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Musical Intelligence - Music Education - Music Therapy


Music is an artistic form of auditory communication incorporating instrumental or vocal tones in a structured and continuous manner. Any agreeable (pleasing and harmonious) sounds. Musical activity (singing or whistling etc.) Sounds produced by singers or musical instruments (or reproductions of such sounds). Music is more then just learning an Instrument. Music Smart involves skill in the Performance, Composition, and Appreciation of Musical Patterns.

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Music Online SourcesMusic Sheet
Music Education
Music as a Teaching and Learning Tool
Sounds
Music News
Music Shows
Music Museums - Instruments
Music Instrument Lessons
Music Editing Tools
Sound Systems - Speakers - Headphones
Films about Music
Music Therapy
Singing Lessons
Singing Knowledge - Rhythm
Does my Singing sound good?
Music Genre's (types)
How many Songs have been created?

Film Score also sometimes called background score, background music, film music or incidental music) is original music written specifically to accompany a film.

Editing - Sound Mixer

Soundtrack is recorded music accompanying and synchronized to the images of a motion picture, book, television program or video game. Composer is a person who creates or writes music.

Top 10 Movie Soundtracks of All Time (youtube)
10 beautiful Soundtracks (youtube)
Soundtracks (movies)
Soundtrack Collection
Reading Sheet Music

Musical Performances
Dancing


Internet Music Sources


Online Radio Stations
Radio Locator
Radio
Radio Tower
Radio Garden
Rdio
Live 365
Zeno Radio
Sound Cloud
Audio Music Sharing
Jango
WNIU
Pandora
Rhapsody
Last.fm
I Like
Napster
I Tunes
E Music
Groove Shark
Windows Media Guide
Youtube
Vevo
Spotify
Never Ending Playlist
Cd Baby (Indie Music)
The Sound You Need
National Jukebox

Historical Recordings from the Library of Congress.
Music Score Library Project
All Music
Play Lists

Light in the Attic
Share Your Own Mix Online
Turn Table
Music Video Sites


Music Shows - Music Festivals


Music Festivals
Music Festivals
Concert Vault
Festivals
Festival
SXSW
Concert Listings

SOLATE - Hearing protection from load music, but still hear.

Set List (Songs Played)
Battle of Bands (wiki)
Woodstock 94
Concert Ticket Sales
The Arts
Solar Powered Portable Concert Stages
Brushfire Records
Rough Trade Record Store
Music Video Sites
Hearing Problems


Music News


Music News (VH1)
Music News (Universal)
VEVO Music News
Billboard
Rolling Stone
MTV
Music News
Ana Logik
NPR Music News
Statistical universals
reveal the structures and functions of human music
Namm 
AOL Music News
Music News Net
Phonographic Industry 
Classical TV
Heavy Metal News
Girl Talk
Rock & Roll Concert Story
350-BPM (Heavy Metal)
Old Concert Stubs Photo
Damn The Radio
Ergonomic Guitar


Music Editing Tools


Mixing Console is an electronic device for combining (also called "mixing"), routing, and changing the volume level, timbre (tone color) and/or dynamics of many different audio signals, such as microphones being used by singers, mics picking up acoustic instruments such as drums or saxophones, signals from electric or electronic instruments such as the electric bass or synthesizer, or recorded music playing on a CD player.

Equalization (audio) is the process of adjusting the balance between frequency components within an electronic signal. The most well known use of equalization is in sound recording and reproduction but there are many other applications in electronics and telecommunications. The circuit or equipment used to achieve equalization is called an equalizer. These devices strengthen (boost) or weaken (cut) the energy of specific frequency bands or "frequency ranges". Equalizers are used in recording studios, radio studios and production control rooms, and live sound reinforcement and in instrument amplifiers, such as guitar amplifiers, to correct or adjust the response of microphones, instrument pick-ups, loudspeakers, and hall acoustics. Equalization may also be used to eliminate or reduce unwanted sounds (e.g., low hum coming from a guitar amplifier), make certain instruments or voices more (or less) prominent, enhance particular aspects of an instrument's tone, or combat feedback (howling) in a public address system. Equalizers are also used in music production to adjust the timbre of individual instruments and voices by adjusting their frequency content and to fit individual instruments within the overall frequency spectrum of the mix.

Recording Studio is a facility for sound recording and mixing. Ideally both the recording and monitoring spaces are specially designed by an acoustician or audio engineer to achieve optimum acoustic properties (acoustic isolation or diffusion or absorption of reflected sound that could otherwise interfere with the sound heard by the listener).

Sound Recording and Reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are Analog Recording and Digital Recording. Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that can detect and sense the changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and record them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record (in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record). In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current, which is then converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet, which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it. Analog sound reproduction is the reverse process, with a bigger loudspeaker diaphragm causing changes to atmospheric pressure to form acoustic sound waves. Oscillations may also be recorded directly from devices such as an electric guitar pickup or a synthesizer, without the use of acoustics in the recording process, other than the need for musicians to hear how well they are playing during recording sessions via headphones. Digital recording and reproduction converts the analog sound signal picked up by the microphone to a digital form by the process of digitization. This lets the audio data be stored and transmitted by a wider variety of media. Digital recording stores audio as a series of binary numbers (zeros and ones) representing samples of the amplitude of the audio signal at equal time intervals, at a sample rate high enough to convey all sounds capable of being heard. Digital recordings are considered higher quality than analog recordings not necessarily because they have higher fidelity (wider frequency response or dynamic range), but because the digital format can prevent much loss of quality found in analog recording due to noise and electromagnetic interference in playback and mechanical deterioration or damage to the storage medium. Whereas successive copies of an analog recording tend to degrade in quality, as more noise is added, a digital audio recording can be reproduced endlessly with no degradation in sound quality. A digital audio signal must be reconverted to analog form during playback before it is amplified and connected to a loudspeaker to produce sound.

Synthesizer is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones. Synthesizers may either imitate instruments like piano, Hammond organ, flute, vocals; natural sounds like ocean waves, etc.; or generate new electronic timbres. They are often played with a musical keyboard, but they can be controlled via a variety of other input devices, including music sequencers, instrument controllers, fingerboards, guitar synthesizers, wind controllers, and electronic drums. Synthesizers without built-in controllers are often called sound modules, and are controlled via USB, MIDI or CV/gate using a controller device, often a MIDI keyboard or other controller. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals (sounds). Among the most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, wavetable synthesis, frequency modulation synthesis, phase distortion synthesis, physical modeling synthesis and sample-based synthesis. Other less common synthesis types (see #Sound synthesis) include subharmonic synthesis, a form of additive synthesis via subharmonics (used by mixture trautonium), and granular synthesis, sample-based synthesis based on grains of sound, generally resulting in soundscapes or clouds.

A loop-making session on the OP-1. (Nicotine) portable synthesizer (youtube)

Audio Editing Software Reviews
Muse Score
Garage Band
Audio Software
Free Audio Software List

Radio Edit is a modification, typically truncated, to make a song more suitable for airplay, whether it be adjusted for length, profanity, subject matter, instrumentation, or form. Radio edits may also be used for commercial single versions, which may be denoted as the 7" version. However, not all "radio edit" tracks are played on radio.

Music Production Center originally MIDI Production Center, now Music Production Controller) are a popular series of electronic musical instruments intended to function as a powerful kind of drum machine, the MPCs drew on design ideas from machines such as the Sequential Circuits Inc.

Music Sampling Station
Mobile Recording interface

Remove Vocals

Audacity (audio editor) is a free open source digital audio editor and recording computer software application, available for Windows, OS X, Linux and other operating systems.

Song Lyrics
Cowboy Lyrics
Song Meanings
Rap Genius Lyrics Meaning

Auto-Rap App
Song Facts
Deconstructing Songs

Who Sang that Song?
Midomi hum a song and find it's name.

Sounds Just Like are songs that sound the same.

Sampling is the act of taking a portion, or sample, of one sound recording and reusing it as an instrument or a sound recording in a different song or piece.

Copyrights

Music Information Retrieval is the interdisciplinary science of retrieving information from music. MIR is a small but growing field of research with many real-world applications. Those involved in MIR may have a background in musicology, psychology, academic music study, signal processing, machine learning or some combination of these.

Sound Hound
Music Recognition Search
Exact Audio Copy
Martin & Co. Guitars
Ever Tune
Chordana Compose App 

MP3 Players (amazon)
MP3 Downloads (amazon)

Speakers - Headphones

Music for Videos
Sound for Film
Sheet Music

Audio Map Tuneglue
Music Map
Music Roamer
Social Zune Music
Sound Slate
One Track Mind
Music Blogs
The Sixty One
Our Stage

Pure Volume
Live Plasma

Pedal Drum Machine

Hammer Jammers

Microphone, mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal. Most microphones today use electromagnetic induction (dynamic microphones), capacitance change (condenser microphones) or piezoelectricity (piezoelectric microphones) to produce an electrical signal from air pressure variations. Microphones typically need to be connected to a preamplifier before the signal can be recorded or reproduced.

Amplifier is an electronic component that can increase the power of a signal.

Preamplifier is an electronic amplifier that prepares a small electrical signal for further amplification or processing. They are typically used to amplify signals from microphones, instrument pickups, and phonographs to line level. Preamplifiers are often integrated into the audio inputs on mixing consoles, DJ mixers, and sound cards. They can also be stand-alone devices.

Electromagnetic Induction is the production of an electromotive force or voltage across an electrical conductor due to its dynamic interaction with a magnetic field.

Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.

Sphere - Precision Microphone Modeling System Real 3D Sounds of the Finest Microphones in Recording History.

Mikme: Wireless Recording Microphone

Puc Plus Universal Bluetooth MIDI Interface

MIDI or Musical Instrument Digital Interface - allows a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers and other related devices to connect and communicate with one another.



Audio - Sound - Acoustics


Formula Wheel Acoustics Audio Engineer works on the recording, manipulating the record using equalization and electronic effects, mixing, reproduction, and reinforcement of sound. Sound Mixer is the member of a film crew or television crew responsible for recording all sound recording on set during the filmmaking or television production using professional audio equipment, for later inclusion in the finished product, or for reference to be used by the sound designer, sound effects editors, or foley artists. This requires choice and deployment of microphones, choice of recording media, and mixing of audio signals in real time. Sound Tracks

Stereo Sound is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective. This is usually achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a configuration of two or more loudspeakers (or stereo headphones) in such a way as to create the impression of sound heard from various directions, as in natural hearing. Thus the term "stereophonic" applies to so-called "quadraphonic" and "surround-sound" systems as well as the more common two-channel, two-speaker systems. It is often contrasted with monophonic, or "mono" sound, where audio is heard as coming from one position, often ahead in the sound field (analogous to a visual field). In the 2000s, stereo sound is common in entertainment systems such as broadcast radio and TV, recorded music and the cinema.

Low Fidelity is a type of sound recording which contains technical flaws that make the recording sound different compared with the live sound being recorded, such as distortion, hum, background noise, or limited frequency response.

Sound Effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of films, television shows, live performance, animation, video games, music, or other media. In motion picture and television production, a sound effect is a sound recorded and presented to make a specific storytelling or creative point without the use of dialogue or music. The term often refers to a process applied to a recording, without necessarily referring to the recording itself. In professional motion picture and television production, dialogue, music, and sound effects recordings are treated as separate elements. Dialogue and music recordings are never referred to as sound effects, even though the processes applied to such as reverberation or flanging effects, often are called "sound effects".

Sound Design is the process of specifying, acquiring, manipulating or generating audio elements. It is employed in a variety of disciplines including filmmaking, television production, theatre, sound recording and reproduction, live performance, sound art, post-production, radio and video game development. Sound design most commonly involves the manipulation of previously composed or recorded audio, such as sound effects and dialogue. In some instances it may also involve the composition or manipulation of audio to create a desired effect or mood. A sound designer is one who practices the art of sound design.
Brainwave Entrainment

Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.

