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Self-Directed Learning - Independent Learning


Mastering the Power of LearningBoy with Magnifying Glass Learning

First you Learn to Learn. Second, you learn everything valuable that will increase your knowledge and understanding of yourself and the world around you. Third, you never stop learning, if you do, you will underutilize the most power machine on the planet, the human brain.

"To Teach Yourself is to Free Yourself "

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Active Learning is a method of learning in which students are actively or experientially involved in the learning process and where there are different levels of active learning, depending on student involvement. Human Search Engine

Lifelong Learning is the "ongoing, voluntary, and self-motivated" pursuit of knowledge for either personal or professional reasons. Therefore, it not only enhances social inclusion, active citizenship, and personal development, but also self-sustainability, Innovation, as well as competitiveness and employability.

Do it Yourself Resources - DIY Biology - Citizen Science

Coyote Teaching approach seeks to spark curiosity and create a self-directed learning experience that teaches the student how to seek answers on their own versus becoming dependent on a teacher. Teach Myself

Learning for Life designed to prepare youth for the complexities of contemporary society and to enhance their self-confidence, motivation, and self-esteem, and for careers. Learning for Life

Become a Lifelong Learner
Becoming a Learner for Life
Live, Learn, Love and Progress

Constructionism is when individual learners construct mental models in order to understand the world around them. Constructionism advocates student-centered, discovery learning where students use information they already know to acquire more knowledge. Students learn through participation in project-based learning where they make connections between different ideas and areas of knowledge facilitated by the teacher through coaching rather than using lectures or step-by-step guidance. Further, constructionism holds that learning can happen most effectively when people are active in making tangible objects in the real world. In this sense, constructionism is connected with experiential learning and builds on Jean Piaget's epistemological theory of constructivism.

Self-Regulated Learning refers to learning that is guided by metacognition (thinking about one's thinking), strategic action (planning, monitoring, and evaluating personal progress against a standard), and motivation to learn. "Self-regulated" describes a process of taking control of and evaluating one's own learning and behavior.
Self Directed Learning

Reflective Practice is the ability to reflect on an action so as to engage in a process of continuous learning. According to one definition it involves "paying critical attention to the practical values and theories which inform everyday actions, by examining practice reflectively and reflexively. This leads to developmental insight". A key rationale for reflective practice is that experience alone does not necessarily lead to learning; deliberate reflection on experience is essential.

Inference is the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true. The laws of valid inference are studied in the field of logic.

Autodidacticism is the act of learning about a subject or subjects in which one has had little to no formal education. Many notable contributions have been made by autodidacts. "everyone starts out as a self-teaching autodidact"
Self Made Scholar
Art of Self Education

Education needs to be a process that facilitates learning, and the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

Purpose of Education

Polymath is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas; such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

Multipotentiality is an educational and psychological term referring to the ability and preference of a person, particularly one of strong intellectual or artistic curiosity, to excel in two or more different fields.

An Independent Learner is a student who is Information Literate, and pursues information related to personal interests. An Independent Learner appreciates literature and Other Creative Expressions of Information and strives for excellence in information seeking and knowledge generation. 

A Master of Independent Learning is an expert analyzer of Information with a passion and a desire to acquire knowledge so that learning and understanding continues to thrive for as long as human life exists.

Teaching yourself, being self-taught and self-educated is not just an option, it is absolutely necessary.
 

Words that Describe Learning


Interest is a sense of concern. Curiosity about someone or something. A reason for wanting something done. Having or showing interest; especially curiosity or fascination or concern. Excite the curiosity of; engage the interest of. Be of importance or consequence. 

Interest (emotion) is a feeling or emotion that causes attention to focus on an object, event, or process. In contemporary psychology of interest, the term is used as a general concept that may encompass other more specific psychological terms, such as curiosity and to a much lesser degree surprise.

Wonder is to have a wish or desire to know something. A state in which you want to learn more about something. Place in doubt or express doubtful speculation.

Learning (methods and styles)

Searching for Ideas

Searching is diligent and thorough in inquiry or investigation. Having keenness and forcefulness and penetration in thought, expression, or intellect. Exploring thoroughly. Try to locate or discover, or try to establish the existence of.

Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources.

