Musical Intelligence - Music Education - Music Therapy
is an artistic
form of auditory
or vocal tones
in a structured and continuous manner.
(pleasing and harmonious) sounds.
(singing or whistling etc.)
Sounds produced by singers
or musical instruments
(or reproductions of such sounds). Music is more then just learning an Instrument
Music Smart involves skill in the
, and Appreciation
of Musical Patterns.
Music Online Sources
Music as a Teaching and Learning Tool
Music Instrument LessonsMusic
Films about Music
Singing LessonsSinging Knowledge
Does my Singing sound good
How many Songs have been
also sometimes called background score, background music, film music or
incidental music) is original music written specifically to accompany a
is recorded music accompanying and synchronized to the images of a motion
picture, book, television program or video game.
is a person
who creates or writes music.
Movie Soundtracks of All Time
10 beautiful Soundtracks
Soundtrack CollectionReading Sheet
Internet Music Sources
Online Radio Stations
Audio Music Sharing
Windows Media Guide
Never Ending Playlist
Cd Baby (Indie Music)
The Sound You Need
Historical Recordings from the Library
Light in the Attic
Share Your Own Mix Online
Music Video Sites
Music Shows - Music Festivals
- Hearing protection from load music, but still hear.
Set List (Songs Played)
Battle of Bands
Concert Ticket Sales
Portable Concert Stages
Rough Trade Record Store
Music Video Sites
NPR Music News
reveal the structures and functions of human music
AOL Music News
Music News Net
Heavy Metal News
Rock & Roll
Old Concert Stubs Photo
Damn The Radio
Music Editing Tools
is an electronic device for combining (also called
"mixing"), routing, and changing the
and/or dynamics of many different audio signals, such as microphones being
used by singers, mics
picking up acoustic instruments such as drums or
saxophones, signals from electric or electronic instruments such as the
electric bass or synthesizer, or recorded music playing on a
) is the process of adjusting the balance between
within an electronic signal. The most well known use of equalization is in
sound recording and reproduction but there are many other applications in
electronics and telecommunications. The circuit or equipment used to
achieve equalization is called an equalizer. These devices strengthen
(boost) or weaken (cut) the energy of specific frequency bands or
"frequency ranges". Equalizers are used in recording studios, radio
studios and production control rooms, and live sound reinforcement and in
instrument amplifiers, such as guitar amplifiers, to correct or adjust the
response of microphones, instrument pick-ups, loudspeakers, and hall
acoustics. Equalization may also be used to eliminate or reduce
unwanted sounds (e.g., low hum coming from a guitar amplifier), make
certain instruments or voices more (or less) prominent, enhance particular
aspects of an instrument's tone, or combat feedback (howling) in a public
address system. Equalizers are also used in music production to adjust the
timbre of individual instruments and voices by adjusting their frequency
content and to fit individual instruments within the overall frequency
spectrum of the mix.
is a facility for sound recording and mixing. Ideally
both the recording and monitoring spaces are specially designed by an
acoustician or audio engineer to achieve optimum acoustic properties
(acoustic isolation or diffusion or absorption of reflected sound that
could otherwise interfere with the sound heard by the listener).
Sound Recording and Reproduction
is an electrical, mechanical,
electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as
spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects. The two main
classes of sound recording technology are
. Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a
microphone diaphragm that can detect and sense the changes in atmospheric
pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and record them as a mechanical
representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record
(in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record). In magnetic tape recording,
the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a
varying electric current, which is then converted to a varying magnetic
field by an electromagnet, which makes a representation of the sound as
magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it. Analog
sound reproduction is the reverse process, with a bigger loudspeaker
diaphragm causing changes to atmospheric pressure to form acoustic sound
waves. Oscillations may also be recorded directly from devices such as an
electric guitar pickup or a synthesizer, without the use of acoustics in
the recording process, other than the need for musicians to hear how well
they are playing during recording sessions via headphones. Digital
recording and reproduction converts the analog sound signal picked up by
the microphone to a digital form by the process of digitization. This lets
the audio data be stored and transmitted by a wider variety of media.
Digital recording stores audio as a series of binary numbers (zeros and
ones) representing samples of the amplitude of the audio signal at equal
time intervals, at a sample rate high enough to convey all sounds capable
of being heard. Digital recordings are considered higher quality than
analog recordings not necessarily because they have higher fidelity (wider
frequency response or dynamic range), but because the digital format can
prevent much loss of quality found in analog recording due to noise and
electromagnetic interference in playback and mechanical deterioration or
damage to the storage medium. Whereas successive copies of an analog
recording tend to degrade in quality, as more noise is added, a digital
audio recording can be reproduced endlessly with no degradation in sound
quality. A digital audio signal must be reconverted to analog form during
playback before it is amplified and connected to a loudspeaker to
is an electronic musical instrument that generates
electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers
and loudspeakers or headphones. Synthesizers may either imitate
instruments like piano, Hammond organ, flute, vocals; natural sounds like
ocean waves, etc.; or generate new electronic timbres. They are often
played with a musical keyboard, but they can be controlled via a variety
of other input devices, including music sequencers, instrument
controllers, fingerboards, guitar synthesizers, wind controllers, and
electronic drums. Synthesizers without built-in controllers are often
called sound modules, and are controlled via USB, MIDI or CV/gate using a
controller device, often a MIDI keyboard or other controller. Synthesizers
use various methods to generate electronic signals (sounds). Among the
most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis,
additive synthesis, wavetable synthesis, frequency modulation synthesis,
phase distortion synthesis, physical modeling synthesis and sample-based
synthesis. Other less common synthesis types (see #Sound synthesis)
include subharmonic synthesis, a form of additive synthesis via
subharmonics (used by mixture trautonium), and granular synthesis,
sample-based synthesis based on grains of sound, generally resulting in
soundscapes or clouds.
session on the OP-1. (Nicotine) portable synthesizer
Audio Editing Software Reviews
Free Audio Software List
is a modification, typically truncated, to make a song more suitable for
airplay, whether it be adjusted for length,
, subject matter,
instrumentation, or form. Radio edits may also be used for commercial
single versions, which may be denoted as the 7" version. However, not all
"radio edit" tracks are played on radio.
Production Center, now Music Production Controller) are a popular series
of electronic musical instruments intended to function as a powerful kind
of drum machine, the MPCs drew on design ideas from machines such as the
Sequential Circuits Inc.
Music Sampling Station
Mobile Recording interface
Audacity (audio editor)
is a free open source digital audio editor and
recording computer software application, available for Windows, OS X,
Linux and other operating systems.
Who Sang that Song
hum a song and find it's name.
Sounds Just Like
that sound the same.
is the act of taking a portion, or
sample, of one sound recording and reusing it as an instrument or a sound
recording in a different song or piece.
Music Information Retrieval
interdisciplinary science of retrieving information from music. MIR is a
small but growing field of research with many real-world applications.
Those involved in MIR may have a background in musicology, psychology,
academic music study, signal processing, machine learning or some
combination of these.
Music Recognition Search
Exact Audio Copy
Martin & Co. Guitars
Chordana Compose App
Music for Videos
Sound for Film
Audio Map Tuneglue
Social Zune Music
One Track Mind
The Sixty One
Pedal Drum Machine
, mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an
electrical signal. Most microphones today use electromagnetic induction
(dynamic microphones), capacitance change (condenser microphones) or
piezoelectricity (piezoelectric microphones) to produce an electrical
signal from air pressure variations. Microphones typically need to be
connected to a preamplifier before the signal can be recorded or
is an electronic component that can increase the power of a
is an electronic amplifier that prepares a small
electrical signal for further amplification or processing. They are
typically used to amplify signals from microphones, instrument pickups,
and phonographs to line level. Preamplifiers are often integrated into the
audio inputs on mixing consoles, DJ mixers, and sound cards. They can also
be stand-alone devices.
is the production of an electromotive force
or voltage across an electrical
due to its dynamic interaction with a
is the electric charge that accumulates in certain
solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and
matter such as bone,
and various proteins) in response
to applied mechanical stress.
Sphere - Precision Microphone Modeling System
Real 3D Sounds of the
Finest Microphones in Recording History.
Mikme: Wireless Recording Microphone
Puc Plus Universal Bluetooth MIDI Interface
or Musical Instrument
Digital Interface - allows a wide variety of electronic musical
instruments, computers and other related devices to connect and
communicate with one another.
Audio - Sound - Acoustics
works on the recording, manipulating the record using equalization and
electronic effects, mixing, reproduction, and reinforcement of sound.
is the member of a
film crew or television crew responsible for recording all sound recording
on set during the filmmaking
or television production using professional
audio equipment, for later inclusion in the finished product, or for
reference to be used by the sound designer, sound effects editors, or foley artists. This requires choice and deployment of microphones, choice
of recording media, and mixing of audio signals in real time.
is a method of sound reproduction that creates an
illusion of multi-directional audible perspective. This is usually
achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a
configuration of two or more loudspeakers
) in such a way as to create
the impression of sound heard from various directions, as in natural
hearing. Thus the term "stereophonic" applies to so-called "quadraphonic
systems as well as the more common two-channel, two-speaker systems. It is
often contrasted with monophonic, or "mono" sound, where audio is heard as
coming from one position, often ahead in the sound field (analogous to a
visual field). In the 2000s, stereo sound is common in entertainment
systems such as broadcast radio and TV, recorded music and the cinema.
is a type of sound
recording which contains technical flaws that make the recording sound
different compared with the live sound being recorded, such as distortion,
hum, background noise, or limited frequency response.
created or enhanced sounds, or
sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of
, live performance,
animation, video games, music, or other media. In motion picture and
television production, a sound effect is a sound recorded and presented to
make a specific storytelling or creative point without the use of dialogue
or music. The term often refers to a process applied to a recording,
without necessarily referring to the recording itself. In professional
motion picture and television production, dialogue, music, and sound
effects recordings are treated as separate elements. Dialogue and music
recordings are never referred to as sound effects, even though the
processes applied to such as reverberation or flanging effects, often are
called "sound effects".
the process of specifying, acquiring, manipulating or generating audio
elements. It is employed in a variety of disciplines including filmmaking,
television production, theatre, sound recording and reproduction, live
performance, sound art, post-production, radio and video game development.
Sound design most commonly involves the manipulation of previously
composed or recorded audio, such as sound effects and dialogue. In some
instances it may also involve the composition or manipulation of audio to
create a desired effect or mood. A sound designer is one who practices the
art of sound design.
interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all mechanical
in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration,
sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
is the branch of engineering dealing with sound and
vibration. It is the application of acoustics, the science of sound and
vibration, in technology. Acoustical engineers are typically concerned
with the design, analysis and control of sound.
is a branch of acoustics concerned with researching
and describing the physics of music – how sounds are employed to make
music. Examples of areas of study are the function of musical instruments,
the human voice (the physics of speech and singing), computer analysis of
melody, and in the clinical use of music in music therapy
is a branch of physics and acoustics dealing with
sound waves of sufficiently large amplitudes. Large amplitudes require
using full systems of governing equations of fluid dynamics (for sound
waves in liquids and gases) and elasticity (for sound waves in solids).
