. Basic Knowledge 101
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Reading  /  Writing  /  Language  /  Linguistics  /  Communication 
   
Learning to Read, Write and Communicate is extremely important. 
There is only so much that you can learn from just watching the world.
If you can't read at a decent level of comprehension you will not have access to most of the worlds accumulated knowledge and information that is mostly in the Text Format. Even though we have good amount of information and knowledge on video and a lot of images and sound, that still does not compare to the amount of knowledge and information that is in writing. Words are the Machine Language of the brain. The more quality words that you have in your vocabulary, and the more words that you can comprehend, the more Potential
you will have and the more you will Understand. Accurately measuring your comprehension level and the size of your Vocabulary is extremely important. So knowing what words to have in your Vocabulary is a must.  Translations
writing on chalkboard
 

Writing:
Letters or Symbols that are written or imprinted on a surface to represent the sounds or Words of
a language. Communicate or express by writing. The activity of putting something in written form. 
The work of a writer; anything expressed in letters of the alphabet, especially when considered from the point of view of style and effect.
Writing (wiki)      Learn More
...

Reading:
The cognitive process of understanding a written linguistic message. Bibliophilia
Interpret something that is written or printed. Make sense of a language.
A mental representation of the meaning or significance of something.
Reading (wiki)     Learn More...

Literacy:
The ability to read and write.  
Literacy (wiki)     Learn More
...

Vocabulary:
A language user's knowledge of words. When to use them, How to use them, Why to use them.
You don't need to know every word in the dictionary or lexicon, just the most effective ones.
Vocabulary
(wiki)    Learn More...

Dictionary:
A reference book containing an alphabetical list of words with information and definitions.
With so many words, it makes sense to know Which words are the most important,
How many words do you need to know? How do you measure how many words you know?
20,000 effective words in your vocabulary would be the minimum.  Dictionaries    Meaning
Dictionary (wiki)      Learn More
...

Language:
A systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols.
The cognitive processes involved in producing and understanding linguistic communication.
A system of words used to name things in a particular discipline.  Learning a New Language
Language (wiki)     Learn More
...

Linguistics:
The scientific and humanistic study of language and literature.  Translations
Linguistics (wiki)   Learn More
...

Speech:
The mental faculty or power of vocal communication. The exchange of spoken words.
Your characteristic style or manner of expressing yourself orally.
Speech (wiki)        Learn More
...

Communication:
The activity of communicating; the activity of conveying information. 
Transmit thoughts or feelings. Be in verbal contact; interchange information or ideas.
Communication (wiki)   Learn More
... 

 

Reading, writing, communicating and languages are very important Skills to have. 
If you do not become Proficient in these skills you will find it very difficult to Communicate
with other people as well as find it very difficult to communicate with yourself. For one of
the most important things you will learn about language is that it is also used to communicate
inward as well as outward. So learning to read, write and communicate at a high level of
proficiency is extremely important. These Skills open the doors of opportunity in all directions,
doors that will normally not be visible unless you are a very good reader, writer and communicator. 
Mastering    If you don't know the words to describe something how would you understand it?

Teaching your Children to Talk   /  Teaching Young Students Language

"Words are a vehicle to transmit information to the Brain"  "Reading Enriches the Mind"

"Learning to communicate for our survival and universal well being."   Learning Methods

"A majority of the worlds most important information is communicated using words."

"An Intelligent speaker, a powerful talker and those who can influence others through speech, will
always be heard more then the best writers. But reading good writing and listening to good speakers
are both equally important because in order to be a good speaker you have to read good writing.
Sustained Silent Reading is only one half of the skills needed to Communicate effectively."


Simultaneous Subject Teaching:

Inter-Disciplinarity      Interactional Expertise      Multi-Disciplinary      Multi-Agent System

When you learn to read and write you should learn Words that are relevant to your everyday life, words that will help you advance your understanding of yourself and advance your understanding of the world around you. Every subject and lesson should have elements of other subjects and lessons. Simultaneous subject teaching in Logically Ordered Steps. At the same time you are Learning Math you should also be learning Problem Solving and Information Literacy Understanding Associations

Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English    Dual Education System   Sequence Learning 

And as you are learning language, reading and writing, you should have the lesson words coincide
with the first steps of Core Knowledge that every human needs. Consisting of  words in the lessons that teaches the student about the human condition and the abilities of the human brain. These are the ways I learn. These are the things that influence behavior. These are the joys of life. These are
the dangers of life, and so on and so on. Comprehending what Comprehension means. Combining Subjects and Multitasking can save time, and also help keep things interesting. Don't force kids to memorize things that are irrelevant and unimportant, especially at the wrong time in their lives.
Synchronicity
     Application Bundle     Redundancy     Constructs    Paired Associate Learning 

When you Teach a subject or a method, you teach purpose and reasoning at the same time. Knowledge imbedded in the Lesson. So what ever the brain is focused on the student still learns. Meanings with words behind the words and a lesson behind the lesson. This also teaches the
brain to be aware of all the questions that need to be asked in order to define the words.
Being aware of hidden meanings and learning to look at the whole picture. Like learning the
Moral of a Story and similar to having a Parable, Metaphor, Analogy or Allegory Meanings

Learning Methods    Teaching through Demonstration         Neuro-Linguistic Programming

"The person who does not read the right books has no advantage over a person who can't read at all."  And with over a 130 million Books with over 2 trillion words you can easily say that
there is not a lot of time to be wasted on reading things that will not benefit you.  Math Too
Why learn to read and write if you never read anything of value or write anything of Value?
And what happens if you never learn what is Valuable?     Challenge Literature
"Read the best books first, or you may not have a chance to read them at all." Henry David Thoreau

There's a huge difference between someone who is Literate and someone who has excellent Reading Comprehension. One knows only how to read, and the other fully understands what they are reading.
"The person who does not write things that are insightful and educational has no advantage over a person who can't write at all." This is not saying that you should not read and write for fun, or, this is not saying that knowing how to read and write has no advantages, because it does, It's just saying that Balance and Purpose should be of highest priority. 


It's not just the size of your vocabulary that counts but more importantly it's the quality of words and how many words you Comprehend, and how well you use words to communicate effectively. When starting to learn how to read and write you should learn words that are relevant to your everyday life.

What
Reading Comprehension level should you have in order to induce Independent Learning?
How do you Accurately Measure, Assess and Test
someone's Reading and Writing Ability?

About 30 million people, 14 percent of the US population 16 and older, have trouble with basic reading and writing. 

Knowing how to Read is very important for Learning. You can learn many things from reading. You can learn Knowledge from other people, you can learn to Communicate, and you can acquire important Information and facts about yourself and the world around you. Reading is the path to intelligence.


The Letter ' L ' in Sign Language

The Letter ' E ' in Sign Language

The Letter ' A ' in Sign Language

The Letter ' R ' in Sign Language

The Letter ' N ' in Sign Language


















Letters  /  Words  /  Symbols  /  Grammar  /  Sentences  


Alphabet    Letter     English Alphabet    Latin Alphabet    Greek Alphabet
Phonics     International Phonetic Alphabet     IPA for English    IPA Conventions for English    Notes         
Hieroglyph    Symbol   Pictogram    Logogram  Chinese Character   Signs   Lable   Ideogram   Syllabary    Palaeography
Structural Anthropology    Text Analysis Software   Typography      
Audio Books    Language
Word   The Word   Root Word   Function Word        Morpheme          Function Word    Inflection   
 Speech  Fluency   

Noun   Pronoun   Verb   Irregular Verb   Auxiliary Verb   Gerund   Non-Finite Verb   Adverb  
Adjective   Superlative   Affix   Suffix   Prefix     Part of Speech
Subject   Predicate   Object       Infinitive    
Passive Voice  English Auxiliaries and Contractions   Regularization

Participle   Conjugation    Declension   Ablative   Gerund     Aorist      Spelling     E-Books  /  Digitized Books
Syllable   Consonant    Vowel
     Alliteration    Contraction   Writing Tips    Alpha Numeric Combinations  


Grammar     Universal Grammar           Transformational Grammar     Grammar ccc    Good Grammar Tips    Grammarly
Legibility      Construction Grammar      Grammatical Construction     Grammatical Gender   Grammar Check   
Vocabulary
Contraction   Grammarist
 
 

Writing     Writing System      List of Languages by Writing System    Writing Tips            Composition Book

Sentence   Conditional Sentence   Complex Sentence     Syntax   Prose   Punctuation     Communication


Narrative Modes
Character    Narrator   Narrative   Narrative Mode   Subjunctive Mood    Rhetorical Modes   Tone   Literary Technique
First-Person Narrative   Grammatical Person    Second-Person Narrative   Third-Person    Past Tense      Composition 
Present Perfect  Imperfect    Fiction   HF   Non-Fiction   
Science Fiction    Interactive Fiction    Transcription   Script
Logical Form   Logical Consequence Entailment     Sociolinguistics    Imperative Logic    Imperative Mood   Proposition
Literary Realism    Protagonist    Short-and Long-Term Effects of a Novel on Connectivity in the Brain