A Mans Reach should Exceed his Grasp, for what is Heaven for? Sometimes you have to go beyond what you see and what is known. Nothing ventured, nothing gained. A calculated risk is sometimes necessary. Dammed if you do, Dammed if you don't. But wait, if you succeed or fail, what will you learn? What is your goal? Will you be able to except the consequences? Will you be able to handle the glory? Is this your fate, or just a bad decision? Either way, what choices do you have? Will there be another time? Will you have another opportunity?

Discover is to determine the existence, presence, or fact of. Get to know or become aware of, sometimes accidentally. Make a discovery, make a new finding. Make a discovery. Find unexpectedly. Make known to the public information that was previously known only to a few people or that was meant to be kept a secret. See for the first time. 

Discovery Observation is the act of detecting something new, or something "old" that had been unrecognized as meaningful.

Noticing is to express recognition of the presence or existence of. Paying Attention. A short critical review.  

Perceive - Observe

Recognition is coming to understand something clearly and distinctly. An acceptance (as of a claim) as true and valid.

Realize is to be fully aware or cognizant of. Perceive (an idea or situation) mentally. Make real or concrete; give reality or substance to. Realization is Coming to understand something clearly and distinctly.

Adventure
Games
Creativity

Openness to Experience
Motivation
Information Resources

Curiosity is a state in which you want to learn more about something. Eager to investigate and learn or learn more. (sometimes about others' concerns). Having curiosity aroused; eagerly interested in learning more. Homo Quaerens is Latin for "human curiosity". The drive to learn, to invent, to explore, and to study continuously. The sudden awareness of what you don’t know and the immediate desire to fill that gap. The brain continuously calculates which path or action is most likely to gain us the most knowledge in the least amount of time. Curiosity peaks when subjects had a good guess about what the answer is but weren’t quite sure. "Learning can sometimes be like you're trying to solve a mystery by following all the clues."

Intrinsically Motivated Learning (PDF)
Intelligent Adaptive Curiosity (PDF)

Intelligence

Motivated - Inspiration

Arousal is to cause to be Alert and energetic. Cause to become awake or conscious.

Reward-Based Learning

Concern is to think strongly about something, having something on the mind of. Something that interests you because it is important or affects you. A feeling of sympathy for someone or something. 

Morality

Investigation

Aggressive is having or showing determination and energetic pursuit of your ends. Sometimes you have to be aggressive when learning, because some things will not come easy, especially knowledge and information that you need. People will try to keep it from you. But if you are determined, it will be almost impossible to stop you. Because that is life, and life cannot be stopped. Even through all the mass extinctions, life has always found a way.

Motivation (inspiration)

Ambitious is having a strong desire for success or achievement. Requiring full use of your abilities or resources. Aspirational.

Persistent is determination in doing something despite difficulty or delay in achieving success. A continuous and connected period of time. The act of persisting or persevering; continuing or repeating behavior.

Determination is devoting full strength and concentrated attention to. Strongly motivated to succeed. Shape or influence; give direction to. The quality of being determined to do or achieve something; firmness of purpose. Deciding or controlling something's outcome or nature. The act of making up your mind about something. Find out, learn, or determine with certainty, usually by making an inquiry or other effort.

Will Power

Dedication is the act of binding yourself (intellectually or emotionally) to a course of action. Faithful.

Energetic is working hard, enterprising or ambitious drive. A healthy capacity for vigorous activity. Possessing or exerting or displaying energy.

Eager is having or showing keen interest or intense desire or impatient expectancy. A positive feeling of wanting to push ahead with something. Prompt willingness

Pursuit is to carry out or participate in an activity; be involved in.

Examine is to consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order to discover essential features or meaning. The act of conducting a controlled test or investigation. Observe, check out, and look over carefully or inspect. Question or examine thoroughly and closely. Mull it over: meaning to think about; to consider; to ruminate about; reflect deeply on a subject.

Analyze
Scholarly Method
Information Literacy
Methods of obtaining Knowledge
Learning Methods

Investigate is the work of inquiring into something thoroughly and systematically. Conduct an inquiry or investigation of. Question or examine thoroughly and closely. An exploratory action or expedition. Science is an Adventure

Journalism

Serendipity is an unexpected discovery. Finding something interesting while looking for something else.

Serendipity
Epiphany
Search Engines

Research is a systematic investigation to establish facts. Attempt to find out in a systematically and scientific manner.

Research
Awareness

Studied is produced or marked by conscious design or premeditation. Consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order to discover essential features or meaning. Give careful consideration to. Be a student of a certain subject. Learn by reading books.
Think intently and at length, as for spiritual purposes.

