is the cognitive
process of understanding
a written linguistic message.
something that is written
. Make sense of a
A mental representation
or significance of
is a complex cognitive process of decoding
symbols in order to construct
or derive meaning (reading comprehension
Reading is a means of language acquisition,
, and of sharing information
“Learn to Read, then
Read to Learn”
is the love of
, and a
is an individual who loves to
read, admires books and collects books. Book worm
is someone who spends a great deal of time reading.
774 million people in the world are illiterate
and two thirds are
cost the U.S. 238 billion per year.
About 30 million
people, 14 percent of the US population 16 and
older, have trouble with
basic reading and writing.
adults don’t read well enough to earn
a living wage. 63% of prison inmates can’t read.
About 30 million people, 14
percent of the US population 16 and older, have trouble with
basic reading and writing.
how to read will not guarantee success because
the person who does not Read the
Right Books has no advantage over a person who can't read at all.
Knowing how to read is extremely important, but knowing how to effectively
use this skill is even more important.
"Read the best books first
, or you may not
have a chance to read them at all."
Henry David ThoreauVideos
about Why Reading Matters
[BBC] Why Reading Matters Part 1 of 6]
Patricia Ryan: Don't
insist on English!
Content Areas - With Research-Based CRISS Strategies
Learning how to Read Resources
Learn to Read and Learn the Alphabet Online
Click n Kids
Learn to Read Software Review
Stages of LearningPhonics
Global Learning Xprize
Talk, Sing, Read, Write and Play.
Years 2-6, 450 Lessons, 3,000 Learning
Activities, Virtual Field Trips and
Learn to Read 1:
Phonics & Rhyming - The Kids' Picture Show
(Fun & Educational Learning
National Reading Panel
Teach Your Child to Read
Your Baby Can Read
Succeed to Read
Everybody Wins NY
Read Write Think
International Reading Assoc.
ABC of Reading
English Course Videos
English Grammar Lessons
Child Development Books
It was believed that the
fourth grade was when students stop learning to read and
started reading to learn.
Reading Shift Theory
Children who match sounds to letters earlier learn to
” simply by touching a word or phrase, one can
listen to related information such as its pronunciation
or meaning. The gadget “whispers” the information into
the ear, thus enabling one to read on without having to
stop and check up the dictionary.
Read to Learn
The Person who does not Read the Right Books has no advantage over a person
who can't read at all.
uses both whole language and
phonics. The goal of a balanced literacy program is to include the
strongest elements of each. The components of a 'balanced literacy'
approach are as follows: The read aloud, guided reading, shared reading,
interactive writing, shared writing, Reading Workshop, Writing Workshop
and Word study).
is a complex "cognitive process"
of decoding symbols
in order to construct
or derive meaning (reading comprehension). Reading is a means of
, communication, and of
sharing information and ideas.
Three of the most important things in
1: Learn How to Read.
2: Learn how to Comprehend what you are Reading.
3: Read the most Valuable Knowledge and Information that you can
find, things that will increase your understanding of yourself
and things that will increase your understanding of the world
"Learn to Read, Then Read
"Read the best books first
, or you may not
have a chance to read them at all."
Henry David Thoreau
And with over a 130 million
with over 2 trillion words you can easily say that
there is not a lot of time to be wasted on reading things that
will not benefit you.
Why learn to read and write if you never
read anything of value
or write anything of
And what happens if you never learn what is
There's a huge difference between someone who is
and someone who has excellent
knows only how to read, and the other fully understands what they are reading.
Most Literate Countries:
Norway, Iceland, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, United States,
Germany, Latvia, Netherlands.
Just because some one has been
does not mean that they have
Literacy rates only show how many people can read, it does not
say that people have read things that are valuable or important,
things that would make them educated and aware.
If you don't read the
things that matter then knowing how to read doesn't matter
Then you have to
Concentrating on word sounds helps reading instruction and
level should you have in order to induce
How do you Accurately
Measure, Assess and Test
someone's Reading and Writing Ability?
Knowing how to
is very important for
. You can learn
many things from reading. You can learn
from other people, you can learn to
and you can acquire important
about yourself and the world around you. Reading is the path to
When teaching someone to read,
make sure the person reads words that helps them understand themselves and
the world around them. So as a person learns to read,
they learn more then just words.
A connection between the text and something in your own
connection between the text and something that is
occurring or has occurred in the world.
My name is _______ and I am _____ years old. I am just learning
how to read. Knowing how to read is extremely important because
80 percent of the worlds most valuable knowledge and information
is in the text format, or the written word. And If I do not
learn to understand and comprehend what I am reading, then I
will not have access to the most valuable and the most important
information and knowledge that this world has to offer. Words
are not just for communicating with others, more importantly,
words are used to communicate with myself, so that I can learn
to understand my feelings, my thoughts, my knowledge, my
abilities and the world around me. Over the last 2 thousand
years, millions of people have
to our incredible
wealth of knowledge, knowledge that has benefited my life and
other peoples lives in many different ways. So in return I will
add to this enormous resource of knowledge by learning and
seeking more valuable information and more knowledge. Knowledge
that can be shared that would help make improvements in our
world. This way I too can benefit people today and benefit
people in the future, the same way that I have benefited from
people who shared knowledge and information throughout human
history. I am very important to the
cycle of life
Read to Learn
Student Promise to Learn:
I have the power to learn anything
that I want to. But I first
have to acquire the necessary skills, knowledge and information
that would give me this
power to learn anything
learning certain things takes a long time. But the rewards of
learning will always give me endless potential with endless
Once I learn the necessary skills,
and information I
will have the ability understand everything about myself and
understand everything about the world around me.
Once I learn the necessary skills, knowledge and
will be able to
solve any problem
in the world and be able to
fix and improve anything that I put my mind to.
Once I learn the necessary
, knowledge and information I
will be able to
learn from any mistake
that I make, or learn
from any mistake that others will make. I will also be able to
handle any catastrophe, any struggle, any disaster or any
tragedy that I will experience in my life, all because I have
learned the necessary skills, knowledge and information.
Once I learn the necessary skills, knowledge and information, I
will be able to choose any career that I want, work any job that
I choose, and I will be able to follow any dream that I have.
The Power of Knowledge is a lot of work and a big
that I will
never stop learning
, or will I ever stop trying.
My goal is to become an
. I will always love
myself and I will always love others with compassion. I will
never forget that my life is incredibly special and very
important. My best is yet to come......Learning
things Simultaneously and in Order
This student pledge, mantra or saying
will be read once a week. This exercise will act as a reminder:
I have the power to learn anything
that I want to.
I have the ability to understand everything about myself, and
understand everything about the world around me.
I have the ability to
solve any problem
in the world.
I also have the ability to
fix and improve anything that I put my mind to.
I have the ability to
learn from any mistake
that I make,
and the ability to learn
from any mistake that others will make.
I am also able to
handle any catastrophe, any struggle, any disaster or any
tragedy that I will experience in my life, all because I have
learned the necessary
I have the ability to choose any career that I want, work any
job that I choose, and follow any dream that I have.
that I will
never stop learning
, or will I ever stop trying.
My goal is to become an
I will always love myself and I will always love others with
I will never forget that my life is incredibly special and very
important. My best is yet to come.
"If you don't fully understand the things that you're
reading, then knowing how to read doesn't matter."
Read the things that
Reading without comprehension is like eating food but still
being malnourished. You're not starving to death, but you're
also not able to live up to your full potential, or develop normally.
Yes you can read, but you can't fully understand what is
written, because the message goes beyond the words that are
written. And it's not just the words, it's all the other things that
the original words do not express. You have to see the whole
picture. This is the one flaws of writing, the clarity and
meaning can not be confirmed when the writer is not there to
explain what is written. But now that writing is digital,
, we can
link to more information when needed. So things can be explained, giving
more insight and better understanding. Reading with links can help improve
comprehension, but the goal is to be able not to have to click on the
links at all, meaning that you know what that information is, and you can
see beyond what is written. I Comprehend.
is the ability to read text, Process
does not take the given text at face value,
but involves a deeper examination of the claims put forth as well as the
supporting points and possible counterarguments.
is the ease with which a reader can
understand a written text.
is the ease with which a reader can
recognize individual characters in text.
Flesch-Kincaid Readability Test
tests designed to indicate how difficult a reading passage in English is
Neuroscience of Text Comprehension
encourages readers to actively analyze
texts and offers strategies for what proponents describe as uncovering
is a critical
with the relationship
text and meaning
shaping of a text's meaning by another text.
Intertextuality is a literary device that creates an ‘interrelationship
between texts’ and generates related understanding in separate works.
comprises the skills and competencies needed
for reading, writing and participating on the web. It has been described
as "both content and activity"
is only beneficial when what you're reading is
Deep Learning Labels
Learning Words from Contextual Clues
describes, the careful, sustained
interpretation of a brief passage of a text. A close reading
emphasizes the single and the particular over the general,
effected by close attention to individual words, the syntax, and
the order in which the sentences unfold ideas, as the reader
scans the line of text.
