causes and effects
and the nature of
. Science can cover a lot of different
subjects, so depending on the type of science that you are studying, each one
will require a unique set of skills that you need to learn, and you will
also have to study areas of knowledge that are focused on a particular
subject. What is Science
. A search for
. Inquire into.
Gathering Knowledge about
Nature and Organizing and Condensing
that Knowledge into
testable laws and theories.
Ability to produce
into questions posed by scientific
is research conducted for a problem that has not
been clearly defined. It often occurs before we know enough to make
conceptual distinctions or to posit an explanatory relationship.
Exploratory research develops concepts more clearly, established
priorities, develops operational definitions and improve the final
research design. Exploratory research helps determine the best research
design, data-collection method and selection of subjects. It should draw
definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Given its fundamental
nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does
not actually exist.
is scientific research aimed to improve scientific theories for improved
understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena. Applied
research, in turn, uses scientific theories to develop technology or
techniques to intervene and alter natural or other phenomena.
is the systematic empirical
phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. The
objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical
models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to phenomena. The process of
measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the
fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical
expression of quantitative relationships.
Prove it to be True.
Prove it to be False.
How Necessary is it to Prove?
What are your
is testimony from expert
is the knowledge or source of knowledge acquired by means of
by observation and experimentation.
is evidence which serves to either support or counter a
scientific theory or hypothesis. Such evidence is expected to be empirical
evidence and interpretation in accordance with
. Standards for scientific evidence vary according to
the field of inquiry, but the strength of scientific evidence is generally
based on the results of statistical
and the strength of scientific controls.
is any material object that proves a fact in issue based on the object's
demonstrable physical characteristics.
encompasses the rules and
legal principles that govern the proof of facts in a legal proceeding
These rules determine what evidence must or must not be considered by the
trier of fact in reaching its decision
. The trier of fact is a judge in
bench trials, or the jury in any cases involving a
. The law of evidence is also concerned
with the quantum (amount), quality, and type of proof needed to prevail in
litigation. The rules vary depending upon whether the venue is a criminal
court, civil court, or family court, and they vary by jurisdiction.
refers to samples of biological
as hair, tissue, bones, teeth, blood, semen, or other bodily fluids—or to
evidence items containing biological material (DNA
Initiative 2012). Health Questions
evidence collected in a casual or
informal manner and relying heavily or entirely on
supports the truth of an assertion (in criminal law,
an assertion of guilt or of innocence) directly, i.e., without an
. Circumstantial evidence, by contrast, consists of a
fact or set of facts
which, if proven, will support the creation of an
inference that the matter asserted is
is information created or obtained illegally, to sway
the verdict in a court case. Falsified evidence could be created by either
side in a case (including the police/prosecution in a criminal case), or
by someone sympathetic to either side. Misleading by suppressing evidence
can also be considered a form of false evidence (by omission), however, in
some cases, suppressed evidence is excluded because it cannot be proved
the accused was aware of the items found or of their location.
is any testimonial, documentary, or
tangible evidence that may be introduced to a
—usually a judge
or jury—to establish or to bolster a point put forth by a party to the
proceeding. For evidence to be admissible, it must be relevant, without
being unfairly prejudicial, and it must have some indicia of reliability.
The general rule in evidence is that all relevant evidence is admissible
and all irrelevant evidence is inadmissible.
is evidence that relies on an inference to
connect it to a conclusion of fact—like a fingerprint at the scene of a
crime. By contrast, direct evidence supports the truth of an assertion
directly—i.e., without need for any additional evidence or inference.
sufficient evidence or a sufficient
for the truth
Constructing a Multiple Baseline Graph using MS Excel
Scientific Poster Presentation Sample
is a statement that what an argument claims will induce or justify a
conclusion. In other words: a premise is an
that something is
, an argument requires a set of
(at least) two declarative sentences (or "propositions") known as the
premises or premisses along with another declarative sentence (or
"proposition") known as the conclusion. This structure of two premises and
one conclusion forms the basic argumentative structure. More complex
arguments can use a series of rules to connect several premises to one
conclusion, or to derive a number of conclusions from the original
premises which then act as premises for additional conclusions. An example
of this is the use of the rules of inference found within symbolic logic.
is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a
hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires
that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on
previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the
available scientific theories. Even though the words "hypothesis" and
"theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the
same as a scientific theory. A working hypothesis is a provisionally
accepted hypothesis proposed for further research.
contemplative and rational type of abstract or
thinking, or the
results of such thinking. Depending on the context, the results might for
example include generalized explanations of how
. The word has its roots in ancient Greek, but in modern
use it has taken on several different related meanings.