Thinking
Self Organized Learning Environment
Memory

Extract Your Own Meaning is to reason by deduction or principle, or construe, which is to make sense of; assign a meaning to.

Free-Thought is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, conformity, revelation, or other dogma. The cognitive application of freethought is known as "freethinking", and practitioners of freethought are known as "freethinkers".

Knowing
Intelligence
The Beatles - Think For Yourself (youtube)

Learn is to gain knowledge or skills, gain through experience. Get to know or become aware of, sometimes accidentally. Commit to memory; learn by heart. Be a student of a certain subject. Impart skills or knowledge to Find out, learn, or determine with certainty, usually by making an inquiry or other effort. 

Learning Methods
Teaching - Instruct
Inspiration
Human Search Engine
Training - Skill
Rehearsal

Personal Learning Network is an informal learning network that consists of the people a learner interacts with and derives knowledge from in a personal learning environment. In a PLN, a person makes a connection with another person with the specific intent that some type of learning will occur because of that connection.

Remember, Formal Learning, or learning in a school, is just one type of learning method. It would be dangerous and ignorant to call self-directed learning "Informal Learning". When you define the "Education Objective", and define what being a Trained Teacher is supposed to be, you will discover that any style of learning is no different then any other style of learning as long as you learn in the way that you like, and not in a way that someone else likes. Social Learning
It would be ignorant to say that self-directed learning is voluntary. That's like saying that eating is voluntary, you don't have to eat, but if you don't eat you die. You don't have to learn, but if you don't learn you die. And just because something is labeled non-voluntary or Compulsory, does not say why it is important or why you need this more then other knowledge. The sooner you learn to learn on your own, the better your life will be.

"There are many things that seem to big and complex to figure out, but that's how they all start."

Self Directed Learning

Determine is to explain something after a calculation, investigation, experiment, survey, or study. Find out, learn, or determine with certainty, usually by making an inquiry or other effort. Shape or influence; give direction to. Reach, make, or come to a decision about something. The act of determining the properties of something, usually by research or calculation.

Deliberated is to think about carefully; weigh. Discuss the pros and cons of an issue. Value - Utility

Problem Solve
Self-Organized Learning Environment

Contemplated is to look at thoughtfully; observe deep in thought. Consider as a possibility. Reflect deeply on a subject. 

Philosophy

"Sometimes we learn more by looking for an answer to a question than we do from learning the answer itself." Journey

"Everyone is born with an adventurous spirit, but our lives get complicated and there are many distractions, so we lose our natural instinct to explore. So we have to manually activate our love for exploring, which isn't bad, we just have to remember to do it once a day. We need to look at life as free as a new born baby. If your not exploring what's important and valuable, things that you can learn from, then exploring becomes unimportant."

Develop is to make something new, such as a product or a mental or artistic creation. Gain through experience. Become technologically advanced. Change the use of and make available or usable. Create by training and teaching. Grow, progress, unfold, or evolve through a process of evolution, natural growth, differentiation, or a conducive environment. Cause to grow and differentiate in ways conforming to its natural development. Grow emotionally or mature. Move one's pieces into strategically more advantageous positions.

Child Development
Product Development

Tested is to prove something to be useful or correct. Tested and proved to be reliable, tried and true, well-tried. Put to the test, as for its quality, or give experimental use to. Examine someone's knowledge of something. Determine the presence or properties of (a substance).

Research
Testing Mistakes to Avoid

Performance is doing something successfully; using knowledge as distinguished from merely possessing it. Process or manner of functioning or operating.

Progress
Process

Evolve is a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage).

Evolution

Potential is having possibilities. The inherent capacity for coming into being or happening or being true. A tentative insight into the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena.

Action Physics

Condition of Possibility is framework for the possible appearance of a given list of entities.

"Learning should just flow, no dams, no restrictions, just discovering where learning and knowledge will take us."

