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Science
   
Chemistry  /  Electricity  /  Computers  /  Physics  /  Engineering

Science is about using tools, knowledge and information to examine and analyze
things in our world so that we have a better understanding of ourselves and the world
around us. more...  Science (wiki)    What is a Scientist?    What are STEM Fields?
What is a Technologist?  
Technology Education


Related Subjects and Categories:
Problem Solving  /  Reasoning  /  Decision Making  /  Planning  /  Engineering 
Information Literacy  / 
Math  /  Electricity  /  Chemistry  /  Biology  /  Computers
Science Films  /  Science Resources  /  KM  Evolution  Physics
Scientist Looking at Data 
 

What is Science?

Research: Systematic investigation to establish facts. A search for knowledge. Inquire into.
Gathering Knowledge about Nature and Organizing and Condensing that Knowledge into testable laws and theories.
Ability to produce Solutions in some Problem Domain. Research into questions posed by scientific Theories and Hypotheses Discovery  Collaboration   Scientific Theory...more...               

Observation / Experimentation / Measurement / Evaluation / Diagnosis Predictions / Math

Replication / Repeatability / Proof / Evidence / Real Evidence / Biological Evidence
Anecdotal Evidence     Naturalistic Observation: Three Goals of Research (PDF)

Research / Empirical Research / Exploratory Research / Quantitative Research / Field Research
Drug Research / Investigation / Questioning / Validity / Dissection / Multivariate Testing / A/B Testing
Analytics / Research and Development / Randomized Experiment   Scientific Control 

Variables  Coincidence  Probability  Propensity Probability  Law of Large Numbers  Odds  Destiny
Statistics  Statistical Hypothesis Testing   Doubt   Anomaly   Error

Calibration  Computation   Approximation   Standard Deviation  Parameters  Formulate

Development / Innovation / Independent Learning / Creativity

Prove it to be true. Prove it to be false. How necessary is it to prove?  What are your Priorities?

Scientific Procedure:
Define a Question.  Models of Scientific Inquiry  Hypothesis  Theory  The Five W's and an H 
Gather Information and Resources  (Evaluation / Observation / Research)    Formulate
Form an Explanatory Hypothesis  (Construct)    Prediction    Orders of Approximation
Test the Hypothesis by Performing an Experiment and Collecting Data in a Reproducible Manner.
Analyze the Data and Results.   Data Analysis   Evidence   Proof Reading   Meanings
Interpret the Data and Draw Conclusions that may serve as a starting point for new Hypothesis.
Publish Results (Feedback / Opinions)  Peer Review   Systematic Review  Fact Checker
Retest (Confirm Hypothesis) Repeatability
Yes or No?

Instructions:
Describing how something should be done. Giving directions on how to complete a task.
Operators Manuals    Instruction Manuals    Process  Process   Protocol    Procedure
Standardization         Formulas

Science Types
Natural Science    Applied Science    Forensic Science     Earth Science     Science   Energy

Outline of Physical Science    Outline of Natural Science   Life Sciences    Laws of Science
Clinical Science   Medicine   Translational Science   Philosophy of Science    Holism  Science
Data Driven Science    Space Science   The Universe    Science Websites    Science News

Scientific Methods    Design of Experiments    Scientific Progress  Constructivist Epistemology
Problem Solving Methods   Planning    Reasoning   Inspire

Prima Facie  Notability   Choice Modeling   Axiom   Correspondence   Physical Law   Mechanics

NCFS

Information Literacy  /  Knowledge Management  /  Management  /  Engineering /  Evolution             









Chemistry

The science of Matter; The branch of the natural sciences dealing with the Composition of
Substances and their Properties and Reactions.   Chemist    
Atoms    Structural Formula

Chemistry    Inorganic Chemistry    Biochemistry  
 Analytical Chemistry    Geochemistry
Medicinal Chemistry    Computational Chemistry   Green Chemistry    Molecular Biology
Petrochemical    Order of Reaction    Water      Electrochemistry   Metallurgy       Biology

Molecular Diffusion   Diffusion       Intrinsic and Extrinsic Properties     Quantitative Analysis
Quarks   Nucleons   Atoms   Molecule   Biomolecules   Model Organism   Chemical Reaction
Cells   Organisms  Histology  Plants
  Animals  Insects  Land   Mammals
   Environment    
Synthesis    Graphene    Pyrolysis    Bioanalysis    Chemistry Tools and Equipment   Lab Tests
Structural Formula    Engineering    Philosopher Stone     Monatomic Elements   Catalysis
Litmus  PH   Autocatalysis   Nucleosynthesis      American Chemical Society (youtube channel)
Elements

Periodic Table of Elements   Wiki Periodic Table   Earth & Sky Chart   Videos   Natural Elements
A Tour of the Periodic Table (youtube)    Chemistry (youtube)   (Ununseptium Uus element 117) PAI
Atomic Number (# of Protons)     Relative Atomic Mass     Electron Configuration
Elementary Particle   Fundamental Particle   List of Particles   Physics

Thermodynamics    Laws of Thermodynamics    Thermodynamic Law    Chemical Thermodynamics
Engineering Thermodynamics  Thermoplastic  Entropy  Urea  Thermodynamics of Computation (pdf)
Chemical Process Modeling     Triple Point    Compound Chem