These equations are generally nonlinear, and their traditional
linearization is no longer possible. The solutions of these equations show
that, due to the effects of nonlinearity, sound waves are being distorted
as they travel.
Acoustical Meta-Material with near-zero density
consists of the sounds
of a given location or space. It is the opposite of "silence." This term
is often confused with presence. Every location has distinct and subtle
sounds created by its environment. These sound sources can include
wildlife, wind, music, rain, running water, thunder, rustling leaves,
distant traffic, aircraft and machinery noise, the sound of distant human
movement and speech, creaks from thermal contraction, air conditioning and
plumbing noises, fan and motor noises, and harmonics of mains power.
Reverberation will further distort these already faint sounds, often
beyond recognition, by introducing complex patterns of peaks and nulls in
their frequency spectrum, and blurring their temporal characteristics.
Finally, sound absorption can cause high frequencies to be rolled off,
dulling the sound further. Ambience is normally recorded in stereo by the
sound department during the production stage of filmmaking. It is used to
provide a movie location with sonic space and normally occupies a separate
track in the sound edit.
is most commonly the
act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to
another. This may or may not be accompanied by a change in key signature.
Modulations articulate or create the structure or form of many pieces, as
well as add interest. Treatment of a chord as the tonic for less than a
phrase is considered tonicization.
modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for
transmitting information via a radio
. In amplitude modulation, the amplitude (signal strength)
of the carrier wave is varied in proportion to the waveform being
describes any member of
the harmonic series. The term is employed in various disciplines,
including music and acoustics, electronic power transmission, radio
propagates as a typically audible mechanical wave of pressure and
displacement, through a medium such as air or water. In physiology and
psychology, sound is the reception of such waves and their perception by
the brain. Hearing
the persistence of sound after a sound is produced. A reverberation, or
reverb, is created when a sound or signal is reflected causing a large
number of reflections to build up and then decay as the sound is absorbed
by the surfaces of objects in the space – which could include furniture,
people, and air. This is most noticeable when the sound source stops but
the reflections continue, decreasing in amplitude, until they reach zero
is a room designed to create a diffuse or random incidence sound
is a room designed to completely absorb reflections
of either sound or electromagnetic waves. (non-echoing or echo-free).
time of a balloon pop: reverb room vs. anechoic chamber
reflection of sound that arrives at the listener with a delay after the
direct sound. The delay is proportional to the distance of the reflecting
surface from the source and the listener. Moving
Echo in the Canyons
refers to a listener's ability to identify the location
or origin of a detected sound in direction and distance. It may also refer
to the methods in acoustical engineering to simulate the placement of an
auditory cue in a virtual 3D space
(see binaural recording, wave field
Audio Signal Flow
is the path an
audio signal takes from source to output. The concept of audio signal flow
is closely related to the concept of audio gain staging; each component in
the signal flow can be thought of as a gain stage.
function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way
similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or
pitches) of its constituent notes. The Fourier transform of a function of
time itself is a complex-valued function of frequency, whose absolute
value represents the amount of that frequency present in the original
function, and whose complex argument is the phase offset of the basic
sinusoid in that frequency. The Fourier transform is called the frequency
domain representation of the original signal. The term Fourier transform
refers to both the frequency domain representation and the mathematical
operation that associates the frequency domain representation to a
function of time. The Fourier transform is not limited to functions of
time, but in order to have a unified language, the domain of the original
function is commonly referred to as the time domain. For many functions of
practical interest, one can define an operation that reverses this: the
inverse Fourier transformation, also called Fourier synthesis, of a
frequency domain representation combines the contributions of all the
different frequencies to recover the original function of time.
is a formal technique
where material is repeated in an altered form. The changes may involve
harmony, melody, counterpoint, rhythm, timbre, orchestration or any
combination of these.
is a passive
non-reciprocal three- or four-port device, in which a microwave or radio
frequency signal entering any port is transmitted to the next port in
rotation (only). A port in this context is a point where an external
waveguide or transmission line (such as a microstrip line or a coaxial
cable), connects to the device.
Virtual Acoustic Space
a technique in which sounds presented over headphones appear to originate
from any desired direction in space. The illusion of a virtual sound
source outside the listener's head is created.
succession of musical chords. Chord progressions are the foundation of
harmony in Western musical tradition.
is one of the sections of a movement
written in sonata form. The recapitulation occurs after the movement's
development section, and typically presents once more the musical themes
from the movement's exposition. This material is most often recapitulated
in the tonic key of the movement, in such a way that it reaffirms that key
as the movement's home key.
unexpected sensation of tonality or pitch that often occurs in nature when
a sound is reflected against a sound-reflecting surface (for example: a
brick wall), and both the original and the reflected sound arrive at the
ear of an observer, but with a short time delay between the two arrivals.
, perfect pitch,
is a rare auditory phenomenon characterized by the ability of a person to
identify or re-create a given musical note without the benefit of a
is any frequency
greater than the fundamental frequency of a sound.
Tone (musical instrument)
refers to the audible characteristics of a
is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on
a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that
makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense
associated with musical melodies.
characterized by its duration, pitch, intensity (or loudness), and timbre
is a notation representing the pitch and duration of a
is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit
time. If a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a
minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second (that
is, 60 seconds divided by 120 beats)
is defined as the lowest frequency of a periodic waveform.
In music, the fundamental is the musical pitch of a note that is perceived
as the lowest partial present.
is a phenomenon where a signal that is normally too weak to
be detected by a sensor, can be boosted by adding white noise to the
signal, which contains a wide spectrum of frequencies. The frequencies in
the white noise corresponding to the original signal's frequencies will
resonate with each other, amplifying the original signal while not
amplifying the rest of the white noise (thereby increasing the
signal-to-noise ratio which makes the original signal more prominent).
Further, the added white noise can be enough to be detectable by the
sensor, which can then filter it out to effectively detect the original,
previously undetectable signal.
is a measure used in science and engineering
that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background
noise. It is defined as the ratio of signal power to the noise power,
often expressed in decibels. A ratio higher than 1:1 (greater than 0 dB)
indicates more signal than noise.
random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a
constant power spectral density.
Consonance - Dissonance
is a form a structural dichotomy in
which the terms define each other by mutual exclusion: a consonance is
what is not dissonant, and reciprocally. However, a finer consideration
shows that the distinction forms a gradation, from the most consonant to
the most dissonant. Consonance is associated with sweetness, pleasantness
and acceptability and dissonance with harshness, unpleasantness, or
Convert the Sound Waves into an Electrical Signal
the generalized name given to “acoustic waves”
. These acoustic waves
have frequencies ranging from just 1Hz up to many tens of thousands of
Hertz with the upper limit of human hearing being around the 20 kHz, (20,000Hz)
The sound that we hear is basically made up from mechanical
vibrations produced by an Audio Sound Transducer used to generate the
acoustic waves, and for sound to be “heard” it requires a medium for
transmission either through the air, a liquid, or a solid.
is a device that converts one form of energy to another.
Usually a transducer converts a signal in one form of energy to a signal
in another. Transducers are often employed at the boundaries of
automation, measurement, and control systems, where electrical signals are
converted to and from other physical quantities (energy, force, torque,
light, motion, position, etc.). The process of converting one form of
energy to another is known as transduction.
Also, the actual sound
need not be a continuous frequency sound wave such as a single tone or a
musical note, but may be an acoustic wave made from a mechanical
vibration, noise or even a single pulse of sound such as a “bang”.
Audio Sound Transducers include both input sensors, that convert sound
into and electrical signal such as a microphone, and output actuators that
convert the electrical signals back into sound such as a loudspeaker.
We tend to think of sound as only existing in the range of frequencies
detectable by the human ear, from 20Hz up to 20kHz (a typical loudspeaker
frequency response), but sound can also extend way beyond these ranges.
Sound transducers can also both detect and transmit sound waves and
vibrations from very low frequencies called infra-sound up to very high
frequencies called ultrasound. But in order for a sound transducer to
either detect or produce “sound” we first need to understand what sound
is.What is Sound?
basically a waveform of energy that is produced by some form of a
mechanical vibration such as a tuning fork, and which has a “frequency”
determined by the origin of the sound for example, a bass drum has a low
frequency sound while a cymbal has a higher frequency sound.
has the same
characteristics as that of an electrical waveform which are Wavelength
(λ), Frequency (ƒ) and Velocity (m/s). Both the sounds frequency and wave
shape are determined by the origin or vibration that originally produced
the sound but the velocity is dependent upon the medium of transmission
(air, water etc.) that carries the sound wave. The relationship between
wavelength, velocity and frequency is given below as:
Wavelength – is the time period of one complete cycle in
Frequency – is the number of wavelengths per second in
Velocity – is the speed of sound through a transmission
medium in m/s-1.
The Microphone, also called a “mic
is a sound transducer that can be classed as a “sound sensor”. This is
because it produces an electrical analogue output signal which is
proportional to the “acoustic” sound wave acting upon its flexible
diaphragm. This signal is an “electrical image” representing the
characteristics of the acoustic waveform. Generally, the output signal
from a microphone is an analogue signal either in the form of a voltage or
current which is proportional to the actual sound wave.
common types of microphones available as sound transducers are Dynamic,
Electret Condenser, Ribbon and the newer Piezo-electric Crystal types.
Typical applications for microphones as a sound transducer include audio
recording, reproduction, broadcasting as well as telephones, television,
digital computer recording and body scanners, where ultrasound is used in
medical applications. An example of a simple “Dynamic” microphone is shown below.
Dynamic Moving-coil Microphone Sound Transducer
The construction of a dynamic microphone resembles that of a
loudspeaker, but in reverse. It is a moving coil type microphone which
uses electromagnetic induction to convert the sound waves into an
electrical signal. It has a very small coil of thin wire suspended within
the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. As the sound wave hits the
flexible diaphragm, the diaphragm moves back and forth in response to the
sound pressure acting upon it causing the attached coil of wire to move
within the magnetic field of the magnet.
The movement of the coil
within the magnetic field causes a voltage to be induced in the coil as
defined by Faraday’s law of Electromagnetic Induction. The resultant
output voltage signal from the coil is proportional to the pressure of the
sound wave acting upon the diaphragm so the louder or stronger the sound
wave the larger the output signal will be, making this type of microphone
design pressure sensitive.
As the coil of wire is usually very
small the range of movement of the coil and attached diaphragm is also
very small producing a very linear output signal which is 90o out of phase
to the sound signal. Also, because the coil is a low impedance inductor,
the output voltage signal is also very low so some form of
“pre-amplification” of the signal is required.