Learning Methods
Learning at Birth
Intelligence
Logic
Online Schools
Knowledge Management
Database Management
Documenting - Record Keeping
Self-Efficacy
Do It Yourself
Problem Solving
Time Management
Spatial intelligence
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Media Literacy
Science
Liberal Arts
Questioning
Creativity
Ideas
Inspiration
Navigating the Internet
Human Search Engine
Methods for Learning
Information Literacy
Focus
Home Organized Education


Hackerspace


Don't ever assume that everyone knows what the word "Hacker" means. The definition of Hacker has been hacked itself. When I hear the work Hacker, I'm thinking that some person has some computer hardware and software skills, but how much knowledge they have is unknown. So the word Hacker really describes very little about a person, it only says they have some computer skills, and that's it. Just because someone taught themselves how to work on their own car doesn't mean that they're a Hacker. A computer programmer with a college degree isn't a Hacker. And anyone who self-taught themselves to the same level of knowledge is also not a Hacker. We should stop using the word Hacker when describing a person who is "A Self-Taught Learner." Let's just say that someone is learning, or self-teaching, or exploring, or researching, or computer programing. Instead of using the term 'Hacker Space', we should call it a Makerspace or "Science Space" or Learning Space. Your Personal Space to Explore your Ideas, a Space to Build your Inventions, a Space to Learn and Discover. A place that supply's the Tools and the Resources for Creative Minds. Development Rules

Science Space

Hacker
is a person who enjoys exploring the limits of what is possible, in a spirit of playful cleverness. A hacker is one who enjoys the intellectual challenge of creativity. Someone who likes overcoming and circumventing limitations of programming systems, and tries to extend their capabilities. A hacker is not just about computers, even though computers are one of our most important tools that we have, it is still just one of many tools that people can use. Repurpose 

Security Hacker is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network. Hackers may be motivated by a multitude of reasons, such as profit, protest, challenge, recreation, or to evaluate system weaknesses to assist in formulating defenses against potential hackers. The subculture that has evolved around hackers is often referred to as the computer underground. Note: I'm more worried about the Human Brain Hacking that goes on from the media and schools, that kind of hacking does more damage then anything else. People who hack computers actually shows the irony of our reality. So you have to ask yourself, how much of your mind has been hacked? Do you know how to scan the human mind for viruses?

Hacker Hobbyist are individuals who enjoy the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming limitations of software systems to achieve novel and clever outcomes. Hacker Programmer (wiki)

Hobbyist
is a person who is interested in a subject or an activity in their spare time, something other than their main occupation.

Jury Rig refers to temporary repairs made with only the tools and materials that happen to be on hand.

How to Deal With a Bad Repair

Hackerspace is a community-operated workspace where people with common interests, often in computers, machining, technology, science, digital art or electronic art, can meet, socialize and collaborate. Cooperate and not Compete

Hacker Spaces (wiki)
List of Hacker Spaces (wiki)
Hac DC
Do it Yourself Resources

Reverse Engineering is the processes of extracting knowledge or design information from anything man-made and re-producing it or re-producing anything based on the extracted information. The process often involves disassembling something (a mechanical device, electronic component, computer program, or biological, chemical, or organic matter) and analyzing its components and workings in detail.

Hacker Space is a place where your voice and your ideas can be heard. A learning environment, a networking environment and an open source environment. A community workshop. An interactive library. A collaboration space. A collection of unique and diverse individuals who like exploring knowledge, solving problems, researching ideas, and expressing themselves creatively. A place where a person can share and have access to tools, machines, software, Electronic Test Equipment, knowledge, books, ideas, skills, materials and resources. A place where a person can learn about the power of collaboration by using the talents and skills of other people collectively to solve problems and create new advances in technology. A place where you can have your own project area with a large work bench for fabrication and prototyping.  

Maintenance
Tinkering
Tinkering Course

When you combine the talent and skills of many people, you create more potential. When you have an idea that you can quickly get feedback and insight on, you don't have to waste time wondering about the possibilities. We don't want to judge other peoples ideas until we learn and understand what they want to achieve. 

MIT’s Largest Hackathon innovates on software and hardware projects.  
Science Tools and Resources

MIT Media Lab: 24 research groups on more than 350 projects that range from digital approaches for treating neurological disorders, to a stackable, electric car for sustainable cities. Annual operating budget: approx. $60 million.

Public Lab is a community where you can learn how to investigate environmental concerns. Using inexpensive DIY techniques, we seek to change how people see the world in environmental, social, and political terms. 

Shenzhen: The Silicon Valley of Hardware (Full Documentary) | Future Cities | WIRED (youtube)
Work Shops for Inventors and Makers
Original Equipment Manufacturer is a company that makes a part or subsystem that is used in another company's end product. For example, if Acme Manufacturing Co. makes power cords that are used on IBM computers, Acme is an OEM.