You need to do more then just read, you need to do some
research. Just reading is for idiots who don't know any better.
You read to learn. If what you're reading doesn't provide you
with enough information to fully understand the value of the
words you just read, then you have to seek out more information
and do some research, other wise you learn very little about
everything. And the sad part is, you don't even know your
lacking key information
is to get the meaning of something. To become aware of
through the senses. Include in scope; include as part of something
broader; have as one's sphere or territory.
is the message that is intended or expressed or signified. Rich in
significance or implication. Have in mind as a purpose.
Measure and Assess
You have to make sure that your
reading comprehension is improving every year and make sure that
you are increasing your vocabulary as well.
Functional Literacy may be adequate, but you still need to fully
understand what you are reading and read the things that matter, things
that will increase your understanding of yourself and the world around
Word Identification Assessment
is reading and writing skills that are
inadequate "to manage daily living and employment tasks that require
reading skills beyond a basic level". Functional illiteracy is contrasted
with illiteracy in the strict sense, meaning the inability to read or
write simple sentences in any language. Foreigners who cannot read and
write in the native language where they live may also be considered
Cortex Influences Word Comprehension
. Comprehension of a word’s
meaning involves not only the ‘classic’ language brain centres but also
the cortical regions responsible for the
control of body muscles
as hand movements. The resulting brain representations are, therefore,
distributed across a network of locations involving both areas specialised
for language processing and those responsible for the control of the
for Memorization (fewer than 100 words per minute
wpm) - Reading for Learning (100–200 wpm)
Reading for Comprehension (200–400 wpm) - Skimming (400–700
wpm) - Speed Reading
average adult reads
text (150 to 300 wpm) - Speaks (180 wpm)
- Hears (150–160 wpm)
"If you don't Remember, Comprehend or Learn what you read, then
your reading speed does not matter."
If you don't comprehend the things that matter then good
reading comprehension doesn't matter. So reading comprehension
must be about comprehending important information and
knowledge, otherwise good reading comprehension is almost
So the first reading comprehension tests should include the
actual skills that are needed for good comprehension.
Increasing the size of spacing between certain words could
improve people’s reading comprehension
You have to understand the definitions of words. But more
importantly, you have to understand the meaning of words when
they are used together with other words.
Words can be misleading
, you have to pay attention and learn
how words can be used to deceive.
"Having good reading comprehension is
great, but if you never read anything important or valuable,
then it's almost useless."
You're not going to remember all the details of everything you
read, especially when you're not interested in the information
or interested in the subject. And you don't want to force
students to remember useless details
just so they can pass a
test. You want students to comprehend what they read only when
it's important. Being able to
is one thing, but knowing when to pay attention, and do it
effectively, is the most important aspect of reading
Speech-language experts can help kids who struggle to read and write
RAP stands for read a paragraph, ask questions about the main idea and
details, and put main ideas and details into your own words. Other
successful strategies include:
information into visual maps
using a pencil or sticky note to mark
confusing, important or surprising portions of a text with specific
symbols (?, * or !, for example) Underlining or circling key words and
phrases that the reader doesn’t understand and/or that occur repeatedly in
a text writing a very brief summary of each paragraph or section in the
margin of the text or on a sticky note.
Mechanics of Reading -
Skillful Reading Techniques
In order to read at a good speed, it is good to keep in mind...
A minimum number of fixations to the line of type.
Wide eye span which encompass phrases and thought sequence
rather than isolated words.
A complete absence of lip movements and vocalization.
Move the eyes consistently forward, regularly, and
rhythmically-- pick up groups of words rather than isolated
Practice quick and rhythmic return from the end of the line to
the beginning of the next.
Practice looking down quickly at a line of print, lifting your
eyes, and checking to see how many words you saw in this
Do this until you are actually aware of a broadened span.
Cover the print of a single line with a plain white card. By
moving the card downward, expose the line, cover it up, expose
it, cover it up, etc. Do this until you are aware of seeing more
words at a glance.
Practice reading a column of newsprint, restricting yourself to
only two fixations per line.
Keep in mind that the length of fixation and span is determined
by the type of material you are reading.
Watch for signs of fatigue: twitching muscles, burning
sensations in the eyelids, fading, or blurring of print. Look
away from your reading often and give momentary rest to your
Place the forefinger on your lips and your thumb and other
fingers on your larynx.
Practice reading with your mouth tightly closed; attempt to
restrict movement of the larynx, tongue, and lips.
Check to see whether you are actually "hearing" words as you
read; this is another form of vocalization which can be
eliminated only through determination to use only your eyes and
the meaning centers of your brain.
Regressions often occur because you are attempting to take such
long spans that you miss essential words and relationships. If
this is noticeable in your reading, shorten the span. Practice
covering all of the material which you have just read with a
This will not permit you to regress and will force you to
concentrate on essential words and essential relationships in
the sentence or paragraph. Read so fast, in easy materials, that
there is no time for regressions. Recognize the fact, at all
times, that some regression is necessary to establish
relationships within the selection which you are reading.
How to underline or Highlight a Reading
Study begins when you decide what you will learn. When you
underline, you decide what you will learn.
If you underline accurately, you will be able to review and make
notes more easily.
Guides for underlining or highlighting
A. Read an entire section first.
B. Do not underline too much.
C. Select information you want to learn to make into notes.
D. Make major points stand out clearly.
Use double underlining.
E. Make margin notes.
Use key words.
Use brief summaries.
Make questions if you do not understand, so that you can return
to that section.
F. Realize that introductions rarely contain material that needs
to be underlined.
G. Turn major headings and sub-headings into questions.
Underline the condensed answer.
Answers may include information in: Topic sentences. Words
printed in special type. Numbered lists.
Pay attention to and be aware of words of transition,
introduction, conclusion, and definition (in other words,
accordingly, since, then, of course, but, yet, more important,
likewise, besides, for these reasons, subsequently, afterwards,
that is, that means, etc.)
Should see major facts in an outline form.
H. Use brackets when several lines are important to underline.
I. Use numbers when a series of ideas are important.
J. Make a question mark beside unclear sections of information.
K. Write down questions in your notebook for class that you have
for the Professor.
What Is the Difference in the Reading Assessment Between
Comprehension and Interpretation
Oral Reading Fluency
Practice Reading Tests
Northwest Evaluation Association
is having trouble with reading despite normal
intelligence. Difficulties include spelling words, reading quickly,
writing words, "sounding out" words in the head, pronouncing words when
reading aloud and understanding what one reads.
Neural Changes following Remediation in Adult Developmental Dyslexia
Sensitivity to dynamic auditory and visual stimuli predicts nonword
reading ability in both dyslexic and normal readers
Language-Based Learning Disability
differences that can affect skills such as listening, reasoning, speaking,
reading, writing, and maths calculations. It is also associated with
movement, coordination, and direct
Text to Speech
Words Per Minute
Speed Reading Exercises
Instant Speed Learning
or silent speech, is the
made when reading; it provides the sound of the word as it is read.
Technical Reading Exercise
There's a big difference
between scanning what you're reading and fully
what you're reading.
should be done for scanning large amounts of text,
but not used for comprehending.
ATOS Readability Formula
Multimodal Literacy Narrative
Test 4 Free
Reading and Learning at the
When you are Learning to Read,
should read things that are relevant and important about yourself and
the world around you.
Imagine learning how to read words that are perfectly aligned
with helping you to understand yourself and the world around
you. Imagine learning how to read words that are perfectly
aligned with helping you to solve a particular problem that you
are currently having? What if that problem was an emotional
problem? Or personal problem? What if that problem was a
relationship problem? And reading or hearing the right words was
all that you needed for you to understand that problem, so that
it would help you to solve that problem. Never underestimate the
power of words, the power of learning, the power of knowledge,
or the power of having the right information at the right time.
Simultaneous Subject Learning
Order StepsBrain Maintenance
What if the words that you were learning how to read, actually
matched perfectly with what you wanted to learn? And matched
perfectly with the way you are thinking? What if the words
transmitted information that was exactly what you were looking
Teaching your Children to Talk
Teaching Young Students Language
"Words are a vehicle to transmit information to the Brain"
"Reading Enriches the Mind" Learning Methods
"Learning to communicate for our survival and universal well
"A majority of the worlds most important
information is communicated using words."
"An Intelligent speaker, a
powerful talker and those who can influence others through
speech, will always be heard more then the best writers. But
listening to good speakers
are both equally important because in order to be a good speaker
you have to read good writing.
Sustained Silent Reading
is only one half of the skills
needed to Communicate effectively."
is what you mean or intend to
express or convey. The idea
that is intended. The
that is intended
or expressed or signified. Have in mind as a purpose.
is the information
or concepts that a sender
intends to convey, or actually does convey, in communication with a
is to make known; pass on,
is an actual or possible derivation from
sentence, which is not associated with signs that have any original or
primary intent of communication
. It is a general term of art used to
capture a number of different senses of the word "meaning", independently
from its linguistic uses.