As the construction
of this type of microphone resembles that of a loudspeaker, it is also
possible to use an actual loudspeaker as a microphone.
the average quality of a loudspeaker will not be as good as that for a
studio type recording microphone but the frequency response of a
reasonable speaker is actually better than that of a cheap “freebie”
microphone. Also the coils impedance of a typical loudspeaker is different
at between 8 to 16Ω. Common applications where speakers are generally used
as microphones are in intercoms and walki-talkie’s.
Sound can also be used as an output device to
produce an alert noise or act as an alarm, and loudspeakers, buzzers,
horns and sounders are all types of sound transducer that can be used for
this purpose with the most commonly used audible type output sound
actuator being the “Loudspeaker
Loudspeakers are audio sound transducers
that are classed as “sound actuators” and are the exact opposite of
. Their job is to convert complex electrical analogue signals
into sound waves being as close to the original input signal as possible.
Loudspeakers are available in all shapes, sizes and frequency ranges
with the more common types being moving coil, electrostatic, isodynamic
and piezo-electric. Moving coil type loudspeakers are by far the most
commonly used speaker in electronic circuits, kits and toys, and as such
it is this type of sound transducer we will examine below.
principle of operation of the Moving Coil Loudspeaker is the exact
opposite to that of the “Dynamic Microphone” we look at above. A coil of
fine wire, called the “speech or voice coil”, is suspended within a very
strong magnetic field, and is attached to a paper or Mylar cone, called a
“diaphragm” which itself is suspended at its edges to a metal frame or
chassis. Then unlike the microphone which is pressure sensitive input
device, this type of sound transducer can be classed as a pressure
generating output device.
The Moving Coil Loudspeaker
When an analogue signal passes through the voice coil of the speaker,
an electro-magnetic field is produced and whose strength is determined by
the current flowing through the “voice” coil, which in turn is determined
by the volume control setting of the driving amplifier or moving coil
driver. The electro-magnetic force produced by this field opposes the main
permanent magnetic field around it and tries to push the coil in one
direction or the other depending upon the interaction between the north
and south poles.
As the voice coil is permanently attached to the
cone/diaphragm this also moves in tandem and its movement causes a
disturbance in the air around it thus producing a sound or note. If the
input signal is a continuous sine wave then the cone will move in and out
acting like a piston pushing and pulling the air as it moves and a
continuous single tone will be heard representing the frequency of the
signal. The strength and therefore its velocity, by which the cone moves
and pushes the surrounding air produces the loudness of the sound.
As the speech or voice coil is essentially a coil of wire it has, like an
inductor an impedance value. This value for most loudspeakers is between 4
and 16Ω’s and is called the “nominal impedance” value of the speaker
measured at 0Hz, or DC.
Remember that it is important to always
match the output impedance of the amplifier with the nominal impedance of
the speaker to obtain maximum power transfer between the amplifier and
speaker. Most amplifier-speaker combinations have an efficiency rating as
low as 1 or 2%.
Although disputed by some, the selection of good
speaker cable is also an important factor in the efficiency of the
speaker, as the internal capacitance and magnetic flux characteristics of
the cable change with the signal frequency, thereby causing both
frequency and phase distortion. This has the effect of attenuating the
signal. Also, with high power amplifiers large currents are flowing
through these cables so small thin bell wire type cables can overheat
during extended periods of use, again reducing efficiency.
human ear can generally hear sounds from between 20Hz to 20kHz, and the
frequency response of modern loudspeakers called general purpose speakers
are tailored to operate within this frequency range as well as headphones,
earphones and other types of commercially available headsets used as sound
However, for high performance High Fidelity (Hi-Fi)
type audio systems, the frequency response of the sound is split up into
different smaller sub-frequencies thereby improving both the loudspeakers
efficiency and overall sound quality as follows:
Generalized Frequency Ranges
In multi speaker enclosures which have a
separate Woofer, Tweeter and Mid-range speakers housed together within a
single enclosure, a passive or active “crossover” network is used to
ensure that the audio signal is accurately split and reproduced by all the
This crossover network consists of
Resistors, Inductors, Capacitors, RLC type passive filters or op-amp
active filters whose crossover or cut-off frequency point is finely tuned
to that of the individual loudspeakers characteristics and an example of a
multi-speaker “Hi-fi” type design is given below.
In this tutorial, we have looked at different Sound
Transducers that can be used to both detect and generate sound waves.
Microphones and loudspeakers are the most commonly available sound
transducer, but other lots of other types of sound transducers available
which use piezoelectric devices to detect very high frequencies,
hydrophones designed to be used underwater for detecting underwater sounds
and sonar transducers which both transmit and receive sound waves to
detect submarines and ships.
Acoustical Society of America
Society for Music Perception and Cognition
Acoustics and Vibrations Animations
SoftSynth – Music and Computers
Music Cognition Resource Center
The Basics of Acoustics
Every Noise At Once Music Genre Map
Everyday Listening Sound Art
The Basics of Acoustics
Every Noise At Once Music Genre Map
Everyday Listening Sound Art
Musical Instrument Museum
Rock Hall of Fame
Rock & Roll Fantasy Camp
School of Rock
History of Heavy Metal
National Recording Registry
Top 100 Bands
100 Greatest Artists
100 Greatest Songs
Bring our Music Back
Direct Stream Digital
Films about Music
Galleries - Museums
instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any
object that produces sound can be a musical instrument—it is through
purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument.
Musical Instruments List
is the science of musical instruments and their
Trumpet Motion Gif
Lumen: the Electro-Acoustic Handpan
ACPAD Electronic Orchestra For Your Guitar
Women Who Rock
Making Music from Everyday Sounds
is any musical
instrument that creates sound primarily by the instrument as a whole
vibrating—without the use of strings or membranes.
is any musical instrument that produces sound primarily by causing a body
of air to vibrate, without the use of strings or membranes, and without
the vibration of the instrument itself adding considerably to the sound.
Aerophones categorically comprise "the largest and most complex group of
instruments in the Americas"
is a musical instrument
that makes sound by way of a vibrating string or strings stretched between
two points. It is one of the four main divisions of instruments in the
original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification.
any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by way of a
vibrating stretched membrane. It is one of the four main divisions of
instruments in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument
is any one of a family
of bowed, fretted and stringed instruments that first appeared in Spain in
the mid to late 15th century and was most popular in the Renaissance and
is an electronic
musical instrument controlled without physical contact by the thereminist
(performer). The instrument's controlling section usually consists of two
metal antennas that sense the relative position of the thereminist's hands
and control oscillators for frequency with one hand, and amplitude
(volume) with the other. The electric signals from the theremin are
amplified and sent to a loudspeaker.
The untouchable music of the Theremin: Pamelia Kurstin
is a musical
instrument in the idiophone class created by Felix Rohner and Sabina
Schärer in Bern, Switzerland. The instrument is constructed from two
half-shells of deep drawn, nitrided steel sheet glued together at the rim
leaving the inside hollow and creating a distinct 'UFO shape'. The top
("Ding") side has a center 'note' hammered into it and seven or eight
'tone fields' hammered around the center. The bottom ("Gu") is a plain
surface that has a rolled hole in the center with a tuned note that can be
created when the rim is struck.
Guitar Making Academy
where you learn to make your own personal
Bailey Guitars: A Guitar Making Revolution
Musical Instrument Lessons
Video Music Lessons
Free Guitar Videos
FRETX adds Lights to the Fretboard of YOUR own Guitar
connects with our app via Bluetooth to show exactly how to
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MI Guitar Magic Instruments
is an Attachable Guitar Amp that uses your smartphone for
effects, loops and more.
What Is A Chordelia
Online Piano Lessons
88 keys, 52 white keys and 36 black keys.
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iKeybo: World's Most Advanced Projection Keyboard and Piano
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Virtual Music Teacher
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Musical Training Software
conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to
a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from
musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are
sometimes used interchangeably. Recently, academics have argued that
categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated.
List of Music Styles
List of Popular Music Genres
is a genre of music that puts an emphasis on tone and atmosphere over
traditional musical structure or rhythm. Ambient music is said to evoke an
"atmospheric", "visual", or "unobtrusive" quality. Able to accommodate
many levels of listening attention without enforcing one in particular; it
must be as ignorable as it is interesting.
that employs electronic musical instruments and electronic music
technology in its production, an electronic musician being a musician who
composes and/or performs such music. In general, a distinction can be made
between sound produced using electromechanical means and that produced
using electronic technology. Examples of electromechanical sound producing
devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, and the electric guitar.
Purely electronic sound production can be achieved using devices such as
, sound synthesizer, and computer.
Silver apples of the Moon (1967)
Polyphony and Monophony in instruments
is a property of musical instruments that means that they can play
multiple notes simultaneously. Instruments featuring polyphony are said to
be polyphonic. Instruments that are not capable of polyphony are
monophonic or paraphonic.
is a popular
61-key polyphonic synthesizer introduced by Roland Corporation in
September 1982 as a successor to the similar Roland Juno-6, which had been
on the market since February that year. Like its predecessor, the Juno-60
is essentially an analog synthesizer with digitally controlled
range of popular music styles and genres influenced by the 1960s
psychedelic culture, a subculture of people who used psychedelic drugs
such as LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, mescaline and DMT to experience visual
and auditory hallucinations, synesthesia and altered states of
consciousness. Psychedelic music attempted to replicate the hallucinogenic
experience of using these drugs or enhance the experience of using them.
Psychedelic music emerged during the mid-1960s among folk rock and blues
rock bands in the United States and Britain.
diverse style of rock music inspired, influenced, or representative of
psychedelic culture, or intended to replicate and enhance the
mind-altering experiences of psychedelic drugs, most notably LSD. Many
psychedelic groups differ in style, and the label is often used
indiscriminately. A term usually deployed interchangeably with
"psychedelic rock" is "acid rock", which can also refer to the more
extreme ends of the genre.
is a form of
vocal percussion primarily involving the art of mimicking drum machines
using one's mouth, lips, tongue, and voice. It may also involve vocal
imitation of turntablism, and other musical instruments. Beatboxing today
is connected with hip-hop culture, often referred to as "the fifth
element" of hip-hop, although it is not limited to hip-hop music.
The term "beatboxing" is sometimes used to refer to vocal percussion in
Tom Thum: The orchestra in my mouth
Beardyman: Polyphonic Me
Electronically Modified Didgeridoo Kyle Evans
recording and playback of a piece of music in real-time using either
dedicated hardware devices, called loopers or phrase samplers, or software
running on a computer with an audio interface. Musicians can loop with
either laptop software or loop pedals, which are sold for tabletop and
is a genre of
electronic music created by club DJs and music producers that originated
in Chicago in the early 1980s. Early house music was generally dance-based
music characterized by repetitive 4/4 beats, rhythms mainly provided by
drum machines, off-beat hi-hat cymbals, and synthesized basslines. While
house displayed several characteristics similar to disco music, it was
more electronic and minimalistic, and the repetitive rhythm of house was
more important than the song itself.
is a style
(subgenre) of house music. The progressive house style emerged in the
early 1990s. It initially developed in the United Kingdom as a natural
progression of American and European house music of the late 1980s.