Janet Iwasa: How 3D Animations help Scientists Visualize what we can't See (video)
Molecular Flipbook

Toxicology    Drug Metabolism    Pharmacokinetics    Pharmaceutical Industry   Pharmacology
Alchemy   Metamaterial   
 Scientism    Extrospection    Scientific Modeling   Complexity 
Fringe Science    Scientific Visualization   
Continuum Hypothesis     Receptor    Noble Gas
Chemical Similarity     Khan Chemistry (videos)     Smelt Your Own Ring    ACS Reactions (youtube)









Electricity

A physical phenomenon associated with stationary or moving electrons and protons.
Energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a Conductor.


Electricity   Electric Generator     Energy     Human Energy

AC 
Alternating Current, An electric current that reverses direction sinusoidally. Sine Wave
DC Direct Current, An electric current that flows in one direction steadily.
 
Amps: The rate at which electrons are flowing.
Ampere: The basic unit of electric current. Ampere

Current: A flow of electricity through a conductor. Current
Voltage: The rate at which energy is drawn from a source. Voltage
Watt: A unit of power. Watt
Ohm: A unit of electrical resistance equal to the resistance between two points on a Conductor when a potential difference of one volt between them produces a current of one ampere.  Ohm

What is Electricity? (youtube)    Electrostatic Discharge
(youtube)
Nikola Tesla   Nikola Tesla (youtube)   Build a Tesla Coil   Westinghouse (youtube 1:52:20)
Electric bacteria connect to form wires (youtube)


Conductor    Superconductor      Insulator    Avogadro Constant    Voltage Regulator

Electronic Component  Computer Components   Electronic Circuit    Passive Component  
Electronics   Micro Electronics    Engineering    Low-Power Electronics    Polyphase System
Battery   Fuse   Diode   Capacitor   Transistor   Resistor   Inductor   Bridge   Connector   Sensor 
Failure Modes of Electronics    Failure Rate   Failure Analysis   Thermal Management of Electronics
Transmitter    Tuner    Radio Receiver    Frequency  Hertz   Sine Wave  Modulation    Music  
Ultrasound   Sound    Sound Localization   Voice    Alpha Theta Beta      Vacuum    Magnetics
  
Tools: Power Supply   Oscilloscope   Multimeter    Picotech    Transducer   
Science Tools

"When we learned to Convert electricity into a Language, we realized that our potential is endless."
Mind over matter, because matter matters.




Computers

A machine for performing calculations automatically.   Automation     Computer Documentaries

Computer    Computer Literacy    Computer Science    Doctor of Computer Science    Software

Operating System   Program   Application    Instruction Set    Hypervisor     Virtual Machine
Human Centered Computing    Reversible Computing   Bioinformatics    Cloud Computing  Tools
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface     Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
ASC Sequoia   Darpa   iarpa   TOP 500 list of the World’s Top Supercomputers

Bio-inspired Computing    Supercomputer (wiki)   Model of Computation    Computer Simulation
Ubiquitous Computing   Parallel Computing   Quantum Computer  K Computer   Artificial Intelligence

Programmer    Computer Programming    Semaphore    Programming Style     Dynamic
Programming Language   List   Markup Language  Computer Languages   Formal Language
Object-Oriented Programming    Structured Programming    Knowledge Management
Data-Driven Programming   Data-Driven Testing   Information Management
Developer    HyperCard   Virtualization       Computer Multitasking   Multiprogramming
Conditional Programming   Exception Handling   Conditional Probability    Relevance Logic  
Multitier Architecture    Computer Architecture    Hardware Architecture   Architecture  Variable
Computer-Generated Imagery    Innovation


Development
Software Development   Agile Software Development   Software Release Life Cycle
Software Development Process   Develop Meaning    Computing Platform
Mobile Application Development     A/B Testing    Computer Software   Regression Testing    Benchmark    Command Pattern    Compiled Language   Communications Protocol    Data
Interpreted Language    Iterative and incremental Development   OSI Model   Technology Stack

Abstraction Layer   Open Systems Interconnection    Enterprise Architecture Framework 
Enterprise Architecture    International Organization for Standardization   Matrix  Conceptual Model

Learn to Code   Source Lines of Code    Source Code  
Binary Code    Bit   Byte    Megabyte
IOPS  
Assignment    Data Protection  
Encryption    Algorithm    Machine Code   Code   Logic    Data    Human-Computer Interaction    Side Effects  Computer Virus
 
Hardware
How Does a Computer Work?   Nand 2 Tetris.org     Learning Tools   555 timer IC    Precondition
Printed Circuit Board   Design  Cell   Circuit Board Components   Digikey  BIOS   Crystal Oscillator

Processor   Microprocessor    Multi-Core Processor   Central Processing Unit CPU  Coprocessor
Clock Speed  Integrated Circuit   Silicon Photonics   Interfaces     Service    Brain   Analog Chip         PC Maintenance Tips    Nimbula   Analog Signal   Digital Signal