Acoustical Engineering is the branch of engineering dealing with sound and vibration. It is the application of acoustics, the science of sound and vibration, in technology. Acoustical engineers are typically concerned with the design, analysis and control of sound.

Musical Acoustics is a branch of acoustics concerned with researching and describing the physics of music – how sounds are employed to make music. Examples of areas of study are the function of musical instruments, the human voice (the physics of speech and singing), computer analysis of melody, and in the clinical use of music in music therapy. Phonics

Nonlinear Acoustics is a branch of physics and acoustics dealing with sound waves of sufficiently large amplitudes. Large amplitudes require using full systems of governing equations of fluid dynamics (for sound waves in liquids and gases) and elasticity (for sound waves in solids). These equations are generally nonlinear, and their traditional linearization is no longer possible. The solutions of these equations show that, due to the effects of nonlinearity, sound waves are being distorted as they travel.

Architectural Acoustics (noise pollution)
Acoustical Meta-Material with near-zero density

Ambience consists of the sounds of a given location or space. It is the opposite of "silence." This term is often confused with presence. Every location has distinct and subtle sounds created by its environment. These sound sources can include wildlife, wind, music, rain, running water, thunder, rustling leaves, distant traffic, aircraft and machinery noise, the sound of distant human movement and speech, creaks from thermal contraction, air conditioning and plumbing noises, fan and motor noises, and harmonics of mains power. Reverberation will further distort these already faint sounds, often beyond recognition, by introducing complex patterns of peaks and nulls in their frequency spectrum, and blurring their temporal characteristics. Finally, sound absorption can cause high frequencies to be rolled off, dulling the sound further. Ambience is normally recorded in stereo by the sound department during the production stage of filmmaking. It is used to provide a movie location with sonic space and normally occupies a separate track in the sound edit.

Modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to another. This may or may not be accompanied by a change in key signature. Modulations articulate or create the structure or form of many pieces, as well as add interest. Treatment of a chord as the tonic for less than a phrase is considered tonicization.

Amplitude Modulation is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. In amplitude modulation, the amplitude (signal strength) of the carrier wave is varied in proportion to the waveform being transmitted.

Harmonic describes any member of the harmonic series. The term is employed in various disciplines, including music and acoustics, electronic power transmission, radio technology, etc.

Sound is a vibration that propagates as a typically audible mechanical wave of pressure and displacement, through a medium such as air or water. In physiology and psychology, sound is the reception of such waves and their perception by the brain.
Hearing (ears)

Waves (electromagnetic spetrum)

Reverberation is the persistence of sound after a sound is produced. A reverberation, or reverb, is created when a sound or signal is reflected causing a large number of reflections to build up and then decay as the sound is absorbed by the surfaces of objects in the space – which could include furniture, people, and air. This is most noticeable when the sound source stops but the reflections continue, decreasing in amplitude, until they reach zero amplitude.

Reverberation Room is a room designed to create a diffuse or random incidence sound field.

Anechoic Chamber is a room designed to completely absorb reflections of either sound or electromagnetic waves. (non-echoing or echo-free).

Reverberation time of a balloon pop: reverb room vs. anechoic chamber (youtube)

Echo is a reflection of sound that arrives at the listener with a delay after the direct sound. The delay is proportional to the distance of the reflecting surface from the source and the listener. Moving without seeing - Echo in the Canyons (youtube).

Sound Localization refers to a listener's ability to identify the location or origin of a detected sound in direction and distance. It may also refer to the methods in acoustical engineering to simulate the placement of an auditory cue in a virtual 3D space (see binaural recording, wave field synthesis).

Audio Signal Flow is the path an audio signal takes from source to output. The concept of audio signal flow is closely related to the concept of audio gain staging; each component in the signal flow can be thought of as a gain stage.

Fourier Transform decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes. The Fourier transform of a function of time itself is a complex-valued function of frequency, whose absolute value represents the amount of that frequency present in the original function, and whose complex argument is the phase offset of the basic sinusoid in that frequency. The Fourier transform is called the frequency domain representation of the original signal. The term Fourier transform refers to both the frequency domain representation and the mathematical operation that associates the frequency domain representation to a function of time. The Fourier transform is not limited to functions of time, but in order to have a unified language, the domain of the original function is commonly referred to as the time domain. For many functions of practical interest, one can define an operation that reverses this: the inverse Fourier transformation, also called Fourier synthesis, of a frequency domain representation combines the contributions of all the different frequencies to recover the original function of time.

Variation is a formal technique where material is repeated in an altered form. The changes may involve harmony, melody, counterpoint, rhythm, timbre, orchestration or any combination of these.

Circulator is a passive non-reciprocal three- or four-port device, in which a microwave or radio frequency signal entering any port is transmitted to the next port in rotation (only). A port in this context is a point where an external waveguide or transmission line (such as a microstrip line or a coaxial cable), connects to the device.

Auditory Cortex
Singing
Electricity - Hz - Resonance

Virtual Acoustic Space is a technique in which sounds presented over headphones appear to originate from any desired direction in space. The illusion of a virtual sound source outside the listener's head is created.

Chord Progression is a succession of musical chords. Chord progressions are the foundation of harmony in Western musical tradition.

Recapitulation is one of the sections of a movement written in sonata form. The recapitulation occurs after the movement's development section, and typically presents once more the musical themes from the movement's exposition. This material is most often recapitulated in the tonic key of the movement, in such a way that it reaffirms that key as the movement's home key.

Repetition Pitch is an unexpected sensation of tonality or pitch that often occurs in nature when a sound is reflected against a sound-reflecting surface (for example: a brick wall), and both the original and the reflected sound arrive at the ear of an observer, but with a short time delay between the two arrivals.

Absolute Pitch, perfect pitch, is a rare auditory phenomenon characterized by the ability of a person to identify or re-create a given musical note without the benefit of a reference tone.

Overtone is any frequency greater than the fundamental frequency of a sound.

Tone (musical instrument) refers to the audible characteristics of a player's sound.

Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies.

Musical Tone is characterized by its duration, pitch, intensity (or loudness), and timbre (or quality).

Musical Note is a notation representing the pitch and duration of a musical sound.

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. If a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second (that is, 60 seconds divided by 120 beats)

Fundamental Frequency is defined as the lowest frequency of a periodic waveform. In music, the fundamental is the musical pitch of a note that is perceived as the lowest partial present.

Equalization

Stochastic Resonance is a phenomenon where a signal that is normally too weak to be detected by a sensor, can be boosted by adding white noise to the signal, which contains a wide spectrum of frequencies. The frequencies in the white noise corresponding to the original signal's frequencies will resonate with each other, amplifying the original signal while not amplifying the rest of the white noise (thereby increasing the signal-to-noise ratio which makes the original signal more prominent). Further, the added white noise can be enough to be detectable by the sensor, which can then filter it out to effectively detect the original, previously undetectable signal.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise. It is defined as the ratio of signal power to the noise power, often expressed in decibels. A ratio higher than 1:1 (greater than 0 dB) indicates more signal than noise.

White Noise is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density.

Consonance - Dissonance is a form a structural dichotomy in which the terms define each other by mutual exclusion: a consonance is what is not dissonant, and reciprocally. However, a finer consideration shows that the distinction forms a gradation, from the most consonant to the most dissonant. Consonance is associated with sweetness, pleasantness and acceptability and dissonance with harshness, unpleasantness, or unacceptability.

Convert the Sound Waves into an Electrical Signal

Sound is the generalized name given to “acoustic waves”. These acoustic waves have frequencies ranging from just 1Hz up to many tens of thousands of Hertz with the upper limit of human hearing being around the 20 kHz, (20,000Hz) range.

The sound that we hear is basically made up from mechanical vibrations produced by an Audio Sound Transducer used to generate the acoustic waves, and for sound to be “heard” it requires a medium for transmission either through the air, a liquid, or a solid.

Transducer is a device that converts one form of energy to another. Usually a transducer converts a signal in one form of energy to a signal in another. Transducers are often employed at the boundaries of automation, measurement, and control systems, where electrical signals are converted to and from other physical quantities (energy, force, torque, light, motion, position, etc.). The process of converting one form of energy to another is known as transduction.

Also, the actual sound need not be a continuous frequency sound wave such as a single tone or a musical note, but may be an acoustic wave made from a mechanical vibration, noise or even a single pulse of sound such as a “bang”.

Audio Sound Transducers include both input sensors, that convert sound into and electrical signal such as a microphone, and output actuators that convert the electrical signals back into sound such as a loudspeaker.

We tend to think of sound as only existing in the range of frequencies detectable by the human ear, from 20Hz up to 20kHz (a typical loudspeaker frequency response), but sound can also extend way beyond these ranges.

Sound transducers can also both detect and transmit sound waves and vibrations from very low frequencies called infra-sound up to very high frequencies called ultrasound. But in order for a sound transducer to either detect or produce “sound” we first need to understand what sound is.

What is Sound?

Sound is basically a waveform of energy that is produced by some form of a mechanical vibration such as a tuning fork, and which has a “frequency” determined by the origin of the sound for example, a bass drum has a low frequency sound while a cymbal has a higher frequency sound.

A sound waveform has the same characteristics as that of an electrical waveform which are Wavelength (λ), Frequency (ƒ) and Velocity (m/s). Both the sounds frequency and wave shape are determined by the origin or vibration that originally produced the sound but the velocity is dependent upon the medium of transmission (air, water etc.) that carries the sound wave. The relationship between wavelength, velocity and frequency is given below as:
electrical waveform
Where:
Wavelength – is the time period of one complete cycle in Seconds, (λ).
Frequency – is the number of wavelengths per second in Hertz, (ƒ).
Velocity – is the speed of sound through a transmission medium in m/s-1.

The Microphone, also called a “mic”, is a sound transducer that can be classed as a “sound sensor”. This is because it produces an electrical analogue output signal which is proportional to the “acoustic” sound wave acting upon its flexible diaphragm. This signal is an “electrical image” representing the characteristics of the acoustic waveform. Generally, the output signal from a microphone is an analogue signal either in the form of a voltage or current which is proportional to the actual sound wave.

The most common types of microphones available as sound transducers are Dynamic, Electret Condenser, Ribbon and the newer Piezo-electric Crystal types. Typical applications for microphones as a sound transducer include audio recording, reproduction, broadcasting as well as telephones, television, digital computer recording and body scanners, where ultrasound is used in medical applications. An example of a simple “Dynamic” microphone is shown below.

Dynamic Moving-coil Microphone Sound Transducer

Dynamic Moving-coil Microphone Sound Transducer The construction of a dynamic microphone resembles that of a loudspeaker, but in reverse. It is a moving coil type microphone which uses electromagnetic induction to convert the sound waves into an electrical signal. It has a very small coil of thin wire suspended within the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. As the sound wave hits the flexible diaphragm, the diaphragm moves back and forth in response to the sound pressure acting upon it causing the attached coil of wire to move within the magnetic field of the magnet.

The movement of the coil within the magnetic field causes a voltage to be induced in the coil as defined by Faraday’s law of Electromagnetic Induction. The resultant output voltage signal from the coil is proportional to the pressure of the sound wave acting upon the diaphragm so the louder or stronger the sound wave the larger the output signal will be, making this type of microphone design pressure sensitive.

As the coil of wire is usually very small the range of movement of the coil and attached diaphragm is also very small producing a very linear output signal which is 90o out of phase to the sound signal. Also, because the coil is a low impedance inductor, the output voltage signal is also very low so some form of “pre-amplification” of the signal is required.

As the construction of this type of microphone resembles that of a loudspeaker, it is also possible to use an actual loudspeaker as a microphone.

Obviously, the average quality of a loudspeaker will not be as good as that for a studio type recording microphone but the frequency response of a reasonable speaker is actually better than that of a cheap “freebie” microphone. Also the coils impedance of a typical loudspeaker is different at between 8 to 16Ω. Common applications where speakers are generally used as microphones are in intercoms and walki-talkie’s.