Meaning (philosophy of language)
is the nature of meaning, its
definition, elements, and types, was discussed by
Augustine, and Aquinas. According to them "meaning is a relationship
between two sorts of things
: signs and the kinds of things they mean
(intend, express or signify)". One term in the relationship of meaning
necessarily causes something else to come to the mind. In other words: "a
sign is defined as an entity that indicates another entity to some agent
for some purpose".
is a statement of the meaning of a term (a word, phrase, or other set of
symbols). Definitions can be classified into two large categories,
intensional definitions (which try to give the essence of a term) and
extensional definitions (which proceed by listing the objects that a term
describes). Another important category of definitions is the class of
ostensive definitions, which convey the meaning of a term by pointing out
examples. A term may have many different senses and multiple meanings, and
thus require multiple definitions.
gives the meaning of a term by specifying necessary and sufficient
conditions for when the term should be used. In the case of nouns, this is
equivalent to specifying the properties that an object needs to have in
order to be counted as a referent of the term. For example, an intensional
definition of the word "bachelor" is "unmarried man". This definition is
valid because being an unmarried man is both a necessary condition and a
sufficient condition for being a bachelor: it is necessary because one
cannot be a bachelor without being an unmarried man, and
sufficient because any unmarried man is a bachelor.
of a concept or term formulates its meaning by specifying its
extension, that is, every object that falls under the definition of the
concept or term in question. For example, an extensional definition of the
term "nation of the world" might be given by listing all of the nations of
the world, or by giving some other means of recognizing the members of the
corresponding class. An explicit listing of the extension, which is only
possible for finite sets and only practical for relatively small sets,
is a type of enumerative definition. Extensional definitions are used when
listing examples would give more applicable information than other
types of definition, and where listing the members of a set tells the
questioner enough about the nature of that set. This is similar to an
, in which one or more
members of a set (but not necessarily all) are pointed out as examples.
The opposite approach is the intensional definition, which defines by
listing properties that a thing must have in order to be part of the set
captured by the definition. An ostensive definition conveys the meaning of
a term by pointing out examples. This type of definition is often used
where the term is difficult to define verbally, either because the words
will not be understood (as with children and new speakers of a language)
or because of the nature of the term (such as colors or sensations). It is
usually accompanied with a gesture pointing out the object serving as an
example, and for this reason is also often referred to as "definition by
pointing". Ostensive definitions rely on an analogical or case-based
reasoning by the subject they are intended to educate or inform.
is a definition that
extends the lexical definition of a term for a specific purpose by
including additional criteria that narrow down the set of things meeting
the definition. For example, a dictionary may define the term "student" as
"1. anyone attending an educational institution of any type, or 2. anyone
who studies something." However, a movie theater may propose a precising
definition for the word "student" of "any person under the age of 18
enrolled in a local school" in order to determine who is eligible to
receive discounted tickets. Precising definitions are generally used in
contexts where vagueness is unacceptable; many legal definitions are
precising definitions, as are company policies. This type of definition is
useful in preventing disputes that arise from the involved parties using
different definitions of the term in question. A precising definition is
intended to make a vague word more precise so that the word's meaning is
not left to the interpretation of the reader or listener. Here is an
example: From a class syllabus: "Class participation" means attending
class, listening attentively, answering and asking questions, and
participating in class discussions. This is similar to a stipulative
definition, but differs in that a stipulative definition may contradict
the lexical definition, while a precising definition does not.
is a type of
definition in which a new or currently-existing term is given a specific
meaning for the purposes of argument or discussion in a given context.
When the term already exists, this definition may, but does not
necessarily, contradict the dictionary (lexical) definition of the term.
Because of this, a stipulative definition cannot be "correct" or
"incorrect"; it can only differ from other definitions, but it can be
useful for its intended purpose. For example, in the riddle of induction
by Nelson Goodman, "grue" was stipulated to be "a property of an object
that makes it appear green if observed before some future time t, and blue
if observed afterward." "Grue" has no meaning in standard English;
therefore, Goodman created the new term and gave it a stipulative
definition.Does defining something limit that
With meanings, nothing is ever just black or just white,
or just right or
just wrong, or just good or just bad. When people see things as only black or white, they
are more vulnerable to mistakes. And people also have a tendency to make
, which breaks down
communications. Everything needs to be defined in order to communicate
effectively and efficiently. Just like with
, it's either on or off, stop or
is a critical outlook concerned with the
relationship between text and meaning.
is the process by which people give meaning to
is to know and
the nature or meaning of. To become aware of through the
is expressing yourself clearly and easily.
occurs when a thing is defined in terms of itself
or of its type.
The process of repeating items in a self-similar way.
is wording that attempts to influence an
audience by using appeal to emotion or stereotypes.
is something a little different
from others of the same type. Widely different. Become different in some
particular way, without permanently losing one's or its former
characteristics or essence.
Context (language use)
to the text or speech surrounding an expression (word, sentence, or speech
act). Verbal context influences the way an expression is understood; hence
the norm of not citing people out of context.
is any content of a creative work which is not
announced explicitly by the characters or author, but is implicit or
becomes something understood by the observer of the work as the production
the theory that the meaning of any text is
determined by the intentions of its author, whether stated or not.
Context helps define meaning, but you can take things out
of context and change their meaning, so it's the level of context that
creates meaning, not just any context itself. Like taking a page from a
book, there may be enough words to give you some understanding about what
is being said on the page, but not enough understanding that explains the
true meaning of that page.
Word in Context
Affirmative and Negative
are terms of opposite meaning which may be
applied to statements, verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.
Essentially an affirmative (positive) form is used to express the validity
or truth of a basic assertion, while a negative form expresses its
falsity. Examples are the sentences "Jane is here" and "Jane is not here";
the first is affirmative, while the second is negative.
is the study of meaning—in language, programming languages, formal logics,
and semiotics. It focuses on the relationship between signifiers—like
words, phrases, signs, and symbols—and what they stand for, their
is the evolution of word usage—usually
to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the
is the ways in which context contributes to
is a type of uncertainty of meaning in which
several interpretations are plausible
is a figure
of speech in which a thing or concept is called not by its own name,
rather by the name of something associated in meaning with that thing or
is the process of resolving the
conflicts that arise when a potential article title is ambiguous, most
often because it refers to more than one subject covered.
is the study of terms and their use. Terms are words and compound words or
multi-word expressions that in specific contexts are given specific
meanings—these may deviate from the meanings the same words have in other
contexts and in everyday language.
is a result of the process of operationalization
and is used to define something (e.g. a variable, term, or object) in
terms of a process (or set of validation tests) needed to determine its
existence, duration, and quantity.
This is your brain on sentences
. Brain activity patterns of word
meanings within sentences measured by Brain Scans
is a school of literary criticism and literary
theory having mainly to do with structural purposes of a particular text.
is a term used at the interface between neuroscience, cognitive science
and philosophy of mind that has multiple meanings.
is a subjunctive
conditional containing an
is contrary to fact.
is the identification, analysis and
description of the structure of a given language's morphemes and other
linguistic units, such as root words, affixes, parts of speech,
intonations and stresses, or implied context. In contrast, morphological
typology is the classification of languages according to their use of
morphemes, while lexicology is the study of those words forming a
is a linguistic resource that contains
correspondences between surface form and lexical forms of words. Surface
forms of words are those found in any text. The corresponding lexical form
of a surface form is the lemma followed by grammatical information (for
example the part of speech, gender and number). In English give, gives,
giving, gave and given are surface forms of the verb give. The lexical
form would be "give", verb. There are two kinds of morphological
dictionaries: aligned and non-aligned.
is a linguistic blend of words
, in which parts of multiple words, or their
phones (sounds), and their meanings are combined into a new word.
happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it
is a part of speech that connects words,
sentences, phrases, or clauses.
is the study of the history of words, their
origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.
is an expression (word, phrase, clause, etc.) that gives its meaning to a
pro-form (pronoun, pro-verb, pro-adverb, etc.)
making clear the meaning of things, so as to make the implicit
says friends are no better at interpreting
correct emotional intent
e-mails than complete strangers.