This Scientist makes Ears out of Apples: Biohacker Andrew Pelling: (video and Interactive Text)
Spiderwort
Phacktory
3D Printing



10,000-Hours Rule


10,000-Hours Rule is not a rule, it's what we have witnessed and documented as being the Average amount of time that it takes for the average person to become really good at something, like playing the piano or playing sports at a professional level. Everyone starts as a Novice or a beginner, then it's up to you if you want to be an Expert or a Professional. You may need help from Coaching and Education. Whether the proficiency is relevant or not relevant, proficiency levels will vary from person to person. It's not so much the quantity of time that you spend Practicing and Training, but more importantly, it's the quality of the time that you spend learning. There are also other factors involved in determining proficiency levels, like physical or mental limitations, good teaching methods, good coaching, access to valuable knowledge, information and tools, having a good memory, inspiration, and having the time and the dedication. Practicing right before you go to sleep, and learning one hour before you go to Sleep could help improve memory and learning new skills. You can become really good at something, but if you stop practicing for a while, your proficiency level will decrease and you will not become great. You should also determine the value of your proficiency, like being a surgeon compared to being a professional sports player. The bottom line is, it could take a long time to become really good at something, and if time is all you have, then you should spend your time effectively and efficiently as possible, and learn the most important things first. Practice makes perfect, but not always, for chess players, practice only accounted for 34% of what determined the rank of a Master Player.

If you practice 2 hours a day, that's 730 hours a year, it will take about 13 years to master a skill.
If you practice 4 hours a day, that's 1,460 hours a year, it will take about 7 years to master a skill.
If you practice 6 hours a day, that's 2,190 hours a year, it will take about 4.5 years to master a skill, on average of course.

Guy Plays Table Tennis Every Day for a Year and goes from beginner to expert in just one year (youtube)
Expert in a Year
How to get better at the things you care about: Eduardo Briceño (video and interactive text)
Accelerated Learning: How To Get Good at Anything in 20 Hours (youtube)

Training is Teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one's capability, capacity, productivity and performance.

Practice (learning method) is the act of rehearsing a behavior over and over, or engaging in an activity again and again, for the purpose of improving or mastering it, as in the phrase "practice makes perfect". Sports teams practice to prepare for actual games. Playing a musical instrument well takes a lot of practice. It is a method of learning and of acquiring experience.

Learning Methods

Retraining is the process of learning a new or the same old skill or trade for the same group of personnel. Refresher/Re-training is required to be provided on regular basis to avoid personnel obsolescence due to technological changes & the tendency to forget. This short term instruction course shall serve to re-acquaint personnel with skills previously learnt (recall to retain the potentials) or to bring one's knowledge or skills up-to-date (latest) so that skills stay sharp.

Active Recall is a principle of efficient learning, which claims the need to actively stimulate memory during the learning process. It contrasts with passive review, in which the learning material is processed passively (e.g. by reading, watching, etc.).

Spaced Repetition is a learning technique that incorporates increasing intervals of time between subsequent review of previously learned material in order to exploit the psychological spacing effect. Alternative names include spaced rehearsal, expanding rehearsal, graduated intervals, repetition spacing, repetition scheduling, spaced retrieval and expanded retrieval.

Testing Effect is the finding that long-term memory is increased when some of the learning period is devoted to retrieving the to-be-remembered information through testing with proper feedback. The effect is also sometimes referred to as retrieval practice, practice testing, or test-enhanced learning.

Memory Consolidation is distinguished into two specific processes, synaptic consolidation, which is synonymous with late-phase long-term potentiation and occurs within the first few hours after learning, and systems consolidation, where hippocampus-dependent memories become independent of the hippocampus over a period of weeks to years. Recently, a third process has become the focus of research, reconsolidation, in which previously-consolidated memories can be made labile again through reactivation of the memory trace.

Engram (neuropsychology) is the means by which memories are stored as biophysical or biochemical changes in the brain (and other neural tissue) in response to external stimuli.

Brain Plasticity - "Neurons that fire together, wire together."  "Practice makes Perfect"

Skill is learning to carry out a task with pre-determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both.

Sub-Skills
are skills that are part of a larger skill. System Integration is defined as the process of bringing together the component subsystems into one system and ensuring that the subsystems function together as a system.

Mastery is having comprehensive knowledge or skill in a subject or accomplishment. Control or superiority over someone or something.

"You don't have to be great in order to get started, but you have to get started if you want to be great."