The Loudspeaker Output Transducer
Sound can also be used as an output device to produce an alert noise or act as an alarm, and loudspeakers, buzzers, horns and sounders are all types of sound transducer that can be used for this purpose with the most commonly used audible type output sound actuator being the “Loudspeaker”.
speaker woofer
Loudspeaker Transducer

Loudspeakers are audio sound transducers that are classed as “sound actuators” and are the exact opposite of microphones. Their job is to convert complex electrical analogue signals into sound waves being as close to the original input signal as possible.

Loudspeakers are available in all shapes, sizes and frequency ranges with the more common types being moving coil, electrostatic, isodynamic and piezo-electric. Moving coil type loudspeakers are by far the most commonly used speaker in electronic circuits, kits and toys, and as such it is this type of sound transducer we will examine below.

The principle of operation of the Moving Coil Loudspeaker is the exact opposite to that of the “Dynamic Microphone” we look at above. A coil of fine wire, called the “speech or voice coil”, is suspended within a very strong magnetic field, and is attached to a paper or Mylar cone, called a “diaphragm” which itself is suspended at its edges to a metal frame or chassis. Then unlike the microphone which is pressure sensitive input device, this type of sound transducer can be classed as a pressure generating output device.

The Moving Coil Loudspeaker
Moving Coil Loudspeaker
When an analogue signal passes through the voice coil of the speaker, an electro-magnetic field is produced and whose strength is determined by the current flowing through the “voice” coil, which in turn is determined by the volume control setting of the driving amplifier or moving coil driver. The electro-magnetic force produced by this field opposes the main permanent magnetic field around it and tries to push the coil in one direction or the other depending upon the interaction between the north and south poles.

As the voice coil is permanently attached to the cone/diaphragm this also moves in tandem and its movement causes a disturbance in the air around it thus producing a sound or note. If the input signal is a continuous sine wave then the cone will move in and out acting like a piston pushing and pulling the air as it moves and a continuous single tone will be heard representing the frequency of the signal. The strength and therefore its velocity, by which the cone moves and pushes the surrounding air produces the loudness of the sound.

As the speech or voice coil is essentially a coil of wire it has, like an inductor an impedance value. This value for most loudspeakers is between 4 and 16Ω’s and is called the “nominal impedance” value of the speaker measured at 0Hz, or DC.

Remember that it is important to always match the output impedance of the amplifier with the nominal impedance of the speaker to obtain maximum power transfer between the amplifier and speaker. Most amplifier-speaker combinations have an efficiency rating as low as 1 or 2%.

Although disputed by some, the selection of good speaker cable is also an important factor in the efficiency of the speaker, as the internal capacitance and magnetic flux characteristics of the cable change with the signal frequency, thereby causing both frequency and phase distortion. This has the effect of attenuating the signal. Also, with high power amplifiers large currents are flowing through these cables so small thin bell wire type cables can overheat during extended periods of use, again reducing efficiency.

The human ear can generally hear sounds from between 20Hz to 20kHz, and the frequency response of modern loudspeakers called general purpose speakers are tailored to operate within this frequency range as well as headphones, earphones and other types of commercially available headsets used as sound transducers.

However, for high performance High Fidelity (Hi-Fi) type audio systems, the frequency response of the sound is split up into different smaller sub-frequencies thereby improving both the loudspeakers efficiency and overall sound quality as follows:

Generalized Frequency Ranges

Frequency Ranges In multi speaker enclosures which have a separate Woofer, Tweeter and Mid-range speakers housed together within a single enclosure, a passive or active “crossover” network is used to ensure that the audio signal is accurately split and reproduced by all the different sub-speakers.

This crossover network consists of Resistors, Inductors, Capacitors, RLC type passive filters or op-amp active filters whose crossover or cut-off frequency point is finely tuned to that of the individual loudspeakers characteristics and an example of a multi-speaker “Hi-fi” type design is given below.

Multi-speaker (Hi-Fi) Design
Multi-speaker (Hi-Fi) Design
In this tutorial, we have looked at different Sound Transducers that can be used to both detect and generate sound waves. Microphones and loudspeakers are the most commonly available sound transducer, but other lots of other types of sound transducers available which use piezoelectric devices to detect very high frequencies, hydrophones designed to be used underwater for detecting underwater sounds and sonar transducers which both transmit and receive sound waves to detect submarines and ships.


Hearing Problems - Noise

Acoustical Society of America
Society for Music Perception and Cognition
Acoustics and Vibrations Animations
SoftSynth – Music and Computers
Music Cognition Resource Center
The Basics of Acoustics
Every Noise At Once Music Genre Map
Everyday Listening Sound Art
The Basics of Acoustics
Every Noise At Once Music Genre Map
Everyday Listening Sound Art
Avisoft Bioacoustics



Music Museums


Music MuseumMusical Instrument Museum
Musical Instrument Museum
Rock Hall of Fame
Rock & Roll Fantasy Camp
School of Rock
Music History
Recording Registry
History of Heavy Metal Book
Heavy Metal
National Recording Registry
LOC Collections
Simonetti Tuba Collection

Top 100 Bands
100 Greatest Artists

100 Greatest Songs
Bring our Music Back
Direct Stream Digital
Films about Music

Galleries - Museums
Art Websites



Instruments


Musical Instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument.
Musical Instruments List (wiki)

Organology is the science of musical instruments and their classification.

Trumpet Motion Gif (image)
Lumen: the Electro-Acoustic Handpan
ACPAD Electronic Orchestra For Your Guitar
Women Who Rock
Making Music from Everyday Sounds (youtube)

Idiophone  is any musical instrument that creates sound primarily by the instrument as a whole vibrating—without the use of strings or membranes.

Aerophone is any musical instrument that produces sound primarily by causing a body of air to vibrate, without the use of strings or membranes, and without the vibration of the instrument itself adding considerably to the sound. Aerophones categorically comprise "the largest and most complex group of instruments in the Americas"

Chordophone is a musical instrument that makes sound by way of a vibrating string or strings stretched between two points. It is one of the four main divisions of instruments in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification.

Membranophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by way of a vibrating stretched membrane. It is one of the four main divisions of instruments in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification.

Viol is any one of a family of bowed, fretted and stringed instruments that first appeared in Spain in the mid to late 15th century and was most popular in the Renaissance and Baroque periods.

Theremin is an electronic musical instrument controlled without physical contact by the thereminist (performer). The instrument's controlling section usually consists of two metal antennas that sense the relative position of the thereminist's hands and control oscillators for frequency with one hand, and amplitude (volume) with the other. The electric signals from the theremin are amplified and sent to a loudspeaker.

The untouchable music of the Theremin: Pamelia Kurstin (video and interactive text)

Hang Instrument is a musical instrument in the idiophone class created by Felix Rohner and Sabina Schärer in Bern, Switzerland. The instrument is constructed from two half-shells of deep drawn, nitrided steel sheet glued together at the rim leaving the inside hollow and creating a distinct 'UFO shape'. The top ("Ding") side has a center 'note' hammered into it and seven or eight 'tone fields' hammered around the center. The bottom ("Gu") is a plain surface that has a rolled hole in the center with a tuned note that can be created when the rim is struck.
Hangin Balance

Guitar Making Academy where you learn to make your own personal guitar. Bailey Guitars: A Guitar Making Revolution 

Music Genera's


Musical Instrument Lessons


Video Music Lessons Musical Instruments
Free Guitar Videos
Guitar Tunings (wiki) 
Bohemian Guitars
Justin Guitar
Jamstik
Ultimate Picking

FRETX adds Lights to the Fretboard of YOUR own Guitar.

Populele 72-LED smart Fretboard connects with our app via Bluetooth to show exactly how to play your favorite
songs.

Guitar Neck (image)

MI Guitar Magic Instruments

JamStack is an Attachable Guitar Amp that uses your smartphone for effects, loops and more.

What Is A Chordelia? video

Play Piano (youtube)
Online Piano Lessons
Piano Practice 
Piano 88 keys, 52 white keys and 36 black keys.
Bluetooth Mobile Keyboard
Smart Piano Light-keyboard
iKeybo: World's Most Advanced Projection Keyboard and Piano virtual laser projection multilingual keyboard, virtual piano, and portable charger. All Together.

Drum Lessons
Play Bass Now
Virtual Music Teacher

Virtual Violin Lessons
Violin Online
Violin Course (youtube)

Musical Training Software

Musical Instruments


Music Genre's


Music Genres Word Cloud Music Genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Recently, academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated.

List of Music Styles (wiki)
List of Popular Music Genres (wiki)

Ambient Music is a genre of music that puts an emphasis on tone and atmosphere over traditional musical structure or rhythm. Ambient music is said to evoke an "atmospheric", "visual", or "unobtrusive" quality. Able to accommodate many levels of listening attention without enforcing one in particular; it must be as ignorable as it is interesting.

Electronic Music is music that employs electronic musical instruments and electronic music technology in its production, an electronic musician being a musician who composes and/or performs such music. In general, a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means and that produced using electronic technology. Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, and the electric guitar. Purely electronic sound production can be achieved using devices such as the theremin, sound synthesizer, and computer.

MIDI
Monome
Instruments
Digital Guitar
Moog
Akai-Pro
Korg
Zoom
M-Audio
Audio
Morton Subotnick
Morton Subotnick: Silver apples of the Moon (1967) (youtube)

Polyphony and Monophony in instruments is a property of musical instruments that means that they can play multiple notes simultaneously. Instruments featuring polyphony are said to be polyphonic. Instruments that are not capable of polyphony are monophonic or paraphonic.

Roland Juno-60 is a popular 61-key polyphonic synthesizer introduced by Roland Corporation in September 1982 as a successor to the similar Roland Juno-6, which had been on the market since February that year. Like its predecessor, the Juno-60 is essentially an analog synthesizer with digitally controlled oscillators.

Psychedelic Music covers a range of popular music styles and genres influenced by the 1960s psychedelic culture, a subculture of people who used psychedelic drugs such as LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, mescaline and DMT to experience visual and auditory hallucinations, synesthesia and altered states of consciousness. Psychedelic music attempted to replicate the hallucinogenic experience of using these drugs or enhance the experience of using them. Psychedelic music emerged during the mid-1960s among folk rock and blues rock bands in the United States and Britain.

Psychedelic Rock is a diverse style of rock music inspired, influenced, or representative of psychedelic culture, or intended to replicate and enhance the mind-altering experiences of psychedelic drugs, most notably LSD. Many psychedelic groups differ in style, and the label is often used indiscriminately. A term usually deployed interchangeably with "psychedelic rock" is "acid rock", which can also refer to the more extreme ends of the genre.
Psychedelic Sight
Psychedelic Music
Genre Psychedelic
Inter Chill
Hz (electricity)

Beatboxing is a form of vocal percussion primarily involving the art of mimicking drum machines using one's mouth, lips, tongue, and voice. It may also involve vocal imitation of turntablism, and other musical instruments. Beatboxing today is connected with hip-hop culture, often referred to as "the fifth element" of hip-hop, although it is not limited to hip-hop music. The term "beatboxing" is sometimes used to refer to vocal percussion in general.

Tom Thum: The orchestra in my mouth (video)
Beardyman: Polyphonic Me (video)
Electronically Modified Didgeridoo Kyle Evans (youtube)

Live Looping is the recording and playback of a piece of music in real-time using either dedicated hardware devices, called loopers or phrase samplers, or software running on a computer with an audio interface. Musicians can loop with either laptop software or loop pedals, which are sold for tabletop and floor-based use.

DMG Audio

House Music is a genre of electronic music created by club DJs and music producers that originated in Chicago in the early 1980s. Early house music was generally dance-based music characterized by repetitive 4/4 beats, rhythms mainly provided by drum machines, off-beat hi-hat cymbals, and synthesized basslines. While house displayed several characteristics similar to disco music, it was more electronic and minimalistic, and the repetitive rhythm of house was more important than the song itself.