Electronic Dance Music
known as EDM, dance music, club music, or simply dance) is a broad range
of percussive electronic music genres made largely for nightclubs, raves,
and festivals. EDM is generally produced for playback by disc jockeys
(DJs) who create seamless selections of tracks, called a mix, by segueing
from one recording to another. EDM producers also perform their music live
in a concert or festival setting in what is sometimes called a live PA. In
the United Kingdom and in continental Europe, EDM is more commonly called
'dance music' or simply 'dance'.
is a form of
electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, in the United
States during the mid-to-late 1980s. The first recorded use of the word
techno in reference to a specific genre of music was in 1988. Many styles
of techno now exist, but Detroit techno is seen as the foundation upon
which a number of subgenres have been built.
Top House-Electro Songs
Electronic Music Guide
Lost in Sound
is an art form in which
singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (libretto)
and musical score, usually in a theatrical setting. In traditional opera,
do two types of singing:
recitative, a speech-inflected style and arias, a more melodic style.
Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre, such as acting,
scenery, and costumes and sometimes includes dance.
is a large
instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which features string
instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as
brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, grouped in sections.
Glenn Miller - In
The Mood [HQ]
"SING, SING, SING"
BY BENNY GOODMAN
Bobby Darin -
Beyond the Sea
is a musical
expression that dates back to at least 18th century Western Mexico. It is
a tradition that can be defined by eight socio-musical elements: mariachi
instrumentation and texture, musical genres and subgenres, performance
methods and styles, singing styles and forms, dance styles, performative
space, performance clothing, and the word "mariachi". Each element has its
own history, originated at varying moments in time and in different
regions of the Western Mexican countryside, and some, if not all, had to
converge in order for the mariachi tradition to become what it is.
Mariachi Flor de
Toloache is the first and only established all female mariachi band
New Age Music
is a genre of
music intended to create artistic inspiration,
, and optimism. It
is used by listeners for yoga, massage, meditation, reading as a method of
stress management to bring about a state of ecstasy rather than trance, or
to create a peaceful atmosphere
their home or other environments, and is associated with environmentalism
and New Age spirituality.
is a form of verse, often
a narrative set to music.
is a group in which instrumental
musicians perform for entertainment, and prepare for a competition.
Instrumentation typically includes brass instruments, woodwind
instruments, percussion instruments, and color guard. Most marching bands
wear some kind of uniform (often of a military style) that includes the
school or organization's colors, name or symbol. Most high school marching
bands are accompanied by a colorguard, a group of performers, who add a
visual interpretation to the music through the use of props, most often
flags and rifles. Marching bands are generally categorized by function,
size, age, gender, instruments and by the style of show they perform. In
addition to traditional parade performances, many marching bands also
perform field shows at special events like competitions. Increasingly,
marching bands perform indoor concerts that implement many songs,
traditions, and flair from outside performances/
is a musical composition with
its roots in the art of improvisation. Because of this, like the
impromptu, it seldom approximates the textbook rules of any strict musical
Jazz and Punk Mix
is a serious
of some particular music genre or musical performer.
is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western
music, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music. While a
more accurate term is also used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820
(the Classical period), this article is about the broad span of time from
roughly the 11th century to the present day, which includes the Classical
period and various other periods. The central norms of this tradition
became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the
in Western music are generally accepted as being
between about the year 1730 and the year 1820.
Blue Danube Johann
no 40 - 1st movement
Beethoven - Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 - I. Allegro con brio
Classical - Richard Wagner - Ride of the Valkyries
The Classical Period of Music
The Best of Classical Music
Violin and Piano Videos
HD Sound Systems - Speakers - Headphones
Is the sound on vinyl records better than on CDs or DVDs?
HD Audio Systems
High Resolution Audio
High Res Audio
Distortion of Sound
Audio File Format
is a file format for storing digital
audio data on a computer system. The bit layout of the audio data
(excluding metadata) is called the audio coding format and can be
uncompressed, or compressed to reduce the file size, often using lossy
compression. The data can be a raw bitstream in an audio coding format,
but it is usually embedded in a container format or an audio data format
with defined storage layer.
Vi High Performance Audio System
Da Vinci Dac
Seiun Players: Hi-Res Audio meets 4K Video
How well can you Hear Audio Quality
Zuperdac Portable Hifi Music anytime anywhere
Geek Audio Crowd Sourced High-Rez Sound System
Hidden-HUB - Wireless HD Audio, Timeless Design
Hidden Radio 2 Wireless Multi-Speaker
Beautiful Secrets Behind Vinyl Records
32 bit / 384 kHz Digital to Analog Converter
Da Vinci DAC
MKII decodes PCM music files with up to 768 kHz sample
rates in true 32 bit depth. It also decodes all DSD files up to
11.289 MHz (DSD256).
Aftermaster Pro: Make Your Audio Sound Incredible
Re-Mastering Device Fixes your TV audio & virtually any audio
device–phone, laptop, gaming unit. Lightweight & portable.
MegaMini by HIFIMAN
New Affordable High-Res Portable Music Player for
Peri-Duo Wifi-Bluetooth Speaker and Charge Case
LSTN: Premium Bluetooth Speakers With A Purpose
UE BOOM Wireless Bluetooth Speaker
SPRITZ: High Definition Wireless Music in an App-Controlled
Rugged Sport Water Bottle with Hydration Tracker
TuneBox2: Turn your speakers into wireless players
'A' Speaker : The speaker that only YOU can hear
Sonic Blocks: World's 1st Modular Wireless Speaker
M24 Powered Speakers from Peachtree Audio
ARCHT mini - Wireless 360 Degree Speaker
with Bass Impact Technology
that fits in the palm of your hand.
Bumpboxx Freestyle - Nostalgic Bluetooth Boombox
S-Series: The most compact, mighty Wireless sound system
raD Wireless Multi-Room Speaker
Pebble, World's Smallest True Wireless Speaker
BumpOut: The Truly Portable Speaker that Bumps
The Smallest Most Powerful SpeakerMusic Tools
Echobox - The Evolution of Personal Audio
OSSIC X: Immersive 3D Audio Headphones
Bluetooth earphones with tips that mold to the unique shape of
your ears in 60 seconds
Phazon : Wireless Earbuds Guaranteed Not to Fall Out
Air: Acoustically Stunning Wireless Headphones
Audiophile Hi-Fi Sound
, Bluetooth 4.2, Single Button Control, In-Ear Mic with Portable Charging
SonaBuds: Smallest Stereo Earbuds w HD Audio & Mic
4 hours of
listening time on one charge.
KUAI: The World’s Smartest Multi-Sport Headphones
SenCbuds: World’s 1st Smart Sensing Tech Earbuds
FireFlies - Truly Wire-Free Ear Buds
M4 : Earphones for Musicians
Nuheara IQbuds: Super Intelligent Wireless Earbuds
Wireless Headphones Bluetooth adapter with Hi-Fi Sound.
Built-in Mic. Camera Shutter. Sync & Share function.
Keyhole bluetooth earbud Dot - World's Smallest Bluetooth
Nura: Headphones with unique Soundwave Technology that
Automatically Measures your Hearing for Great Sound
ROPES USA Earphones: Join Our Audio Revolution
earphones with built-in amplifier and EQ Engine.
Jay Bird Gear
Convert your stereo audio into a simulated 3D sound
space, Spatial-active noise cancelling technology with Bluetooth.
Sound by Human - Audio Evolved
securely attaches over each ear
wirelessly, noise cancelation and more.
Stages Audio: Wired or Wireless Noise Cancelling Headphones
Headphones: 10x Better Sound Quality
Hybrid Electrostatic Headphones®
with Hi-Fi sound, power bass, and noise isolation.
Thunder: The Smartest Noise-Cancelling Earphones
3D Wireless Noise-Cancelling Headphones.
XD Audio Noise-Cancelling Headphones.
is the conduction of sound to the
inner ear through the bones of the skull. Bone conduction transmission can
be used with individuals with normal or
Cynaps Bluetooth Bone Conduction Headset in a Hat
AfterShokz: Trekz Bone Conduction Headphones
The Dipper Audio Necklace by Tinsel
Beker: waterproof bone conduction music player
Sunglasses with bone conduction speakers enables to transmit
sound waves to the skull via
BATBAND bone conduction system
, Sleek Ear-Free Headphones.
LG’s HBS-760 headset
Geek Out v2 Portable Headphone Amplifier
The world's smallest, self-powered headphone amp
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Mighty - Streaming Music Without Your Phone
uses music and all of
its facets—physical, emotional, mental, social, aesthetic, and
spiritual—to help clients improve their physical and mental health, such
as cognitive functioning, motor skills, emotional development, social
skills, and quality of life, by using music experiences such as free
improvisation, singing, and listening to, discussing, and moving to music
to achieve treatment goals. It has a wide qualitative and quantitative
research literature base and incorporates clinical therapy, psychotherapy,
, musical acoustics, music theory, psychoacoustics,
embodied music cognition, aesthetics of music,
is the understanding of musical behavior and experience, including the
processes through which music is perceived, created, responded to, and
incorporated into everyday life.
is the scholarly analysis of and research on
The Listening Program
Neurologic Music Therapy
therapeutic application of music to cognitive, sensory, and motor
dysfunctions that come from human neurologic diseases.
- Stroke Rehabilitation (MedRhythms)
McMaster Institute for Music and the Mind
Melodic Intonation Therapy
therapeutic process used by music therapists and
to help patients with communication disorders caused by
damage to the left hemisphere
of the brain.
Music Reduces Pain
is the general movement of two melodic
lines with respect to each other. In traditional four-part harmony, it is
important that lines maintain their independence, an effect which can be
achieved by the judicious use of the four types of contrapuntal motion:
parallel motion, similar motion, contrary motion, and oblique motion.
Music and Memory
Senior Citizens and Music Benefits
Music for the
Songs to Unlock the Health Benefits of Music.
Go Sync Project
a Million Songs
to help unlock the health effects of music.
Infinity Music Therapy
Treat Tinnitus by
Filtering high pitch sound from your favorite music.
The first imaging genetic study linking dopaminergic genes to music.
New publication from MIB: Sounds, such as music and noise, are capable of
reliably affecting individuals' moods and
, possibly by regulating
Uncovering why playing a musical instrument can protect brain health
More than A Feeling
Charles Hazlewood's Paraorchestra
is based on the
notion that human cells, organs, and tissues each have a natural resonant
frequency which changes when perturbed by illness.
and combinations of sound waves which they claim entrain malfunctioning
components back to their healthy vibratory state and promote natural
Physiological Data - EEG, ECG, EMG, Blood Pressure, Skin Conductance
Christian songs that were created by African slaves in the United States.