 

Meanings  /  Variations

Understanding
   
Meanings   Context    Subtext    Contextual Analysis    Articulate   Strategic Reading    Media Words
Translations  Language interpreting   Literal Translation     Definitions   Meaning   Semantics  Semantic Change   Pragmatics   
Ambiguity   Disambiguation   
Terminology   Operational Definition    Linguistics    Dictionaries     Information Literacy 
Not to confuse Metaphoric Symbols with Facts     Binding Problem   Counterfactual Conditional    Speech   Philosophy

Intentionalism     Morphology (linguistics)     Portmanteau     Agreement    Conjunction     Etymology       Awareness

Comparison: The act of examining resemblances, similarities, differences and significance. Seeing Similarities in Dissimilar Things
Comparison   Comparative    Multiple Comparisons     File Comparison   Social Comparison Theory   Associations


Moral of a Story     Plot    Metaphor     Analogy    Allegory    Parable     Euphemism    Fairy Tales   Parallelism   Propaganda
Double Entendre    Synonyms    Antonyms     Figure of Speech    Cliché    Ersatz   Simile   Connotation      Colloquialism
Acronyms   Acronym Finder     Anagram    Abbreviations  Abbreviation Finder    Nickname    Pseudonym    Predicate
Translations    Comprehension    Intelligence

Innuendo    Word Play    Riddle    Humor   Sarcasm   Irony   Semiotics     Back and forth Method   Isomorphism    Misnomer
Profanity   Slang    Accents    Dialects    Registers   Styles    Phonology   Deconstruction     Key Word in Context    Religion
Pun   Pun Off World Championship     Humor    Symbols   Rebus    Word Nerds     Sayings, Mottos, Proverbs   Idioms
Recursion   Recursion cs     Sensemaking    Understanding        Figuratively or Literally Speaking?
Steganography   Cryptography   Encryption    Code Talker    Code Word    Code Word    Decoding    Decoder

Media Keywords    Identity     Poetry    Creativity    
Story Telling

Thesaurus    Visual Thesaurus     Education Thesaurus    Nomenclature     Lexicon

Interpretation:
A mental representation of the meaning or significance of something. An explanation of something that is not immediately obvious.

Passage:
A section of text; particularly a section of medium length. The act of passing from one state or place to the next.  Sayings

Explanation:
A statement that makes something comprehensible by describing the relevant. Structure or operation or circumstances etc.
Thought that makes something comprehensible.

Understood:
Fully apprehended as to purport or meaning or explanation. Know and comprehend the nature or meaning of.
Make sense of a language.  Understanding     Learning Methods

Does Language and Vision work together to help you interpret what you're seeing?

The words we use to describe things are just temporary labels. In order to fully describe anything, so that it can be fully understood, you need to use more then words and symbols. This is because meaning is not just what you see on the surface. There are always several layers of meaning beyond what you can see and beyond what the label describes. So never see things as being one dimensional. Because everyone knows that we live in a 3 dimensional world and that we are always discovering more and more about the world that goes way beyond what we can see.       Space    Environment   Chemistry    Food Labels    E-Books



Vocabulary:

There are currently around 1,009,614 words in the English Language including thousands of obsolete words. The average person knows an average of about 12,000 - 20,000 words in their Vocabulary, which varies depending on their level of education, their spoken language and environment.  Dictionaries    Words (wiki)    Meanings

Most Vocabulary Tests are flawed because they don't use the most effective words we have.   
What good is having a large vocabulary of words if the words are obsolete or ineffective?
My Vocabulary Size       Measure Vocabulary Size

Comprehension     Word Knowledge    Word Matrix    Language     The Word

Most Common Words in English    200 Words      500 Words     Vocabulary Lessons     Vocabulary Software
The words in this Website will make up the rest of your 20,000 word vocabulary.




Word Games
 
Use words that matter that are known to be valuable and are know to increase your understanding and awareness.
Inspirational Words, Media Words, Mental Health Words, Physical Health Words and so on.

Create a Word Cloud

Everyone should learn a new word everyday. The ‘Word of the Day’ will be used in 3 sentences.  Word Counting
And each sentence used will have more meaning then the word itself. The sentences used will also have lessons involved so you are not just learning the meaning of a word. You are learning why that particular word is used, why that particular sentence needs that word and learning what the sentence means as a whole, whether it's a quote or passage from a book.  The Word

Word Games
Word Games


Word Think
Word Smith

Word Masters Challenge
Word Association
Watch Out 4 Snakes
Words Play
Word of the Day
Word of the Day

Super Kids
Word Nik

WWW
Etymology (wiki)
Algorithm

Brain Games
Word Twist
Crossword Grid
Crosswords
Crossword Puzzles


Words Domination
Word Recall Game
Boggle
Boggle Bash
Learning Games    Memory Games

   

 

 

 

        





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Reading  /  Literacy

Pro Literacy     Family Literacy    Literacy Programs     Literacy Collaborative      Literacy Center     Literacy and Technology

LINCS Literacy Information and Communication System      Vocabulary Tools (mouse over items and hear recorded pronunciation)

Why are Literacy Rates misleading? Just because some one has been labeled as Literate does not mean they have Intelligence.
Literacy rates only show how many people can read, it does not say that people have read things that are valuable or important, things that would make them educated and aware. if you don't read the things that matter then knowing how to read doesn't matter.

40% OF WORLD'S CHILDREN CAN'T READ: At least 250 million of the world's 650 million primary school age children are unable to read, write or do basic mathematics, almost 120 million have spent little or no time in a classroom including 57 million youngsters who are not attending school.  More..                                  Audio Books        Language Cues and Effective Reading

Learn To Read

Learn to Read and Learn the Alphabet Online   Click n Kids    ABC Mouse    Your Child Learns   Learn to Read Software Review

Reading Software (amazon)     Head Sprout      Teaching Children to Read           Avaz       Learning Difficulties

Global Learning Xprize    Learning Xprize

 Word Knowledge    Word Games    Letters  /   Symbols  /  Grammar  /  Sentences      Meanings    Vocabulary     Spelling

Reading Lesson     Reading Rockets       National Reading Panel      Teach a Child Reading    Teach Your Child to Read

Your Baby Can Read       Succeed to Read       Reading Partners     Everybody Wins NY     Book Ends    Good Reads

Read Write Think     Reading is Fundamental     First Book     International Reading Assoc.     Reading Online      Star Fall

Stages of Learning     Uni Learning      Book Reading Lights      Story Bird      Online Tutoring Help     Teacher Mate   

ABC of Reading (wiki)     English Course Videos (youtube)  English Tips    English Grammar Lessons    English Language Lessons

Child Development Books    Online Books  /  E-Books     Library's      Teaching Resources      Online Education    Writing Tips

It was believed that the fourth grade was when students stop learning to read and started reading to learn.   Reading Shift Theory

Children who match sounds to letters earlier learn to read faster.

Literacy    Literature    Writing    Book   E-book   Story   Novel    Play  Screenplay   Script  Manuscript   Diary  Journal  Biography
Epigram    Human Interest Story     Essay    Literary    Visual Literacy  Flip Book    Spatial Intelligence    Exposition   Summary
Autobiography   Michel de Montaigne     Literary Genre    Writing Styles



Reading Comprehension: 

Measure and Assess    
Testing     Information Literacy

High school students today are reading books intended for children with reading levels around 5.3, which is barely above the fifth grade reading level. It's criminal and abusive. 
Comprehension (wiki)    How do you correctly measure Fluency?   Media Literacy

You have to make sure that your reading comprehension is improving every year and make sure that you are increasing your vocabulary as well. Functional illiteracy may be adequate, but you still need to fully understand what you are reading. Meaning

Reading for Memorization (fewer than 100 words per minute wpm)  -  Reading for Learning (100–200 wpm)
Reading for Comprehension (200–400 wpm)  -  Skimming (400–700 wpm)    Speed Reading
The average adult reads Prose text (150 to 300 wpm)  -  Speaks (180 wpm)  -  Hears (150–160 wpm)

"If you don't Remember, Comprehend or Learn what you read, then your reading speed does not matter."


If you don't comprehend the things that matter then good reading comprehension doesn't matter. So reading comprehension tests must be about comprehending important information and knowledge, otherwise good reading comprehension is almost useless.
So the first reading comprehension tests should include the actual skills that are needed for good comprehension.

"Having good reading comprehension is great, but if you never read anything important or valuable, then it's almost useless."

You're not going to remember all the details of everything you read, especially when you're not interested in the information or interested in the subject. And you don't want to force students to remember useless details just so they can pass a test. You want students to comprehend what they read only when it's important. Being able to Pay Attention to details is one thing, but knowing when to pay attention, and do it effectively, is the most important aspect of reading comprehension.