Progressive House is a style (subgenre) of house music. The progressive house style emerged in the early 1990s. It initially developed in the United Kingdom as a natural progression of American and European house music of the late 1980s.

Electronic Dance Music also known as EDM, dance music, club music, or simply dance) is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made largely for nightclubs, raves, and festivals. EDM is generally produced for playback by disc jockeys (DJs) who create seamless selections of tracks, called a mix, by segueing from one recording to another. EDM producers also perform their music live in a concert or festival setting in what is sometimes called a live PA. In the United Kingdom and in continental Europe, EDM is more commonly called 'dance music' or simply 'dance'.

Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, in the United States during the mid-to-late 1980s. The first recorded use of the word techno in reference to a specific genre of music was in 1988. Many styles of techno now exist, but Detroit techno is seen as the foundation upon which a number of subgenres have been built.

Top House-Electro Songs (youtube)
Electronic Music Guide
Lost in Sound
Digitally Imported

Opera is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (libretto) and musical score, usually in a theatrical setting. In traditional opera, singers do two types of singing: recitative, a speech-inflected style and arias, a more melodic style. Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre, such as acting, scenery, and costumes and sometimes includes dance.
Opera (youtube) - Opera (youtube) - Opera (youtube)

Orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which features string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, grouped in sections.

Glenn Miller - In The Mood [HQ] (youtube)
"SING, SING, SING" BY BENNY GOODMAN (youtube)
Bobby Darin - Beyond the Sea (youtube)
Mack the Knife-Bobby Darin (youtube)

Mariachi is a musical expression that dates back to at least 18th century Western Mexico. It is a tradition that can be defined by eight socio-musical elements: mariachi instrumentation and texture, musical genres and subgenres, performance methods and styles, singing styles and forms, dance styles, performative space, performance clothing, and the word "mariachi". Each element has its own history, originated at varying moments in time and in different regions of the Western Mexican countryside, and some, if not all, had to converge in order for the mariachi tradition to become what it is.
Mariachi Flor de Toloache is the first and only established all female mariachi band.

New Age Music is a genre of music intended to create artistic inspiration, relaxation, and optimism. It is used by listeners for yoga, massage, meditation, reading as a method of stress management to bring about a state of ecstasy rather than trance, or to create a peaceful atmosphere in their home or other environments, and is associated with environmentalism and New Age spirituality.

Soundtracks (movies)

Ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music.

Marching Band is a group in which instrumental musicians perform for entertainment, and prepare for a competition. Instrumentation typically includes brass instruments, woodwind instruments, percussion instruments, and color guard. Most marching bands wear some kind of uniform (often of a military style) that includes the school or organization's colors, name or symbol. Most high school marching bands are accompanied by a colorguard, a group of performers, who add a visual interpretation to the music through the use of props, most often flags and rifles. Marching bands are generally categorized by function, size, age, gender, instruments and by the style of show they perform. In addition to traditional parade performances, many marching bands also perform field shows at special events like competitions. Increasingly, marching bands perform indoor concerts that implement many songs, traditions, and flair from outside performances/

Heavy Metal

Fantasia is a musical composition with its roots in the art of improvisation. Because of this, like the impromptu, it seldom approximates the textbook rules of any strict musical form.

Jazz and Punk Mix 

Aficionado is a serious devotee of some particular music genre or musical performer.

Classical Music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music. While a more accurate term is also used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820 (the Classical period), this article is about the broad span of time from roughly the 11th century to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common-practice period. Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as being between about the year 1730 and the year 1820.
Blue Danube Johann Strauss II (youtube)
Mozart's Symphony no 40 - 1st movement (youtube)
Ludwig van Beethoven - Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 - I. Allegro con brio (youtube)
Classical - Richard Wagner - Ride of the Valkyries (youtube)
The Classical Period of Music (youtube)
The Best of Classical Music (youtube)
Violin and Piano Videos



HD Sound Systems - Speakers - Headphones


Is the sound on vinyl records better than on CDs or DVDs? 

HD Audio SystemsHeadphones
High Resolution Audio
HD Tracks
High Res Audio
Distortion of Sound 
Geek Pulse

Audio File Format is a file format for storing digital audio data on a computer system. The bit layout of the audio data (excluding metadata) is called the audio coding format and can be uncompressed, or compressed to reduce the file size, often using lossy compression. The data can be a raw bitstream in an audio coding format, but it is usually embedded in a container format or an audio data format with defined storage layer.

Vi High Performance Audio System
Da Vinci Dac
Seiun Players: Hi-Res Audio meets 4K Video
How well can you Hear Audio Quality?
Zuperdac Portable Hifi Music anytime anywhere
Geek Audio Crowd Sourced High-Rez Sound System 
Hidden-HUB - Wireless HD Audio, Timeless Design
Hidden Radio 2 Wireless Multi-Speaker
Beautiful Secrets Behind Vinyl Records

32 bit / 384 kHz Digital to Analog Converter Da Vinci DAC MKII decodes PCM music files with up to 768 kHz sample rates in true 32 bit depth. It also decodes all DSD files up to 11.289 MHz (DSD256).

Aftermaster Pro: Make Your Audio Sound Incredible Audio Re-Mastering Device Fixes your TV audio & virtually any audio device–phone, laptop, gaming unit. Lightweight & portable.

MegaMini by HIFIMAN New Affordable High-Res Portable Music Player for Every Pocket.
Hearing  

Bluetooth Speakers
Peri-Duo Wifi-Bluetooth Speaker and Charge Case
LSTN: Premium Bluetooth Speakers With A Purpose 
UE BOOM Wireless Bluetooth Speaker (amazon)
SPRITZ: High Definition Wireless Music in an App-Controlled Rugged Sport Water Bottle with Hydration Tracker
TuneBox2: Turn your speakers into wireless players
'A' Speaker : The speaker that only YOU can hear
Sonic Blocks: World's 1st Modular Wireless Speaker
M24 Powered Speakers from Peachtree Audio
ARCHT mini - Wireless 360 Degree Speaker with Bass Impact Technology that fits in the palm of your hand.
Bumpboxx Freestyle - Nostalgic Bluetooth Boombox
S-Series: The most compact, mighty Wireless sound system
raD Wireless Multi-Room Speaker
Pebble, World's Smallest True Wireless Speaker
BumpOut: The Truly Portable Speaker that Bumps
Cisor: The Smallest Most Powerful Speaker
Music Tools

Headphones - Earphones
Hybratech Headphones
Encore Headphones 
Echobox - The Evolution of Personal Audio 
OSSIC X: Immersive 3D Audio Headphones
Bluetooth earphones with tips that mold to the unique shape of your ears in 60 seconds
Phazon : Wireless Earbuds Guaranteed Not to Fall Out 
Air: Acoustically Stunning Wireless Headphones Audiophile Hi-Fi Sound , Bluetooth 4.2, Single Button Control, In-Ear Mic with Portable Charging Pod.
SonaBuds: Smallest Stereo Earbuds w HD Audio & Mic 4 hours of listening time on one charge.
KUAI: The World’s Smartest Multi-Sport Headphones
SenCbuds: World’s 1st Smart Sensing Tech Earbuds
FireFlies - Truly Wire-Free Ear Buds
M4 : Earphones for Musicians
Nuheara IQbuds: Super Intelligent Wireless Earbuds
AirLink: Wireless Headphones Bluetooth adapter with Hi-Fi Sound. Built-in Mic. Camera Shutter. Sync & Share function.
Keyhole bluetooth earbud Dot - World's Smallest Bluetooth Headset
Nura: Headphones with unique Soundwave Technology that Automatically Measures your Hearing for Great Sound
ROPES USA Earphones: Join Our Audio Revolution wearable Bluetooth earphones with built-in amplifier and EQ Engine.
Jay Bird Gear Headphones

Noise Cancelation
CAPE Headphones: Convert your stereo audio into a simulated 3D sound space, Spatial-active noise cancelling technology with Bluetooth.
Sound by Human - Audio Evolved securely attaches over each ear wirelessly, noise cancelation and more.
Stages Audio: Wired or Wireless Noise Cancelling Headphones
Bravo Headphones: 10x Better Sound Quality Hybrid Electrostatic Headphones® with Hi-Fi sound, power bass, and noise isolation.
Thunder: The Smartest Noise-Cancelling Earphones
Ximalaya: 3D Wireless Noise-Cancelling Headphones.
HeadSpace: XD Audio Noise-Cancelling Headphones.

Bone Conduction
Bone Conduction is the conduction of sound to the inner ear through the bones of the skull. Bone conduction transmission can be used with individuals with normal or impaired hearing.
Cynaps Bluetooth Bone Conduction Headset in a Hat
AfterShokz: Trekz Bone Conduction Headphones
The Dipper Audio Necklace by Tinsel
Beker: waterproof bone conduction music player
ZUNGLE Sunglasses with bone conduction speakers enables to transmit sound waves to the skull via vibrations.
BATBAND bone conduction system, Sleek Ear-Free Headphones.

LG’s HBS-760 headset
Moto Surround

Geek Out v2 Portable Headphone Amplifier
DACportable The world's smallest, self-powered headphone amp that improves the sound of headphones, tablets and computers, and features sonic shaping!

Mighty - Streaming Music Without Your Phone


Music Therapy


Music Therapy Science Music Therapy uses music and all of its facets—physical, emotional, mental, social, aesthetic, and spiritual—to help clients improve their physical and mental health, such as cognitive functioning, motor skills, emotional development, social skills, and quality of life, by using music experiences such as free improvisation, singing, and listening to, discussing, and moving to music to achieve treatment goals. It has a wide qualitative and quantitative research literature base and incorporates clinical therapy, psychotherapy, biomusicology, musical acoustics, music theory, psychoacoustics, embodied music cognition, aesthetics of music, sensory integration, and comparative musicology.

Music Psychology is the understanding of musical behavior and experience, including the processes through which music is perceived, created, responded to, and incorporated into everyday life. Music Physiology

Musicology is the scholarly analysis of and research on music.

The Listening Program

Listening (activity)

Neurologic Music Therapy is the therapeutic application of music to cognitive, sensory, and motor dysfunctions that come from human neurologic diseases.

Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT) #musicitsscience
Neurologic Music Therapy - Stroke Rehabilitation (MedRhythms)
McMaster Institute for Music and the Mind

Melodic Intonation Therapy is a therapeutic process used by music therapists and speech-language pathologists to help patients with communication disorders caused by damage to the left hemisphere of the brain.

Music Reduces Pain - Pain

Contrapuntal Motion is the general movement of two melodic lines with respect to each other. In traditional four-part harmony, it is important that lines maintain their independence, an effect which can be achieved by the judicious use of the four types of contrapuntal motion: parallel motion, similar motion, contrary motion, and oblique motion. Melodic motion.

Music Therapy
Music Therapy
Music and Memory
Senior Citizens and Music Benefits
Progressions
Brain.fm Music for the Brain.
Sync Project a Million Songs to Unlock the Health Benefits of Music.
Go Sync Project a Million Songs to help unlock the health effects of music.
Infinity Music Therapy
Tinni Tracks Treat Tinnitus by Filtering high pitch sound from your favorite music.
The first imaging genetic study linking dopaminergic genes to music. New publication from MIB: Sounds, such as music and noise, are capable of reliably affecting individuals' moods and emotions, possibly by regulating brain dopamine.

Uncovering why playing a musical instrument can protect brain health

More than A Feeling - Boston (youtube)
Charles Hazlewood's Paraorchestra (youtube)
Rhythm that's-Waltzed

Cymatic Therapy is based on the notion that human cells, organs, and tissues each have a natural resonant frequency which changes when perturbed by illness. Cymatic therapists apply different audible frequencies and combinations of sound waves which they claim entrain malfunctioning components back to their healthy vibratory state and promote natural healing.
Bio Beats wellbeing and coaching products.