Define a Question.
Models of Scientific Inquiry
is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a
scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test
it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous
observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available
is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or
generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking. Depending on the
context, the results might for example include generalized explanations of
how nature works.
The Five W's and an H
Gather Information and Resources
is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and
significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards.
is the active acquisition of information from a
comprises "creative work undertaken on a systematic
basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of
humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to
devise new applications.
is a concise way of expressing information symbolically as in a
mathematical or chemical formula.
Form an Explanatory
Orders of Approximation
Test the Hypothesis by Performing an
Analyze the Data and Results.
is a process of inspecting, cleaning,
transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful
information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision-making. Data
analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse
techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and
social science domains.
is anything presented in support of an assertion.
is the body of proof or the strongest of rhetorical proofs.
Interpret the Data and Draw Conclusions that may serve as a
starting point for new Hypothesis.
(Feedback - Opinions)
is a type of literature review that collects and critically
analyzes multiple research studies or papers. A review of existing studies
is often quicker and cheaper than embarking on a new study. Researchers
use methods that are selected before one or more research questions are
formulated, and then they aim to find and analyze studies that relate to
and answer those questions. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled
trials are key in the practice of evidence-based medicine
is the act of checking factual assertions in
non-fictional text in order to determine the
and correctness of
the factual statements in the text. This may be done either before (ante
hoc) or after (post hoc) the text has been published or otherwise
or test–retest reliability is the
variation in measurements taken by a single person or instrument on the
same item, under the same conditions, and in a short period of time. A
less-than-perfect test–retest reliability causes test–retest variability.
Such variability can be caused by, for example,
. A measurement may be said to be repeatable
when this variation is smaller than a pre-determined acceptance criterion.
Yes or No?
Please note that scientific methods will vary depending on the
subject that you are analyzing.
The procedures, techniques and equipment used in testing and
verifying information will vary.
Depending on what you're testing, some methods are more
dependable then other methods,
so there could be several variables that need to be defined
is a body of techniques for investigating
phenomena, based on empirical or measurable evidence that is
subject to the principles of logic and reasoning. Acquiring new
knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.
draws inferences about the possible
effect of a treatment on subjects, where the assignment of
subjects into a treated group versus a control group is outside
the control of the investigator.
Randomized Controlled Trial
is a type of scientific
experiment, often in the medical field, where the people being
studied are randomly allocated one of the different treatments.
Describing how something should
be done. Giving directions on how to complete a task.
or technical communication, is a means to convey scientific, engineering,
or other technical information.
is an instructional book or booklet
that is supplied with almost all
consumer products such as vehicles, home
appliances and computer peripherals. Information contained in the owner's
manual typically includes
can be extensive, often including warnings
that are ill-advised for
or overall user
instructions; for products that arrive in pieces for easier
shipping. Installation instructions; for products that need to be
installed in a home or workplace. Setup instructions; for devices that
keep track of time
user accessible state. Instructions
for use. Programming instructions; for microprocessor controlled products
such as VCRs, programmable calculators, and synthesizers.
instructions; for when the product does
not work as expected. Service
locations; for when the product requires
repair by a factory authorized technician. Regulatory code
; for example with respect to safety or
. Product technical specifications. Warranty information;
sometimes provided as a separate sheet.
is a technical communication
document intended to give assistance to people using a particular
. It is usually
written by a technical writer, although user guides are written by
programmers, product or project managers, or other technical staff,
particularly in smaller companies.
is performing mathematical and
logical operations on
according to instructions or prescribed procedures in order to
obtain the required
is a series of interrelated tasks
that, together, transform inputs into outputs. These tasks may be carried
out by people, nature or machines using various resources; an engineering
process must be considered in the context of the agents carrying out the
tasks and the resource attributes involved.
a process made up of multiple threads of execution
that execute instructions at the same time or a
depending on the
is a basic step in a process. Unit operations
involve a physical change or chemical transformation such as separation,
crystallization, evaporation, filtration, polymerization, isomerization,
and other reactions.
, reliable, repeatable model
of the real world
is a set of interrelated
activities that interact to achieve a
result. A particular course of action intended to achieve a result.