Networks
Computer Network    Server    Proxy Server    Network Theory  Network Science   Network Science  Network Cultures   Network Monitoring   Network Management   Node   Network Packet   Coreos
Cluster Manager    Omega    Mesos    Network Administrator    Automated Server Infrastructures
Downstream Networking     Upstream Networking    Network Operating System    Matrix
Professional Services Networks     Value Network Analysis     Value Network   Cross Linking
Dynamic Network Analysis   Collaborations    Link Aggregation    Social Networks    Internet
Search Engines    Information Literacy    Levels
HomePNA Phone-Line Networking   Phone Network    Landline    Telephone    Ethernet

Technology Tools     Math      Games   Human Operating System    Information Management   Computer History   
Online Computer Courses     Laptops for Learning       Engineering Design

"A Keen Impassioned Beauty of a Great Machine"....more










Physics

The science of Matter and Energy and their Interactions. Physical Properties, Laws and Phenomena.

Physics   Particle Physics    Nuclear Physics        Subatomic Particle     Digital Physics
Mathematical Physics     Theoretical Physics    Plasma Physics     Astrophysics    Metaphysics
Quantum Mechanics / Quantum Physics / Quantum Theory    Quantum Electrodynamics

Copenhagen Interpretation   Theory of Everything    Energy      Light
Correspondence Principle    Tevatron   Coherence        Telescopes
Resonance    Oscillation    Spatial Light Modulator    Frequencies   Torsion Tensor        
Interference Wave Propagation    Alternatives to General Relativity   Unified Field Theory  
Nano Technologies     Fusion       Action Physics    Biology    
Science Kits and Tools


Atom (wiki)   Diatomic Molecule  Baryon     Atoms (youtube)    Atoms (youtube)   Higgs Boson
Atomic Theory    Atomism    Chemistry   
Antimatter     Positron   Antihydrogen   Dirac Equation
Elements

Steric Effects   Planck Length    Reaction    Phase (matter)   
Dark Matter   Dark Energy
Types of Equilibrium    Renormalization       Singularity       Physics Math    Holography
Through the Wormhole (youtube)   Minute Physics (youtube)
String Theory   Superstring theory   Introduction to M-theory   M-theory
Number of Dimensions   Five-Dimensional Space   Sixth   Seventh   Eighth   Demensions
Open Letter to the President: Physics Education (youtube)      Nassim Haramein (youtube)              
Physics Classroom     Mass Energy Equivalence  E=mc2  simple     Khan Physics (videos)
Physics World    Institute of Physics    Physics and Actions    Physics 4 Kids

Quantum Levitation (youtube)    Order and Disorder       Veritasium (youtube)   Classical Mechanics
Double-Slit Experiment   Super Position  SP   Quantum Zeno Effect    Quantum Entanglement

Everywhere and Nowhere at Once  Uncertainty Principle  Observer Effect  Heisenbug  Probe Effect 
De Broglie-Bohm Theory   Pilot Wave   Faraday Wave    Bouncing-Droplet Experiments
The pilot-wave dynamics of walking droplets (youtube)   Schrodinger's Cat    Observations

Logarithmic integral   Logarithm   Logarithmic Scale    Logarithmic Growth    Crystallization

Electromagnetism      Space Websites     Chemistry     Biology    Computers     Electricity 

 



Carbon Atom

If a single atom were the size of a football stadium
the Nucleus of the Atom would be the size of your eyeball, and the Electrons
circling the stadium would be invisible. An atom is 99.9% empty space.
The nucleus accounts for 99.9% of an Atom's Mass.

Sound of an Atom
D-Note - 587.33 Hz

.
How many Atoms in a Single Drop of Water?

Science Films

The Story of Science (youtube) 
Richard Feynman: The Pleasure Of Finding Things Out
(youtube)    Sci-Show (youtube channel)
What is One Degree? (youtube)    Absolute Zero    Race for Absolute Zero (youtube)   Kelvin
Nottingham Science (youtube)    Science Under Attack BBC Horizon (youtube)  
Cells (youtube)    The Human Cell  The Cell (youtube)        Tyler DeWitt (youtube
The Genius of Britain (youtube)       Sixty Symbols (youtube)     K-12 Science (youtube
Award Winning Teen Age Science in Action (video) this is why teaching science is important
Laura Snyder; The Philosophical Breakfast Club (video)    E=Mc2 Einstein's Big Idea (youtube
Sixty Symbols (youtube)     
The Atom Smashers (PBS)    Atoms (youtube)       Asap Science
TROM - 1.1 Science (youtube)    E. O. Wilson: Advice to Young Scientists (video)
Tal Golesworthy: How I Repaired my own Heart (video)   Exstent   Aortic Root Support
Beau Lotto + Amy O'Toole: Science is for everyone, kids included (youtube)   Asap SCIENCE
Food Science • Liquid Nitrogen Under Vacuum • ChefSteps (youtube)    Veritasium (youtube)
Janet Iwasa: How Animations can help Scientists Test a Hypothesis (video)
Schlieren Optics optical technique that allows us to see small changes in the index of refraction
in air. Schlieren Photography (wiki)    DNews Channel (youtube)

Science News    Documentaries     Evolution       DNA / Genetics      Online Education Sources

Science Photo Library      Science Photos




Engineering  /  Design  /  Architecture

Engineering: The discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems. Plan and direct (a complex undertaking)    Ideas  Innovation  Pritzker Prize
Someone who can correctly calculate the load capacities of materials and assemble them correctly.
Design: Plan something for a specific role or purpose or effect. Create the design for; create or execute in an Artistic or highly skilled manner. Conceive or fashion in the mind; invent.
Architecture: The discipline dealing with the principles of design, construction and ornamentation
of fine buildings. Designing buildings and Environments with consideration for their Esthetic effect.