Spirituals were originally an oral tradition that imparted Christian
values while also describing the hardships of slavery. Although spirituals
were originally unaccompanied monophonic (unison) songs, they are best
known today in harmonized choral arrangements. This historic group of
uniquely American songs is now recognized as a distinct genre of music.
is a type of song, usually
religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer,
and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or
is in modern parlance a
festive song, generally religious but not necessarily connected with
church worship, and often with a dance-like or popular character.
is the rhythmic speaking or
singing of words or sounds, often primarily on one or two main pitches
called reciting tones. Chants may range from a simple melody involving a
limited set of notes to highly complex musical structures, often including
a great deal of repetition of musical subphrases.
is a musical ensemble of
singers. Choral music, in turn, is the music written specifically for such
an ensemble to perform. Choirs may perform music from the classical music
repertoire, which spans from the Medieval era to the present, and/or
popular music repertoire. Most choirs are led by a conductor, who leads
the performances with arm and face gestures.
O Mio Babbino Caro
Duke Chapel Choir
The Kremlin Capella
sing a beautiful Russian Folk Song
is the reading and performing of a piece of music or song in music
notation that the performer has not seen before.
is an event of singing
together at gatherings or parties, less formally than choir singing.
or cradle song, is a soothing song or
piece of music, usually played for or sung to children.
without the use of an
is achieved by creating a small opening with one's lips and
then blowing or sucking air through the hole. The air is moderated by the
lips, tongue, teeth or fingers (placed over the mouth) to create
turbulence, and the mouth acts as a
enhance the resulting sound by acting as a type of
is the creation of musical sounds
pleasing tunes and melodies using the voice or
, which are composed of twin
stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the
the flow of air
expelled from the lungs
by which the vocal folds produce certain
through quasi-periodic vibration.
perform music (arias, recitatives, songs, etc.) that can be
sung with or without accompaniment by musical
is a type of
classical female singing voice and has the highest vocal range of all
refers to the second
highest part of a contrapuntal musical texture and is also applied to its
associated vocal range, especially in choral music. More rarely it
describes the highest male solo voice type (usually designated
countertenor), and it is also the root word of contralto, the lowest
standard female voice type. When designating instruments, "alto" likewise
can refer either to the corresponding vocal range (alto flute and alto
trombone) or to musical role (alto recorder and alto clarinet).
is a type of classical
male singing voice whose vocal range is one of the highest of the male
voice types. Breathing
is a type of classical
male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the bass and the tenor
is a type of
classical male singing voice and has the lowest vocal range of all voice
is a kind of
musical notation in which numerals and symbols (often accidentals)
indicate intervals, chords, and non-chord tones that a musician playing
harpsichord, organ, lute (or other instruments capable of playing chords)
play in relation to the bass note that these numbers and symbols appear
above or below.
is the measure of
the breadth of pitches that a human voice can phonate.
is the process
by which the basic product of phonation is enhanced in timbre and/or
intensity by the air-filled cavities through which it passes on its way to
the outside air.
consists of sound
made by a human being using the vocal folds for talking, singing,
laughing, crying, screaming, etc..
is the leading female singer in the company, the
person to whom the prime roles would be given. The prima donna was
normally, but not necessarily, a soprano. The corresponding term for the
male lead (almost always a tenor) is primo uomo. Prime donne often had
grand off-stage personalities and were seen as demanding of their
colleagues. From its original usage in opera, the term has spread in
contemporary usage to refer to anyone behaving in a demanding or
temperamental fashion or having an inflated view of oneself and a
is studied by
examining how textures are perceived and encoded by an individual's
is an organ in the neck
of tetrapods involved in breathing, sound production, and protecting the
against food aspiration. It manipulates pitch and volume. The larynx
houses the vocal folds (vocal cords), which are essential for
. The vocal folds are situated just below where the tract of
the pharynx splits into the trachea and the
is the relationship
between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet
independent in rhythm and contour. It has been most commonly identified in
the European classical tradition, strongly developing during the
Renaissance and in much of the common practice period, especially in the
Baroque. The term originates from the Latin punctus contra punctum meaning
"point against point".
is any frequency
greater than the fundamental
of a sound.
is a type of
singing in which the singer manipulates the resonances (or formants)
created as air travels from the lungs, past the vocal folds, and out of
the lips to produce a melody. Also known as overtone chanting, harmonic
singing or throat singing. Polyphonic Singing
is any set of
musical notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch. A scale ordered
by increasing pitch is an ascending scale, and a scale ordered by
decreasing pitch is a descending scale. Some scales contain different
pitches when ascending than when descending. For example, the Melodic
is a heptatonic scale that includes five whole steps and two half steps in
each octave, in which the two half steps are separated from each other by
either two or three whole steps, depending on their position in the scale.
This pattern ensures that, in a diatonic scale spanning more than one
octave, all the half steps are maximally separated from each other (i.e.
separated by at least two whole steps).
Whole Tone Scale
is a scale in
which each note is separated from its neighbours by the interval of a
whole tone. There are only two complementary whole tone scales, both
six-note or hexatonic scales.
is a musical
scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone above or below another. On a
modern piano or other equal-tempered instrument, all the semitones have
the same size (100 cents). In other words, the notes of an equal-tempered
chromatic scale are equally spaced. An equal-tempered chromatic scale is a
nondiatonic scale having no tonic because of the symmetry of its equally
is the interval between
one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency. It is
defined by ANSI as the unit of frequency level when the base of the
logarithm is two. The octave relationship is a natural phenomenon that has
been referred to as the "basic miracle of music", the use of which is
"common in most musical systems.
is the basic unit of time,
the pulse (regularly repeating event), of the mensural level (or beat
level). The beat is often defined as the rhythm listeners would tap their
toes to when listening to a piece of music, or the numbers a musician
counts while performing, though in practice this may be technically
incorrect (often the first multiple level). In popular use, beat can refer
to a variety of related concepts including: tempo, meter, specific
rhythms, and groove.
of music is its rhythmic
structure, the patterns of accents heard in regularly recurring measures
of stressed and unstressed beats (arsis and thesis) at the frequency of
the music's pulse.
process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions
of sounds, is analysed by hearing. Usually, this means simultaneously
occurring frequencies, pitches (tones, notes), or chords. The study of
harmony involves chords and their construction and chord progressions and
the principles of connection that govern them. Harmony is often said to
refer to the "vertical" aspect of music, as distinguished from melodic
line, or the "horizontal" aspect. Counterpoint, which refers to the
relationship between melodic lines, and polyphony, which refers to the
simultaneous sounding of separate independent voices, are thus sometimes
distinguished from harmony.
is a linear succession of
musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity. In its most
literal sense, a melody is a combination of pitch and rhythm, while more
figuratively, the term can include successions of other musical elements
such as tonal color. It may be considered the foreground to the background
accompaniment. A line or part need not be a foreground melody.
general movement of two melodic lines with respect to each other. In
traditional four-part harmony, it is important that lines maintain their
independence, an effect which can be achieved by the judicious use of the
four types of contrapuntal motion: parallel motion, similar motion,
contrary motion, and oblique motion. See also melodic motion.
is the speed
or pace of a given piece or subsection thereof, how fast or slow. Tempo is
related to meter and is usually measured by beats per minute, with the
beats being a division of the measures, though tempo is often indicated by
terms which have acquired standard ranges of beats per minute or assumed
by convention without indication. Tempo may be separated from
articulation, or articulation may be indicated along with tempo, and tempo
contributes to the overall texture. While the ability to hold a steady
tempo is a desirable skill, tempo is changeable, and often indicated by a
conductor or drummer. While practicing, an electronic or mechanical
device, a metronome, may indicate the tempo, as one usually works one's
way up to being able to perform at the proper tempo. In other words it is
the speed at which a passage of music is or should be played.
amount of time or a particular time interval: how long or short a note,
phrase, section, or composition lasts. A note may last less than a second,
while a symphony may last more than an hour. One of the fundamental
features of rhythm, or encompassing rhythm, duration is also central to
meter and musical form.
is any harmonic set
of usually three or more notes (also called "pitches") that is heard as if
sounding simultaneously. In everyday use by musical ensembles such as
bands and orchestras, the three or more notes of a chord are often sounded
together. However, the notes of a chord do not have to be played together
at the same time.
is the timing of musical sounds and silences that occur over time, of the
steps of a dance, or the meter of spoken language and poetry. In some
performing arts, such as hip hop music, the rhythmic delivery of the
lyrics is one of the most important elements of the style. Rhythm is also
seen as a regular recurring motion, symmetry, movement marked by the
regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or
rhythmic pattern used as a tool for temporal organization in Afro-Cuban
simultaneous use of two or more conflicting rhythms, that are not readily
perceived as deriving from one another, or as simple manifestations of the
is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking,
the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical
composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the
work. In particular, polyphony consists of two or more simultaneous lines
of independent melody, as opposed to a musical texture with just one
voice, monophony, or a texture with one dominant melodic voice accompanied
by chords, which is called
consists of two or
more chords, one on top of the other. In shorthand they are written with
the top chord above a line and the bottom chord below, for example F upon
is a tuning
of the syntonic temperament in which the generator is the ratio 3:2 (i.e.,
the untempered perfect fifth), which is 702 cents wide.
is a commonly used type of metrical line in traditional English poetry and
verse drama. The term describes the rhythm that the words establish in
that line, which is measured in small groups of syllables called "feet".
The word "iambic" refers to the type of foot that is used, known as the
iamb, which in English is an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed
syllable. The word "pentameter" indicates that a line has five of these
"feet". Iambic rhythms come relatively naturally in English. Iambic pentameter is the most common meter in English poetry; it
is used in many of the major English poetic forms, including blank verse,
the heroic couplet, and some of the traditional rhymed stanza forms.
William Shakespeare used iambic pentameter in his plays and sonnets.
perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound, or tone that
distinguishes different types of sound production, such as choir voices
and musical instruments, such as string instruments, wind instruments, and
percussion instruments, and which enables listeners to hear even different
instruments from the same category as different (e.g. a viola and a
perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a
frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes
it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense
associated with musical melodies. Pitch can be determined only in sounds
that have a frequency that is clear and stable enough to distinguish from
noise. Pitch is a major auditory attribute of musical tones, along with
duration, loudness, and timbre.
has three primary meanings: A sign used in musical notation to represent
the relative duration and pitch of a sound. A pitched sound itself. A
characteristic of a sound that is primarily a psycho-physiological
correlate of physical strength (amplitude). More formally, it is defined
as "that attribute of auditory sensation in terms of which sounds can be
ordered on a scale extending from quiet to loud". The relation of physical
attributes of sound to perceived loudness consists of physical,
physiological and psychological components. The three components should be
taken separately to permit a balanced understanding of the phenomenon.
discovered the foundations of musical tuning by listening
to the sounds of four blacksmith's hammers, which produced consonance and
dissonance when they were struck simultaneously.
is an ancient
philosophical concept that regards proportions in the movements of
celestial bodies—the Sun, Moon, and planets—as a form of musica (the
Medieval Latin term for music). This "music" is not usually thought to be
literally audible, but a harmonic, mathematical or religious concept. The
idea continued to appeal to thinkers about music until the end of the
Renaissance, influencing scholars of many kinds, including humanists.