A mental process that you are not directly
of. Subject to a process
or treatment, with the aim of readying for some
remedying a condition. Deal with in
way. Perform mathematical and logical operations on (data)
according to programmed instructions
in order to obtain the required
information. Shape, form, or improve a material.
is the ability of the brain to
incoming stimuli of differing quality. With vision, the brain divides what
it sees into four components: color, motion, shape, and depth. These are
individually analyzed and then compared to stored memories, which helps
the brain identify what you are viewing. The brain then combines all of
these into the field of view that you see and comprehend.
is a concise way of expressing information symbolically as in a
particular course of action intended to achieve a result. A process or
series of acts especially of a practical or mechanical nature involved in
a particular form of work. A set sequence of steps, part of larger
is designed to describe
Who, What, Where, When, and Why
is a course of action intended to achieve a result in the
care of persons with health problems.
is a compilation of routine procedures and operations that the system
administrator or operator carries out.
also known as
, subroutines, or
functions that contain a series of computational steps to be carried out.
is a predefined written procedural method in the
design and implementation of experiments.
is the process of implementing and
developing technical standards.
is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical
is the analysis of how a task is accomplished,
including a detailed description of both manual and mental activities,
task and element durations, task frequency, task allocation, task
complexity, environmental conditions, necessary clothing and equipment,
and any other unique factors involved in or required for one or more
people to perform a given task. Task analysis emerged from research in
applied behavior analysis and still has considerable research in that
Standard Operating Procedure:
Procedures that are a set of step-by-step instructions to
achieve a predictable
, standardized, desired result, often
within the context of a longer overall process. Detailed,
written instructions to achieve uniformity of the performance of
a specific function. A document that generally lists the
involved in performing a task, what
is associated with the
Standard Operating Procedure
What is Science?
Science are methods used for learning, using tools, skills,
, procedures, testing techniques, and
accumulated knowledge and information. Science is a way of
and analyzing things in our world so that we can have a
better understanding of ourselves and the world around us.
The understanding that science gives us helps us predict future outcomes so that we
can make better
decisions. Science is also used to create complex tools, which
in return gives us the ability to create even more complex tools
and create even more complex machines
, thus we learn even more.
Science is also a process for discovering, which everyone can benefit from.
But the greatest power of science is that anyone
can be a contributor to this valuable knowledge resource, as millions
have done in our past.
And millions of people can
also benefit from this knowledge, whether they're living in the present or people who will be living in our
future. So all this accumulated knowledge becomes the building
blocks of new discoveries and new understandings. Not just progressing our advances
in technologies, but progressing our understanding of ourselves,
so we can be more aware and make better
choices and make better decisions. Another benefit from science
is that, if and when things do change, we can use our knowledge
and tools to react accordingly instead of just suffering from
the changes in our world, or suffer from the changes in ourselves. So science is also part
early warning system, but only if it is used effectively and
Just experiencing something doesn't guarantee that
you will understand it, or learn from it, or benefit from it.
That is why knowledge is so extremely important, because
knowledge helps us understand our experiences a lot better.
You have to see inward as well as see outward. Science does not define reality or
define what is perceived to be real,
science only defines cause and effect, which for now is
extremely important to everyone. Just because we know how
something works does not mean that we actually know "why" it
works, or do we fully understand the dangers, because we don't know
everything. We're learning more and we're
learning faster. We're communicating more and we're
communicating faster. But we're not efficient or effective
enough in order to benefit from our increased speed. So science
needs to solve this problem before we waste this momentum and
miss our chance in creating a better world for everyone.
Sometimes if you're moving too fast you may fly past important
information that you need in order to understand something. But luckily,
Science doesn't only speed up our ability to learn, science can
also be used to slow us down, so that we can see more details
and become more aware, so that we can make better choices and make better decisions.
just like every tool in our world, tools can be misused. So
science must explain the proper uses
of our technologies and the proper
uses of our accumulated knowledge. Science must also explain the dangers of misusing our tools by creating a
that anyone can understand. Remember, science does not know
everything, but what science does know is extremely important
and extremely valuable.
Sometimes Progress is Slow
(1543) was the paradigm shift from the Ptolemaic
model of the heavens, which described the cosmos as having Earth
stationary at the center of the universe, to the heliocentric model with
the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
was the emergence of modern science during the
early modern period (1600), when developments in mathematics, physics,
astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the
views of society about
Some Ideas take time to be
understood or excepted
reasons why things happen
knowing the reasons why certain things happen is the first step in
controlling these actions or adapting to these actions. That what science
"If we don't keep moving forward,
we'll end up having to
start all over
Why we need more Scientists
The internet has made us aware of all kinds of possibilities in
the science world. We have discovered so much. This is one of
the main reasons why we need more scientists. We need more
people researching all these new discoveries that we are making
everyday. So much more needs to be understood in order for us to
effectively utilized all this knowledge. It's a gold mine.