Specialist Degree is hierarchically above the Master's Degree and below the Doctorate. Prodigy

Certification refers to the confirmation of certain characteristics of an object, person, or organization. This confirmation is often, but not always, provided by some form of external review, education, assessment, or audit. Accreditation is a specific organization's process of certification.

Accreditation is the process in which certification of competency, authority, or credibility is presented.

License refers to that permission as well as to the document recording that permission.

Thought Leader can refer to an individual or firm that is recognized as an authority in a specialized field and whose expertise is sought and often rewarded.

Not Always an Expert?
Smart?
Competence?
Programing (behavior)
Simulation - VR
Cooperative
Knowledgeable

20 Minutes Per Day Rule
Even spending just 20 minutes a day doing something valuable can still add up.
20 minutes a day exercising, 20 minutes a day reading, 20 minutes a day making phone calls, 20 minutes a day researching,
20 minutes a day meditating, 20 minutes a day organizing, 20 minutes a day learning something new, and so on.

Routines

Learn to Unicycle in 2 Hours and 38 minutes (youtube)

The speed at which you learn is based on previous learned abilities that are related to a new skill that you are trying to learn. The more abilities you have that are related to a new skill that you are trying to learn, the faster you will learn. Learning some of the basic skills of a particular process, will also help you learn faster. You shouldn't have to rush learning, and you shouldn't have to struggle trying to learn something new. Learning is a process that every human is born with, but if you don't learn to understand the process of learning, starting with knowing the How, What, Where, When and Why you are learning, is the first step.

If you practice a slightly modified version of a task that you want to master, then it's possible to learn more and faster than if you just keep practicing the exact same thing multiple times in a row. Make small variations in practice sessions.

Iteration is the act of repeating a process, either to generate an unbounded sequence of outcomes, or with the aim of approaching a desired goal, target or result. Each repetition of the process is also called an "iteration", and the results of one iteration are used as the starting point for the next iteration.

Logically Ordered Steps in the Correct Sequence

Sometimes it takes me months and years to learn things that should only take few hours or minutes. That is why I teach, to save people time, which leaves more time for people to enjoy life much more then I did, and I enjoyed a lot, even with all that wasted time it took for me to learn important lessons.

The average student spends around 20,000 Hours in School. And they end up not being experts of anything, why is that?

How Skill Expertise Shapes the Brain Functional Architecture: An FMRI Study of Visuo-Spatial and Motor Processing in Professional Racing-Car and Naïve Drivers.

Mental Function might actually be Enhanced in Winter

Arctic cognition is a study of cognitive performance in summer and winter at 69°N.

How many hours a day do you have to spend reading in order to become a Doctor in 6 years?
It's estimated that a student would need to read 4 hours a day (book study) and take another 4 hours a day of class time, hands on instructions and laboratory work. About 40 hours per week. First you have to start out with a good High school Education. Then take a 2-4-year undergraduate degree program. The take the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), which is a computer-based standardized examination for prospective medical students in the United States, Australia. Then spend 4 years in medical school. And then complete 3-7 years of residency training. Then take United States Medical Licensing Examination, which is administered by the National Board of Medical Examiners. Now you're a Doctor.

10 Books every Pre-Med should read while not studying
On Becoming a Doctor: Everything You Need to Know about Medical School, Residency, Specialization, and Practice


Failure


There's no such thing as Failure, there's only Learning. Learning what works and learning what doesn't work. Don't consider mistakes or an Error as failure, because mistakes can help us understand what's good and what's not so good. A mistake is a process of learning. Without mistakes it would be almost impossible to know Right from Wrong. Don't look at mistakes as failure, just see them for what they are, an idea that didn't work out the way you thought it would, and hopefully, you will learn the reasons why something did not work.  Learning Opportunities are everywhere. Never miss out on an Opportunity to Learn something valuable. The brains memory has enormous capacity for knowledge.

"Everyone is fallible to some degree, and everyone is vulnerable to making mistakes and errors."

Mistake is a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention. An understanding of something that is not correct.

Trial and Error is trying different things to solve a problem. Coming up with creative ways of Problem Solving. It is characterised by repeated, varied attempts which are continued until success, or until the agent stops trying.

Famous People who Persevered don't give up to early.

Editing (update)
Validate (making sure)

Fail is falling short of a Goal. An event that does not accomplish its intended Purpose.

Don't confuse Failing with Failure. Failure is realizing that you made a mistake. Failing is when you do nothing to stop the mistake from happening again. So the only time that you can become a failure is when you allow known mistakes to continue, especially  when you have the power and the ability to stop these mistakes from happening again, then you are a failure. But still not broken. Fail = Future Always Involves Learning.