Further scientific exploration has determined specific proportions in some
orbital motion, described as orbital resonance
Boethius De Institutione musica
composed his Consolation
of Philosophy, a philosophical treatise on fortune, death, and other
issues, which became one of the most popular and influential works of the
implies a repetition of the first
occurring fragment. As well, eventually, the similarity does not occur by
direct repetition, but by presenting in two (or more) set of relations,
some common values or patterns. Objective musical similarity can be based
on musical features.
is a unit of musical
meter that has a complete musical sense of its own, built from figures,
motifs, and cells, and combining to form melodies, periods and larger
is a way of modeling the tuning
relationships of a just intonation system. It is an array of points in a
periodic multidimensional pattern. Each point on the lattice corresponds
to a ratio (i.e., a pitch, or an interval with respect to some other point
on the lattice). The lattice can be two-, three-, or n-dimensional, with
each dimension corresponding to a different prime-number partial" or
chroma. (Note that "partial" in the above quote is a misnomer, because
partials are sinusoidal components of complex tones, as defined by
How to Read Music
or sheet music is a
handwritten or printed form of music notation that uses modern musical
symbols to indicate the pitches (melodies), rhythms and/or chords of a
song or instrumental musical piece. Like its analogs – printed books or
pamphlets in English, Arabic or other languages – the medium of sheet
music typically is paper (or, in earlier centuries, papyrus or parchment),
although the access to musical notation since the 1980s has included the
presentation of musical notation on computer screens and the development
of scorewriter computer programs that can notate a song or piece
electronically, and, in some cases, "play back" the notated music using a
synthesizer or virtual instruments.
Read Musical Notes
Read Musical Notes
is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played
with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written,
printed, or otherwise-produced symbols, including ancient symbols or
modern musical symbols and including ancient symbols cut into stone, made
in clay tablets or made using a pen on papyrus, parchment or manuscript
paper; printed using a printing press (ca. 1400s), a computer printer (ca.
1980s) or other printing or modern copying technology.
is an individual
who writes the lyrics, melodies and chord progressions for songs,
typically for a popular music genre such as rock or country music. A
songwriter can also be called a composer, although the latter term tends
to be used mainly for individuals from the classical music genre.
Why do I think I sound good singing
is group or solo singing without instrumental accompaniment.
How to Sing High Notes
How To Sing Low Notes
Singing & Songwriting for Beginning Pianists
also known as
voice coach, though this term generally applies to those working with
speech and communication rather than singing) is a music teacher who
instructs singers on how to improve their singing technique, take care of
and develop their voice, and prepare for the performance of a song or
other work. Vocal coaches may give private music lessons or group
workshops or masterclasses to singers. They may also coach singers who are
rehearsing on stage, or who are singing during a recording session. Vocal
coaches are used in both Classical music and in popular music styles such
as rock and gospel. While some vocal coaches provide a range of
instruction on singing techniques, others specialize in areas such as
breathing techniques or diction and pronunciation.
Personal Singing Guide
Train Your Voice to
About Singing Lessons
History of Lyrics
the direction or performance technique which affects the transition or
continuity on a single note or between multiple notes or sounds.
explores the mathematical and cosmological dimensions of
rhythmic and harmonic organization.
is the measure of the breadth of pitches that a human voice can
which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic
or vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous
membrane stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the
They vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs
during phonation. Open when breathing and vibrating for speech or singing,
the folds are controlled via the
is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about
an equilibrium point.
is a music education
method used to teach pitch and sight singing of Western music.
to as hoarse voice, refers to dysfunction in the ability to produce voice.
For voice to be classified as "dysphonic", abnormalities must be present
in one or more vocal parameters: pitch, loudness, quality, or variability.
Perceptually, dysphonia can be characterised by hoarse, breathy, harsh, or
rough vocal qualities, but some kind of phonation remains.
(voice box). Symptoms often include a hoarse voice and may include fever,
cough, pain in the front of the neck, and trouble swallowing. Typically,
these last under two weeks.
Pentatonic Scale - Demonstration by Bobby McFerrin
67-year-old lead vocalist
GRINDMOTHER "Age of Destruction"
SHEL - Enter Sandman
Why do some people believe that their singing sounds good when it's actually not so great?
First lets put aside your personal perceptions, your personal
preferences, your metacognition and your ego. Second, you have
to understand that you sound different to yourself than you do
to other people, mostly because you hear less than 40 percent of
what comes out of your mouth, due to the resonance inside your
head. So sounding good to yourself does not mean that you will
sound good to others. To hear yourself singing accurately you
need a good voice recorder and a good sound system. Try to mimic
beautiful notes by singers you sound like and record yourself
singing that same song. And then play them both back and compare
each recording. But you still need to know the difference
between a live singing voice and a studio singing voice, because
a studio can add effects and other sound editing techniques that
can make a singers voice sound amazing. Then you will need
someone else's opinion who has knowledge and experience with
analyzing singing. Then you should have your friends and family
give opinions too, especially people who are not afraid to be
honest, not that other people have the skill and knowledge in
order to analyze what good singing is, but the more input the
better because the reasons why other people have for liking or
not liking your singing might give you some good insight. Try a
because that could also help
with analyzing your singing. Learn to understand
pitch, tone and rhythm
and other key elements of good singing, good singing that is pleasant to the
is a musical disorder that appears mainly as a defect
in processing pitch but also encompasses musical memory and recognition.
Two main classifications of amusia exist: acquired amusia, which occurs as
a result of brain damage, and congenital amusia, which results from a
music-processing anomaly present since birth.
is a form of agnosia that manifests itself primarily
in the inability to recognize or differentiate between
is a type of agnosia, or loss of knowledge, that involves
a disturbance in the recognition of familiar voices and the impairment
of voice discrimination abilities in which the affected individual does
not suffer from comprehension deficits. Phonagnosia is an auditory agnosia,
an acquired auditory processing disorder resulting from brain damage,
other auditory agnosias include cortical deafness and auditory verbal
agnosia also known as pure word deafness.
Auditory Verbal Agnosia
is the inability to comprehend speech.
Individuals with this disorder lose the ability to understand language,
repeat words, and write from dictation. However, spontaneous speaking,
reading, and writing are preserved.
irritated or annoyed by certain sounds. A condition in which negative
, thoughts, and physical
reactions are triggered
specific sounds, such as the sound of people chewing or noisy eating. It
is also called "select sound sensitivity syndrome" and "sound-rage". A
trigger sound. Bias
Unable Recognize Common Tunes
is the lack of relative pitch, or the
inability to distinguish between musical notes that is not due to the lack
of musical training or education. Tone deafness is the congenital form of
amusia. It is also known as tune deafness, "tin ear", dysmelodia and
is a form of congenital amusia characterized
by a person's inability to feel musical rhythm or move in time to it.
Tom Waits - No
Visitors After Midnight
is loud confusing disagreeable sounds. A loud harsh or strident
noise. Harshness in the sound of words or phrases.
What would be useful is having a way for
people to analyze their singing using a computer software
program so they can do a side by side comparison that shows them
how the notes should sound when compared to a professional
Speech Analyzer Software
It's not just Autotune - how singers cheat today (Pop Theory)
Make singers sound great.
How do Singers on Stage Hear themselves Sing
Stage Monitor System
Live Sound Mixing
Foldback Sound Engineering
Song Lyrics Generator
Pitch: The World's Greatest Ear!!
Music Documentaries - Films about Music
Music Video Clips Showing Amazing Skill
Music Instinct: Science and Song
Touch of Sound
Question- Frank Zappa in his own words
(2016) | 1h 33min |
Documentary, Biography, Music.
was one of the greatest explorers of sound, using music as a
medium to open peoples minds to the possibilities. And he was also an
who was angered and
disappointed with our dysfunctional governing systems
, as millions are
today. Thank you Frank.
"When you're creating your own stuff, even the
sky is not the limit" -
- So What
Evelyn Glennie: How to truly listen
(video and text)
(New Acoustic Instrument)
Les Paul - Chasing Sound
Chuck Berry - Hail! Hail! Rock N' Roll (4 Disc)
Jive - Cab Calloway and the Nicholas Brothers
Reggie Watts: Disorients You
Kid Shreds on Accordion
Abigail Washburn: China Relations by Banjo
- Il Silenzio (Maastricht 2008) DIGITAL TV
Beautiful Trumpet Playing
Mash-Up by the Highland Trouveres
(8 Videos on TED)
(youtube) Dublin schools.
State University Marching Band
Whole Gritty City (2013)
New Orleans marching bands prepare
students to perform in the Mardi Gras parades.
Aired: 10/12/2013 | 1 hr. 28 min.
Mongolian Throat Singing
Tuvan Throat Singing
Anda Union -
From the Steppes to the City
from Mongolia, vibrations from the soul.
DakhaBrakha: NPR Music Tiny Desk Concert
y Maria Laura - Fiesta Para Los Muertos
Homemade Hillbilly Jam (2006)
1 hr. 19 min. -
In the 1800s a scrappy group of Scotch-Irish immigrants
settled in the Ozark Mountains of Southwestern Missouri.
Stereotyped, these isolated hill folk over time became the
butt of countless jokes and earned themselves the name of "hillbillies
Bluegrass Roots (2012)
47 min -
David Hoffman takes viewers on an extraordinary journey to
meet singers, musicians and dancers of the
movement. Filmed in the 1960's.
Brian Wilson: Song Writer 1962-1969
2 Part Documentary, 1.5 Hours each, Released in 2010.
is an electronic musical instrument
that features a tone and portamento similar to that of the theremin, but
with a different control mechanism. It consisted of a sine wave generator
with a knob that controlled the pitch, placed inside a wooden box. The
pitch knob was attached to a slider on the outside of the box with some
string. The player would move the slider, thus turning the knob to the
desired frequency, with the help of markings drawn on the box.
is a type of musical instrument that uses a
series of glass bowls or goblets graduated in size to produce musical
tones by means of friction (instruments of this type are known as friction
Major Scale Musical Wines Glasses
Mark Applebaum: Mad Scientist of Music
Engraving on Metal Plates (with sound)
Wintergatan - Marble Machine (music instrument using 2000
Johnnyrandom - Bespoken
(Music made from Bicycle Parts)
Printing Antique Musical Instruments (Parts & Replicas)
of Noise 2015
A Documentary about the artist HAZE XXL and
his notorious record label, Amphetamine Reptile Records.
Aired: 02/26/2015 | Not Rated | 1 hr. 59 min.