. A language is a set of surface forms and meanings, and a
mapping between the surface forms and their associated meanings. In the
earliest human languages, the surface forms were sounds but surface forms
can be anything that can be perceived by the communicating parties such as
drum beats, hand gestures, or pictures. A natural language is a language
spoken by humans, such as English or Swahili. Natural languages are very
complex since they have evolved over many thousands years of individual
and cultural interaction. We focus on designed languages that are created
by humans for some a specific purpose such as for expressing procedures to
be executed by computers. We focus on languages where the surface forms
are text. In a textual language, the surface forms are linear sequences of
characters. A string is a sequence of zero or more characters. Each
character is a symbol drawn from a finite set known as an alphabet. For
English, the alphabet is the set a,b,c,…,za,b,c,…,z (for the full
language, capital letters, numerals, and punctuation symbols are also
Deep Structure and Surface Structure
is a message conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a
story or event. The moral may be left to the hearer, reader or viewer to
determine for themselves, or may be explicitly encapsulated in a maxim,
which is a saying that is widely accepted on its own merits.
refers to the sequence of events inside a
which affect other events
through the principle of cause and effect.
is a type of short story that typically features
folkloric fantasy characters, such as dwarves, elves, fairies, giants,
gnomes, goblins, mermaids, trolls, or witches, and usually magic or
enchantments. Fantasy Films
is a figure of speech
in which an expression is used
to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to
suggest a similarity
. Hidden comparison between two
things that are unrelated
some common characteristics. Pun
is an inference
that if things
agree in some respects they probably agree in others. Drawing a
in order to show a similarity in some respect.
is to convey hidden meanings through symbolic figures,
actions, imagery, and/or events.
is the study of signs and sign processes (semiosis),
indication, designation, likeness, analogy, metaphor, symbolism,
signification, and communication.
is something that can be interpreted as having a meaning, which is
something other than itself, and which is therefore able to communicate
information to the one interpreting or decoding the sign. Signs can work
through any of the senses
, visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory or taste,
and their meaning can be intentional such as a word uttered with a
specific meaning, or unintentional such as a symptom being a sign of a
particular medical condition.
Not to confuse Metaphoric Symbols with
is a figure of speech or a particular way of
wording that is devised to be understood in either of two ways, having a
is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word
or phrase in the same language.
is a type of analogy
is a partition of a whole (or a set) into two
parts (subsets). In other words, this couple of parts must be, jointly
exhaustive: everything must belong to one part or the other, and, mutually
exclusive: nothing can belong simultaneously to both parts.
is a balance within one or more sentences of similar phrases or clauses
that have the same grammatical structure.
is a relation between objects in which one object
designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another
opposites are words that lie in an inherently
incompatible binary relationship as in the opposite pairs big : small,
long : short.
is one of a group of words that share the same
pronunciation but have different meanings, whether spelled the same or
is a word with a homograph (another word of the
same spelling) which is also an antonym (a word with the opposite meaning).
one of two main parts of a sentence, the other part being the subject; the
purpose of the predicate is to complete an idea about the subject, such as
what it does or what it is like.
is when something appears on the surface to be the case, but differs
radically from what is actually the case. The difference of opinions
between what might be expected and what actually occurs.
Back and forth Method
is a method for showing isomorphism between countably infinite
satisfying specified conditions.
two isomorphic objects cannot be distinguished by using only the
properties used to define morphisms; thus isomorphic objects may be
considered the same as long as one considers only these properties and
is a commonly understood cultural or emotional
association that some word or phrase carries, in addition to the word's or
phrase's explicit or literal meaning, which is its denotation.
is a word, phrase or other form used in
Figure of Speech
a special repetition, arrangement or
omission of words with literal meaning, or a phrase with a specialized
meaning not based on the literal meaning of the words.
or Literally Speaking?
is a nicer word or expression used in place of one
that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.
are words and phrases typically associated with the
subversion of a standard variety.
is an expression, idea, or element of an artistic work
which has become
overused to the point of losing its original meaning or effect, even to
the point of being trite or irritating, especially when at some earlier
time it was considered meaningful or novel.
is an insinuation or intimation about a person or
thing, especially of a denigrating or a derogatory nature.
is the use of an incorrect word in place of a word with a similar sound,
resulting in a nonsensical, often humorous utterance.
is an idiosyncratic substitution of a word or phrase for a word or words
that sound similar or identical in the speaker's dialect (sometimes called
oronyms). "Ice Cream" and "I scream"
usually considered of inferior quality to the good it replaces.
is the manner of moving (transition) or mode of relationship between two
consecutive sounds. It is the relationship between two successive
syllables in speech.
is a word or term that suggests a meaning that is
known to be wrong.
is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from
the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual
is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar
person, place, or thing, for affection or ridicule.
or alias is a name that a person or group assumes
for a particular purpose, which can differ from their original or true
Unequivocally or Unambiguously
or exhibiting a single clearly defined meaning. Admitting of no doubt or
misunderstanding; having only one meaning or interpretation and leading to
only one conclusion
is precisely and clearly
expressed or readily observable; leaving nothing to implication.
In accordance with fact
primary meaning of a term.
is expressing yourself easily or characterized by clear expressive
language. Put into words or an expression.
Express or state clearly.Speaking Tips
is to provide interlinear
explanations for words or phrases. Add explanatory notes to or
supply with critical comments.
is written between lines of text.
is something implied
though not directly expressed; inherent in the nature of something. Being
without doubt or reserve.
is a system of
and symbolic representations, represents
something else that is invisible. Express indirectly by an
is a way of pronunciation, or a way of saying a word so that it sounds
different. (loudness, length).
is a variety of a language that is a characteristic
of a particular group of the language's speakers. A pattern of speech.
is a variety of a language used for a particular
purpose or in a particular social setting. (e.g. father vs. dad,
child vs. kid, etc.).
is the study and interpretation of texts in
regard to their linguistic and tonal
is the study of the
of a given language and the analysis and classification
of its phonemes.
form of word play that suggests two or more meanings, by exploiting
of words, or of
similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect.
is an allusional device that uses
pictures to represent words
or parts of words.
defining something limit that something
is the act of examining resemblances, similarities, differences and
based on similarities and differences. Sometimes Seeing Similarities in Dissimilar Things.
is having the same or similar characteristics. Words
expressing closely related meanings. Capable of replacing or changing
places with something else; permitting mutual substitution without loss of
or suitability. Resembling is to
appear like; be similar or bear a
likeness to. Similarity
refers to the psychological nearness or proximity of two
equal the same thing
to one another" ~
Is everything Connected
if whenever an element a is related to an element b, and
b is in turn related to an element c, then a is also related to c.
Transitivity (or transitiveness) is a key property of both partial order
relations and equivalence relations.
organization holding that (other things being equal) parts of a stimulus
field that are similar to each other tend to be perceived as belonging
together as a unit.Dichotomy
division or contrast between two things that are or are represented as
being opposed or entirely different.
partition of a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets). In other words,
this couple of parts must be jointly exhaustive:
everything must belong to
one part or the other
, and mutually exclusive: nothing can belong
simultaneously to both parts. Such a partition is also frequently called a
bipartition. The two parts thus formed are complements. In logic, the
partitions are opposites if there exists a proposition such that it holds
over one and not the other. Treating continuous variables or
as binary variables is called dichotomization. The discretization error
inherent in dichotomization is
temporarily ignored for modeling
a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is
a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A
are also elements of B. A and B may coincide. The relationship of one set
being a subset of another is called inclusion or sometimes containment.
property of a device
measured under closely specified
description of distinct differences between things being unlike or
dissimilar. A distinguishing difference or quality.
is a syntactic construction that serves to express a
comparison between two (or more) entities or groups of entities in
quality, quantity, or degree.
occurs when one considers a set of
statistical inferences simultaneously or infers a subset of parameters
selected based on the observed values. It is also known as the
look-elsewhere effect, which is a phenomenon in the
, particularly in complex
particle physics experiments, where an apparently statistically
significant observation may have actually arisen by
because of the size of the parameter
space to be searched
is any process of
pairs to judge which of each entity is
, or has a greater amount of some quantitative property, or
whether or not the two entities are identical. The method of pairwise
comparison is used in the scientific study of
voting systems, social choice, public choice, and multiagent
In psychology literature, it is often referred to as paired comparison.
Multiple Comparisons Problem
occurs when one considers a set of
statistical inferences simultaneously or infers a subset of parameters
selected based on the observed values. It is also known as the
is a logical
which describes a
situation where there is a logical and apparent equivalence, but when in
fact there is none. This fallacy is categorized as a fallacy of
"No one can see beyond a choice they don't understand, so choice
can either be the problem or the solution."
is the failure to detect a mismatch.
retroactively thinking that our choices were more informed than they
actually were. We also assign positive attributes to the choices we made,
after the fact. So a person may keep making the same mistakes.
is judging the merits of multiple options and
selecting one or more of them.
is to select, or
pick out from a number of alternatives. Select as an alternative over
another. See fit or proper
act in a certain way; decide to act in a certain way.
is one of a number of things
from which only one can be chosen.Option
is one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen. The act of
choosing or selecting.
Path to Take
Rational Choice Theory
are determinants of the individual choice based
on preferences instead of facts.
attempts to model the decision process of an
individual or segment via revealed preferences or stated preferences made
in a particular context or contexts. Typically, it attempts to use
discrete choices (A over B; B over A, B & C) in order to infer positions
of the items (A, B and C) on some relevant latent scale (typically
"utility" in economics and various related fields).