Praising - Regret

Error-full Generation - Learning from Mistakes

The Benefit of Generating Errors during Learning
Desirable Difficulties Perspective on Learning
Learning Methods (ways to learn)
Desirable Difficulties Perspective on Learning (PDF)

Anna Karenina Principle describes an endeavor in which a deficiency in any one of a number of factors dooms it to failure. Consequently, a successful endeavor (subject to this principle) is one where every possible deficiency has been avoided.

Innovations (ideas)
Things Happen for a Reason (causality)

"I have not failed. I've just found 10,000 ways that won't work."  (Thomas Edison)

And since Thomas Edison, the world has found a million things that don't work and a million ways that don't work. The last 117 years has been like one crazy experiment after an other. Sacrificing millions of people and destroying the enormous potential that every human has. As of 2016, we have learned so much about ourselves and the world, and that realization is slowly beginning to grow. It's time we put our lessons learned into practice. Millions of people are dying every year from things that we can avoid. We need to take communication more seriously. Without the transfer of information, life does not exist. We have the ability to solve every problem that we have. But just having abilities is useless unless we take action and use our abilities accurately and effectively. We are not fully addressing the multitude of social problems that we have. We need to address these issues by communicating more in our schools and in our governments. We need to improve education and make education more accessible and affordable to everyone. And at the same time, we need to improve our governments, and we need to improve all the different ways that we communicate. We have the technology, and we also have a skilled workforce of educated people, people who are either sitting idol or being under utilized doing some other job or function. There needs to be a clear plan on how this will work. We can clearly calculate every step that we need to take for the next 100 years or even the next 1000 years. China is using this process in the renewable energy revolution. But here in America we will focus more on the power of the mind as well as the energy that will sustain us for the next millennium. 

Narcissistic Mortification is the primitive terror of self dissolution, triggered by the sudden exposure of one's sense of a defective self, death by embarrassment. Mistakes happen, accidents happen, learn as much as you can and move on. No Guilt and no Shame, just learning, learning is a lot more productive and a lot more healthier for everyone. Play the odds as best as you can, and remember there are no guarantees, but you can definitely increase your chances of success.

Luck - Odds

Accident is an unfortunate mishap; especially one causing damage or injury. Anything that happens suddenly or by chance without an apparent cause or reason

Victim (not your fault)

It's good to have a Conscience, you realize something is wrong, or perceived as wrong, or verified as wrong?

Justice, not revenge, forgiveness, not hate. Life is long, don't carry any unnecessary baggage. Travel light and travel tight.

Is there a Single Point of Failure? No, there's only a very important aspect of a particular function, that when removed, creates a problem that needs to be solved. Failure only happens when you don't solve a problem, or understand a problem accurately. Everything in life can be disrupted, but that doesn't mean that it has to stay disrupted. We have choices, we have options, and we have potential. When things go wrong it is sometimes a good thing because you can learn a lot of things when things go amiss. Things that you would have not learned if everything went smoothly. So when things go perfect it sometimes works against you because if gives you a false sense of security and makes you believe that everything is working OK. But when things go bad it forces you to examine the process more closely, so you learn more, which prepares you more for when things go bad. So your trouble shooting becomes less labor intensive because you can now rule out certain factors, which will give you more time to check for other possible causes of your problem, thus problem solving takes less time. So don't get frustrated when things go wrong, because it may turn out to be something very beneficial, and a great opportunity to learn something important. 

Inferior (lacking knowledge)

“You never make the same mistake twice. The second time you make it, it is no longer a mistake. It is a choice”

"No matter how many mistakes you make or how slow you progress, you are still way ahead of everyone who isn’t trying."

"Turning over a rock and finding nothing is still progress, as long as it's documented so that others will not waste their time turning over the same rocks."

"You can’t start the next chapter of your life if you keep re-reading your last one."

"If you only go so far then you will never go far enough. If the changes needed don't happen soon enough or quick enough, then you will fail."

"Things turn out best for people who make the best out of the way things turn out."

Be Persistent, but not stubborn or narrow minded. Be Determined, but still be aware of your Priorities and Purpose.
Be Ambitious, but still maintain Balance and Morality.

Persistent
Determination
Will Power
Inspiration

Giving up is not giving in. Not being able to reach your goals does not mean defeat. You're just suspending operations until more information is available. Information that would allow you to continue or information that would prove you should no longer continue.