What are the differences between Design, Engineering and Art
?  Creativity  
Environmental Science
Can all 3 disciplines be combined without sacrificing health, science and Sustainability?

Civil Engineering     Geotechnical Engineering     Environmental Engineering   Technologist
Electrical Engineering     Mechanical Engineering        Industrial Engineering    Similitude Model
Transformation Design      Mechanism Engineering    Engineering Principles   Human Factors
Principles and Practice of Engineering Exam / PE Exam    Fundamentals of Engineering Exam

List of Engineering Branches     Engineer    General Contractors     Management    Cybernetics
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers     National Academy of Engineering    T.E.

Reliability Engineering    Safety Engineering   System Safety   Quality Control   Risk Management

Architecture    Architectural Engineering     Architecture  Articulation    Structural Engineering
Proportion    Form Follows Function   Deflection   Building Commissioning   Energy  City Planning
Building Information Modeling  ACE Mentor   Engineering Process Outsourcing    Green Building

Architecture and Vision     Passivity Engineering 

Construction    Building    Carpentry    Bricklayer    Masonry    Stonemasonry    Professions
Guastavino Arches (youtube)    Guastavino Tile    Masonry Institute    Union of Bricklayers
Construction Craft Worker Foundations Program (youtube)    Vocational Training    Scaffolding
Architectural Model Building Kits     Aerodynamics    Architectural Display Glass (youtube Matrix
Joinery   Woodworking   Framing   Timber Framing   Steel Frame   Home Building   Boat Building


Span Limits Calculator    Structural Load    Ultimate Tensile Strength   Strength of Materials
Vehicle Payload Capacities     Tensile Strength Calculator     Young's Modulus
Structural Health Monitoring

Automation    Automaton    Robotics   Robot Building    Machine to Machine    
Technology   
Pneumatics    Hydraulics    Hydraulic Cylinder
    Machine   Mechanics    Cars     Computers
Manufacturing   Product Lifecycle   QC
    
Technical Drawing    Blueprint    Visual Maps   Graphs / Plots   Computer Simulation
Digital Mockup    Solid Modeling   Autodesk   3D-Printing    Drawing Board    Sketch Up

List of Computer-Aided Design Software   Computer-Aided Design   Design Engineer 
Auto-Cad   CAD    Pro-E    Micro-Station    Mach 3 / Lazy-Cam    G-Code     Project-Wise
Industrial Design     Emergent Design      Engineers Without Borders (wiki)   Engineering  Harvard
Design Controls     Quality Assurance     Micrometer

Metal and Plastic Machine Workers       Foundry Mold and Coremakers
Winding Machine   Textile   Conveyor System

Molding (process)    Injection Molding    Plastic   Thermoplastic    Metal    Materials Science
Chemistry      Thermosetting Polymer   Thermoset Polymer Matrix     Thermodynamics
Recyclable, Strong Thermosets and Organogels via Paraformaldehyde Condensation with Diamines


Tools
Metal Fabrication   Prefabrication    Forging    Casting     Zero Waste    Heavy Tool Arm
Taig CNC Mills     Numerical Control    Milling Machine   Math   Human Interactivity   Pascal
Plasma Cutting Machine    Machine Shop Equipment    Machine Tool    Machining   Gauge
Pneumatic Tool    Power Tool     Hand Tools List (wiki)  Motor Controls  Vocabulary Tools
Easy Way to Read a Tape Measure (youtube)

E Machine Shop Design and order Custom Parts.  Failure Criteria    Communication
E Plans   Building Cost   Owner Builder    Total Take Offs    Home Plans          












"There's pretty and then there's practicable, but if you can make practicable pretty, then that's even better."

Practicable:
Usable for a specific purpose. Capable of being done with means at hand and circumstances as they are.
Do Patents Encourage Innovation or do they Stifle Innovation?




What Math Skills Are Needed to Become an Engineer?

Basic Arithmetic
All math is based on the idea that 1 plus 1 equals 2, and 1 minus 1 equals 0. Multiplication and division --2 times 2 and 4 divided by 2 -- are variations used to avoid multiple iterations of either subtraction or addition. One example of an engineer's use of basic arithmetic is the civil engineer's calculations for describing water flow across an open basin. The flow is reckoned in cubic feet per second, or Q, where Q equals the runoff coefficient times the intensity of the rain for a specified period, times the area of the basin. If the runoff coefficient is 2, the intensity, in inches of rain, is 4 and the basin -- a specified area of land -- is 1/2 acre, the engineer's formula resembles this: (2x4)/(.5x43,560), or 8/21,780. The result, 0.0003673, is the volume of water, in cubic feet per second, flowing across the land.    Math Knowledge

Algebra and Geometry
When several of the factors of a problem are known and one or more are unknown, engineers use algebra, including differential equations in cases when there are several unknowns. Because engineers work to arrive at a solution to a physical problem, geometry -- with its planes, circles and angles -- determines such diverse things as the torque used to turn a wheel, and reduces the design of a roadway's curve to an accurate engineering or construction drawing.   