"I would like to see certain music videos to be redone and
made from movie clips from famous movies. So many songs
can be done this
way. Music and Movies go great together
Do Copyrights Kill Creativity
Jazz: 10 Series by Ken Burns
The Pace Report
Red Hot Jazz
Joey Alexander: 11 year old performs Old School Jazz
Keith Jarrett- The Köln Concert, January 24, 1975
Best-selling solo piano album in jazz history, 3.5
million in sales.
A History Of Blues Pt1
Re: Generation Music Project
Eric Whitacre: A Virtual Choir 2,000 Voices Strong (TED)
Eric Whitacre's Virtual Choir 2.0, 'Sleep' (youtube)
Sleepy Man Banjo Boys: Bluegrass Virtuosity from N.J.
The Song of the Earth
Don't Quit Your Daydream
I Need That Record!
Punk's Not Dead
Incredible GIRLS Playing UKULELE in the world
Minaj - Super Bass (Cover by Karmin)
(youtube)2 CELLOS -
Buttin Gayageum ver.
12 string instrument by Luna
“White Snow in Spring,” performed by Wu Man
Usman Riaz and Preston Reed Guitarists
16 year old girl shreds electric guitar
Jason Becker - Altitude - Tina S Cover
Brushy One String
Music for Wood and Strings: Sō Percussion
is a 21-string
used extensively in West Africa.Toumani
Diabaté & Sidiki Diabaté - Jarabi
African composers | Derek Gripper | TEDxTableMountain
Girls 3 Harps
(Harp Twins) HARP METAL BLACK SABBATH "Iron Man"
Black Violin - "A Flat" (Music Video) (2012)
Violinist Lara St. John (Tiny Desk Concert, NPR)
Playing Czardashian Rhapsody, Sari Siroun Yar and
Michael Tilson Thomas: Music and Emotion through time
Valentina Lisitsa (youtube) Piano
Beethoven "Moonlight" Sonata op 27 # 2 Mov 3 (youtube)
Bach - Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue in d-minor, BWV 903
Daria van den bercken: Piano in the Air
George Frideric Handel Chaconne in G Major
The Best of Handel (youtube album)
The Toy Piano Virtuoso (youtube)
This Piano Prodigy Was Born With No Fingers (youtube)
Piano Around dragging a piano out into the wilderness
Derek Paravicini: Piano Genius (video)
Scott Rickard: Beautiful Math Behind the Ugliest Music
Stefon Harris: No Mistakes (video)
Vibraphone is a musical instrument in the struck
idiophone subfamily of the percussion family. The vibraphone
resembles the xylophone, marimba, and glockenspiel.
Xylophone is a musical instrument in the
percussion family that consists of wooden bars struck by
mallets. Each bar is an idiophone tuned to a pitch of a musical
scale, whether pentatonic or heptatonic in the case of many
African and Asian instruments, diatonic in many western
children's instruments, or chromatic for orchestral use.
Yogi Horton Drum Lesson Funk-R&B
Grandma Drummer (youtube)
Top Secret Drum Corps - Edinburgh Military Tattoo
Doudou N'Diaye Rose (wiki)
Meytal Cohen Beautiful Female Drummer (youtube)
is a South Asian membranophone percussion instrument (similar to
bongos) consisting of a pair of small drums
Ge Wang: DIY Computer Music Orchestra of the Future
Stanford Laptop Orchestra
Stanford Mobile Phone Orchestra
Chuck Computer Music Software
Trash To Triumph: The Recycled Orchestra. Young musicians
from a Paraguayan slum have toured the world with instruments
made of garbage. The Recycled Orchestra of Cateura has played
with Stevie Wonder, Metallica, and Megadeth -- and for Pope
Top 10 Sound-Alike Songs (youtube)
Amateur Video Clips Get Mashed Up Into An Incredible Song
Kutiman - Thru Tel Aviv (youtube)
Eric P Dollard - The Supernatural Power of Music (youtube)
Ancient Knowledge (youtube)
Beatboxing and Rythm Flute (youtube)
Straw -Talented Man Makes Music Using Only A Straw as a
Remidi T8 is a wearable glove device that turns
your hand into a whole new musical instrument.
Combining motion and pressure on any surface.
Music Box & Modulin - 2 New Music Instruments (youtube)
for Sugar Man 2012 Full Movie (youtube)
Rodriguez (singer-songwriter) Sixto Diaz Rodriguez, (born
July 10, 1942), is an American singer-songwriter from Detroit,
Michigan. Sixto (pronounced "Seeks-toe") because he was their
Searching for Sugar Man (wiki) -
What song are you listening to? (youtube)
Bydgoszcz, Poland. - Czego sluchaja bydgoszczanie
Ways You Develope Your Taste in Music
Mickey Hart, Innovators In Music (2016) A
fascinating and compelling glimpse into Mickey
Hart's magical, musical world
Aired: 02/19/2016 | Not Rated | 23 min.
Paolo Angeli has a whole toy shop aboard his guitar:
He's got hammers, pedals, propellers, springs, drone
strings and even a couple of cell-phone ringers at
How Music Works
(Video: 48:18, Francis Hanly, David Jeffcock-2006)
is a field of
study associated with the teaching and learning of music. It touches on
all learning domains, including the psychomotor domain (the development of
skills), the cognitive domain (the acquisition of knowledge), and, in
particular and significant ways, the affective domain (the learner's
willingness to receive, internalize, and share what is learned), including
music appreciation and sensitivity. Music training from preschool through
post-secondary education is common in most nations because involvement
with music is considered a fundamental component of human culture and
behavior. Music, like language, is an accomplishment that distinguishes
humans as a species.
is a branch of both psychology and musicology. It aims to explain and
understand musical behavior and experience, including the processes
through which music is perceived, created, responded to, and incorporated
into everyday life.
is the study of
music from a biological point of view. The term was coined by Nils L.
Wallin in 1991 to encompass several branches of music psychology and
musicology, including evolutionary musicology, neuromusicology, and
describing how musicians and composers make music, including tuning
systems and composition methods among other topics. Because of the
ever-expanding conception of what constitutes music (see Definition of
music), a more inclusive definition could be that music theory is the
consideration of any sonic phenomena, including silence, as they relate to
refers to the
overall structure or plan of a piece of music, and it describes the
layout of a composition as divided into sections.
music and popular music are typically sectional, repeating forms used in
songs, such as strophic form and is a part of the songwriting process.
Other common forms include thirty-two-bar form, verse-chorus form, and the
twelve-bar blues. Popular music songs traditionally use the same music for
each verse of stanza of lyrics (as opposed to songs that are
"through-composed", an approach used in classical music). Pop and
traditional forms can be used even with songs that have structural
differences in melodies. The most common format is
intro, verse, pre-chorus, chorus (or refrain), verse, pre-chorus, chorus,
bridge ("middle eight"), verse, chorus and outro.
is the scholarly
analysis and research of music. Musicology is part of the humanities. A
scholar who participates in musical research is a musicologist.
can refer to
an original piece of music, either a song or an instrumental music piece,
the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating or writing a
new song or piece of music. People who create new compositions are called
composers in classical music. In popular music and traditional music, the
creators of new songs are usually called songwriters; with songs, the
person who writes new words for a song is the lyricist. "Composition" is
the act or practice of creating a song or other piece of music.
is a person who creates or writes music, which can
be vocal music (for a singer or choir), instrumental music (e.g., for solo
piano, string quartet, wind quintet or orchestra) or music which combines
both instruments and voices (e.g., opera or art song, which is a singer
accompanied by a pianist). The core meaning of the term refers to
individuals who have contributed to the tradition of Western classical
music through creation of works expressed in written musical notation.
The National Association for Music Education
is the study of
music from the cultural and social aspects of the people who make it. It
encompasses distinct theoretical and methodical approaches that emphasize
cultural, social, material, cognitive, biological, and other dimensions or
contexts of musical behavior, instead of only its isolated sound
Music Meets Science
Music Books Now
Classical Music (ariama)
Music Ed Links
Konteh Kunda School
A440 Pitch Standard
or A4, which has a frequency of 440
hertz, is the musical note A above middle C and serves as both a precise
tuning and also a general "ballpark" tuning standard for musical pitch as
there is a global controversy concerning the precise definition for A4.
The Boston Symphony Orchestra supports A4 having a frequency of 441 Hz,
the New York Philharmonic supports A4 having a frequency of 442 Hz, and in
Germany, Austria, Sweden, Russia, Spain and continental Europe those
symphony orchestras support A4 having a frequency of 443 Hz.
is a show tune from the 1959 Rodgers and
The Sound of
is any set of musical notes ordered by fundamental
frequency or pitch. A scale ordered by increasing pitch is an ascending
scale, and a scale ordered by decreasing pitch is a descending scale. Some
scales contain different pitches when ascending than when descending. For
example, the Melodic minor scale.Sounds
Build Community and make Music in Armenia
Learning Music by Ear
is a term describing the ability of an
instrumental musician to reproduce a piece of music they have heard,
without having observed another musician play it or having seen the sheet
is a skill by which musicians learn to identify,
solely by hearing, pitches, intervals, melody, chords, rhythms, and other
basic elements of music. The application of this skill is analogous to
taking dictation in written/spoken language. As a process, ear training is
in essence the inverse of sight-singing, the latter being analogous to
reading a written text aloud without prior opportunity to review the
material. Ear training is typically a component of formal musical
refers to a person's innate ability to
acquire skills and knowledge required for musical activity, and may
influence the speed at which learning can take place and the level that
may be achieved. Study in this area focuses on whether aptitude can be
broken into subsets or represented as a single construct, whether aptitude
can be measured prior to significant achievement, whether high aptitude
can predict achievement, to what extent aptitude is inherited, and what
implications questions of aptitude have on educational principles.
You can use the
FAO Schwarz Big Piano
to teach music, coordination, balance, rhythm and be an exercise
FAO Schwarz Big Piano - Toccata und Fugue in D Minor
Five Tone Pipes, 30 Physics Sound Tubes
is a musical instrument which consists of a
corrugated (ribbed) plastic tube (hollow flexible cylinder), open at both
ends, which is swung in a circle to play. The faster the toy is swung the
higher the pitch of the note it produces. It produces discrete notes in
the harmonic series like a valveless brass instrument.
Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge
Scientific Reasons for Learning to Play a Musical Instrument
Playing a musical instrument helps builds
, it helps strengthen math skills
through counting notes and rhythms, and learning music theory.
Playing a musical instrument improves reading and comprehension
skills, and enhances concentration by requiring you to focus on
pitch, rhythm, tempo and notes. playing a musical instrument can
also benefit your memory.
"Kids who learn how to play musical
instruments may have an easier time paying attention and
Music is a Science
It is exact, specific; and it
demands exact acoustics. A sheet of music is a chart, a graph
which indicates frequencies, intensities, volume changes, melody
and harmony all at once and with the most exact control of time.