Dan Gilbert: Choices
Sheena Iyengar: On the Art of Choosing
of the Second Best
if one optimality condition in an economic model
cannot be satisfied, it is possible that the next-best solution involves
changing other variables away from the values that would otherwise be
optimal. Politically, the theory
implies that if it is infeasible to
remove a particular market distortion, introducing a second (or more)
market distortion may partially counteract the first, and lead to a more
is the ordering of alternatives based on personal wants instead of
or Practical Use
is the calculation and display of the differences and similarities between
data objects, typically text files such as source code.
Social Comparison Theory
is the belief that there is a drive within
individuals to gain accurate self-evaluations. The theory explains how
individuals evaluate their own opinions and abilities by comparing
themselves to others in order to reduce uncertainty in these domains, and
learn how to define the self.
is comparing one's business
and performance metrics
to industry bests and best
from other companies.Side by Side Comparisons
is a figure of speech that directly compares two
is the likelihood of a thing
occurring rather than not occurring. The ratio by which one better's wager
is greater than that of another.
a relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first
number contains the second. The relative magnitudes of two quantities
(usually expressed as a quotient). The relation between things (or parts
of things) with respect to their comparative quantity, magnitude, or
degree. Information Ratio
is a permutation of the elements of a set, such that no
element appears in its original position.
elates to the act of arranging all the members of a set
into some sequence or order, or if the set is already ordered, rearranging
(reordering) its elements, a process called permuting.
the study of finite or countable discrete
is a way of selecting items from a
Secret Coded Messages
is a method of transmitting
information as a series of on-off tones
, lights, or clicks that
can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without
the practice of concealing a file, message, image, or video within another
file, message, image, or video.
is the practice and study of techniques for
in the presence of third parties called adversaries.
More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols
that prevent third parties or the public from reading
aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data
integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation are central to modern
cryptography. Internet Privacy
is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden
aspects of the systems
is the process of encoding messages or
information in such a way that only authorized parties can read it.
Encryption does not of itself prevent interception, but denies the message
content to the interceptor.
is software that can encrypt and decrypt
, often in the
form of files on a hard drive or packets sent over a network.
is one of two or more graphemes, characters, or glyphs with
shapes that appear identical or very similar. Like the letter 0 and the
number Zero O; or the number 1 and the letter l and I.
are people in the 20th century who used obscure
languages as a means of secret communication during wartime.
is a situation in which a language prevents
is an element of a standardized code or protocol.
Each code word is assembled in accordance with the specific rules of the
code and assigned a unique meaning. Code words are typically used for
reasons of reliability, clarity, brevity, or secrecy.
is a word or a phrase designed to convey a
predetermined meaning to a receptive audience, while remaining
inconspicuous to the uninitiated
occurs when a speaker alternates between two
or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single
is the process of
a message sent by an
addresser to an addressee. The complementary process – creating a message
for transmission to an addressee – is called encoding.
is to convert from cryptic to
. Convert code into
ordinary language. Change from one system to another.
is the process
into codewords of a
given code. There have been many common methods of mapping messages to
codewords. These are often used to recover messages sent over a noisy
channel, such as a binary symmetric channel.
) is the process of creating a message for transmission by
an addresser to an addressee. The complementary process – interpreting a
message received from an addresser – is called decoding.
is the jargon or argot of a group, often employed to
exclude or mislead people outside the group. (Cryptolect)
is a word or string of characters used for user
authentication to prove identity or access approval to gain access to a
resource (example: an access code is a type of password), which is to be
kept secret from those not allowed access.
Code word (figure of speech)
is a word or a phrase
designed to convey a predetermined meaning to a receptive audience, while
remaining inconspicuous to the uninitiated.
is a covert distress signal used by an
individual who is being coerced by one or more hostile persons. It is used
to warn others that they are being forced to do something against their
is an attack model for cryptanalysis where the attacker has access to both
the plaintext (called a crib), and its encrypted version (ciphertext).
These can be used to reveal further secret information such as secret keys
and code books.
is the telegraphy system conveying information at a
distance by means of visual signals with hand-held
, rods, disks, paddles, or occasionally
bare or gloved hands. Information is encoded by the position of the flags;
it is read when the flag is in a fixed position. Semaphores were adopted
and widely used (with hand-held flags replacing the mechanical arms of
shutter semaphores) in the maritime world in the 19th century. It is still
used during underway replenishment at sea and is acceptable for emergency
communication in daylight or, using lighted wands instead of flags, at
night. Meaning to bear; altogether the sign-bearer. It's kind of like
readingnumbers on a clock, telling the time using letters and different
is something not open or public; kept private,
revealed. Not openly made known. Conducted with or marked by
hidden aims or methods. Prevent from being seen or discovered.
Be or go into hiding; keep out of sight, as for protection and
safety. Make undecipherable or imperceptible by obscuring or
Codes and special phrases have a purpose, to transmit
information in social groups so that only the receiver knows the
meaning, and codes can also provide technical information
quickly and easily.
is a system of
rules to convert information—such as a letter, word, sound,
image, or gesture—into another form or representation, sometimes
shortened or secret, for communication through a channel
or storage in a medium. Writing Code
The USPS Facility Deciphers Illegible Handwriting at the United
States Postal Service Remote Encoding Center
"Hey, thanks for defining the word "many"
for me. It means a lot."
Right Words using
Thesaurus and other Tools
is a mental representation of the meaning or significance of
something. An explanation of something that is not immediately
is a section of text; particularly a section of medium length. The
act of passing from one state or place to the next.
is a statement that makes something comprehensible by describing
the relevant. Structure or operation or circumstances etc.
Thought that makes something comprehensible.
is fully apprehended as to purport or meaning or explanation. Know
and comprehend the nature or meaning of.
Make sense of a language.
Does Language and Vision work together to help you interpret
what you're seeing
"People can still get the wrong impressions even when
you modify a message to make sure that people don't get the wrong
impression. People can still can get the wrong impression because of the
way you modified the question in anticipation of the
impression. This is why we sometimes need to say, "please don't take this
in the wrong way, but..."
You have to be extremely careful how you use
Labels. Some labels are to
, and some
is written or printed information about something or a
is a label attached to an item, or contained in an
item's instruction manual, warning the user about
associated with the
use of the item, and may include restrictions
by the manufacturer or seller on certain uses. Most of them are placed to
limit civil liability in lawsuits against the item's manufacturer or
seller. That sometimes results in labels which for some people seem to
state the obvious.
is describing someone or something in a word or
is the theory of how the self-identity and
behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used
to describe or classify them.
You have to be careful how you
see labels and understand them. Though labels are convenient to
use, labels are not a full definition
, or a full description of
the contents. Whether a label refers to people, or material
objects, you have to see beyond just a few details, you have to
The words we use to describe things are just temporary labels.
In order to fully describe anything, so that it can be fully
understood, you need to use more then words and
. This is
because meaning is not just what you see on the surface. There
several layers of meaning beyond what you can see
beyond what the label describes. So never see things as being
one dimensional. Because everyone knows that we live in a
and that we are always discovering more and
more about the world, a world that goes way beyond what we see
or feel. Butterfly EffectSpaceVisual Tools
We should identify individuals by their
and not label them with an
. If a person wants to label themselves with
something that cannot accurately define them as a person
they should be described as a unidentified
If a group of individuals commits a crime, then those
individuals must be apprehended and questioned. This is not
, this is about learning from these particular
individuals, and finding out why this crime was committed so
that we can correct this misunderstanding and find ways to keep
these crimes from repeating in the future.
If a person or persons claims to represent a group, we cannot
use this label publicly when referring to these particular
criminals, because that would cause other people who are not
involved in the crime to be apprehended, questioned and
victimized, which would waste time, people and resources, and
not help find the actual criminals.
Labels like terrorist, extremist, fundamentalist, or any
religious name, are confusing and distracting. A
of a person is the most effective means
finding a criminal
. And if they have a
that would also help.
A persons religion or affiliation does not explain who a person
is as an individual. A persons personal beliefs can not be
defined by a single name, or can an individual be defined by
. The only way to know some one is to spend
time with them and learn, listen and understand the story of
their life, and the experiences that help shape them into
that they are today.
Everyone is born an
, and that
is how we treat each other, as individuals.
are all barriers. They
destroy the mind, they destroy communication, they destroy the
hearts and the the souls of all who are afflicted with these
is a label attached to
someone or something for the purpose of identification or to
give other information.
Labels do not describe all the
, labels only give you a starting point from which to
inquire more information.
Information and Communication System
(mouse over items and hear recorded
40% OF WORLD'S CHILDREN
At least 250 million of the world's 650
million primary school age children are unable to read, write or do basic
mathematics, almost 120 million have spent little or no time in a
classroom including 57 million youngsters who are not attending school.
High-income families are being exposed too
30 million more words
than children from families on welfare, which seems
catastrophic, but if the extra words in your vocabulary are
never used effectively and efficiently, then extra words in your
only give you a little more potential. You have to define the
most important words, and then you have to learn how to use them
effectively and efficiently.