When you are Learning to Read, you should read things that are relevant and important about yourself and the world around you.

My name is _______ and I am _____ years old. I am just learning how to read. Knowing how to read is extremely important because 80 percent of the worlds most valuable knowledge and information is in the text format, or the written word. And If I do not learn to understand and comprehend what I am reading, then I will not have access to the most valuable and the most important information and knowledge that this world has to offer. Words are not just for communicating with others, more importantly, words are used to communicate with myself, so that I can learn to understand my feelings, my thoughts, my knowledge, my abilities and the world around me. Over the last 2 thousand years, millions of people have contributed to our incredible wealth of knowledge, knowledge that has benefited my life and other peoples lives in many different ways. So in return I will add to this enormous resource of knowledge by learning and seeking more valuable information and more knowledge. Knowledge that can be shared that would help make improvements in our world. This way I too can benefit people today and benefit people in the future, the same way that I have benefited from people who shared knowledge and information throughout human history. I am very important to the cycle of life.

Student Promise to Learn:
I have the power to learn anything that I want to. But I first have to acquire the necessary skills, knowledge and information that would give me this power to learn anything. Sometimes learning certain things takes a long time. But the rewards of learning will always give me endless potential with endless possibilities.
Once I learn the necessary skills, knowledge and information I will have the ability understand everything about myself and understand everything about the world around me.
Once I learn the necessary skills, knowledge and information, I will be able to solve any problem in the world and be able to fix and improve anything that I put my mind to.
Once I learn the necessary skills, knowledge and information I will be able to learn from any mistake that I make, or learn from any mistake that others will make. I will also be able to handle any catastrophe, any struggle, any disaster or any tragedy that I will experience in my life, all because I have learned the necessary skills, knowledge and information.
Once I learn the necessary skills, knowledge and information, I will be able to choose any career that I want, work any job that I choose, and I will be able to follow any dream that I have.
The Power of Knowledge is a lot of work and a big responsibility. But I promise that I will never stop learning, or will I ever stop trying.
My goal is to become an intelligent Human. I will always love myself and I will always love others with compassion. I will never forget that my life is incredibly special and very important. My best is yet to come......Learning things Simultaneously and in Order

This student pledge, mantra or saying will be read once a week. This exercise will act as a reminder:
I have the power to learn anything that I want to.
I have the ability to understand everything about myself and understand everything about the world around me.
I have the ability to solve any problem in the world. I also have the ability to fix and improve anything that I put my mind to.
I have the ability to learn from any mistake that I make, and the ability to learn from any mistake that others will make.
I am also able to handle any catastrophe, any struggle, any disaster or any tragedy that I will experience in my life, all because I have learned the necessary skills, knowledge and information.
I have the ability to choose any career that I want, work any job that I choose, and follow any dream that I have.
I promise that I will never stop learning, or will I ever stop trying. My goal is to become an intelligent Human.
I will always love myself and I will always love others with compassion.
I will never forget that my life is incredibly special and very important. My best is yet to come.

What Is the Difference in the Reading Assessment Between Comprehension and Interpretation?

Eprcontent.k12
Practice Reading
Reading Comprehension
Reading Assessment (Ehow)
Wrights Law
Reading Key
Reading Soft
RHL School

Oral Reading Fluency

Reading Test
Practice Reading Tests

Writing Skills

New Readability

Reading Standards (PDF)
Core Standards    PDF's

Northwest Evaluation Association

Jim Wright (PDF)

Word Knowledge
Memory

Dyslexia (wiki)
Dyslexia
Language-Based Learning Disability (wiki)
Dyslexia Typeface (youtube)
Speech
Book Share

Audio Books

Hearing Impaired / Deafness

 

Balanced Literacy (wiki)
Reading Process (wiki)
Readability  (wiki)  Legibility   Typography
Aptitude (wiki)
Flesch-Kincaid Readability Test (wiki)
Neuroscience of Text Comprehension


Words Per Minute (wiki)

Speed Reading (wiki)
Speed Reading
Speed Reading Exercises

Instant Speed Learning
Reading Genius    Reviews
Read Faster
Spreeder
Subvocalization (wiki)
Technical Reading Exercise (PDF)
Photo Reading

Saccade (wiki) Spatial Intelligence 

There's a big difference between scanning what you're reading and fully comprehending what you're reading. Speed reading should be done for scanning large amounts of text, but not used for comprehending.  Understanding

ATOS Readability Formula

Multimode Literacy 
Multimodal Literacy Narrative (youtube) 

Test 4 Free
Laura Candler

Seeing Impairment

 



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Language:

Only about 2,400 of the world's roughly 7200 Languages and Dialects have writing systems.
List of Languages by number of Native Speakers     Languages Atlas
    Rosetta Project

Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages promotes the documentation, maintenance, preservation, and revitalization of endangered languages worldwide through linguist-aided, community-driven multi-media language documentation projects.

Over 800 languages are spoken in Papua New Guinea, a country of about six million people.    Memory Training
Dreaming in Different Tongues: Languages and the Way We Think (youtube)

     
         
Why is the Chinese Language so simple?  Why is Latin so difficult?           Phoneme
Why is learning the
English Language better for Brain development?   

Languages       Natural Language              Vernacular        Multilingualism                   Mixed Language           Visual Language
Orthography     Language Arts                   Oracy              Language Proficiency          Visual Literacy  S.I.      Formal Language

Translation       Language Interpretation      ILR Scale         Philosophy of Language      Language Module         Sign Language Sym Anglosphere     Monolingualism                 Translations      Vocabulary  Grammar        Latin  Why Latin?         Computer Language
Algonquin         Word's                             Sign Language  Anishinaabemowin

Fusional Language     Isolating Language      Synthetic Language     Polysynthetic Language     Indo-European Languages

Morphological Typology     Morpheme       Morphology      Lexicology   Lexicon       Facebook Language Style Guides

Lena Foundation Advanced technology to accelerate language development of children 0-5     

Learning a New Language      I love the English Language (wordpress)    List of English-Based Pidgins (wiki)   Pidgin

 



Language Learning: 

Learning a New Language Software for Self Teaching   /   Translations       Defense Language Aptitude Battery (wiki)

One way to effectively learn a language is using the language in interaction with others. Use language for a purpose and learn to use the language in context.    Language Immersion       Communicate with a Non Native English Speaker (wikihow)

5 techniques to speak any language: Sid Efromovich at TEDxUpperEastSide (video)

Can knowing the corresponding letters and symbols of another language help you learn a new language?
Omniglot    ie languages    Esperanto      (vocabulary, accent, grammar, pronunciation, slang)

Language Learning Library
Live Mocha                                
Duolingo

Verbling Language Tutoring
Tinyworld: Connecting the world via Language Sharing
Tutoring / Private Language Lessons
Rosetta Stone (Website)
Pimsleur Approach  (amazon)
Paul Pimsleur
Talking Dictionary

iPad App using Babble
Babbling
Applied Phonetics (youtube)
Interpretation
Speech

Sign Language
Translation Tools
How to Teach a Language (wiki)
Language Learning Principle
Learning Methods
Memory Training

Language Styles
Language Arts (wiki)

Noticing Hypothesis (wiki)

Natural Language Processing (wiki)
English Learning
Chinese Made Easy

Babbel
Speak for Yourself

LinguaStep  
Middlebury Interactive

Enduring Voices
Conversation Exchange





Bilingual

Benefits of Being Bilingual   Does speaking several languages lower your vocabulary?  
Is your ability to communicate effectively hindered when not speaking your native language?
Bilingual Families     Meta-Linguistics    Metalinguistic Awareness    Code-Switching    Children and Language

Threshold Hypothesis      Second Language Acquisition    

Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL Score)    Secondary Level English Proficiency Test (SLEP Score)

Educational Testing Service          Computer Programming Language as a Second Language

There are over a billion people who are currently learning a second language Official Languages   

Australian man wakes from coma speaking fluent Mandarin but had completely forgotten English (youtube)
Foreign Accent Syndrome (wiki)
  

It's nice to be able to communicate in more then one language, but what's more important is that you are an effective communicator. So just don't learn a new language for conversation, learn a new language to increase your effectiveness to communicate. Just don't teach a new language, teach effective ways to communicate.    Medium of Instruction    Polylinguist     Language ideology


Words to a Human are like Code to a Computer. The more you have the more you can do.

Lera Boroditsky: How Language Shapes Thought (video)     Every None     Phonology

The Power of Words      Dictionaries      Library Finder     Sign Language    Writing

 


Translations:

When you have words with more then one Definition, and definitions with more then one word, it's hard sometimes to be understood in the way you intended. Even people who speak the same language they sometimes need a Translation Decipherment
So this is not just a Foreign Language problem, this is also a Communication problem. Meanings  
Speak the word, and then the definition that you want to be heard.  