Science in the Classroom
Teachers Science Lesson Plans
Scientifically Literate Person is
defined as one who has the capacity to:
Understand experiment and reasoning as well as basic scientific
facts and their meaning.
clearly using science.
Understands the fundamental concepts of
Knows how to find and assess scientifically credible information
Ask, find, or determine answers to
about everyday experiences.
Describe, explain, and predict natural phenomena. Explain
phenomena scientifically – recognize, offer and evaluate
explanations for a range of natural and technological phenomena.
Read with Understanding
articles about science in the
popular press and to engage in social conversation about the
validity of the conclusions. Interpret data and evidence
scientifically – analyze and evaluate data, claims and arguments
in a variety of representations and draw appropriate scientific
Identify scientific issues underlying national and local
decisions and express positions that are scientifically and
Evaluate the quality of scientific information on the basis of
its source and the methods used to generate it. Evaluate and
design scientific inquiry – describe and appraise scientific
and propose ways of addressing questions
Pose and evaluate arguments based on evidence and to apply
conclusions from such arguments appropriately.
Next Generation Science Standards
We have discovered
in our universe, but that does not say that order is
present everywhere or that
is always a
, so we must always proceed with
caution and care.
Do not Accept or Reject claims at
Face Value, but withhold Judgment until Sufficient Evidence is
available to make a decision, if time is allowed.
is the knowledge or source of knowledge acquired by means of the
, particularly by
observation and experimentation. Reality
Science Research Fraud and Corruption
You don't have to be a
in order to use Scientific Methods.
These skills are very useful for anyone who cares about
improving themselves or improving their surroundings. Science
will also increase a persons awareness about themselves and the
world, exposing a sea of possibilities.
"Science may not have all the answers, but
it will help you to understand things a little better, so that
maybe you will find the answers that you need. This is what we
found to be true, but every situation is different, so it might
not be true for you."
, but my other
is an unspoken language, it's called
. I use symbols and characters to
communicate instructions to computerized machines. But they are
more then just machines. Computers are one of the most
incredible tools that man has ever made,
. Computers provide us with more
processing abilities and more memory capacities then any other
time in human history. These computerized machines are humans
analytical partner that aids us in understanding ourselves, and
our world. Humans quest for knowledge now has a powerful tool, a
tool that gives us endless potential. And with the
, we can now for the first time combine the collective
wisdom, knowledge and experiences of millions of people from all
over the world. We no longer need to depend on one country, or
on one leader, or on one government. Because we now have the
collective strength of each other. And together we will create a
better world for everyone. So, what does your language do?
Ones, On or Off
If I learned how to speak Spanish I could speak to 518 million
more people then I do now. Knowing how to speak Computer Language
I can now communicate with 2 billion personal computers and
"When you can
, you can do almost anything, like communicate to
Are you sure that the instruments that
you're using are calibrated? And do you know that the
calibration may not be part of the equation?
is a reference point. So the reference needs to
be defined. So the first question is "What is this in reference
to?" "Don't forget to
Calibrate the Calibrator."
in measurement technology and
is the comparison of measurement
values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration
standard of known accuracy. Such a standard could be another measurement
device of known accuracy, a device generating the quantity to be measured
such as a voltage, or a physical artifact, such as a meter ruler.
Story Of Science Power, Proof And Passion
Feynman: The Pleasure Of Finding Things Out
What is One Degree?
BBC Horizon (youtube)
Award Winning Teen Age Science in Action
(video) this is
why teaching science is important
Laura Snyder; The Philosophical Breakfast Club
Einstein's Big Idea
TROM - 1.1
E. O. Wilson: Advice to Young Scientists
Tal Golesworthy: How I Repaired my own Heart
Aortic Root Support
+ Amy O'Toole: Science is for everyone, kids included
Science • Liquid Nitrogen Under Vacuum • ChefSteps
The Geek Group
Janet Iwasa: How Animations can help Scientists Test a
Engineer Guy Video
optical technique that allows us to see small changes
in the index of refraction
Pure Science Specials
Scientific Method: Steps, Terms and Examples
In a Nutshell – Kurzgesagt
The Journal of
Jove is a database of more than four
thousand videos, with about eighty more added each month. They
are usually between ten and fifteen minutes long, and they range
in subject from biology and chemistry to neuroscience and
Videos should not be confusing
Turbo Encabulator Version 2
The original machine had a base-plate
of prefabulated amulite, surmounted by a
malleable logarithmic casing in such a way that the two spurving
bearings were in a direct line with the pentametric fan. The
main winding was of the normal lotus-o-delta type placed in
panendermic semi-boloid slots in the stator, every seventh
conductor being connected by a nonreversible trem'e pipe to the
differential girdlespring on the 'up' end of the grammeters.