Thirty Million Words
High school students today are reading books
intended for children with reading levels around
5.3, which is barely above the fifth grade reading level. It's
criminal and abusive. How do you correctly measure
Letters - Words - Symbols
is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols
or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based on the
general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant
sounds) of the spoken language. 26 letters in the
, in uppercase and lower case in photo.
is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
is an elemental
symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable
character for the purposes of writing
is a character of the ancient Egyptian writing
were the formal writing system
. It combined
and alphabetic elements, with a total of some
1,000 distinct characters. Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious
literature on papyrus and wood. The later hieratic and demotic Egyptian
scripts are derived from hieroglyphic writing; Meroitic was a late
derivation from Demotic.
is the oldest verified alphabet.
are the Root of Language
is a method for teaching reading and writing of the
English language by developing learners' phonemic awareness—the ability to
hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes—in order to teach the
correspondence between these sounds and the spelling patterns (graphemes)
that represent them. The goal of phonics is to enable beginning readers to
decode new written words by sounding them out, or, in phonics terms,
blending the sound-spelling patterns. Since it focuses on the spoken and
written units within words, phonics is a sublexical approach and, as a
result, is often contrasted with whole language, a word-level-up
philosophy for teaching reading (see History and controversy below).
IPA Conventions for English
is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as
representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go
beyond what is known or seen by
between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All
communication (and data processing) is achieved through the use of
symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures,
are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may
be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river.
Numerals are symbols for numbers
letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing
. A red
rose may symbolize love and compassion. The variable 'x', in a
mathematical equation, may symbolize the position of a particle in space.
(wiki)Samples of Symbols
- Computer Codes
ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial
resemblance to a physical object.
symbol that represents an
or concept, independent of any
particular language, and specific words or phrases.
is a written character that represents a word or
indicates a hazard
the road that may not be readily apparent to a driver.
is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more
which make up
a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. For example, the
word water is composed of two syllables: wa and ter. A syllable is
typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel) with optional
initial and final margins (typically, consonants). Syllables are often
considered the phonological "building blocks" of words. They can influence
the rhythm of a language, its prosody, its poetic meter and its stress
Text Analysis Software
is one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented
by the Sumerians. It is distinguished by its wedge-shaped marks on clay
tablets, made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus. The name cuneiform
itself simply means "wedge shaped".
were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus
to make a mark on a soft clay tablet
which would be exposed in the sun
to harden to create a permanent record.
is the art and technique of arranging type to
make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.
Web Typography Fonts
is a single distinct meaningful element of speech or writing, used with
others (or sometimes alone) to form a sentence and typically shown
with a space on either side when written or printed. A unit of language
that native speakers can identify. Choose and use particular words in
order to say or write (something). A brief statement. A verbal command for
action. Put into words or an expression. Information about recent and
important events. An exchange of views on some topic. A promise. A word is
a string of bits stored in computer memory. A secret word or phrase known
only to a restricted group. Word
is the smallest element that may be uttered in isolation with semantic or
pragmatic content (with literal or practical meaning). This contrasts
deeply with a morpheme, which is the smallest unit of meaning but will not
necessarily stand on its own.
is a word that does not have a prefix (in front of
the word) or a suffix (at the end of a word).
is a word which occurs in a
text more often than we would expect to occur by chance alone. Keyword
(computer programming), word or identifier that has a particular meaning
to the programming language. Keyword (cryptography), word used as the
key to determine the letter matchings of the cipher alphabet to the plain
is a word that
academics use to reveal the internal structure of an author's reasoning.Index
a word or expression used as a keyword to retrieve documents in an information system
such as a catalog or a search engine.
are the roots of verbs and most nouns in the
Semitic languages that are characterized as a sequence of consonants or
"radicals" (hence the term consonantal root). Such abstract consonantal
roots are used in the formation of actual words by adding the vowels and
non-root consonants (or "transfixes") which go with a particular
morphological category around the root consonants, in an appropriate way,
generally following specific patterns. It is a peculiarity of Semitic
linguistics that a large majority of these consonantal roots are triliterals (although there are a number of quadriliterals, and in some
languages also biliterals).
has been highly influential in the grammar used in
second language acquisition and English Language teaching. Function words
(also called functors) are words that have little lexical meaning or have
ambiguous meaning, but instead serve to express grammatical relationships
with other words within a sentence, or specify the attitude or mood of the
speaker. They signal the structural relationships that words have to one
another and are the glue that holds sentences together. Thus, they serve
as important elements to the structures of sentences. Words that are not
function words are called content words (or open class words or lexical
words or autosemantic words): these include nouns, verbs, adjectives, and
most adverbs, although some adverbs are function words (e.g., then and
why). Dictionaries define the specific meanings of content words, but can
only describe the general usages of function words. By contrast, grammars
describe the use of function words in detail, but treat lexical words in
general terms only.
is the smallest grammatical unit in a language. In
other words, it is the smallest meaningful unit of a language. The field
of study dedicated to morphemes is called morphology. A morpheme is not
identical to a word, and the principal difference between the two is that
a morpheme may or may not stand alone, whereas a word, by definition, is
freestanding. When it stands by itself, it is considered as a root because
it has a meaning of its own (e.g. the morpheme cat) and when it depends on
another morpheme to express an idea, it is an affix because it has a
grammatical function (e.g. the –s in cats to indicate that it is plural).
Every word comprises one or more morphemes.
is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories
such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood. The
inflection of verbs is also called conjugation, and one can refer to the
inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners,
participles, prepositions, postpositions, numerals, articles etc, as
is the property of a person or of a system that delivers information
quickly and with expertise.
is a word that functions as the name of some specific
thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places,
actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk,
run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be,
is any verb whose conjugation follows the typical
pattern, or one of the typical patterns, of the language to which it
belongs. A verb whose conjugation follows a different pattern is called an
irregular verb. (This is one instance of the distinction between regular
and irregular inflection, which can also apply to other word classes, such
as nouns and adjectives.).
is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning
to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect,
modality, voice, emphasis, etc. Auxiliary verbs usually accompany a main
verb. The main verb provides the main semantic content of the clause. An
example is the verb have in the sentence I have finished my dinner. Here,
the main verb is finish, and the auxiliary have helps to express the
perfect aspect. Some sentences contain a chain of two or more auxiliary
verbs. Auxiliary verbs are also called helping verbs, helper verbs, or
is a term for a verb form that functions as a noun.
In English, the term has been applied to -ing forms in certain uses.
Traditional grammar made a distinction within -ing forms between present
participles and gerunds, a distinction that is not observed in such modern
linguistically-informed grammars as A Comprehensive Grammar of the English
Language and The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language.
is a word that modifies a verb, adjective,
another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
is a describing word, the main syntactic role of
which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about
the object signified.
is any of several verb forms that are not finite verbs; they cannot serve
as the root of an independent clause. Most nonfinite verbs found in
English are infinitives, participles and gerunds. (They sometimes are
called verbals, but that term has traditionally applied only to
participles and gerunds.) Additional nonfinite forms found in some other
languages include converbs, gerundives and supines.
is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form
a new word. Affixes may be derivational, like English -ness and pre-, or
inflectional, like English plural -s and past tense -ed. They are bound
morphemes by definition; prefixes and suffixes may be separable affixes.
Affixations, the linguistic process speakers use form different words by
adding morphemes (affixes) at the beginning (prefixation), the middle (infixation)
or the end (suffixation) of words.
is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Common examples are case endings, which indicate the grammatical case of
nouns or adjectives, and verb endings, which form the conjugation of verbs
is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the
beginning of one word changes it into another word. For example, when the
prefix un- is added to the word happy, it creates the word unhappy.