Music is Mathematical
Rhythm is based on the
subdivisions of time into fractions which must be done in one's
head, not worked out on paper. Students involvement in
instrumental music show higher levels of
Music education helps with the development of
. Highly developed
spatial-temporal faculties are imperative for working through
solutions to the complex problems in fields such as
architecture, engineering, science and, obviously, mathematics
Music is a Foreign Language.
Most of the terms are in Italian,
German or French; and the notation is certainly not English but
a highly developed kind of shorthand that uses symbols to
represent ideas. Music is the most complete and
. Music education also does major work on
the language-processing parts of our brains. To learn to read,
children need to have "good
ability to disambiguate speech sounds and make quick
Music is History
Music usually reflects the
environment and times of its creation, often even the country
and / or
Music is Physical Education.
It requires fantastic
coordination of fingers
, hands, arms, lip, cheek and facial
muscles, in addition to extraordinary control of diaphragmatic,
back, stomach, and chest muscles, which respond instantly to the
sound the ear hears and the mind interprets.
Music training helps improve cognitive and non-cognitive skills.
Music touches every human being from infancy to adulthood. The
power of musical sound can be the vehicle for expression of a
wide variety of human emotions. And not only does music move us
emotionally, it activates our intellect.
Arts and Human Development Benefits
Music Training Enhances Verbal Intelligence and Executive
"Music is a excellent vehicle for learning
many different things, you're not just teaching music, you're
teaching everything in life that's connected to music."
Surgery patients who listen to music may have lower levels of
pain and anxiety as well as lower blood pressure and heart rate
than people who don't, according to the analysis music was
linked to about 31 percent less pain, 29 percent lower odds of
using pain medication, and 34 percent less anxiety. Music was
tied to 40 percent lower blood pressure and 27 percent lower
Music Cognition Lab
employs a variety of behavioral and physiological
methods in their research, including Electroencephalography, eye-tracking,
speech analysis, neuroimaging, genetics, standardized and experimental
assessment measures, and behavioral coding. Our Lab is a central hub for
the Program for Music, Mind, and Society at Vanderbilt, a
trans-institutional program that aims to understand the role of music from
molecules to the brain to behavior to culture and society.
Can music training help children develop language and learning skills?
M.I.L.E.Stone (Music Impacting Language Expertise).
Musical rhythm discrimination explains individual differences in grammar
skills in children
. Study considered a relation between rhythm
perception skills and individual differences in phonological awareness and
of Rhythm Production and Perception
Rhythm Perception in Early Infancy
. The chief characteristic of rhythm
perception is the subjective grouping of objectively separate events. In a
rhythmic sequence of identical tone-bursts, adults do not perceive the
repetition of a single sound, but a recurring configuration which has
temporal form. Such a sequence is organised according to the Gestalt law
of proximity1,2. Organisation of temporal form has never been studied
systematically in pre-verbal infants. We present here results suggesting a
precocious achievement of this function and contrasting with previous
research3 which failed to demonstrate organisation of spatial form by
babies in accordance with the proximity law.
Foundation for Paediatric Neurology announces The Neurosciences and Music
How Music Hijacks our Perception of Time
Visualization of Music
refers to the use of musical structures in
visual imagery, which can also include silent films or silent Lumia work.
It also refers to methods or devices which can translate sounds or music
into a related visual presentation. An expanded definition may include the
translation of music to painting; Visual music also refers to systems
which convert music or sound directly into visual forms, such as film,
video or computer graphics, by means of a mechanical instrument, an
artist's interpretation, or a computer. The reverse is applicable also,
literally converting images to sound by drawn objects and figures on a
film's soundtrack, in a technique known as drawn or graphical sound.
is a feature found in electronic music
visualizers and media player software, generates animated imagery based on
a piece of music. The imagery is usually generated and rendered in real
time and in a way synchronized with the music as it is played.
Visualization techniques range from simple ones (e.g., a simulation of an
oscilloscope display) to elaborate ones, which often include a plurality
of composited effects. The changes in the music's loudness and frequency
spectrum are among the properties used as input to the visualization.
with Sound Augmented Reality
is the idea that vocal sounds or phonemes
carry meaning in and of themselves.
Eye Music: Hearing Colored Shapes
are words that evoke an idea in sound, often a
vivid impression of certain sensations or sensory perceptions, e.g. sound,
movement, color, shape, or action. Ideophones are found in many of the
world's languages, though they are claimed to be relatively uncommon in
Western languages.Hearing Incorrectly
is a type of
which heard sounds automatically and involuntarily evoke an experience of
LaserDock: $199 Laser Show System
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100+ Music Visualizers, Laser Shows, and more.
is when different patterns
emerge in the excitatory medium depending on the geometry of the plate and
the driving frequency.
Numbers make Shapes
Spirals Oscilloscope Music Visualized on Hansiraber's Software
Chopin, Etude, opus 25 no. 1, A-flat major
(Animated Graphical Score) (youtube)
I would like to see a concert that displays a music's Corresponding Colors and the
during each song.
is a tuning of the syntonic temperament
in which the generator is the ratio 3:2 (i.e., the untempered perfect
fifth), which is 702 cents wide.
is a Chinese philosophical system of harmonizing
everyone with the surrounding environment. It is closely linked to Taoism.
trigonometric function of an angle. The sine of an acute angle is defined
in the context of a right triangle: for the specified angle, it is the
ratio of the length of the side that is opposite that angle to the length
of the longest side of the triangle (the hypotenuse).
is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth
repetitive oscillation. It is named after the function sine, of which it
is the graph. It occurs often in pure and applied mathematics, as well as
physics, engineering, signal processing and many other fields.
Can Music make Food taste better
Listening to music makes food taste better
10 inspired food and music pairings
Have you ever wondered how many Songs have been created?
On Average, there are 50 albums
released every week in the United States of America
and the United Kingdom
Thomas Edison invented the phonograph in 1878 but it
was always a very poor seller. The first artist to sell serious numbers of
records was Frank Sinatra in the 1940 (250,000,000 records in his
lifetime), so lets start there.
Lets also assume that there are 12 songs per album.
50 albums per week * 52 weeks = 2,500 per year.
2500 per year * 69 years = 179,400 unique albums
12 songs * 179,400 albums = 2,152,800 songs
So the average points to about 2,100,000 songs being
released in the United States of America and
the United Kingdom (and nowhere else) in musical
history, give or take a few.
Only about 50% of all music created gets published
on a CD.
National Recording Registry
Scientific American: Music in your Head
How Many other stuff is there
is when that song gets stuck in your head.
"Can chewing something get rid of earworms?"
Some of Life's Greatest Songs over the Years
Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time
100 Songs that Changed History
Famous Activism Songs
List of Songs considered the Best
NPR 100 List
Songs that were Hits for more than one Artist
most popular songs of all time
whoop" is taking over pop music
in popular music, especially electronic music styles, is a point in a
music track where a switch of rhythm or bass line occurs and usually
follows a recognizable build section and break. The term "drop" comes from
the composer or producer "dropping in" the primary rhythmic and
foundational elements previously hinted at into the mix more or less at
once. Related terms, typically describing certain types of drops, include
"beat-up" (so named because it is a point where the producer brings up the
foundational kick drum beat after having faded it down during a break or
buildup) and "climax" (typically describing a single particularly striking
drop heard late in the track).
Bass drop sound
drop, trailer, sound effect
Artists who reached number one in the United States
Billboard Hot 100 chart Achievements and Milestones
Most Groundbreaking Albums of all Time
Essential Obscure and Influential Bands
Top 100 Bands
100 Greatest Artists
Worst Album Covers of all time
How many Books have been Written
How many Movies have been Made
- Pay for
were paid to promote music, which is the illegal
practice of payment or other inducement by record companies for the
broadcast of recordings on commercial radio
in which the song is presented
as being part of the normal day's broadcast. Under U.S. law, a radio
station can play a specific song in exchange for money, but this must be
disclosed on the air as being sponsored airtime, and that play of the song
should not be counted as a "regular airplay".
Corporate Control of the Media
Music and songs can have an incredible
influence on people so you should be totally aware of this
influence. This goes way beyond hidden messages in songs,
, because just the words and the music
themselves can have a strong impact on your behavior. You have
to fully understand
as well as
. Music is a beautiful gift, but music can
also become an addiction with side effects. So please listen
carefully to the music, but also listen more carefully to your
How many Rock n Roll Music Fantasies have you had today?
Jukebox Hero - Foreigner
Dave Grohls 2013 Keynote Speech
Fame and Popularity Dangers
I love watching
documentaries about bands who became really famous.
I love how it shows that most people just start out with simple
and normal lives. And then one day their abilities come in line
with an opportunity of a life time, and just by chance their
lives are changed forever. Of course these documentaries never
show a complete story, these are only a few particular moments
in a persons life, so we have no idea who they are, or who they
could have been if their lives would have been different. I
myself think it's better to dream about these experiences then
to have them come true. Because I would hate to live a dream
that I was unable to wake up from, that would suck. But of
course you don't have to be famous to be at that crossroad like
that, because everyone has to make decisions. And what ever
those decisions were, or how bad some of those decisions were,
you have to find a way to live through those decisions no matter
what, because you are here for a reason, so you have to find
that reason, because it may not find you. If you're not looking
for it, you may never find it. But be careful where you look, if
you're not looking in the right places at the right time, you
may find more trouble then success. Remember, life is a double
edge sword, but it's your sword, so being dull on one side might
be a little safer. But this is your life, not mine.
Zeplin the story of Led Zeplin 2004
This insightful documentary chronicles the band's history from
their 1968 formation to their reign as 1970s hard-rock giants
through rare photographs, archival footage, and interviews with
both the band members and those who worked with them.
Aired: 06/08/2004 | 55 min.
and Courtney (1998)
Beginning as an observation of the music of
and his Seattle/Portland contemporaries, Kurt
and Courtney took a different turn when
intervened. Directed by Nick Broomfield.
Aired: 02/28/1998 | 1 hr. 35 min.
"Music is such a beautiful way of expressing information...Music is the Soul of Language."
"Some song Lyrics can speak in volumes,
telling stories within a short period of time, while
communicating messages, behaviors and opinions."
"O body swayed to music, o brightening glance, how can we know the dancer from the dance?"
William Butler Yeats
"I believe if a
child holds a musical instrument, they are less likely to hold a
gun, or take drugs."
De Leon de Vega
and Gentlemen, Rock 'n' Roll."...were
the first words from the MTV broadcast a minute after
midnight on Aug. 1, 1981.
The first video was "Video Killed the Radio Star
"One of the best things I
like about the internet
is that I
can find the lyrics to songs that I loved when I was young, so now when I
hear the song I can actually sing the song because I now know the correct
words, I love you internet, and I also love all the beautiful people who
Love to Share
, thank you, thank you, thank you."
is to designate a passage that brings a piece
(or a movement) to an end.