Trigonometry
Trigonometry is the science of measuring triangles. Engineers may use plane trigonometry to determine the size of an irregularly shaped parcel of land. It may also be used or to determine the height of an object based solely on the distance to the object and the angle, up or down, from the observer. Spherical trigonometry is used by naval engineers in ship design and by mechanical engineers working on such arcane projects as the design of mechanical hand for an underwater robot.

Statistics
We all love statistics. They tell us where we stand in the world, among our peers and even in our family. They tell us who's winning. The engineer uses them for the same reasons -- by statistical analysis of the design, the engineer can tell what percentage of a design will need armor or reinforcement or where any likely failures will occur. For the civil engineer, statistics appear as the concentration of rainfall, wind loads and bridge design. In many locations, engineers designing drainage systems must design for a 50- or 100-year storm in their calculations, a significant change from the normal rain concentration.

Calculus
Calculus is used by engineers to determine rates of change or rates by which factors, such as acceleration or weight, change. It might tell NASA scientists at what point the change in a satellite's orbit will cause the satellite to strike an object in space. A more mundane task for calculus might be determining how large a box must be to accommodate a specific number of things. An engineer who designs packaging, for example, might know that a product of a certain weight must be packaged in groups of no more than 10 because of their weight. Using calculus, he can calculate both the optimum number of objects per box, plus the optimum size of the box.    Math Skills needed to become an Engineer







Science


Science is a method for learning, learning about ourselves and the world around us by using processes, procedures, testing methods, tools, skills and accumulated knowledge. This understanding helps us predict future outcomes so that we can make better decisions. Science is also used to create complex tools, which in return gives us the ability to create even more complex tools and create even more complex machines, thus we learn even more. Science is also a process for discovering, which everyone can benefit from. But the greatest power of science is that anyone can be a contributor to this valuable knowledge resource, as millions have done in our past. And millions of people can also benefit from this knowledge, whether they're living in the present or people who will be living in our future. So all this accumulated knowledge becomes the building blocks of new discoveries and new understandings. Not just progressing our advances in technologies, but progressing our understanding of ourselves, so we can be more aware and make better choices and make better decisions. Another benefit from science is that, if and when things do change, we can use our knowledge and tools to react accordingly instead of just suffering from the changes in our world, or suffer from the changes in ourselves. So science is also part early warning system, but only if it is used effectively and efficiently. Just experiencing something doesn't guarantee that you will understand it, or learn from it, or benefit from it. That is why knowledge is so extremely important, because knowledge helps us understand our experiences a lot better. You have to see inward as well as see outward. Science does not define reality or define what is perceived to be real, science only defines cause and effect, which for now is extremely important to everyone. Just because we know how something works does not mean that we actually know "why" it works, or do we fully understand the dangers, because we don't know everything. We're learning more and we're learning faster. We're communicating more and we're communicating faster. But we're not efficient or effective enough in order to benefit from our increased speed. So science needs to solve this problem before we waste this momentum and miss our chance in creating a better world for everyone. Sometimes if you're moving too fast you may fly past important information that you need in order to understand something. But luckily, Science doesn't only speed up our ability to learn, science can also be used to slow us down, so that we can see more details and become more aware, so that we can make better choices and make better decisions. But just like every tool in our world, tools can be misused. So science must explain the proper uses of our technologies and the proper uses of our accumulated knowledge. Science must also explain the dangers of misusing our tools by creating a good Operators Manuals and good Instruction Manuals that anyone can understand. Remember, science does not know everything, but what science does know is extremely important and extremely valuable. If we don't keep moving forward, we'll end up having to start all over, again.    

We have discovered Order in our universe, but that does not say that order is present everywhere or that Order is always a Constant, so we must always proceed with caution and care.

Do not Accept or Reject claims at Face Value, but withhold Judgment until Sufficient Evidence is available to make a decision, if time is allowed.   Certainty    Reasoning    Empirical    Pseudoscientific    Skeptic  Skeptic    Skepticism    Questioning    Randomized Controlled Trial    Scientific Misconceptions   Didaskalogenic  
Beliefs   Science Fraud and Corruption

You don't have to be a Physicist or a Rocket Scientist in order to use Scientific Methods. These skills are very useful for anyone who cares about improving themselves or improving their surroundings. Science will also increase a persons awareness about themselves and the world, exposing a sea of possibilities.

"Science may not have all the answers, but it will help you to understand things a little better, so that maybe you will find the answers that you need. This is what we found to be true, but every situation is different, so it might not be true for you."