Physiological Data - EEG, ECG, EMG, Blood Pressure, Skin Conductance

Music Visualization
Meditation Sounds
Meridian Tapping

Spiritual Music are generally Christian songs that were created by African slaves in the United States. Spirituals were originally an oral tradition that imparted Christian values while also describing the hardships of slavery. Although spirituals were originally unaccompanied monophonic (unison) songs, they are best known today in harmonized choral arrangements. This historic group of uniquely American songs is now recognized as a distinct genre of music.

Hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.

Carol is in modern parlance a festive song, generally religious but not necessarily connected with church worship, and often with a dance-like or popular character.

Chant is the rhythmic speaking or singing of words or sounds, often primarily on one or two main pitches called reciting tones. Chants may range from a simple melody involving a limited set of notes to highly complex musical structures, often including a great deal of repetition of musical subphrases. Mantra

Choir or Choras is a musical ensemble of singers. Choral music, in turn, is the music written specifically for such an ensemble to perform. Choirs may perform music from the classical music repertoire, which spans from the Medieval era to the present, and/or popular music repertoire. Most choirs are led by a conductor, who leads the performances with arm and face gestures.

Sarah Brightman O Mio Babbino Caro (video)
Duke Chapel Choir (video)
The Kremlin Capella sing a beautiful Russian Folk Song (youtube)

Sight-Singing is the reading and performing of a piece of music or song in music notation that the performer has not seen before.

Sing-Along is an event of singing together at gatherings or parties, less formally than choir singing.

Lullaby or cradle song, is a soothing song or piece of music, usually played for or sung to children.

Whistling without the use of an artificial whistle is achieved by creating a small opening with one's lips and then blowing or sucking air through the hole. The air is moderated by the lips, tongue, teeth or fingers (placed over the mouth) to create turbulence, and the mouth acts as a resonant chamber to enhance the resulting sound by acting as a type of Helmholtz resonator.
Whistling Championships (youtube)


Singing Knowledge


Singing is the creation of musical sounds made of pleasing tunes and melodies using the voice or vocal cords, which are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the larynx. They vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs during phonation by which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic vibration.

Vocalist or Singers perform music (arias, recitatives, songs, etc.) that can be sung with or without accompaniment by musical instruments.

Voice Types (PDF)

Soprano is a type of classical female singing voice and has the highest vocal range of all voice types.

Alto refers to the second highest part of a contrapuntal musical texture and is also applied to its associated vocal range, especially in choral music. More rarely it describes the highest male solo voice type (usually designated countertenor), and it is also the root word of contralto, the lowest standard female voice type. When designating instruments, "alto" likewise can refer either to the corresponding vocal range (alto flute and alto trombone) or to musical role (alto recorder and alto clarinet).

Tenor is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range is one of the highest of the male voice types. Breathing

Baritone is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the bass and the tenor voice types.

Bass Voice is a type of classical male singing voice and has the lowest vocal range of all voice types.

Figured Bass is a kind of musical notation in which numerals and symbols (often accidentals) indicate intervals, chords, and non-chord tones that a musician playing harpsichord, organ, lute (or other instruments capable of playing chords) play in relation to the bass note that these numbers and symbols appear above or below.

Vocal Range is the measure of the breadth of pitches that a human voice can phonate.

Vocal Resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is enhanced in timbre and/or intensity by the air-filled cavities through which it passes on its way to the outside air.

Human Voice consists of sound made by a human being using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, crying, screaming, etc..

Prima Donna is the leading female singer in the company, the person to whom the prime roles would be given. The prima donna was normally, but not necessarily, a soprano. The corresponding term for the male lead (almost always a tenor) is primo uomo. Prime donne often had grand off-stage personalities and were seen as demanding of their colleagues. From its original usage in opera, the term has spread in contemporary usage to refer to anyone behaving in a demanding or temperamental fashion or having an inflated view of oneself and a narcissistic attitude.

Roughness is studied by examining how textures are perceived and encoded by an individual's somatosensory system.

Human Screams

Larynges is an organ in the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, sound production, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration. It manipulates pitch and volume. The larynx houses the vocal folds (vocal cords), which are essential for phonation. The vocal folds are situated just below where the tract of the pharynx splits into the trachea and the esophagus.

Counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour. It has been most commonly identified in the European classical tradition, strongly developing during the Renaissance and in much of the common practice period, especially in the Baroque. The term originates from the Latin punctus contra punctum meaning "point against point".

Electricity - Hz
Microphones

Overtone is any frequency greater than the fundamental frequency of a sound.

Overtone Singing is a type of singing in which the singer manipulates the resonances (or formants) created as air travels from the lungs, past the vocal folds, and out of the lips to produce a melody. Also known as overtone chanting, harmonic singing or throat singing. Polyphonic Singing
Overtone Singing (youtube)

Musical Scales is any set of musical notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch. A scale ordered by increasing pitch is an ascending scale, and a scale ordered by decreasing pitch is a descending scale. Some scales contain different pitches when ascending than when descending. For example, the Melodic minor scale.

Diatonic Scale is a heptatonic scale that includes five whole steps and two half steps in each octave, in which the two half steps are separated from each other by either two or three whole steps, depending on their position in the scale. This pattern ensures that, in a diatonic scale spanning more than one octave, all the half steps are maximally separated from each other (i.e. separated by at least two whole steps).

Whole Tone Scale is a scale in which each note is separated from its neighbours by the interval of a whole tone. There are only two complementary whole tone scales, both six-note or hexatonic scales.

Chromatic Scale is a musical scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone above or below another. On a modern piano or other equal-tempered instrument, all the semitones have the same size (100 cents). In other words, the notes of an equal-tempered chromatic scale are equally spaced. An equal-tempered chromatic scale is a nondiatonic scale having no tonic because of the symmetry of its equally spaced notes.

Octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency. It is defined by ANSI as the unit of frequency level when the base of the logarithm is two. The octave relationship is a natural phenomenon that has been referred to as the "basic miracle of music", the use of which is "common in most musical systems.

Beat is the basic unit of time, the pulse (regularly repeating event), of the mensural level (or beat level). The beat is often defined as the rhythm listeners would tap their toes to when listening to a piece of music, or the numbers a musician counts while performing, though in practice this may be technically incorrect (often the first multiple level). In popular use, beat can refer to a variety of related concepts including: tempo, meter, specific rhythms, and groove.

Meter of music is its rhythmic structure, the patterns of accents heard in regularly recurring measures of stressed and unstressed beats (arsis and thesis) at the frequency of the music's pulse.

Harmony considers the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing. Usually, this means simultaneously occurring frequencies, pitches (tones, notes), or chords. The study of harmony involves chords and their construction and chord progressions and the principles of connection that govern them. Harmony is often said to refer to the "vertical" aspect of music, as distinguished from melodic line, or the "horizontal" aspect. Counterpoint, which refers to the relationship between melodic lines, and polyphony, which refers to the simultaneous sounding of separate independent voices, are thus sometimes distinguished from harmony.

Melody is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity. In its most literal sense, a melody is a combination of pitch and rhythm, while more figuratively, the term can include successions of other musical elements such as tonal color. It may be considered the foreground to the background accompaniment. A line or part need not be a foreground melody.

Contrapuntal Motion is the general movement of two melodic lines with respect to each other. In traditional four-part harmony, it is important that lines maintain their independence, an effect which can be achieved by the judicious use of the four types of contrapuntal motion: parallel motion, similar motion, contrary motion, and oblique motion. See also melodic motion.

Tempo is the speed or pace of a given piece or subsection thereof, how fast or slow. Tempo is related to meter and is usually measured by beats per minute, with the beats being a division of the measures, though tempo is often indicated by terms which have acquired standard ranges of beats per minute or assumed by convention without indication. Tempo may be separated from articulation, or articulation may be indicated along with tempo, and tempo contributes to the overall texture. While the ability to hold a steady tempo is a desirable skill, tempo is changeable, and often indicated by a conductor or drummer. While practicing, an electronic or mechanical device, a metronome, may indicate the tempo, as one usually works one's way up to being able to perform at the proper tempo. In other words it is the speed at which a passage of music is or should be played.

Duration is an amount of time or a particular time interval: how long or short a note, phrase, section, or composition lasts. A note may last less than a second, while a symphony may last more than an hour. One of the fundamental features of rhythm, or encompassing rhythm, duration is also central to meter and musical form.

Chord is any harmonic set of usually three or more notes (also called "pitches") that is heard as if sounding simultaneously. In everyday use by musical ensembles such as bands and orchestras, the three or more notes of a chord are often sounded together. However, the notes of a chord do not have to be played together at the same time.

Rhythm is the timing of musical sounds and silences that occur over time, of the steps of a dance, or the meter of spoken language and poetry. In some performing arts, such as hip hop music, the rhythmic delivery of the lyrics is one of the most important elements of the style. Rhythm is also seen as a regular recurring motion, symmetry, movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions.

Clave Rhythm is a rhythmic pattern used as a tool for temporal organization in Afro-Cuban music.

Polyrhythm is the simultaneous use of two or more conflicting rhythms, that are not readily perceived as deriving from one another, or as simple manifestations of the same meter.

Polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work. In particular, polyphony consists of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody, as opposed to a musical texture with just one voice, monophony, or a texture with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords, which is called homophony.

Polychord consists of two or more chords, one on top of the other. In shorthand they are written with the top chord above a line and the bottom chord below, for example F upon C.

Pythagorean Tuning is a tuning of the syntonic temperament in which the generator is the ratio 3:2 (i.e., the untempered perfect fifth), which is 702 cents wide.

Lambic Pentameter is a commonly used type of metrical line in traditional English poetry and verse drama. The term describes the rhythm that the words establish in that line, which is measured in small groups of syllables called "feet". The word "iambic" refers to the type of foot that is used, known as the iamb, which in English is an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. The word "pentameter" indicates that a line has five of these "feet". Iambic rhythms come relatively naturally in English. Iambic pentameter is the most common meter in English poetry; it is used in many of the major English poetic forms, including blank verse, the heroic couplet, and some of the traditional rhymed stanza forms. William Shakespeare used iambic pentameter in his plays and sonnets.

Timbre is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound, or tone that distinguishes different types of sound production, such as choir voices and musical instruments, such as string instruments, wind instruments, and percussion instruments, and which enables listeners to hear even different instruments from the same category as different (e.g. a viola and a violin).

Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies. Pitch can be determined only in sounds that have a frequency that is clear and stable enough to distinguish from noise. Pitch is a major auditory attribute of musical tones, along with duration, loudness, and timbre.

Note has three primary meanings: A sign used in musical notation to represent the relative duration and pitch of a sound. A pitched sound itself. A pitch class.

Loudness is the characteristic of a sound that is primarily a psycho-physiological correlate of physical strength (amplitude). More formally, it is defined as "that attribute of auditory sensation in terms of which sounds can be ordered on a scale extending from quiet to loud". The relation of physical attributes of sound to perceived loudness consists of physical, physiological and psychological components. The three components should be taken separately to permit a balanced understanding of the phenomenon.
Sound

Pythagorean Hammers is when Pythagoras discovered the foundations of musical tuning by listening to the sounds of four blacksmith's hammers, which produced consonance and dissonance when they were struck simultaneously.

Musica Universalis is an ancient philosophical concept that regards proportions in the movements of celestial bodies—the Sun, Moon, and planets—as a form of musica (the Medieval Latin term for music). This "music" is not usually thought to be literally audible, but a harmonic, mathematical or religious concept. The idea continued to appeal to thinkers about music until the end of the Renaissance, influencing scholars of many kinds, including humanists. Further scientific exploration has determined specific proportions in some orbital motion, described as orbital resonance.

Boethius De Institutione musica composed his Consolation of Philosophy, a philosophical treatise on fortune, death, and other issues, which became one of the most popular and influential works of the Middle Ages.