Particularly in the study of languages, a prefix is also called a
preformative, because it alters the form of the words to which it is
is a category of words (or, more generally, of
lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties. Words that are
assigned to the same part of speech generally display similar behavior in
terms of syntax—they play similar roles within the grammatical structure
of sentences—and sometimes in terms of morphology, in that they undergo
inflection for similar properties. Commonly listed English parts of speech
are noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction,
interjection, and sometimes numeral, article or determiner.
in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John
was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made,
in this case 'John'. Traditionally the subject is the word or phrase which
controls the verb in the clause, that is to say with which the verb agrees
(John is but John and Mary are). If there is no verb, as in John - what an
idiot!, or if the verb has a different subject, as in John - I can't stand
him!, then 'John' is not considered to be the grammatical subject, but can
be described as the 'topic' of the sentence.
as one of two main parts of a sentence, the other
part being the subject; the purpose of the predicate is to complete an
idea about the subject, such as what it does or what it is like. The
predicate of a sentence mostly corresponds to the main verb and any
auxiliaries that accompany the main verb; whereas the arguments of that
predicate (e.g. the subject and object noun phrases) are outside the
in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the
subject. There is thus a primary distinction between subjects and objects
that is understood in terms of the action expressed by the verb, e.g. Tom
studies grammar - Tom is the subject and grammar is the object.
is a grammatical term referring to certain verb
forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs. As
with many linguistic concepts, there is not a single definition applicable
to all languages. The word is derived from Late Latin [modus] infinitivus,
a derivative of infinitus meaning "unlimited".
is when different languages arrange words differently in a
particular order. There are six theoretically possible basic word orders
for the transitive sentence: subject–verb–object (SVO),
subject–object–verb (SOV), verb–subject–object (VSO), verb–object–subject
(VOS), object–subject–verb (OSV) and object–verb–subject (OVS). The
overwhelming majority of the world's languages are either SVO or SOV, with
a much smaller but still significant portion using VSO word order.
is the set of
rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of
in a given language,
specifically word order. The term syntax is also used to refer to the
study of such principles and processes.
is a grammatical voice common in many
languages. In a clause with passive voice, the grammatical subject
expresses the theme or patient of the main verb – that is, the person or
thing that undergoes the action or has its state changed. This contrasts
with active voice, in which the subject has the agent role. For example,
in the passive sentence "The tree was pulled down", the subject (the tree)
denotes the patient rather than the agent of the action. In contrast, the
sentences "Someone pulled down the tree" and "The tree is down" are active
English Auxiliaries and Contractions
is generally conceived
as one with little semantic meaning of its own, which modifies the meaning
of another verb with which it co-occurs. In English, verbs are often
classed as auxiliaries on the basis of certain grammatical properties,
particularly as regards their syntax – primarily whether they participate
in subject–auxiliary inversion, and can be negated by the simple addition
of not after them.
is a linguistic phenomenon observed in
language acquisition, language development and language change typified by
the replacement of irregular forms in morphology or syntax by regular
ones. Examples are "gooses" instead of "geese" in child speech and
replacement of the Middle English plural form for "cow", "kine", with
"cows". Regularization is a common process in natural languages;
regularized forms can replace loanword forms (such as with "cows" and "kine")
or coexist with them (such as with "formulae" and "formulas" or "hepatitides"
is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to
modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar
to an adjective or adverb. A simpler, but less comprehensive, definition
is that it is a verbal adjective.
is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by
inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar). Conjugation
may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, voice,
and/or other grammatical categories such as possession, definiteness,
politeness, causativity, clusivity, interrogativity, transitivity, valency,
polarity, telicity, volition, mirativity, evidentiality, associativity,
pluractionality, agreement, polypersonal agreement, incorporation, noun
class, noun classifiers, and verb classifiers in some languages.
is the inflection of nouns, pronouns, adjectives,
and articles to indicate number (at least singular and plural), case
(nominative or subjective, genitive or possessive, etc.), and gender. A
declension is also a group of nouns that follow a particular pattern of
is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and
adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to
express motion away from something, among other uses.
verb forms usually express perfective aspect and refer to past events,
similar to a preterite. Ancient Greek grammar had the aorist form, and the
grammars of other Indo-European languages and languages influenced by the
Indo-European grammatical tradition, such as Middle Persian, Sanskrit,
Armenian, the South Slavic languages, and Georgian also have forms
referred to as aorist.
is a speech sound that is articulated with
complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are [p],
pronounced with the lips; [t], pronounced with the front of the tongue;
[k], pronounced with the back of the tongue; [h], pronounced in the
throat; [f] and [s], pronounced by forcing air through a narrow channel
(fricatives); and [m] and [n], which have air flowing through the nose
(nasals). Contrasting with consonants are vowels.
is a sound in spoken language, with two competing
definitions. In the more common phonetic definition, a vowel is a sound
pronounced with an open vocal tract, so that the tongue does not touch the
lips, teeth, or roof of the mouth, such as the English "ah" /ɑː/ or "oh" /oʊ/.
There is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. This
contrasts with consonants, such as the English "sh" [ʃː], which have a
constriction or closure at some point along the vocal tract. In the other,
phonological definition, a vowel is defined as syllabic, the sound that
forms the peak of a syllable. A phonetically equivalent but non-syllabic
sound is a semivowel. In oral languages, phonetic vowels normally form the
peak (nucleus) of many to all syllables, whereas consonants form the onset
and (in languages that have them) coda. Some languages allow other sounds
to form the nucleus of a syllable, such as the syllabic (i.e., vocalic) l
in the English word table [ˈtʰeɪb.l̩] (when not considered to have a weak
vowel sound: [ˈtʰeɪb.əl]) or the syllabic r in the Serbo-Croatian word vrt
is a stylistic literary device identified by
the repeated sound of the first letter in a series of multiple words, or
the repetition of the same letter sounds in stressed syllables of a
phrase. "Alliteration" is from the Latin word littera, meaning "letter of
the alphabet", and the first known use of the word to refer to a literary
device occurred around 1624. Alliteration narrowly refers to the
repetition of a letter in any syllables that, according to the poem's
meter, are stressed, as in James Thomson's verse "Come…dragging the lazy
languid Line along". Another example is "Peter Piper picked a peck of
is a shortened version of the written and spoken
forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal
letters and sounds. In linguistic analysis, contractions should not be
confused with crasis, abbreviations nor acronyms (including initialisms),
with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all
three are connoted by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance.
Contraction is also distinguished from clipping, where beginnings and
endings are omitted.
Alpha Numeric Combinations
reference book containing an
alphabetical list of words with
many words, it makes sense to know
Which words are the most important,
How many words do you need to know?
How do you measure how many words you
20,000 effective words in your
vocabulary would be the
is the set of words within a language that are
familiar to that person. A vocabulary usually develops with age, and
serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication
is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as
nautical or medical).
There are currently around
words in the
including thousands of obsolete words.
(Scots have 421 words
average person knows an average of about 5,000 - 20,000 words
, which varies depending on their level of
education, their spoken language and environment. In 1950
the average 14-year-old had a vocabulary of 25,000 words. By 1999, the
average 14-year-old's vocabulary had dropped to only 10,000 words. A
college-educated speaker of English could have a vocabulary as large as
80,000 words. The biggest individual vocabulary found was 192,500 words.
When starting to learn how to read and write, you should
learn words that are
relevant to your everyday life
If you make reading
one of your priorities, and read the most important knowledge, your
vocabulary should increase a few words a day. This should happen your
entire life, but sadly to many adults stop learning new words, which puts
the at a disadvantage and makes adults vulnerable to
. 2 people can read the
same thing and have 2 different opinions.
It's not just the size of your vocabulary that
counts, but more importantly, it's the
quality of words
, it's how many words you
, it's how well you use words to
, and how good you are at
are flawed because they don't use the most
effective words we have.
What good is having a large vocabulary of words if the words are
obsolete or ineffective?
is an interactive educational tool that
facilitates vocabulary acquisition through
Most Common Words in English
500 WordsVocabulary Lessons
The words in this Website will make up the rest of your
20,000 word vocabulary.
your students’ Vocabulary Size
Test Your Vocab
English words do you know
Use words that matter that are known to be
valuable and are know to increase your
Physical Health Words
is the application of game-design elements and
game principles in non-game contexts.
Create a Word Cloud
Letters in Half
Everyone should learn a new word everyday. The ‘Word
of the Day
’ will be used in 3 sentences.
sentence used will have more meaning then the word itself. The
sentences used will also have lessons involved so you are not
just learning the meaning of a word. You are learning why that
particular word is used, why that particular sentence needs that
word and learning what the sentence means as a whole, whether
it's a quote or passage from a book.
Games with Words
is a word guessing game. Originally, the game was a dramatic form of
literary charades: a single person would act out each syllable of a word
or phrase in order, followed by the whole phrase together, while the rest
of the group guessed. A variant was to have teams who acted scenes out
together while the others guessed. Today, it is common to require the
actors to mime their hints without using any spoken words, which requires
some conventional gestures. Puns and visual puns were and remain common.
Word Masters Challenge
Watch Out 4 Snakes
Word of the Day
Word of the Day
is the study of the history of words, their
origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time. By
extension, the term "the etymology (of a word)" means the origin of the
is direct word switch or word play, the
result of rearranging the letters of a word or phrase to produce a new
word or phrase, using all the original letters exactly once; for example,
the word anagram can be rearranged into nag-a-ram. Someone who creates
anagrams may be called an "anagrammatist". The original word or phrase is
known as the subject of the anagram. Anagrams are often used as a form of
mnemonic device as well. Any word or phrase that exactly reproduces the
letters in another order is an anagram. However, the goal of serious or
skilled anagrammatists is to produce anagrams that in some way reflect or
comment on the subject.