I'm bilingual, but my other language is an unspoken language, it's called Computer Programming Language. I use symbols and characters to communicate instructions to computerized machines. But they are more then just machines. Computers are one of the most incredible tools that man has ever made. Computers are an extension of human intelligence. Computers provide us with more processing abilities and more memory capacities then any other time in human history. These computerized machines are humans analytical partner that aids us in understanding ourselves and our world. Humans quest for knowledge now has a powerful tool, a tool that gives us endless potential. And with the internet, we can now for the first time combine the collective wisdom, knowledge and experiences of millions of people from all over the world. We no longer need to depend on one country, or on one leader, or on one government. Because we now have the collective strength of each other. And together we will create a better world for everyone. So, what does your language do?   

"When you can Convert Atoms into a Language, you can do almost anything, like communicate to the Universe."


Are you sure that the instruments that you're using are calibrated? And do you know that the calibration may not be part of the equation? Calibration is a reference point. So the reference needs to be defined. So the first question is "What is this in reference to?"   Don't forget to Calibrate the Calibrator


Work Station Data Monitoring







   Nano, The Next Dimension

 

  World's Smallest Electric Motor: Sykes Group Tufts (youtube)    Metallic Microlattice  Youtube

  Nanoscale Heat Engine Beyond the Carnot Limit (Nano Engine made from a Single Atom)

  Nano Technologies      Nano Archive      Nano Electronics     Nano Tube Carbon     Nanographene
 

  Single Atom Transistor (youtube)      Micro-Robotics    Microbotics      Harvard       Nano News   

  Gary Greenberg: The Beautiful Nano Details of our World (youtube)       Jonathan Trent

   Nanodot (wiki)   Store Dot     Oxygen Gas-Filled Micro-Particles Provide Intravenous Oxygen Delivery

   Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistor

 

 


 

 
Science Resources and Information

Union of Concerned Scientists
National Science Foundation
Center for Science Education
Science House
Science Indicators
American Scientists
Royal Society
Max Planck
Public Library of Science
Science Cafes
Science Direct
C.E.R.N.
Nature
Office of Scientific information
Environmental Science Forestry
N.E. Bio Labs
Nat. Academies of Science
N.A.S. Proceedings
Physical Review E
Physical Review Letters
Assoc.of Science Technology
Advancing Science Society
Science and Technology
Sciplore
Live Science
Documentaries
Science Stage
New Scientist
Science.gov
Scientific American
Popular Mechanics
Popular Science
Wired Science (PBS)
Stem 101
Creative Commons Science

Engineering TV
Dmoz Science Links 
Scientific Search Engine
Science Research
Science News

Biology
Science that studies living organisms. Characteristic life processes and Phenomena of living Organisms.
All the Plant and Animal life of a particular region.

Biology Areas   Life Sciences    Biochemist   Biophysics
Biomedical Engineering    Biomechanics
Biological (wiki)   Order (biology)

Biology   Biosignature
Microbiology
Current Biology  Cell
Molecular Biology (wiki)
Chemical Biology (wiki)
Biogenesis (wiki)

Synthetic Biology (wiki)  GMO's
Synthetic Biology   Bio-Couture
Joint BioEnergy Institute
Bio-Based Material (wiki)
Biomedical Search
Astrobiology (wiki)
Biology 4 Kids
Bio Builder
Citizen Science (wiki)
DIY Biology    Biosafety Level
Open Source Materials   Self Assembly  sjet
Smart Material (wiki)
Bio-Plastic (wiki)

Gen Space
Bioethics (wiki)
Biotechnology Info
Developmental Biology (wiki) Morphogenesis
Plos Biology
Bioinformatics (wiki)
Biocybernetics (wiki)

Biometrics (wiki)
Biotechnology
Doris Kim Sung: BioMetals that Breath (youtube)
Green Building

Playing God (youtube)
Paul Root Wolpe: Questioning Bio-Engineering (video)

Biological Engineering (wiki)    Xenotransplantation
Biopunk (wiki)
Techno-progressivism
Biological Innovation Society
Computational Biology
Biocide
Bio Fuels
Biosecurity
Biomimicry
Environmental Biology
Khan Biology (videos)

Technology News

Genetics   DNA

Information Resources

Space Websites

Physics

Thermodynamics

Science Education

 


Science Tools  /  Science Equipment  /  Fairs

Science Tools and Science Equipment
Curious Minds
Home Training Tools

Seeing Small Things
Optical Microscope   Digital Microscope    Microscopy
SCiO: Molecular Sensor, Optical Sensor, Spectrometer
Spectrometer (wiki)   Photoresistor (wiki)
Photoelectric Sensor (wiki)   Position Sensor (wiki)
Eppendorf Tubes
Turn Your Smartphone Into a Digital Microscope (youtube)
Electron Microscope   Atomic Force Microscopy
Scanning Probe Microscopy
Scanning Tunneling Microscope
LatticeLight-Sheet Microscopy  Video
Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (wiki)

Scientifics Online
Poly Science
Science Kits
Science Tools and Parts
Radio Shack DIY
Kinoma Create
Learn to Code
Electronic Modules for Prototyping and Play  Makey Makey
Clip-it using plastic bottle caps to make molecules
Conductive Ink (wiki)   Bare Conductive
Kate Stone: DJ Decks made of Paper (video)
Games and Toys for Learning
Elemental Scientific
E Science Labs
Science Buddies
Lab Tests
Chemistry