Musical Similarity implies a repetition of the first occurring fragment. As well, eventually, the similarity does not occur by direct repetition, but by presenting in two (or more) set of relations, some common values or patterns. Objective musical similarity can be based on musical features.

Phrasing is a unit of musical meter that has a complete musical sense of its own, built from figures, motifs, and cells, and combining to form melodies, periods and larger sections.

Lattice (music) is a way of modeling the tuning relationships of a just intonation system. It is an array of points in a periodic multidimensional pattern. Each point on the lattice corresponds to a ratio (i.e., a pitch, or an interval with respect to some other point on the lattice). The lattice can be two-, three-, or n-dimensional, with each dimension corresponding to a different prime-number partial" or chroma. (Note that "partial" in the above quote is a misnomer, because partials are sinusoidal components of complex tones, as defined by Helmholtz.).

How to Read Music (wikihow)
Sheet Music

Score or sheet music is a handwritten or printed form of music notation that uses modern musical symbols to indicate the pitches (melodies), rhythms and/or chords of a song or instrumental musical piece. Like its analogs – printed books or pamphlets in English, Arabic or other languages – the medium of sheet music typically is paper (or, in earlier centuries, papyrus or parchment), although the access to musical notation since the 1980s has included the presentation of musical notation on computer screens and the development of scorewriter computer programs that can notate a song or piece electronically, and, in some cases, "play back" the notated music using a synthesizer or virtual instruments.

Reading Music
Read Musical Notes (youtube)
Read Musical Notes (youtube)
List of Musical Symbols (wiki) 
Music Symbols Image - Musical Notes

Musical Notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols, including ancient symbols or modern musical symbols and including ancient symbols cut into stone, made in clay tablets or made using a pen on papyrus, parchment or manuscript paper; printed using a printing press (ca. 1400s), a computer printer (ca. 1980s) or other printing or modern copying technology.

Songwriter is an individual who writes the lyrics, melodies and chord progressions for songs, typically for a popular music genre such as rock or country music. A songwriter can also be called a composer, although the latter term tends to be used mainly for individuals from the classical music genre.

Sound Tracks

Why do I think I sound good singing?


Singing Lessons


Singing LessonsA Cappella is group or solo singing without instrumental accompaniment. Video (youtube)

Singing Knowledge
How to Sing High Notes (youtube)
How To Sing Low Notes (youtube)
Vocal Exercises (youtube)
Vocal Exercises (youtube)
Singing & Songwriting for Beginning Pianists (youtube)
Vocal Coach (youtube)

Vocal Coach also known as voice coach, though this term generally applies to those working with speech and communication rather than singing) is a music teacher who instructs singers on how to improve their singing technique, take care of and develop their voice, and prepare for the performance of a song or other work. Vocal coaches may give private music lessons or group workshops or masterclasses to singers. They may also coach singers who are rehearsing on stage, or who are singing during a recording session. Vocal coaches are used in both Classical music and in popular music styles such as rock and gospel. While some vocal coaches provide a range of instruction on singing techniques, others specialize in areas such as breathing techniques or diction and pronunciation.

Personal Singing Guide
Singing Warm-Ups and Range (youtube)
Train Your Voice to Sing Better (youtube)
About Singing Lessons (youtube)
History of Lyrics (youtube)

Music Articulation refers to the direction or performance technique which affects the transition or continuity on a single note or between multiple notes or sounds.

Aesthetics of Music explores the mathematical and cosmological dimensions of rhythmic and harmonic organization.

Vocal Range is the measure of the breadth of pitches that a human voice can phonate, which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic vibration.

Vocal Folds or vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the larynx. They vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs during phonation. Open when breathing and vibrating for speech or singing, the folds are controlled via the vagus nerve.

Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.

Solfege is a music education method used to teach pitch and sight singing of Western music.

Acting (art schools)
Memory Tips

Raspy Voice - Hoarse
Dysphonia commonly referred to as hoarse voice, refers to dysfunction in the ability to produce voice. For voice to be classified as "dysphonic", abnormalities must be present in one or more vocal parameters: pitch, loudness, quality, or variability. Perceptually, dysphonia can be characterised by hoarse, breathy, harsh, or rough vocal qualities, but some kind of phonation remains.

Laryngitis is inflammation of the larynx (voice box). Symptoms often include a hoarse voice and may include fever, cough, pain in the front of the neck, and trouble swallowing. Typically, these last under two weeks.

Pentatonic Scale - Demonstration by Bobby McFerrin (youtube)
Tutorials
Music Notation
Inara George (youtube)
Blue Mic

67-year-old lead vocalist
GRINDMOTHER "Age of Destruction"
(Video)
SHEL - Enter Sandman (Official Video)


Why do some people believe that their singing sounds good when it's actually not so great?

First lets put aside your personal perceptions, your personal preferences, your metacognition and your ego. Second, you have to understand that you sound different to yourself than you do to other people, mostly because you hear less than 40 percent of what comes out of your mouth, due to the resonance inside your head. So sounding good to yourself does not mean that you will sound good to others. To hear yourself singing accurately you need a good voice recorder and a good sound system. Try to mimic beautiful notes by singers you sound like and record yourself singing that same song. And then play them both back and compare each recording. But you still need to know the difference between a live singing voice and a studio singing voice, because a studio can add effects and other sound editing techniques that can make a singers voice sound amazing. Then you will need someone else's opinion who has knowledge and experience with analyzing singing. Then you should have your friends and family give opinions too, especially people who are not afraid to be honest, not that other people have the skill and knowledge in order to analyze what good singing is, but the more input the better because the reasons why other people have for liking or not liking your singing might give you some good insight. Try a Karaoke Machine because that could also help with analyzing your singing. Learn to understand pitch, tone and rhythm and other key elements of good singing, good singing that is pleasant to the ear.

Amusia is a musical disorder that appears mainly as a defect in processing pitch but also encompasses musical memory and recognition. Two main classifications of amusia exist: acquired amusia, which occurs as a result of brain damage, and congenital amusia, which results from a music-processing anomaly present since birth.

Auditory Agnosia is a form of agnosia that manifests itself primarily in the inability to recognize or differentiate between
sounds.

Phonagnosia is a type of agnosia, or loss of knowledge, that involves a disturbance in the recognition of familiar voices and the impairment of voice discrimination abilities in which the affected individual does not suffer from comprehension deficits. Phonagnosia is an auditory agnosia, an acquired auditory processing disorder resulting from brain damage, other auditory agnosias include cortical deafness and auditory verbal agnosia also known as pure word deafness.

Auditory Verbal Agnosia is the inability to comprehend speech. Individuals with this disorder lose the ability to understand language, repeat words, and write from dictation. However, spontaneous speaking, reading, and writing are preserved.

Misophonia is being irritated or annoyed by certain sounds. A condition in which negative emotions, thoughts, and physical reactions are triggered by specific sounds, such as the sound of people chewing or noisy eating. It is also called "select sound sensitivity syndrome" and "sound-rage". A trigger sound. Bias
Unable Recognize Common Tunes

Tone Deafness is the lack of relative pitch, or the inability to distinguish between musical notes that is not due to the lack of musical training or education. Tone deafness is the congenital form of amusia. It is also known as tune deafness, "tin ear", dysmelodia and dysmusia.

Beat Deafness is a form of congenital amusia characterized by a person's inability to feel musical rhythm or move in time to it.

Ear Problems
Senses

Tom Waits - No Visitors After Midnight (youtube)

Cacophony is loud confusing disagreeable sounds. A loud harsh or strident noise. Harshness in the sound of words or phrases.

What would be useful is having a way for people to analyze their singing using a computer software program so they can do a side by side comparison that shows them how the notes should sound when compared to a professional singer.
Combine a Pitch Analyzer and a Detector Software.

Speech Analyzer Software
Sing Snap
Sygyt
Skore.bmat

It's not just Autotune - how singers cheat today (Pop Theory) (youtube) Make singers sound great.

How do Singers on Stage Hear themselves Sing?
In-Ear Monitor Hearing Aids
Stage Monitor System
Live Sound Mixing
Foldback Sound Engineering
Interruptible Foldback 
Auto-Tune (wiki)
Autotune
Song Lyrics Generator
Perfect Pitch: The World's Greatest Ear!! (youtube)


Music Documentaries - Films about Music


Music Video Clips Showing Amazing Skill


Music Instinct: Science and Song (PBS) - Netflix

Music Within (2007) - Trailer

Touch of Sound (youTube) - Buy DVD -MP3's

Eat that Question- Frank Zappa in his own words (2016) | 1h 33min | Documentary, Biography, Music. Frank Zappa was one of the greatest explorers of sound, using music as a medium to open peoples minds to the possibilities. And he was also an activist who was angered and disappointed with our dysfunctional governing systems, as millions are today. Thank you Frank.

"When you're creating your own stuff, even the sky is not the limit" - Miles Davis - So What (youtube)

Evelyn Glennie: How to truly listen (video and text)
Yaybahar by Görkem Şen (New Acoustic Instrument)
Les Paul - Chasing Sound (2007) - Buy DVD - MP3's - PBS
Chuck Berry - Hail! Hail! Rock N' Roll (4 Disc) (amazon)
Jumpin Jive - Cab Calloway and the Nicholas Brothers (youtube)
Reggie Watts: Disorients You (video)
Trombone Silliness (youtube)
Kid Shreds on Accordion (youtube)
Abigail Washburn: China Relations by Banjo (video)
Andre Rieu - Il Silenzio (Maastricht 2008) DIGITAL TV Beautiful Trumpet Playing
Song Mash-Up by the Highland Trouveres (youtube)
Virtuosos (8 Videos on TED)
Paraorchestra (concert videos)
Music Changes Lives (youtube)  Dublin schools.

The Ohio State University Marching Band (youtube)
The Whole Gritty City (2013) New Orleans marching bands prepare students to perform in the Mardi Gras parades.
Aired: 10/12/2013 | 1 hr. 28 min.

Mongolian Throat Singing (youtube)
Tuvan Throat Singing (wiki)
Anda Union - From the Steppes to the City Beautiful music from Mongolia, vibrations from the soul.
DakhaBrakha: NPR Music Tiny Desk Concert (youtube)

Alejandro y Maria Laura - Fiesta Para Los Muertos

Homemade Hillbilly Jam (2006) 1 hr. 19 min. - In the 1800s a scrappy group of Scotch-Irish immigrants settled in the Ozark Mountains of Southwestern Missouri. Stereotyped, these isolated hill folk over time became the butt of countless jokes and earned themselves the name of "hillbillies".

Bluegrass Roots (2012)   47 min - David Hoffman takes viewers on an extraordinary journey to meet singers, musicians and dancers of the bluegrass movement. Filmed in the 1960's.

Brian Wilson: Song Writer 1962-1969 - 2 Part Documentary, 1.5 Hours each, Released in 2010.

Electro-Theremin is an electronic musical instrument that features a tone and portamento similar to that of the theremin, but with a different control mechanism. It consisted of a sine wave generator with a knob that controlled the pitch, placed inside a wooden box. The pitch knob was attached to a slider on the outside of the box with some string. The player would move the slider, thus turning the knob to the desired frequency, with the help of markings drawn on the box.

Glass Harmonica (youtube)

Glass Harmonica is a type of musical instrument that uses a series of glass bowls or goblets graduated in size to produce musical tones by means of friction (instruments of this type are known as friction idiophones).

Major Scale Musical Wines Glasses (youtube)

Mark Applebaum: Mad Scientist of Music (video)
Music Engraving on Metal Plates (with sound) (youtube)
Wintergatan - Marble Machine (music instrument using 2000 marbles) (youtube)
Johnnyrandom - Bespoken (Music made from Bicycle Parts)
3-D Printing Antique Musical Instruments (Parts & Replicas)

Color of Noise 2015 A Documentary about the artist HAZE XXL and his notorious record label, Amphetamine Reptile Records.
Aired: 02/26/2015 | Not Rated | 1 hr. 59 min.