Should we have a universal procedure for translation?  Translation sometimes needs more then just a single translation.
First:
I say something then it's translated. Second: Then the person receiving the translation needs to confirm that what is being translated is understood. Third: It may need to be translated back in the words that this particular language uses to explain what is being said. Forth: Then I might have to use different words to be translated. And this process continues till a full understanding is accomplished.    Source Text     Interface Hypothesis     Language Learning

Language Translation Tools (google)     Speak and Translate       Live Translation Services      Translations

12-Language Talking Translator (amazon)   Universal Translator (wiki)      

Smartphone Translation Tools
Voice Translation App     i Translate App     i Translate Voice    Google Android Translation App   
Word Lens     My Phrazer
Word Lens translates printed words from one language to another with your smartphone's video camera, in real time, no network connection needed!     More Cellphone Apps   
            

"Every act of Communication is an act of Translation.”  (Gregory Rabassa)

Interpreter Symbol  Interpreting Services Symbol

   Interpretations     Interpretation     Interpret   Interpreter Services    Interpreter (computing)     Meanings     Tutoring Websites

 

 

 


Speech:

Speech    Oracy    Speech and Language Pathology    Speech Communication   Speech Processing    Oral Expression     Tone
Phonetics  
Phonetics Flash Animation Project: University of Iowa
   Phonology    Motor Learning and Control
Speech-Language and Hearing     Speech Buddy  
 Speech Easy     Freedom of Speech     Children

Dyslexia   Dyslexia    Dyslexia Typeface (youtube)   Audiology     Medium of instruction   Visual Processing Disorders
Stuttering    Stammering Lidcombe Program    Singing and Stuttering

Articulation    Place of Articulation    Syntax    Semantics    Lexical Semantics    Phrase   Accent    Speech Segmentation

Pronunciation    Pronounce Names    How To Say    Pronounced Words   Pronunciation Patterns   
Tongue Twister Exercises    Twisters    Pronunciation Practice    Pronunciation Practice      Speech Training


Rhetoric and Composition Parts of Speech     Dynamic Information Processing Measures in Audiovisual Speech Perception  PDF
Verbal Fluency Test   Anticipatory Avoidance  Reticence in Speaking  Oral-Formulaic Composition
Fran Capo is world's fastest talking female clocked at 603.32 words in 54.2 seconds. That’s 11 words a second.
Auction Chant      Cluttering    How to Talk Faster    Pressure of Speech      Broca's Area of the Brain
Hearing Impaired     Blind     Languages     Linguistics    Interpersonal intelligence    Meaning  Speech takes both sides of the brain.



   

Communication:

Communication    Communication Theory    Communication Tools    
Visual Communication    Nonverbal Communication   Internal Monologue   Listening

Strategic Communication      Interpersonal Communication     Intrapersonal Communication     Anger    Meaning    Reading
Communication Skills     Types of Communication     Poetry   Freestyle Rap   Communication Skills     Medium    Telemetry
Media Literacy     Information Literacy    
Social Communication     Journalism     Social Media     Internet Freedom
Communication Science    Organizational Communication     Small Group Communication     Dispatcher    Telegraphy
Intercultural Communication    Culture    Onomatopoeia    Information Communications Technology (ICT)    Story Telling 
Sport Communication     Health Communication       Crisis Communication  
Emergencies    Knowledge Management

Communication Noise    Models of Communication     Four-Sides Model    Four Discourses    Unified Communications
Communication Law    Communications Act of 1934    Telecommunications Policy   Communications Protocol   Signal Corps
International Communications Law     
Outline of Communication     
Message      Interference     Writing Tips    
Art     Technology Tools       Vocabulary

Conversation   Dialogue      Listening     Empathic Concern    Empathy    Negation   Negotiation    Lawsuit    Keynote   Media
Debating      Public Debate    The Great Debaters (Film)    Argumentation Theory    Evidence Based Argumentation   EBA 
PDF
Public Speaking (youtube)    Public Speaking Communication   Discussion Moderator    Discourse Analysis   Spokesperson
Mediator    Mediator Pattern    Mediation   Arbitration    International Arbitration     Conflict Resolution    Dispute Management
Activism    Discourse    Diplomacy   BS   Collaboration    Internet Forum    Parliamentary Procedure    Global Communication        Rap     Interpreting    Lecture   Presentation    Professions    Chatham House Rule    Hypnotic Language      Binding Problem         

Dialectical Reasoning  Socratic Method     Human Communication     Communication Studies   
Develop Good Communication Skills
(wikihow)


Hearing (law)   Testimony   Judicial Panel   Consolidated Appeals Process    Task Force   Brain Storming   Committee   Proposal
Public Hearing     Laws       Bipartisan Legislative Task Force                       Legislative Subcommittee

Nonverbal Communication:
Body Language     Facial Expressions    Eye Contact    Amy Cuddy: Body Language (youtube)     Visual Language
Nonverbal Communication       Center for Nonviolent Communication     Read Body Language    Misleading Hand Gestures
How To Analyze People On Sight - FULL Audio Book - Human Analysis, Psychology, Body Language (youtube)

Face-to-Face Interaction  Unconscious Communication   Sign Language    People Smart   Body Image   Bodily-Kinesthetic

Levels of Communication:
Direct and Indirect channels of Communication:  Relationships     Work Relationships
Speech Communication:  Linguistic intelligence      ICT Competency    Skills You Need
Summarizing:   Paraphrasing    Listening   Reflective Listening   Questioning   Skepticism   Ad Lib
  

Initiating:
Declaring one's conversational intent and inviting consent from one's prospective conversation partner.
Schedule sufficient, uninterrupted time for talking.   Friendships    Speech and Listening    Have a Meaningful Conversation

Turn-Taking:

Managing the flow of information back and forth between partners in a conversation by alternating roles of speaker and listener.

Don't talk to fill pauses, or respond to statements in a point-counterpoint fashion.    Avoid Vulgarities    Whole Body Listening
Suspend Judgment and evaluation until you can see things from another person's Perspective You Don't Know Everything
Avoid making distracting gestures and maintain an appropriate distance and posture.  Eye Contact   Eye Tracking  Expressions
Make sincere eye contact.  When to Change the Subject       Haptic Communication (touch)   Haptic Technology
How to Tell if You Talk Too Much   Delayed Auditory Feedback
Knowing the right time to Interrupt someone and knowing when to let someone else interrupt you is very important. Genuinely seek information. Ask clarifying Questions Articulate  Offer Constructive Feedback. Keep feedback impersonal and goal-oriented.
Direct Negative Feedback toward behavior that the recipient can control. Ask questions to ensure understanding of the feedback.
Avoid being emotional or attacking others.
Paraphrase the message you heard, especially to clarify the speaker's intentions.
Focus on specific behaviors rather than making general statements.  Learn to separate Sounds and enjoy each one individually.      Incommunicado     Thinking in Levels    
    Automated Conversation Coach



Listening  /  Hearing accurately when other People Speak

Try to quite your Internal Monologue or inner voice so that you are truly listening and not just waiting to speak. Keep Silent when Listening. Give full Attention and correctly hear and understand someone's messages. Sometimes it's hard when someone's talking and you have a question to ask, but you want to be polite and wait until a person finishes speaking. And then you have to decide if the question that you want to ask is appropriate at this time? Because you first want to acknowledge that you heard the person correctly before you ask questions that might lead in a different direction. Sometimes hold your questions for another time. Have a Psychological Connection. Do not create resistance in the listener. It's hard to listen to things that you don't understand. But don't pretend that you understand the subject. Tell the person that you're not sure that you understand them completely, but you're definitely interested in what they're saying.    Julian Treasure 5 ways to Listen Better (video)   Listening Skills   Reflective Listening

Listen:
Hear with intention. Pay close attention to; give heed to.
You have to learn how to listen. Listening is a skill. You can't hear something that you have never learned how to listen for. Being able to truly listen to someone takes awareness, focus and knowing what to listen for, by knowing the person, and by knowing the different ways that people use to communicate.  Listening Skills
Know the Difference between Hearing and Listening.     Media Literacy
Hear:
Perceive (sound) via the auditory sense. Get to know or become aware of, usually accidentally. Listen and pay attention.
Receive a communication from someone. Examine or hear (evidence or a case) by judicial process.
Expresses enthusiastic agreement. (Discover, Learn, Notice, Comprehend)   
Hearing Problems

"We listen to obtain information. We listen to understand. We listen for enjoyment. We listen to learn."