Work Shops
Hackerspace (wiki)
Nextfab
Makerspace
Tech Shop

TechShop (wiki)
Generator Vermont

Frederickswerken
Workshop (wiki)
Collaboration Knowledge

Spare Parts
Surplus Center
Apex Electronic
Norton Sales Inc
Computer Components

Educational Toys
Ideas  /  Innovation

Fairs / Museums / Festivals
Science Fair Ideas
Science Fair Projects
Science Fair Project
Science Made Simple
Create Research Teams
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Evolution  /  Intelligent Design

Creationism (wiki)     Intelligent Design     Evolution      Natural Selection      Anomalistics     Phylogenetics    Genealogy

Don't confuse Life with Evolution, or confuse Evolution with Adaptation. Though they are related in certain ways those are three different things with different definitions that are not 100 percent defined.

Biogenesis, Abiogenesis or Spontaneous Generation?     Star Trek III The Search for Spock (youtube)    Anthropic Principle 

Evolution is about Natural Selection and the Adaptation of Species, because those are facts that can be explained and understood by most people. Evolution does not explain where species originate from, or how life starts, that would be Physics.
 
Falsifying Phylogeny (youtube)    Parsimony      Phylogeny Archive      Arizona Tree of Life Web Project    Binary Fission

Phylogenetic Tree     Phylogenetic Network     Darwin's Dilemma  500 Million years ago was the Cambrian Explosion

Most Animals Start out the Same Way, but they never end the same way.    Horizontal Gene Transfer

Yes we know animals evolve or adapt because we have evidence. But you can’t prove that new species evolve from other species. Why would a lizard want to evolve into a horse? And why didn't Dinosaurs eventually grow brains within 160 million years?
 
Why are Mutations thought to be part of the evolutionary process? (Mutation Rate)     Point Accepted Mutation (wiki)
Pure Nature Specials - Mutation - The Science of Survival (youtube)   Morphology (biology)    Genes / DNA

“Change is not merely necessary to life - it is life.”  Alvin Toffler 

"Knowing what you're made out of does not explain how you were made....Knowing E=mc2 does not fully explain what energy is, or does it explain what matter is, or what light is. So what do we know?"

Evolution:
A process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage. (especially a more advanced or mature stage)
(biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms.

Maturation:
Coming to full development; becoming mature (biology) the process of an individual organism growing organically;
A purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level.

When something doesn't make sense it means you don't have all the information, so what's missing? Just because animals share the same Genes does not mean that one animal evolved from the other animal, it simply means that they share the same building blocks of Life. So what causes these little variations, like the variations we see in humans? Is it a combination of a Variable and a Fractal? Is evolution part Physics?

Irreducible Complexity     Irreducible Complexity (youtube)     Genetic Variation     Genetic Drift      Epigenetics     Genes / DNA

"Life has been using a standard set of 20 Amino Acids to build Proteins for more than 3 billion years"
 
quoted by Stephen J. Freeland of the NASA Astrobiology Institute at the University of Hawaii.

Humans

Evolution has a hard time proving Diversity or Variety. (Cambrian Explosion)  We also have some species staying the same for millions of years while other species in the same time period evolving or Adapting. Something's just appear, so where did they originate from? And somehow, even through Mass Extinctions, life still found a way to survive in some form. And after each Mass Extinction, life never returns in the same way that it was before. So it doesn't look like a normal process of life, it kind of looks like someone or something is trying something new, like some form of Intelligence trying to define itself. There are huge gaps of missing information. Both religious and non-religious people love to fill those gaps with their beliefs. But if I had a choice of filling the gap of missing information with something, I would rather say that it was God then to say that it was nothing. Not that I would, but I do understand why some people would say that. I mean, who would want to be considered just a freak of nature.
Just because you can’t explain something now doesn’t mean that you never will. Believing you know the answer is different from actually knowing the answer. Plus we only have one planet that we know of where life exists
. So from a science point of view, having only one example of life can never be hard evidence and that this is just the normal process of life. To me this is a silly argument and I take no sides in this discussion. Both sides have good claims, good points and good theories. Even though this is a healthy discussion that needs more looking into I can’t help to know that we have more important and more urgent problems that need to be addressed. This is a distraction but we will come back to this. Maybe evolution is just another form of consciousness or some form of intelligence that we are unable to comprehend. Maybe evolution is God’s work? Who else could have figured out that the only way you can have a sustaining planet is to give plants and animals the ability to evolve, adapt and to flourish. If you don’t adapt you die. And that is exactly where humans are today. Evolution has given all of us some extremely valuable information that Cause and Effect is real and that Cause and Effect should not be ignored. Everyone should just stick with the facts. Evolution does not explain everything and Religion does not explain everything, so why are we so threatened by someone else's beliefs? As long as no one ever stops asking questions, no one should ever fear or feel threatened by other peoples beliefs. The most important thing is that we keep sharing information and keep documenting our world. You should never claim that you have all the answers. If you are stubborn and selfish with your beliefs then the message you are trying to convey will only distort information and confuse people into believing that there are no more questions to ask. And that is simply a crime against humanity. A good documentary to watch is War on Science. People are overreacting in this film but I understand their passion. Another example of people overreacting is in a film called “The Shape of Life” from PBS. This film has great information but it's kind of ruined because they pretend to know the answers of evolution. These are the kinds of things we need to stop doing if we are going to educate people and secure our species survival. A better film to watch is Miracle Planet. To me it seems that a single cell is intelligent life. How and why? I don't know.
Pyramid of Complexity   Microorganisms   Metaorganisms   
Bacteria    Primordial Soup   Archaea    Eukaryote