"I would like to see certain music videos to be redone and made from movie clips from famous movies. So many songs
can be done this way. Music and Movies go great together."

Do Copyrights Kill Creativity?

Jazz: 10 Series by Ken Burns (netflix)
Renzo Ruggieri (youtube)
Jazz Profiles (NPR)
The Pace Report (youtube)
Red Hot Jazz
Joey Alexander: 11 year old performs Old School Jazz
Keith Jarrett- The Köln Concert, January 24, 1975 (youtube) Best-selling solo piano album in jazz history, 3.5 million in sales.
A History Of Blues Pt1 (youtube)

Re: Generation Music Project (hulu)

Eric Whitacre: A Virtual Choir 2,000 Voices Strong (TED)
Eric Whitacre's Virtual Choir 2.0, 'Sleep'  (youtube)

Sleepy Man Banjo Boys: Bluegrass Virtuosity from N.J.

The Song of the Earth (youtube)
Don't Quit Your Daydream (hulu)
I Need That Record! (youtube) 
Punk's Not Dead (youtube) 

Ukulele Heavy Metal (youtube)
Most Incredible GIRLS Playing UKULELE in the world! (youtube)
Nicki Minaj - Super Bass (Cover by Karmin)
Karmin Covers (youtube)
2 CELLOS - Thunderstruck (youtube)
El Chico del Pórtico (youtube)
SRV-Scuttle Buttin Gayageum ver.  Voodoo Child- Hendrix
Gayageum 12 string instrument by Luna
Pipa: “White Snow in Spring,” performed by Wu Man
Pipa (wiki)
Usman Riaz and Preston Reed Guitarists (video)
16 year old girl shreds electric guitar
Jason Becker - Altitude - Tina S Cover
(youtube)
Brushy One String (youtube)
Music for Wood and Strings: Sō Percussion (ted)

Kora (instrument) is a 21-string lute-bridge-harp used extensively in West Africa.
Toumani Diabaté & Sidiki Diabaté - Jarabi (youtube)
Translating great African composers | Derek Gripper | TEDxTableMountain (videos and text)

2 Girls 3 Harps (Harp Twins) HARP METAL BLACK SABBATH "Iron Man"

Black Violin - "A Flat" (Music Video) (2012) (youtube)
Violinist Lara St. John (Tiny Desk Concert, NPR) Playing Czardashian Rhapsody, Sari Siroun Yar and Oltenian Hora.

Michael Tilson Thomas: Music and Emotion through time

Valentina Lisitsa (youtube) Piano
Beethoven "Moonlight" Sonata op 27 # 2 Mov 3 (youtube)
Bach - Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue in d-minor, BWV 903 (youtube)
Daria van den bercken: Piano in the Air
George Frideric Handel Chaconne in G Major
The Best of Handel (youtube album)
The Toy Piano Virtuoso (youtube)
This Piano Prodigy Was Born With No Fingers (youtube)
Piano Around dragging a piano out into the wilderness
Derek Paravicini: Piano Genius (video)

Scott Rickard: Beautiful Math Behind the Ugliest Music

Stefon Harris: No Mistakes (video)

Vibraphone is a musical instrument in the struck idiophone subfamily of the percussion family. The vibraphone resembles the xylophone, marimba, and glockenspiel.

Xylophone is a musical instrument in the percussion family that consists of wooden bars struck by mallets. Each bar is an idiophone tuned to a pitch of a musical scale, whether pentatonic or heptatonic in the case of many African and Asian instruments, diatonic in many western children's instruments, or chromatic for orchestral use.

Yogi Horton Drum Lesson Funk-R&B
Grandma Drummer (youtube)
Top Secret Drum Corps - Edinburgh Military Tattoo 2012 
Doudou N'Diaye Rose (wiki)
Meytal Cohen Beautiful Female Drummer (youtube)
Tabla is a South Asian membranophone percussion instrument (similar to bongos) consisting of a pair of small drums

Ge Wang: DIY Computer Music Orchestra of the Future
Stanford Laptop Orchestra
Stanford Mobile Phone Orchestra
Chuck Computer Music Software

From Trash To Triumph: The Recycled Orchestra. Young musicians from a Paraguayan slum have toured the world with instruments made of garbage. The Recycled Orchestra of Cateura has played with Stevie Wonder, Metallica, and Megadeth -- and for Pope Francis.

Top 10 Sound-Alike Songs (youtube)

Amateur Video Clips Get Mashed Up Into An Incredible Song
Kutiman - Thru Tel Aviv
(youtube)

Alive Inside

Eric P Dollard - The Supernatural Power of Music (youtube)
Ancient Knowledge (youtube)

Beatboxing and Rythm Flute (youtube)
Flute Straw -Talented Man Makes Music Using Only A Straw as a musical instrument.

Remidi T8 is a wearable glove device that turns your hand into a whole new musical instrument. Combining motion and pressure on any surface.

Music Box & Modulin - 2 New Music Instruments (youtube)

Searching for Sugar Man 2012 Full Movie (youtube) Rodriguez (singer-songwriter) Sixto Diaz Rodriguez, (born July 10, 1942), is an American singer-songwriter from Detroit, Michigan. Sixto (pronounced "Seeks-toe") because he was their sixth son.
Searching for Sugar Man (wiki) - Sugarman

Movie Knowledge

Hey you! What song are you listening to? (youtube)
Bydgoszcz, Poland. - Czego sluchaja bydgoszczanie
Ways You Develope Your Taste in Music
Every Noise

Mickey Hart, Innovators In Music (2016) A fascinating and compelling glimpse into Mickey Hart's magical, musical world Aired: 02/19/2016 | Not Rated | 23 min.

Paolo Angeli has a whole toy shop aboard his guitar: He's got hammers, pedals, propellers, springs, drone strings and even a couple of cell-phone ringers at his disposal.
 

Music Education


How Music Works (Video: 48:18, Francis Hanly, David Jeffcock-2006)

Music Education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music. It touches on all learning domains, including the psychomotor domain (the development of skills), the cognitive domain (the acquisition of knowledge), and, in particular and significant ways, the affective domain (the learner's willingness to receive, internalize, and share what is learned), including music appreciation and sensitivity. Music training from preschool through post-secondary education is common in most nations because involvement with music is considered a fundamental component of human culture and behavior. Music, like language, is an accomplishment that distinguishes humans as a species.

Educational Music

Music Psychology or Music Cognition is a branch of both psychology and musicology. It aims to explain and understand musical behavior and experience, including the processes through which music is perceived, created, responded to, and incorporated into everyday life.

Biomusicology is the study of music from a biological point of view. The term was coined by Nils L. Wallin in 1991 to encompass several branches of music psychology and musicology, including evolutionary musicology, neuromusicology, and comparative musicology.

Music Theory concerned with describing how musicians and composers make music, including tuning systems and composition methods among other topics. Because of the ever-expanding conception of what constitutes music (see Definition of music), a more inclusive definition could be that music theory is the consideration of any sonic phenomena, including silence, as they relate to music.

Musical Form refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music, and it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections.

Song Structure in traditional music and popular music are typically sectional, repeating forms used in songs, such as strophic form and is a part of the songwriting process. Other common forms include thirty-two-bar form, verse-chorus form, and the twelve-bar blues. Popular music songs traditionally use the same music for each verse of stanza of lyrics (as opposed to songs that are "through-composed", an approach used in classical music). Pop and traditional forms can be used even with songs that have structural differences in melodies. The most common format is intro, verse, pre-chorus, chorus (or refrain), verse, pre-chorus, chorus, bridge ("middle eight"), verse, chorus and outro.

Instruments

Musicology is the scholarly analysis and research of music. Musicology is part of the humanities. A scholar who participates in musical research is a musicologist.

Musical Composition can refer to an original piece of music, either a song or an instrumental music piece, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating or writing a new song or piece of music. People who create new compositions are called composers in classical music. In popular music and traditional music, the creators of new songs are usually called songwriters; with songs, the person who writes new words for a song is the lyricist. "Composition" is the act or practice of creating a song or other piece of music.

Composer is a person who creates or writes music, which can be vocal music (for a singer or choir), instrumental music (e.g., for solo piano, string quartet, wind quintet or orchestra) or music which combines both instruments and voices (e.g., opera or art song, which is a singer accompanied by a pianist). The core meaning of the term refers to individuals who have contributed to the tradition of Western classical music through creation of works expressed in written musical notation.

Sampling

American Federation of Musicians
The National Association for Music Education

Ethnomusicology is the study of music from the cultural and social aspects of the people who make it. It encompasses distinct theoretical and methodical approaches that emphasize cultural, social, material, cognitive, biological, and other dimensions or contexts of musical behavior, instead of only its isolated sound component.

Music Meets Science
Music Books Now
Music Hall
Audimated
Music Machinery
Classical Music (ariama)
Music Ed Links
Konteh Kunda School

A440 Pitch Standard or A4, which has a frequency of 440 hertz, is the musical note A above middle C and serves as both a precise tuning and also a general "ballpark" tuning standard for musical pitch as there is a global controversy concerning the precise definition for A4. The Boston Symphony Orchestra supports A4 having a frequency of 441 Hz, the New York Philharmonic supports A4 having a frequency of 442 Hz, and in Germany, Austria, Sweden, Russia, Spain and continental Europe those symphony orchestras support A4 having a frequency of 443 Hz.
C Note

Do-Re-Mi is a show tune from the 1959 Rodgers and Hammerstein musical The Sound of Music.

Scale (music) is any set of musical notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch. A scale ordered by increasing pitch is an ascending scale, and a scale ordered by decreasing pitch is a descending scale. Some scales contain different pitches when ascending than when descending. For example, the Melodic minor scale.

Sounds

Build Community and make Music in Armenia

Learning Music by Ear is a term describing the ability of an instrumental musician to reproduce a piece of music they have heard, without having observed another musician play it or having seen the sheet music notation.

Ear Training is a skill by which musicians learn to identify, solely by hearing, pitches, intervals, melody, chords, rhythms, and other basic elements of music. The application of this skill is analogous to taking dictation in written/spoken language. As a process, ear training is in essence the inverse of sight-singing, the latter being analogous to reading a written text aloud without prior opportunity to review the material. Ear training is typically a component of formal musical training.

Musical Aptitude refers to a person's innate ability to acquire skills and knowledge required for musical activity, and may influence the speed at which learning can take place and the level that may be achieved. Study in this area focuses on whether aptitude can be broken into subsets or represented as a single construct, whether aptitude can be measured prior to significant achievement, whether high aptitude can predict achievement, to what extent aptitude is inherited, and what implications questions of aptitude have on educational principles.

You can use the FAO Schwarz Big Piano to teach music, coordination, balance, rhythm and be an exercise too.

FAO Schwarz Big Piano - Toccata und Fugue in D Minor (youtube)

Five Tone Pipes, 30 Physics Sound Tubes (amazon)

Whirly Tube is a musical instrument which consists of a corrugated (ribbed) plastic tube (hollow flexible cylinder), open at both ends, which is swung in a circle to play. The faster the toy is swung the higher the pitch of the note it produces. It produces discrete notes in the harmonic series like a valveless brass instrument.

 Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge  (E-G-B-D-F)
Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge  EGBDF

Scientific Reasons for Learning to Play a Musical Instrument

Playing a musical instrument helps builds hand-eye coordination, it helps strengthen math skills through counting notes and rhythms, and learning music theory. Playing a musical instrument improves reading and comprehension skills, and enhances concentration by requiring you to focus on pitch, rhythm, tempo and notes. playing a musical instrument can also benefit your memory.  "Kids who learn how to play musical instruments may have an easier time paying attention and focusing."

Music is a Science.
It is exact, specific; and it demands exact acoustics. A sheet of music is a chart, a graph which indicates frequencies, intensities, volume changes, melody and harmony all at once and with the most exact control of time.