Limit your own talking. You can’t talk and listen at the same time. If you are thinking about what you are going to say next, then you are not listening.
Think like the person to whom you are speaking. His or her problems and needs are important. You’ll understand and retain them better if you keep his or her point of view.
Ask clarification questions. If you don’t understand something, or if you feel you may have missed a point, clear it up now before it embarrasses you later.
Don’t interrupt or change the subject. A pause, even a long pause, doesn’t always mean that the speaker has finished saying everything that he or she has to say.
Concentrate on what you are hearing. Focus your mind on what the speaker is saying. Practice shutting out outside distractions when listening.
Turn off your own worries. Turning off and tuning in aren’t always easy, but they are important. Personal problems or worries not connected with the subject at hand form a kind of internal "static" that can blank out the real message that you are tuning in.
Consider taking notes. In some settings, taking notes is appropriate and will help you remember important points. Be selective. Trying to take notes on everything said can result in being left far behind or in retaining irrelevant information.
Listen for ideas, not just words. You want to get the whole picture, not just isolated bits and pieces. Listen for key themes.
Use interjections to punctuate your listening. An occasional "Yes" or "I see" shows you are still with the speaker. However, wait until the speaker has finished his or her comment, and don’t overdo or use interjections as meaningless comments.
Prepare in advance. Remarks and questions prepared in advance, when possible, free your mind for listening.
React to ideas, not the person. Don’t allow irritation to rise from things said, or from mannerisms. Try not to respond to these distractions. Base your response on principles, not personalities.
Don’t argue mentally. .Don’t allow yourself to become annoyed or irritated with anything that is said. Try agreeing with points to see if you can understand the speaker’s perspective better.
Don’t jump to conclusions. Avoid making unwarranted assumptions about what is going to be said. Don’t mentally try to complete the other person’s sentences. Listen and learn.

1. Stop Talking
“If we were supposed to talk more than we listen, we would have two tongues and one ear.”  Mark Twain.
Don't talk, listen. When somebody else is talking listen to what they are saying, do not interrupt, talk over them or finish their sentences for them. Stop, just listen. When the other person has finished talking you may need to clarify to ensure you have received their message accurately.
2. Prepare Yourself to Listen
Relax. Focus on the speaker. Put other things out of mind. The human mind is easily distracted by other thoughts – what’s for lunch, what time do I need to leave to catch my train, is it going to rain – try to put other thoughts out of mind and concentrate on the messages that are being communicated.
3. Put the Speaker at Ease
Help the speaker to feel free to speak. Remember their needs and concerns. Nod or use other gestures or words to encourage them to continue. Maintain eye contact but don’t stare – show you are listening and understanding what is being said.
4. Remove Distractions
Focus on what is being said: don’t doodle, shuffle papers, look out the window, pick your fingernails or similar. Avoid unnecessary interruptions. These behaviors disrupt the listening process and send messages to the speaker that you are bored or distracted.
5. Empathize
Try to understand the other person’s point of view. Look at issues from their perspective. Let go of preconceived ideas. By having an open mind we can more fully empathize with the speaker. If the speaker says something that you disagree with then wait and construct an argument to counter what is said but keep an open mind to the views and opinions of others.
6. Be Patient
A pause, even a long pause, does not necessarily mean that the speaker has finished. Be patient and let the speaker continue in their own time, sometimes it takes time to formulate what to say and how to say it. Never interrupt or finish a sentence for someone.
7. Avoid Personal Prejudice
Try to be impartial. Don't become irritated and don't let the person’s habits or mannerisms distract you from what they are really saying. Everybody has a different way of speaking - some people are for example more nervous or shy than others, some have regional accents or make excessive arm movements, some people like to pace whilst talking - others like to sit still.
Focus on what is being said and try to ignore styles of delivery.
8. Listen to the Tone
Volume and tone both add to what someone is saying. A good speaker will use both volume and tone to their advantage to keep an audience attentive; everybody will use pitch, tone and volume of voice in certain situations – let these help you to understand the emphasis of what is being said.
9. Listen for Ideas – Not Just Words
You need to get the whole picture, not just isolated bits and pieces. Maybe one of the most difficult aspects of listening is the ability to link together pieces of information to reveal the ideas of others. With proper concentration, letting go of distractions, and focus this
becomes easier.
10. Wait and Watch for Non-Verbal Communication
Gestures, facial expressions, and eye-movements can all be important. We don’t just listen with our ears but also with our eyes – watch and pick up the additional information being transmitted via non-verbal communication.   Skills you Need
 

Listening is the ability to accurately receive and interpret messages in the communication process.
Listening is key to all effective communication, without the ability to listen effectively messages are easily misunderstood – communication breaks down and the sender of the message can easily become frustrated or irritated.

A good listener will listen not only to what is being said, but also to what is left unsaid or only partially said.
Effective listening involves observing body language and noticing inconsistencies between verbal and non-verbal messages.
For example, if someone tells you that they are happy with their life but through gritted teeth or with tears filling their eyes, you should consider that the verbal and non-verbal messages are in conflict, they maybe don't mean what they say.



Listening  /  Hearing Correctly:
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association    Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory
Listening Training and Auditory Integration
Auditory Processing Techniques   AIT (wiki)  Auditory Training?   
American Academy of Audiology

Speech Pathology Services

The Listening Center
Hearing Impaired / Deafness
Sounds

How to Listen when others are Speaking

 



Talking  /  Speaking Effectively
   
"Generalized Statements that fail to specify your message. If you give a clear example of what you're trying to say, then people will have an easier time understanding you, and they might even be able to answer your comment more accurately, and correctly."

Getting Your Point Across  (5 Tips)  

First: Calm yourself, don't get upset or let your emotions control your speech. Avoid arguing. Avoid degrading others or insulting people, or prejudging people. Don't use vulgar language. Try not to say anything that would be counterproductive to the goal that you want to achieve. Develop a Friendly Tone of Voice

Second: Begin your speech, if necessary, state your name and any relevant information that would lead up to this point in time.

Third: Express your view about the important issue. Explain the goals and explain how it benefits others. Back up your opinion with facts, evidence, witnesses and or documents. And don't forget that you have to explain why you think this evidence is relevant, because just presenting facts is not good enough, you have to explain the meaning and the importance of these facts. Use examples and make suggestions.

Fourth: Listen. Relate to the opinions of others and let them know that you understand their point of view. Be ready for the follow up questions and have appropriate responses ready. Don't tell a person they are wrong, just explain why you believe that you are right, and why it is more fair to everyone, and that it's free from favoritism, or self-interest, or bias, or deception.

Example: I once too thought that same way, or similar way. And then I experienced a change when I learned some new information.
And after verifying this information and researching it more deeply, I have come to the conclusion that I must change, or, I will be responsible for any damage that is done from these negative actions, actions that do more harm then good. Humans are born good, and I have never met a bad dog either, I guess that is why dogs are mans best friend, we seek out similar company even outside our own species.

Fifth: Don't be discouraged if you need to end the conversation. Don't feel bad if your point didn't get through. Learn to ask for more time to think, and to seek out more information on the matter. And also to learn more about other peoples point of view, so that you can better explain and understand your own point of view. 

Own The Room! - Sample Lesson: Voice Modulation and Speed (youtube)    5 Aspects of a Powerful Speaking Voice (youtube)

Speaking: The Proper use of Pitch for your Speaking Voice (youtube)     Develop a Perfect Speaking Voice (wikihow)

Speech Science      "Have more then you show, speak less then you know."  Shakespeare


In every communication between people, only half of the message is clear, or completely understood. That's because not every question is answered during a normal conversation. People need to know more then just the definition of a word. And people also need to know more about the context, because a lot of context that surrounds words is non factual, made up of opinions that could easily mislead someone. First we need to learn to speak in truths, then we need to learn to communicate fully and accurately. I see conversations in the future being more fuller, more enjoyable, more meaningful, more open, and more honest, where one word could speak a thousand truths, and one word could answer a 1000 questions. But that's from everyone having a high quality education, an education that does not exist as of 2014. But the research is near completion, so a high quality education is not that far away. So when a person says that they are educated, it will mean that have 1000 different skills and qualities, and know a 1000 different things, and they could explain them for you if needed, using 20,000 unique words.

 

Magpie: An obnoxious and foolish and loquacious talker. (chatterbox)
Babbler: Speak (about unimportant matters) rapidly and incessantly.  Gift of Gab        False Advertising - Media Manipulation

We should always think before we speak and always choose the right moment. But be careful, it's not just what you say, but it's also what you don't say that can cause the most damage. Remember, no one can read your mind, so don't be afraid to speak your mind, because you may never have another chance. It's not just what you say, but how you say it. Remember, language is the easy part, communicating effectively is the hard part.   Writing Tips     Speaking with Purpose    Don't Beat Around the Bush

"If we both stop Jumping to Conclusions then maybe we'll get somewhere"

"If you just say what you mean, you can avoid the possibility of things being lost during the translation, or being misunderstood."

