or likeness of.
Restate (words) from one language into another language. Make sense of a language.

Make Sense is to be reasonable or logical or comprehensible.

Comprehensible is capable of being comprehended or understood.

Thoughtfulness is kind and considerate regard for others. The trait of thinking carefully before acting. A considerate and thoughtful act.

Contemplation is a long and thoughtful observation. A calm, lengthy, intent consideration.  Meditation

Reflection is a calm, lengthy, intent consideration. Expression without words. A remark expressing careful consideration. The image of something as reflected by a mirror (or other reflective material) The ability to reflect beams or rays. The phenomenon of a propagating wave (light or sound). A likeness in which left and right are reversed. (mathematics) a transformation in which the direction of one axis is reversed.

Nostalgia is a longing for something past.

Recollection is the act of recollecting, or recalling to the memory; the operation by which objects are recalled to the memory, or ideas revived in the mind; reminiscence; remembrance. The power of recalling ideas to the mind, or the period within which things can be recollected; remembrance.

Memory Lane is the act of remembering past journeys or remembering the experiences of ones childhood or younger years.

"Memory Lane, oh how I love thee"

The Thinker Man