Word Recall Game
is a word game played using a plastic grid of
lettered dice, in which players attempt to find words in sequences of
"I love words, words
can be so wonderful, I
couldn't imagine a world without words."
is a set of written,
, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink,
paper, parchment, or other materials, fastened together to hinge at one
side. A single sheet within a book is a leaf, and each side of a leaf is a
page. A set of text-filled or illustrated
pages produced in electronic
format is known as an electronic book, or e-book.
is an electronic book
publication made available in digital form, consisting of text,
both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic
devices. Although sometimes defined as "an electronic version of a printed
book", some e-books exist without a printed equivalent. Commercially
produced and sold e-books are usually intended to be read on dedicated
e-reader devices. However, almost any sophisticated
features a controllable viewing screen can also be used to read e-books,
including desktop computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones.
is a long narrative
, normally in prose, which
describes fictional characters and events, usually in the form of a
is a book made up of comics content. Although the word
"novel" normally refers to long fictional works, the
novel" is applied broadly and includes fiction, non-fiction, and
anthologized work. It is distinguished from the term "comic book", which
is used for comics periodicals.
is a medium used to
express ideas by images
, often combined with text or other visual
information. Comics frequently takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of
panels of images. Often textual devices such as speech balloons, captions,
and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, narration, sound effects, or other
information. Size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative
is a form of literature written by a playwright,
usually consisting of dialogue
between characters, intended for theatrical
performance rather than just reading. Plays are performed at a variety of
levels, from Broadway, Off-Broadway, regional theater, to Community
theatre, as well as University or school productions. There are rare
dramatists, notably George Bernard Shaw, who have had little preference
whether their plays were performed or read. The term "play" can refer to
both the written works of playwrights and to their complete theatrical
is a written work by screenwriters for a film,
video game, or television program. These screenplays can be original works
or adaptations from existing pieces of writing. In them, the movement,
actions, expression, and dialogues of the characters are also narrated. A
screenplay written for television
is also known as a teleplay.
written by hand or typewritten, as opposed to being
mechanically printed or reproduced in some automated way. More recently,
it is understood to be an author's written, typed, or word-processed copy
of a work, as distinguished from the print of the same.
is a record (originally in handwritten format) with
discrete entries arranged by date reporting on what has happened over the
course of a day or other period. A personal diary may include a person's
experiences, and/or thoughts or feelings, including comments on current
events outside the writer's direct experience. Someone who keeps a diary
is known as a diarist. Diaries undertaken for institutional purposes play
a role in many aspects of human civilization, including government records
(e.g. Hansard), business ledgers and military records. In British English,
the word may also denote a preprinted journal format.
is a daily record
of events or business; a private journal is usually referred to as a
is a way to compile knowledge, usually by writing
information into books. Such books are essentially scrapbooks filled with
items of every kind: recipes, quotes, letters, poems, tables of weights
and measures, proverbs, prayers, legal formulas. Commonplaces are used by
readers, writers, students, and scholars as an aid for remembering useful
concepts or facts they have learned. Each commonplace book is unique to
its creator's particular interests. They became significant in Early
is a method, an art for preserving, presenting, arranging
personal and family history in the form of a book, box, card. Typical
memorabilia include photographs, printed media, and artwork. Scrapbook
albums are often decorated and frequently contain extensive journaling.
Scrapbooking is a hobby commonly practiced in many parts of the world.
is a detailed description of a person's life. It
involves more than just the basic facts like education, work,
relationships, and death; it portrays a person's experience of these life
events. Unlike a profile or
, a biography presents a subject's life story, highlighting
various aspects of his or her life, including intimate details of
experience, and may include an analysis of the subject's personality.
is a written account of the life of a person
written by that person. In other words, it is the story that a person
wrote about themselves.
Human Interest Story
is a feature story that discusses a
person, or people, or a companion animal in an emotional way. It presents
people and their problems, concerns, or achievements in a way that brings
about interest, sympathy or motivation in the reader or viewer.
- Research Papers
is any single body of written works. More
restrictively, it is writing considered as an art form, or any single
writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to
deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage.
is the ability to
, negotiate, and make
presented in the form of
, extending the meaning of literacy, which commonly signifies
interpretation of a written or printed text. Visual literacy is based on
the idea that pictures can be “read” and that meaning can be through a
process of reading.
is a book with a series of pictures that vary gradually
from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the
pictures appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change.
is the insertion of important background information within a story; for
example, information about the setting, characters' backstories, prior
plot events, historical context, etc. In a specifically literary context,
exposition appears in the form of expository writing embedded within the
narrative. Exposition is one of four rhetorical modes (also known as modes
of discourse), along with description, argumentation, and narration, as
elucidated by Alexander Bain and John Genung. Each of the rhetorical modes
is present in a variety of forms, and each has its own purpose and
conventions. There are several ways to accomplish exposition.
is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference
proceeding or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject and is often
used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose. When used,
an abstract always appears at the beginning of a manuscript or typescript,
acting as the point-of-entry for any given academic paper or patent
application. Abstracting and indexing services for various academic
disciplines are aimed at compiling a body of literature for that
is a category of literary composition. Genres may be
determined by literary technique, tone, content, or even (as in the case
of fiction) length. The distinctions between genres and categories are
flexible and loosely defined, often with subgroups.
What types of text I Read the Most:
is a written work published in a print
or electronic medium. It may be for the purpose of
, research results, academic analysis or
is to give an account or representation of in words. A
describing the findings of some
individual or group. Announce as the result of an
investigation or experience or finding.
is a discussion or informational website published on
the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often
informal diary-style text entries ("posts").
is a file format used to present documents in
a manner independent of application software, hardware,
and operating systems. Each PDF file encapsulates a
complete description of a fixed-layout flat document,
including the text, fonts, graphics, and other
information needed to display it.
What types of videos I Watch Most:
is an oral presentation intended to present
information or teach people about a particular subject,
for example by a university or college teacher. Lectures
are used to convey critical information, history,
background, theories, and equations. A politician's
speech, a minister's sermon, or even a businessman's
sales presentation may be similar in form to a lecture.
Usually the lecturer will stand at the front of the room
and recite information relevant to the lecture's
Be extremely aware of Propaganda
on the Radio, on the TV, and in the News Papers and in
Digital Text Books
Digital Public Library
E Books Store
app, thousands of eBooks, audiobooks, and
videos from your
general term for any document that is read in digital
form, and especially a document that is mainly text. For
example, a computer based book of art with minimal text,
or a set of photographs or scans of pages, would not
usually be called an "e-text". The term is usually
synonymous with e-book. An e-text may be a binary or a
plain text file, viewed with any open source or
proprietary software. An e-text may have markup or other
formatting information, or not. An e-text may be an
electronic edition of a work originally composed or
published in other media, or may be created in
electronic form originally.
E Pub Books
Mike Matas Interactive
Push Pop Press Next
Generation Digital Books
Light and Matter
World Book Online
Barnes & Noble
National Academies Press
McGraw Hill Elementary Books
Adobe Digital Editions
Open Source Content
Learn out Loud
Emic 2 Text-to-Speech Module
Can listening to
at a faster
150 or 200 percent, increase
Iee Explore Digital Library
What is Propaganda
Buy and Sell Old Text Books
Remixable Textbooks Online
Used Text Books
College Book Renter
is a book that
serves as primer for study.
Popular Books to Read
Open Source Curriculum
Make your own Text and Photo
The Academic Library
Crowd Source Research
Organize Research and Share
Public Zero Publications
academic study of books as physical, cultural objects.
is the fear or
hatred of books.
reading comics because they
may not be
, I hate wasting time reading something
BEACH BOOKS: 2014-2016
: What Do Colleges and
Universities Want Students to Read Outside Class? (pdf)
Most Read Books by High School Students
Books about Reading and Writing
Literacy Assured: Integrating Language Arts With a
New 3 R's
Relationships - Reasoning - Responsibility.
More Books by Robert and Lois Wolsch
How to Write, Speak and Think More Effectively
Dimensions of Literacy: A Conceptual
Base for Teaching Reading and Writing in
School Settings Paperback – April 20,
Making Literacy Real: Theories and
Practices for Learning and Teaching
Paperback – October 3, 2005
How to Teach Balanced Reading and
Writing Paperback – May 16, 2006
Best Practices in Literacy Instruction,
Third Edition Paperback – January 11,
The Three R's
Reading - Writing - Arithmetic.
I do not agree with everything that has been written in Books
I assimilate the most logical parts of information
and put them together to form an understanding.
Then I write down my understandings so that I can
share this information
Every person must learn how to recognize
what information is accurate and valuable.
So what is your procedure or filtering and assimilating information?
Try not to
that certain words are
directly meant for you until you are absolutely sure of the
to which those words were
originally intended for.
Knowing how to read is like knowing how to walk. If you
know how to walk, then why would you crawl around
on your hands and knees? If you can read, then you read.
You can't expect to learn and become more intelligent
without reading. Get off your knees and start reading.
You have unlimited potential, you either use it or lose it. It's
like being in the
cockpit of an airplane
, if you
never learn how to read the instruments, then you will never
have the freedom to fly and explore the world on your own terms.
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