The differences between "The Silent Treatment" "Ignoring Someone" and "Turning a Blind Eye".
Sometimes you don't want to satisfy someone with a response to a question, or an observation or an opinion, because it might encourage someone to continue talking about something that you don't feel comfortable about, or something that you disagree with, or something that you don't have enough information about so that you can reply with a correct response. And you don't want to get caught in a conversation with someone who is upset and will most likely drag you into an argument. But sometimes you don't want to totally ignore someone. Make eye contact with the person that shows no emotion, so as not to influence or encourage someone to continue a conversation that is making an incorrect observation, or just asking the wrong questions. Sometimes it's just better to change the subject, in a nice way of course. Or ask for the conversation to continue later in a better time and place.  Shunning

Sometimes you just want to be a Fly on the Wall in certain situations, meaning that you would like to be there secretly to see and hear what happens. Like a One-way Mirror, being an observer and witness without the risk of actually being there. Interested but not ready to commit or ready to be fully involved where your true character can be on display and tested along side the subject matter.


Remember, the Conversations in your Head are only one half of a conversation. Even though you're talking to yourself, it still counts as only one opinion. You can't say "my paranoid side says yes while my logical side says no", because you still need to confirm the accuracy of both of those questions, just like when trying to figuring out if something is propaganda. How can you be sure "That it Goes without Saying" if you never say it out loud? To pretend to have a conversation with someone else, and to guess what their responses would be, it's not that unusual, people do it all the time, it's called thinking to yourself. It's anticipating responses to particular questions that you might ask someone. But the bottom line is, you're still only answering your own questions, so you're pretty much still just talking to yourself, in a form of role-playing. And it's not a great way to teach yourself, mostly because you're only relying on one information source. So you still need to seek out more information and knowledge in order to obtain a better understanding about the questions you're asking, and, you also have to be sure that you're asking the right questions, and using the right sources? If your Internal Monologue becomes over whelming, as if the Dream World mechanism for creating dreams while we sleep, is some how being activated while you are awake, then your Auditory Hallucinations might need to seek out some professional advice. Inter Voice          Sleep Talking   Somniloquy   Lateral Lemniscus

"Sometimes in order to keep the conversation going, you have to do it yourself, ask all the questions and look for the answers."






 

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Special Help:

 


Hearing Impairment  /  Deafness

Hearing (wiki)
Auditory System (wiki)
Ear (wiki)   Saccule

Hearing Impairment
Deafness (wiki)
Deaf Children
Hearing Loss (wiki)
Hyperacusis (wiki)

Hearing Test to Check Hearing Loss
Hearing Check
Online Hearing Test

Auditory Training

Auditory Processing Disorder (wiki)
Auditory Scene Analysis (wiki)
Dichotic listening Test (wiki)
Multisensory Integration (wiki)
Spatial Hearing Loss (wiki)
Auditory Verbal Agnosia (wiki)

Audiology (wiki)

Sensory Deprivation (wiki)

Special Needs


Sonar    Optoacoustic Imaging
Thermoacoustic Imaging

Dyslexia
Language
American Sign Language (youtube)
Life Print Sign Language
Sign Language (wiki)
Hand Gestures
American Hand Gestures in Different Cultures
7 Ways to Get Yourself in Trouble Abroad (youtube)
Hand Symbols
Lip Reading (wiki)
Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language
Voices from El-Sayed (youtube)

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
Speech and Language Center

Speech Recognition (wiki)
Speech Recognition Software
Dragon Dictation

Sonitus Medical SoundBite Hearing System
Etymotic

Manually Coded English (wiki)
Visual Language (wiki)
Morse Code (wiki)
Deaf Professional Arts Network

Visual Perception (wiki)
Dragon Notes


Sound (wiki)   Music

Closed Captioning
Closed Caption Software
Closed Captioning Jobs

 

Vocal id
When you give people a voice, a voice that can be digitally recorded and transmitted, you literally give that person immortality, and at the same time make that person extremely valuable by improving communication. So how do Telephones transmit voices so well? We can use a CAPTCHA like system by using the voices of millions of internet users. From there you can create the necessary algorithms to speak words fluently in the right tone, in the right volume, including fades, spikes and pauses.
When you give people a voice, you give them immortality.
Why Does My Recorded Voice Sound So Strange To Me?     PSTN or VoIP?




Blind  /  Sight Problems

American Foundation for the Blind     Blindness (wiki)  Myopia       Eyesight Check     Eye Test    Eye Exam Seeing Test
Retinal Implant (wiki)   Seeing with Sound Augmented Reality
    Eye Music: Hearing Colored Shapes   Music   Sound Symbolism 

Andrew Bastawrous: Get your next eye exam on a Smartphone (Video)    Peek Vision     Eye Knowledge    Spatial intelligence

VisualFields easy Eye Exam App capture high-quality images of the front and back of an eye. Visual Field Test (wiki)  Retinopathy
 

Diplopia is a Computer Game that has been designed using the latest research to help people with amblyopia (lazy eye) and
strabismus (crossed eyes)


SyncBraille is one of the smallest, lightest, and most affordable, portable Braille Displays      
VoiceOver Gesture Support, Text to Speech, Braille Display Mirroring                                   

Blind Ambition Vision-impaired & Low Vision Tool (youtube)    

Narrator Text–to–Speech Utility    Read Speaker    JAWS Screen Reader     Daisy Consortium    KNFB Reader

Audible Books    Audio Books     Audio Books    E-Books

Haptic Communication (wiki)      Touch (wiki)    Morse Code (wiki)
Human Echolocation (wiki)

Sheila Nirenberg: A Prosthetic Eye to treat Blindness
(video)      Can Blind People Draw?  (youtube)
Ron Mccallum: How Technology allowed me to Read
(video)       The Blind Woman Who Saw Rain (youtube)



Special Education

 

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Writing Tips:

Tips to become a Good Writer  /  Writers Knowledge

"Either write things that are worth reading, or do things that are worth writing about, and if you do both, you can't go wrong."

 Writing (wiki)   Creative Writing (wiki)     Graphomania (wiki)
   (A fast hand writer can write 250 words in 15 Minutes on average)
 Handwriting (wiki)     Graphology
(wiki)   Handwriting Analysis    Writing Tester    Writing Skills Test    Cursive    Work Sheets
 Typing (wiki)    Words Per Minute (wiki)   TM   (An average professional Typist types usually in speeds of 50 to 80 wpm)
 
Shorthand
(wiki)   Gregg Shorthand

 Vim text editor   Word Processor (wiki)    Scrivener word processing program     Open Office  Libre Office   Abi Source

Writing Preparations  / Preparing to Write:  The gathering stage of writing, classifying things into groups, a visual web that represents associations among ideas.
Prewriting     Writing First Draft (PDF)   How to Prepare a First Draft (PDF)    Quick Draft   Outline Summary   Abstract Summary
Storyboard    Graphic Organizer    Mind Maps


A few good writing tips to think about....

2: Stay within your Topic and be original. Don't forget something personal and always share a little of yourself.
    Use some Humor when its appropriate.  
    Speaking    Narrative Mode    Plot    Prologue 

4: Be Creative with your words but not too fancy, make it simple and to the point. The reader shouldn't have to guess what you
    mean. If your writing is to advanced it may distract someone from fully understanding your message. Not to say that
    Sophisticated writing is bad, there is a time and place for everything. You reach a larger audience with easy to understand
    writing. (Participle) Use a thesaurus or a Dictionary to find the right words. Try to be unique, informative, direct, simple and brief.
    Prefer a vigorous, lucid or Saxon Word to the romantic. And use Transitive Verbs that strike their object. Prefer the familiar word,
    and the concrete or Root Word, to the Abstract. Avoid superfluous redundant or unnecessary empty words.  Idioms  
Readability
    Know the differences between Redundancy, Tautology, Pleonasm, Verbosity, Contractions and Repetition.  Communication

5: Be informative and educational with the latest information available on your subject. Try to limit your personal opinions and try to
    avoid using clichés. Make it exciting to read. It's not just what you say, but how you say it.  Conversations
    Climax    Dramatic Structure    Pathos    Technical Writing Style     Editorial Rules 
   Simplification

6: Try to explain what you are seeing to the reader. Give a Point of view and explain the setting and any characters involved.
    Be specific to detail.   Circumlocution  (Inflectional Ending)   Epilogue     Human Interest Story     Situation vs Complication
 

7: Use images that are eye-catching and relevant.  Depiction   Illuminated Manuscript   Info-Graphic   Ideogram  Emoji  Photos
    But remember..."A picture could never be more worthy then a thousand words, but it's nice to have both."