Music is Mathematical.
Rhythm is based on the subdivisions of time into fractions which must be done in one's head, not worked out on paper. Students involvement in instrumental music show higher levels of math proficiency. Music education helps with the development of spatial-temporal reasoning. Highly developed spatial-temporal faculties are imperative for working through solutions to the complex problems in fields such as architecture, engineering, science and, obviously, mathematics

Music is a Foreign Language.
Most of the terms are in Italian, German or French; and the notation is certainly not English but a highly developed kind of shorthand that uses symbols to represent ideas. Music is the most complete and universal language. Music education also does major work on the language-processing parts of our brains. To learn to read, children need to have "good working memory, the ability to disambiguate speech sounds and make quick sound-to-meaning connection.

Music is History.
Music usually reflects the environment and times of its creation, often even the country and / or cultural feeling.

Music is Physical Education.
It requires fantastic coordination of fingers, hands, arms, lip, cheek and facial muscles, in addition to extraordinary control of diaphragmatic, back, stomach, and chest muscles, which respond instantly to the sound the ear hears and the mind interprets.
Music training helps improve cognitive and non-cognitive skills.

Music touches every human being from infancy to adulthood. The power of musical sound can be the vehicle for expression of a wide variety of human emotions. And not only does music move us emotionally, it activates our intellect.

Arts and Human Development Benefits (PDF)
Short-Term Music Training Enhances Verbal Intelligence and Executive Function

"Music is a excellent vehicle for learning many different things, you're not just teaching music, you're teaching everything in life that's connected to music."

Surgery patients who listen to music may have lower levels of pain and anxiety as well as lower blood pressure and heart rate than people who don't, according to the analysis music was linked to about 31 percent less pain, 29 percent lower odds of using pain medication, and 34 percent less anxiety. Music was tied to 40 percent lower blood pressure and 27 percent lower heart rate.

Music Cognition Lab employs a variety of behavioral and physiological methods in their research, including Electroencephalography, eye-tracking, speech analysis, neuroimaging, genetics, standardized and experimental assessment measures, and behavioral coding. Our Lab is a central hub for the Program for Music, Mind, and Society at Vanderbilt, a trans-institutional program that aims to understand the role of music from molecules to the brain to behavior to culture and society.

Can music training help children develop language and learning skills? M.I.L.E.Stone (Music Impacting Language Expertise).

Musical rhythm discrimination explains individual differences in grammar skills in children. Study considered a relation between rhythm perception skills and individual differences in phonological awareness and grammar abilities

Study of Rhythm Production and Perception

Rhythm Perception in Early Infancy. The chief characteristic of rhythm perception is the subjective grouping of objectively separate events. In a rhythmic sequence of identical tone-bursts, adults do not perceive the repetition of a single sound, but a recurring configuration which has temporal form. Such a sequence is organised according to the Gestalt law of proximity1,2. Organisation of temporal form has never been studied systematically in pre-verbal infants. We present here results suggesting a precocious achievement of this function and contrasting with previous research3 which failed to demonstrate organisation of spatial form by babies in accordance with the proximity law.

The Mariani Foundation for Paediatric Neurology announces The Neurosciences and Music - VI

How Music Hijacks our Perception of Time


Visualization of Music


Visual Music refers to the use of musical structures in visual imagery, which can also include silent films or silent Lumia work. It also refers to methods or devices which can translate sounds or music into a related visual presentation. An expanded definition may include the translation of music to painting; Visual music also refers to systems which convert music or sound directly into visual forms, such as film, video or computer graphics, by means of a mechanical instrument, an artist's interpretation, or a computer. The reverse is applicable also, literally converting images to sound by drawn objects and figures on a film's soundtrack, in a technique known as drawn or graphical sound.

Music Visualization is a feature found in electronic music visualizers and media player software, generates animated imagery based on a piece of music. The imagery is usually generated and rendered in real time and in a way synchronized with the music as it is played. Visualization techniques range from simple ones (e.g., a simulation of an oscilloscope display) to elaborate ones, which often include a plurality of composited effects. The changes in the music's loudness and frequency spectrum are among the properties used as input to the visualization.

Seeing with Sound Augmented Reality
Harmony Project

Color Frequency Sound Symbolism is the idea that vocal sounds or phonemes carry meaning in and of themselves.

Eye Music: Hearing Colored Shapes

Ideophone are words that evoke an idea in sound, often a vivid impression of certain sensations or sensory perceptions, e.g. sound, movement, color, shape, or action. Ideophones are found in many of the world's languages, though they are claimed to be relatively uncommon in Western languages.

Hearing Incorrectly

Color Knowledge
Color Therapy

Chromesthesia is a type of Synesthesia in which heard sounds automatically and involuntarily evoke an experience of color.

LaserDock: $199 Laser Show System 1W RGB Pure-Diode Laser Projector. 100+ Music Visualizers, Laser Shows, and more.
Spatial Intelligence
Music Therapy

Frequency Color Wavelengths Cymatics is when different patterns emerge in the excitatory medium depending on the geometry of the plate and the driving frequency.
Cymatics (youtube)
Magnetic Machine (video)
Sisyphus
Numbers make Shapes

Blue Spirals Oscilloscope Music Visualized on Hansiraber's Software Oscilloscope (youtube)
Chopin, Etude, opus 25 no. 1, A-flat major (Animated Graphical Score) (youtube)

I would like to see a concert that displays a music's Corresponding Colors and the Hz Measurements during each song.

Pythagorean Tuning is a tuning of the syntonic temperament in which the generator is the ratio 3:2 (i.e., the untempered perfect fifth), which is 702 cents wide.

Feng Shui is a Chinese philosophical system of harmonizing everyone with the surrounding environment. It is closely linked to Taoism.

Physics (electromagnetic Spectrum)

Sine is a trigonometric function of an angle. The sine of an acute angle is defined in the context of a right triangle: for the specified angle, it is the ratio of the length of the side that is opposite that angle to the length of the longest side of the triangle (the hypotenuse).

Sine Wave is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation. It is named after the function sine, of which it is the graph. It occurs often in pure and applied mathematics, as well as physics, engineering, signal processing and many other fields.

Can Music make Food taste better?
Listening to music makes food taste better
10 inspired food and music pairings
Turntable Kitchen
Musical Pairing



Have you ever wondered how many Songs have been created?


On Average, there are 50 albums released every week in the United States of America and the United Kingdom.
Thomas Edison invented the phonograph in 1878 but it was always a very poor seller. The first artist to sell serious numbers of records was Frank Sinatra in the 1940 (250,000,000 records in his lifetime), so lets start there.

Lets also assume that there are 12 songs per album. 50 albums per week * 52 weeks = 2,500 per year.
2500 per year * 69 years = 179,400 unique albums (since 1940)  12 songs * 179,400 albums = 2,152,800 songs
So the average points to about 2,100,000 songs being released in the United States of America and the United Kingdom (and nowhere else) in musical history, give or take a few.  Wiki Answers

Only about 50% of all music created gets published on a CD.
National Recording Registry
Registry Preservation

Scientific American: Music in your Head
Phonographic Industry
British P.I.
How Many other stuff is there?

An Earworm is when that song gets stuck in your head.
Auditory Imagery
Music Hook
Catchiness
"Can chewing something get rid of earworms?"


Some of Life's Greatest Songs over the Years

Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time
100 Songs that Changed History
Famous Activism Songs
List of Songs considered the Best
NPR 100 List
Most Influential Songs
Love Songs
Music Museums
Songs that were Hits for more than one Artist
Top 20 most popular songs of all time (youtube)
One-Hit Wonders

The "millennial whoop" is taking over pop music (youtube)
Drop in popular music, especially electronic music styles, is a point in a music track where a switch of rhythm or bass line occurs and usually follows a recognizable build section and break. The term "drop" comes from the composer or producer "dropping in" the primary rhythmic and foundational elements previously hinted at into the mix more or less at once. Related terms, typically describing certain types of drops, include "beat-up" (so named because it is a point where the producer brings up the foundational kick drum beat after having faded it down during a break or buildup) and "climax" (typically describing a single particularly striking drop heard late in the track).
Bass drop sound effect (youtube)
Cinematic bass drop, trailer, sound effect (youtube)

Artists who reached number one in the United States
Billboard Hot 100 chart Achievements and Milestones

Most Groundbreaking Albums of all Time
75 Essential Obscure and Influential Bands
Top 100 Bands
100 Greatest Artists

Worst Album Covers of all time
How many Books have been Written?
How many Movies have been Made?

Payola - Pay for Play - Song Pluggers were paid to promote music, which is the illegal practice of payment or other inducement by record companies for the broadcast of recordings on commercial radio in which the song is presented as being part of the normal day's broadcast. Under U.S. law, a radio station can play a specific song in exchange for money, but this must be disclosed on the air as being sponsored airtime, and that play of the song should not be counted as a "regular airplay".

Corporate Control of the Media

Music and songs can have an incredible influence on people so you should be totally aware of this influence. This goes way beyond hidden messages in songs, Backmasking or Hidden Tracks, because just the words and the music themselves can have a strong impact on your behavior. You have to fully understand Media Literacy as well as Human Behavior. Music is a beautiful gift, but music can also become an addiction with side effects. So please listen carefully to the music, but also listen more carefully to your thoughts.

Music People Like by State


How many Rock n Roll Music Fantasies have you had today?

Jukebox Hero - Foreigner (youtube)
Dave Grohls 2013 Keynote Speech

Fame and Popularity Dangers

I love watching documentaries about bands who became really famous. I love how it shows that most people just start out with simple and normal lives. And then one day their abilities come in line with an opportunity of a life time, and just by chance their lives are changed forever. Of course these documentaries never show a complete story, these are only a few particular moments in a persons life, so we have no idea who they are, or who they could have been if their lives would have been different. I myself think it's better to dream about these experiences then to have them come true. Because I would hate to live a dream that I was unable to wake up from, that would suck. But of course you don't have to be famous to be at that crossroad like that, because everyone has to make decisions. And what ever those decisions were, or how bad some of those decisions were, you have to find a way to live through those decisions no matter what, because you are here for a reason, so you have to find that reason, because it may not find you. If you're not looking for it, you may never find it. But be careful where you look, if you're not looking in the right places at the right time, you may find more trouble then success. Remember, life is a double edge sword, but it's your sword, so being dull on one side might be a little safer. But this is your life, not mine.

A to Zeplin the story of Led Zeplin 2004
This insightful documentary chronicles the band's history from their 1968 formation to their reign as 1970s hard-rock giants through rare photographs, archival footage, and interviews with both the band members and those who worked with them.
Aired: 06/08/2004 |  55 min.  Led Zeplin (wiki)

Kurt and Courtney (1998)
Beginning as an observation of the music of Kurt Cobain and his Seattle/Portland contemporaries, Kurt and Courtney took a different turn when Courtney Love intervened. Directed by Nick Broomfield. Aired: 02/28/1998 | 1 hr. 35 min.


Quotes

"Music is such a beautiful way of expressing information...Music is the Soul of Language."

"Some song Lyrics can speak in volumes, telling stories within a short period of time, while communicating messages, behaviors and opinions."

"O body swayed to music, o brightening glance, how can we know the dancer from the dance?"   William Butler Yeats

"I believe if a child holds a musical instrument, they are less likely to hold a gun, or take drugs."  De Leon de Vega

"Ladies and Gentlemen, Rock 'n' Roll."...were the first words from the MTV broadcast a minute after midnight on Aug. 1, 1981.

The first video was "Video Killed the Radio Star" by The Buggles 

"One of the best things I like about the internet is that I can find the lyrics to songs that I loved when I was young, so now when I hear the song I can actually sing the song because I now know the correct words, I love you internet, and I also love all the beautiful people who just Love to Share, thank you, thank you, thank you."

Coda is to designate a passage that brings a piece (or a movement) to an end.




The Thinker Man