Unilateral Phase Detractor.
Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science
Online Education Sources
Science PhotosScience Resources
The science of Matter
Atoms and Matter
A physical phenomenon associated with stationary or moving
Energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a
A machine for performing calculations automatically.
The science of
Math needed to be an
Strength of Materials
Tree of Life
Lab Sciences Tools
Federation of American Scientists
National Science Foundation
Center for Science Education
Alliance New York Academy of Sciences
Public Library of
Explore scientific, technical, and medical
Science of Flight
N.E. Bio Labs
Nat. Academies of Science
Physical Review E
Physical Review Letters
Assoc.of Science Technology
KTH Royal Institute
Advancing Science Society
Science and Technology
Creative Commons Science
Publishers - linking academia, business and industry through research.
Scientific Search Engine
Research Facilities Directory
Research institutes in the United States
Department of Energy National Laboratories
1,050,751 e-prints in Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science,
Quantitative Biology, Quantitative Finance and Statistics.
Graduate Fellowships - Types of Fellowships for Graduate Students
Collaborative Research Grants
Science Tools - Science Equipment
Devices Science Kits
Tools and Science Equipment
has 60 modules and growing. Every module works with every other
in millions of combinations
is a handy, pocket sized card of meltable
bio-plastic that can be used to make things and fix things.
Lab Sciences Tools
Human to Human Interface
Science for Students
Science Tools and Parts
Learn to Code
Modules for Prototyping and Play
using plastic bottle caps to make
Kate Stone: DJ Decks made of Paper
Games and Toys for Learning
DIY Kit for the Connected Life
Science Toys for Learning
Using Toys to Teach Physics
P-Tech, Pathways in Technology
Microscopes - Seeing Small Things
or light microscope, is a type of
microscope which uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify
images of small samples.
is a variation of a traditional
optical microscope that uses optics and a digital camera to output an
image to a monitor, sometimes by means of software running on a computer.
Underwater microscopy for in situ studies of benthic ecosystems
is the technical field of using microscopes to
view objects and areas of
objects that cannot be seen
with the naked eye.
SCiO: Molecular Sensor, Optical Sensor, Spectrometer
is an apparatus to measure a spectrum
that shows intensity as a function of wavelength, of frequency, of energy,
of momentum, or of mass.
is a light-controlled variable resistor.
or photo eye, is an equipment
used to discover the distance, absence, or presence of an object by using
a light transmitter, often infrared, and a photoelectric receiver.
is any device that permits position
Smartphone Into a Digital Microscope
Atomic Force Microscopy
Scanning Probe Microscopy
Scanning Tunneling Microscope
Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy
is a fluorescence
microscopy technique with an intermediate optical resolution, but good
optical sectioning capabilities and high speed.
is a chain of member-based workshops that lets
people of all skill levels come in and use industrial tools and
equipment to build their own projects.
- Science Space
Rulof Italian Maker
Cesar Harada: How I teach kids to love science
a room or building which provides both the
area and tools (or machinery) that may be required for the
manufacture or repair of manufactured goods.
National Lab Network
Open Design City
Museums - Festivals
Science Fair Ideas
Science Fair Projects
Science Fair Project
Science Made Simple
Media Learning Competition
of Creators and inventors
Google Science Fair
Scientist Challenge 2013: Peyton Robertson
Young Scientist Challenge
Project; The Importance of "Organic"
Solve Puzzles for
okay to be Smart
Jove: Journal of
Society for Science
Intel International Science and Engineering Fair
ARDX Arduino Starter Kit
Experimentation Kit for Arduino (Uno R3) - v1.3 ,
Tackle 13 Different Projects w/ This Fully-Stocked Beginner's
Evive: Electronic Prototyping Platform
Learn & build your projects
easily, debug them smartly. #Arduino #Robotics #IoT #Embedded #STEM.
MATRIX Creator: IoT Computer Vision Dev Board #Pi
AI on a Pi. Build
your own Amazon Echo + endless IoT apps with a dev board for Raspberry Pi.
Tinylab: Prototype easier than ever
PC Boards Components