8: Read your work aloud and proof read it. Have someone else Proof Read your writing for correct Spelling, Punctuation and
   
Grammar.   Journalism Tools     Dictionaries    File Format    Typography
   Legibility     (Visual Field of 12 words Per Line)
    Manuscript Format    List of Style Guides 
   Sentence Spacing 

9:
To become a better writer you should always Read More.   Writing and Reading Knowledge Base


10:
Have fun.    Free Writing (wiki)    Scrivener        ( Technical Writing  -  Technical Writer  -  Professional Writing )



P.O.W.E.R.  P
lan - Organize - Write - Edit - Revise
The P.O.W.E.R. plan for preparing each message: P
lan, Organize, Write, Edit, and Revise
1) Draft the message with the readers in mind.
2) Send clear, concise messages that are brief, succinct, and organized.
3) Give the message a concise title and use subheadings where appropriate.
4) Use simple words and short, clear, sentences and paragraphs. 
5) Back up opinions with facts.
6) Avoid “flowery” language, euphemisms, and trite expressions that's free of jargon.
7) Summarize main points at the end and let the reader know what he must do next.
 

Writing Exercise     Complex Nouns      Revising / Editing


The average writer who's doing research for a story, will spend at least 3 weeks interviewing on the average around 100 people, either in person or talking with them over the telephone. They will request information and facts from various sources from around the world, like press releases, technical papers and so on. From that they will create 100's of pages of hand written notes of 20,000 words or more. Then they will meticulously go through all the acquired information to retrieve the most important parts. Then they will spend about a week writing and rewriting the story till it becomes something to be published.  Journalism Tools

Context gives Meaning to Words, and words give meaning to context. In order to say what you mean you have to know a lot of words and all the definitions that apply to those words. So Vocabulary is valuable, but not as valuable as knowing how to use words to Express meaning.


Transcription Fluency: Elementary-school kids who hand-wrote their work produced more words and more ideas than those
who typed. College students who typed notes on a laptop remembered less about a lecture than those who wrote by hand.
People remember lectures better when they’ve taken handwritten notes, rather than typed ones.  verbatim


"I try not to influence writers on what they should write about, only that they care about what they are writing. Try not so much to devise a piece of writing, try to realize a piece of writing, a piece of writing that has to be written. If you feel that you will be wasting time writing about something, then you should not write it. Don't write because you are a good writer, write because you need to write something good."

 

Writing Tips Resources

Elements of Style
Write Like You Talk
Talk Like You Write

Daily Writing Tips
Aero Gramme Studio

Writers Handbook
Writers Digest
Research Papers Handbook


Plagiarism
Citation Guide / Copyrights
Journalism Tools and Resources
Media Literacy

Internet Searching Tips
Poetry and Creative Writing

Literacy Books and Websites
Finding the Right Words
Lexipedia
Thesaurus
Thesaurus (wiki)
Visual Thesaurus
Words
Virtual Salt
Medium

Authors Guild
National Novel Writing Month
National Travel Writers Association

Heretical Notions and Wretched Adages compiled by Jack Tourette

Online Community for Writers of all Interests and Skill Levels
Resources for Writers
Professional Writing Services

American Society of Magazine Editors
Books on Successful Writing (amazon)
Criterion Online Writing Evaluation Service

Hannah Brencher
Featured Topic Criteria (wiki)
Author Central M-Quills Writing Tips
Writing Classes

The Ultimate Guide to Writing better than you normally do


Check which famous writer you write like with this statistical analysis tool

Quote Search

Inspiration Quotes        Life Quotes          Education Quotes             Money Quotes          Adventure Quotes

Photography Quotes    Writing Quotes     Environmental Quotes        Sports Quotes          Adventure Writing

Eco-Friendly Writing: Pencils are better the Pens because pencils are made of things found naturally in our environment, and they are also renewable and they breakdown in landfills. Most pencils are made from Cedar Trees and Graphite, which is made out of carbon. But you can buy pens that are more eco-friendly.   Eco-Friendly Pens   Recycled Pens and Pencils   Green Products

 





Spelling:

Spelling (wiki)
Spell Checker
(wiki)

Pronunciation Respelling

Learn ABC
Abc Ya
Learning Planet

Learning Games for Kids

Spelling Worksheets
Work Sheets
Learn to Spell
Spelling Hemscott
Work Sheets

Teaching 8 Spelling Patterns (youtube)

Editing and Spell Checking 

 

Penmanship (wiki)
Calligraphy (wiki)
Calligraphy / Penmanship

Typography (wiki)
Typographic Style

Writing A-Z
Lousy Writer


Handwriting Tips
Handwriting Help for Kids
Make your own Fonts
Shorthand
Stenotype
Child Font
Writing Tips

Does Correct Spelling Matter?

Spelling Bee Championship
Spelling Bees Practice

Spelling Tips
How to Spell

Kids Spell

Punctuation (wiki)

Typewriter (wiki)
Alphanumeric Keyboard

Word Knowledge

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"The two most important things about writing and reading are comprehension and relevance. Just being a good speller does not confirm good reading comprehension or does it confirm that you are reading and writing things that are important or relevant.
Make sure that kids understand what they are reading and writing, and make sure that they are reading and writing things that are important and relevant to them, things that will increase their understanding of themselves and the world around them."



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Profanity:

Potty Mouths  /  Foul-Mouthed  /  Four-Letter Words  /  Cursing  /  Vulgarity  /  Naughty Words       
Vulgar Language  /  Dirty Words  /  F-bomb  /  Ephemera
  /  Pardon my French 

Swearwords, Insults, curses, harsh language or Profanity is used in some cases to express emotion and feelings about something that people are passionate about. But swearwords must be followed by words of deeper meaning and expression so that it helps explain your passion in better detail, other wise swearwords are just empty words of a incomplete sentence. You end up mostly communicating Emotion and not enough Meaning. So learn to Elaborate. Derogatory Words, Ethnic Slurs and Fighting Words are never effective ways to communicate. It's like trying to put out a fire with gasoline, it's just illogical. Don't make things worse or miss out on a chance to make things better. Think before you speak. If you don't have the right words then sometimes it's best to wait till you do find the right words.  Social Abuses    Morals   Anger   Humor    Defamation   Racial Slurs   Slang   Communicating Skills

How to Stop Swearing (wiki-how)     "a closed mouth gathers no foot"

"The human tongue is a beast that few can master. It strains constantly to break out of its cage, and if it is not tamed, it will run wild and cause you grief.”

Harsh language, demeaning words, Humiliation, Condescending words or just plain mean talk, is just stupid. if you can't communicate what you are trying to say, then wait till you learn. There are always better words to use. But why does our relationship with a particular person effect our emotions, and why am I allowing my Emotions to chose my vocabulary? I don't get this. I always fall into that same stupid trap, a trap I created. I have to discover a way to let my brain do the talking without my emotions choosing my words. I love my emotions, but I also like to communicate effectively, and not just to other people, but to myself as well. Our language has incredible power, it's time we use it the right way. But don't get me wrong, we need our emotions, communicating emotionally is sometimes effective in certain situations, but it must be proven that the emotions were necessary at that time.

Mince: Make less severe or harsh. To be straightforward, plain-spoken, or blunt.
Expletive:
Profane or obscene expression usually of surprise or anger. Serving to fill up, merely for effect, otherwise redundant.
Euphemism:
An inoffensive or indirect expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive or too harsh.
Diatribe: A forceful and bitter verbal attack against someone or something.    Anathema

"The danger with insults is that it could ruin your chances of having a good and Productive Conversation, so it can work against you."

"My swear words or curses are just emotional expressions of my disappointment. My intentions are not to offend anyone or to hurt anyone. My swear words are solely meant to bring attention to a serious problem, a problem that you may or may not be involved in. So the swear words are mostly directed at a problem and not so much at a particular person. Do I need to use them?"  Obsolescence 

"I can be such a jerk sometimes. It's not that I'm being insensitive on purpose, it's that I'm not always aware of how my words and actions are being perceived. I apologize when I'm aware of my insensitivity, so please let me know when I'm not aware of my insensitivity, so that I may offer you my Apologies and also improve my Demeanor and negative Attitude."

"Name calling or angry tones are a waste of energy and time. When you learn to talk and communicate more effectively and Calmly you will learn very quickly that you will have much better results with people and situations when you refrain from anger and name calling. And you will also learn that there is very little need for drama and name calling when communicating."

"I've learned over time that you have to have a very high tolerance for a**holes and ignorant people. Because if you don't you will end up acting like an ignorant a**hole yourself. So I'm going to create a course that will give people the necessary skills and techniques that will give a person the tolerance and the appropriate responses to other peoples moronic behavior. I'm going to call the course "High Tolerance for Assholes 101". Believe it or not I have over 10,000 people signed up for the course already, mostly from people who are planning to work in government, banks, corporations and in the media."   (So the lesson here is to rewrite this paragraph so that there is no vulgar language and no sterotyping, and then name the 10 things that you would teach in this course?)
 

The Negative Attributes and Behaviors that are Associated with Name Calling and Anger....