So what's wrong with saying "I don't know? "Teaching evolution is not bad, what's bad is how you teach evolution and how it's understood by people. The same thing with religion, teaching religion is not bad, it's how you teach Religion and how it's understood." If evolution is information evolving, and if God is information, then I guess you're both right.
This is just another Human Transition, maybe evolution and intelligent design are the same thing?....Can I go now?

"You can't prove that God does not exist, or can you prove that God does exist. We should stick with the things that we can prove and save the things that we cannot prove for later time. Because if we don't solve our greatest problems, that we all face, we will never live to see God, or live to see if there isn't a God."

"It is difficult to understand how anyone can believe that the Nervous System, particularly the brain, could have been produced by evolutionary randomness and selection. We have barely touched on some of the electrical design present in the rest of the body. The truth is that scientists are always discovering more about its workings, since its complexity, which far surpasses anything produced by man, is nothing short of a miracle. Truly we can say with David, “I will praise You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; Your works are marvelous and my soul knows it very well”      (Psalm 139:14). (Craig Savige)     Modern Humans

"Whether you believe that evolution or God designed our brain doesn't really matter, what matters is that you never ignore the human brains enormous potential, and its weaknesses. The knowledge that we have acquired about the human brain is invaluable. So knowing who or what made it will not be as important as learning how the brain works and learning how effectively we can use its power. So when we finally do figure out who or what made us, it will not come to us as some big surprise, because after all, we have brains."     "Thank God my brain is smarter then I am."

"God has reasons for doing things, and evolution has reasons too, and if God created evolution, then evolution can't be wrong."

"I couldn't even imagine being anything else but human. Human to me is the greatest way to experience life. And when we imagine what other life from other planets looks like, that makes me even prouder, because the human form to me is the most enjoyable machine a person could ever design. I couldn't even dream of a better human. Some people would say a human with wings, or a human with superman powers. But we already have those because of the machines that we will built."

If you didn't have what you needed to know what you were missing, then how would you evolve into it? I know information is some form of intelligence, what I don't know is how did information see when it didn't have what was needed to see what it didn't have?
I think that humans take for granted that our way of seeing through the eyes is the only form of sight.

"I'm the evolutionary result of a seed that was born thousands of years ago, and yet it feels like the first time being alive."

Some people believe that 10 million years ago that some of the monkeys changed their diet just enough to evolve into humans. Though I fully understand the importance of nutrition and how diet can improve appearance and health, I'm having a little trouble understanding just what nutritional substances can cause a species body to change and grow a better brain? I'm positive we can repeat this theory. We just need to start feeding monkeys better food and lets see what happens. Of course it will take many life times to see the results, but we should start seeing some changes, maybe Planet of the Apes?   Monkey Shines   Project X

And since we have evidence and experience in knowing that some Miracles can actually be explained, we still have to keep trying to understand our world. We have enough evidence to prove that our increased understanding of the world has benefited us in many ways. Not to say that it was Perfect, But at least we are definitely more aware of our possibilities and of our human potential.


"It's not the strongest of species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change."
 Charles Darwin
          Michael Archer: How we'll Resurrect the Gastric Brooding Frog the Tasmanian Tiger (video)

People didn't have enough information and knowledge years ago that was needed in order to explain complex ideas and concepts. But now we do, and we can be more precise. Not that we can fully explain all knowledge correctly to all people, but at least we know now that the acquisition of more knowledge is always needed to further our understanding and also to help to explain knowledge so that more people can understand. The mistake that most people make is that they believed that all knowledge is known, so they make assumptions instead of realizing that more knowledge, information and research is needed. So not only do we have more knowledge and information today, we also have the intelligence to know that more knowledge and information is always needed. So we can now make less assumptions, make less mistakes, and we never assume that we know everything, thus we keep learning.

"I wouldn't want to assume that life started on this planet. I'm just saying that life had to start somewhere. Where and how, I don't know? But I hope we find out, because that would be an incredible story. We know that our galaxy was not the first galaxy born in our universe. So we may have brothers and sisters, some we may never know? But my guess is, that we will find our siblings, because everything usually leaves some kind of a trace."

Trace: A just detectable amount. An indication that something has been present. A visible mark (as a footprint) left by the passage of person or animal or vehicle. Discover traces of. Follow, discover, or ascertain the course of development of something
To go back over again. Pursue or chase relentlessly.
Detect: Discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of.
Indication: A datum about some physical state that is presented to a user by a meter or similar instrument.




The First Integrated Circuit  (September 12th, 1958)


The First Microchip Handmade in 1958 by Jack Kilby

 

 

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