Antonyms:
charitable, compassionate, humane, kindhearted, kindly, merciful, sensitive, softhearted, sympathetic, tender, tenderhearted, warm, warmhearted
Near Antonyms:
benevolent, benignant, gentle, kind; clement, indulgent, lenient, mild; cordial, friendly, good-natured, good-tempered, gracious; tolerant, understanding; affectionate, fond, loving      Morally Educated

I wish I had a nickel for every time I said "WTF is going on here?"  Do Acronyms make it cool to swear again?  Tourette Syndrome


To call someone stupid, is stupid. Whether you are calling someone a moron, an idiot, an ignoramus, or any other harsh insulting words, but never the "R" word, because you clearly insult everyone, including yourself. The important thing is that people should not be insulted when called stupid, or any other harsh word, even if you're calling yourself stupid. It is merely a question of, "why is this thinking flawed and incorrect?" Was it a simple mistake that you made? Or an indicator that the process used in your decision making needs to be improved so that you can achieve higher quality results from your decisions? And that is only one way to correctly handle insults. Don't be distracted by the harshness of a word or words, just simply answer the question "why is this thinking flawed and incorrect?" Or simply ask "what is stupid?" or just answer with one word, "why". And the more questions that you answer that improve your thinking, the more intelligent you will become. You will still make mistakes, but now you will solve them a lot faster, and you will also make fewer mistakes.   

There's nothing wrong with calling yourself stupid as long as you don't take it personally.








 

Writing Quotes and Sayings

I have never lived so passionately as when I am writing passionately about living. (Michael J. Budnicki)

"Either write things that are worth reading or do things that are worth writing about, and if you do both you can't go wrong"  

The World is a book, and those who do not travel read only a page. (Saint Augustine)

A writer writes not because he is educated but because he is driven by the need to communicate. (Leo Rosten)

The art of communicating thoughts to the mind, through the eye is the great invention of the world. (Abraham Lincoln)

"Try not to think about things that you're not willing to write about. This is not to say that you should write about everything that comes to mind, because something's cannot, and should not, be shared in writing. Mostly because something's cannot be fully understood enough. So if you feel the need to write something down, that might be considered crazy or hard to understand, do it privately so that it will give you some time to understand and process these particular thoughts that you have written." 

"You never quite know what exact arrangement of words that people will understand, the intended meaning is not always a guarantee"  (Howard Polley)

Writing about your personal experiences is liberating. It also gives you a chance to better understand yourself by being able to reexamine what you have written later on. Writing about a moment in time that you have experienced, through your own perspective, is saving a memory. It's also creating a hard copy of a memory that will act like a back up in case your personal memory fades or leaves out important details, for what ever reason. If you like what you have written, then you should share it, like sharing a memory. We all hope that we will be able to take our memories with us when we die, but just incase, we should write some of our memories down because they might be beneficial to others, pretty much the same way that you benefited from the memories of other people  in your life, people who were thoughtful enough to share what they have learned with youPass the Baton

"One of my problems with hand writing is that I'm not thinking about what I'm writing because my brain is thinking faster then I can write it down. So I find myself scribbling a lot, but it's not that bad as long as I can deceiver it later and rewrite it."

I'm sometimes more focused on what I'm trying to say then I am about the spelling of words. That is why writers have proof readers and editors. This way writers can focus more on what they're trying to say and not have to focus on irrelevant things, like the spelling of words. I would rather misspell words when writing about things that are important then write about things that are irrelevant but spelled perfectly, who cares. Besides, if you know that a word is misspelled you must know what the word is? So nothing is lost.
So the problem is not my spelling, the problem is that you're too easily distracted by things that don't matter, which is no surprise.
Sometimes I can't stop to think about the spelling of a word because that would cause me to change focus. And when thoughts
are flying by at lighting speed, if you look away just for a second you sometimes miss key information pertaining to that thought, like how the thought was generated? What was going to be learned from that thought? Do more questions need to be answered about that thought?  And some thoughts immediately create associations, so analyzing begins immediately, which also needs to be documented. 
Can I get a Spell Check?     Phonological Ambiguity
     Spelling Knowledge

"Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteers be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe."   Missing Letter Effect   Typoglycemia

"It's much more important to communicate effectively then it is to always spell words correctly. Spelling is an irrelevant detail. Am I becoming a better speller, yes. But it is still not a high priority, as you can still see."


I love writing, even though I might not agree with everything that I write later on. That's why I love the digital world. I don't waste paper and I didn't print any books. I can just delete it or rewrite it. Correcting is all about survival. The more I learn, the more my understanding increases in size, so I have to update what I have written. Some of what you see on this website is just the first draft, and others have gone through a few revisions. How an idea comes to mind and the path it took is important. There are other paths that led to the same idea. I got here because I was thinking of this, but I also got here because I was thinking of that. Two different paths leading to the same place.

"I don't own the words or did I create the words, I just assemble the words. Sometimes uniquely, other times just a little differently."

The most important thing is to write down the words before you forget them. And it's always a good idea to have a place to put things, a place that will make it easy for you to find and remember the things that are important. So having some kind of a File System has always been a very useful tool and skill to have.
 

Perpetual
Some of the things that I have I learned about writing is that the more you write the more you learn. And one of the things that you learn when you write is that you learn to write better. And when you learn to write better you learn even more. So it’s safe to say,
if you never stop writing about what you have learned, about yourself and the world, you will never stop learning.

Even though I’m a terrible writer, I myself look at writing as an incredible gift. At times writing can be so exhilarating to me that it’s better then any drug that I have ever done. But there were so many times in my life that I wished I had the words for those particular moments, but of course I didn’t. It was always much later and too late. But as I found the words I realized that all is not lost. I can still say those words and share them by writing them down. For I am certain that those moments in my life will surely repeat themselves in other peoples lives if not my own. So just maybe, someone would be lucky enough to remember what I have written, and not have to walk away from a very important moment, saying, “I wished that I had the right words to say”. To me that is the greatest gift a writer could ever give.   (Howard Polley)      
 

"How do I know what I mean until I see what I say?"
 

There's a big difference between what you want to say and what you eventually do say.
Remember what you were thinking and share it.

 

When it’s all said and done, will you have said more than you’ve done?

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Digital Text Books   /   Electronic Books   /   Online Books   /   Printed Text  

National Academies Press

Project Gutenberg

Digital Public Library 

E Books Store

Google E-Books

Electronic Text (wiki) 

E books

E Pub Books

I Pad Education

Dynamic Books

Open Content Alliance

Open Textbook (wiki)
Open Textbook

College Open Textbooks

Light and Matter

Online Bookshop

Informa World

Edu Place

Worldbook
World Book Online

Barnes & Noble

McGraw Hill

Fiction Press

Adobe Digital Editions

Audio
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Audio Books
Audio Books
Learn out Loud 
Emic 2 Text-to-Speech Module
Audio Books (youtube Channel)

Literacy
Reading Comprehension

Information Resources
News Resources

Open Educational Resources

Remixable Textbooks Online or Off

Perfection Learning

Book Trade 

iee explore 

CK-12

Used Text Books    What is Propaganda?

Buy and Sell Old Text Books

Rent Textbooks 

College Book Renter 

Academic Superstore

Cambridge Press

Open Library

Open Source Curriculum

PDF Books 

Paper Spine

Book Swim

Make your own Text and Photo Books

Course Smart

Public Zero Publications

The Academic Library

Teach 12

Book Finder

Mike Matas Interactive E-Books (youtube)
Push Pop Press Next Generation Digital Books

Mendeley
Crowd Source Research Library
Organize Research and Share

Bibliography (wiki)

Library Locations

Plagiarism / Copyright Info

 


As of 2010 Google has scanned over 15 million books. That's about 12% of the 130 million books ever published from 1500 -2008.
2 trillion words in total.                          Book Scanning
     Google Books

Barnes and Noble NOOK Ebook Reader

Sony Digital Reader Touch Edition - Black (PRS600BC)

American Students spend $8 billion to $15 billion per year on textbooks. Some textbooks are just new editions that have only had a few changes.     "The Internet is the only textbook you'll ever need."


 

 
Videos and Books about Reading and Writing




VDA Writing Curriculum  Vandamme Academy (website)    VanDamme Academy (youtube)

 

 

Reading in Content Areas - With Research-Based CRISS Strategies

 

Why Reading Matters

 

 

 

 

 

 

Patricia Ryan: Don't insist on English!

 

 

ABeCeDarian Reading Program
 
  

 


 
Books

 

 

 

 






I do not agree with everything that has been written in Books
.
I assimilate the most logical parts of information and put them together to form an understanding.
Then I write down my understandings so that I can share this information with others.
Every person must learn how to recognize what information is accurate and valuable.
So what is your procedure for filtering and assimilating information?  Information Literacy


 "Try not to assume that some words are directly meant for you until you are absolutely sure of the Audience to which those words were originally intended for"   

 

 

 

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