There is no failure in making an effort or an attempt, unless good planning was ignored. The act of conducting a controlled test or investigation takes time, patience and thorough Planning.

Knowing your Limits when Reaching for the Top (adventures)

Avoiding Fear

Every mistake that is made is either from the lack of knowledge, or from the misunderstanding of knowledge that a person has. No one is stupid or completely ignorant, every single person on the planet either lacks certain knowledge, or misunderstands the knowledge they have. But there's only one way for anyone to realize what knowledge they are lacking, or to realize what knowledge they are misunderstanding, which is for every person to have 24/7 access to the worlds most valuable knowledge and information, along with the guidance and instructions on how to use the worlds most valuable knowledge and information effectively and efficiently as possible. This way people can learn everyday and grow wiser everyday. A world full of educated people is a world full of potential, a potential to solve every problem on the planet.

"You can learn a lot things from your mistakes, but only when you finally stop denying the fact that you've made a mistake."

"No matter how many mistakes you make or how slow you progress, you are still way ahead of everyone who isn’t trying."

"Do, or do not, there is no try"    meaning..define " Try or Trying "...what did you do?   I tried to do this...I did this...

Experimenting and Examining, or trying something new in order to gain experience, is essential for learning, as long as it's safe.
If it is not safe then you must prove that the information that you claim to be seeking is extremely important, important enough for you to justify the risk, the danger and the consequences. Live and learn.

The reasons that you had for doing something might not be the same reasons that you end up with. Things change and so do reasons, so be prepared to Think Outside the Box.

Creativity (imagination)

Why is Punishment, or just the Fear of Punishment, bad for Risk Takers?

If someone tells you that your idea, or your desired goal, can not be reached, then plainly ask them to please share those facts that proves their statement to be true, because if they can not produce the facts that proves the goal can not be achieved, or was already attempted and here's the results, or that they want to discourage you and here are the reasons, then let them know that you will continue to search for those facts, to either confirm the idea was just, or just a waste of time.

Don't ever believe that a Problem is to big to solve.  A lot of problems always look to big and complicated at first, but once you start taking the necessary steps in order to solve the problem and understand it, you will discover that every problem can be solved, you just have to learn how to solve it. Every day is a step closer, as long as you take that step every day.

Though things will look complicated and almost impossible to figure out, don't worry, everything starts out that way. But as soon as you learn more and experience more, the things that you thought were impossible, will become possible."

How can someone tell you what you can't do when that person hasn't done it themself?  It can't be done, why?

If the question ' why ' does not go far enough, or if you stop asking questions after a certain point, you may fail to see the whole picture and limit your ability to accurately define the actions that you must make. Asking Questions is a lot easier then coming up with excuses why you didn't ask questions in the first place.

Impossible ?

It's only impossible if you can correctly calculate that it is impossible, being verified by testing and experiments. But even then, how can you be sure that the experiments were done correctly? Or if they were done with the same information? So when you hear someone say it's impossible, you tell them, it's only impossible until all possibilities have been explored. Just because something is impossible does not mean that I will not learn anything valuable from exploring the possibility. Even if it does turn out that this one thing is in fact impossible, it's only for the current moment in time because you have suspended the research for now.
 
Perry Como "It's Impossible" (youtube)

Asking Questions is the first step to Understanding

When things don't make sense, or look weird, or seem unfamiliar, or if things are not known to you, or fully understood, you have to question it, even if it does turn out to make sense, it's always a good idea to confirm your suspicion and your doubts.

The Blind Leading the Blind

Conforming is adhering to established customs, rules, styles, standards of conduct or doctrines. But if you don't feel comfortable or if something doesn't feel right to you, then you must question why things are done this way. What is the point?
Just because everyone else is doing it, or it seems popular or normal, doesn't necessarily make it right or good. You need to confirm with evidence or facts that what you are doing is right, or even needed, this is called learning. You need to be certain, you must specify or identify, and establish beyond doubt or question, that what you see is correct.


Don't Feel Shame or Regret, Learn from your mistakes and then move on...

There is no need to Punish yourself. No need to create your own Private Hell and to Suffer Within. No need for Guilt or Regret. What you need to do is to learn from your mistakes, so that you can avoid repeating the same mistakes, and learn to make better decisions. So there is no need for Remorse, Shame, Contrition, Revenge or Penance. I made a mistake and I will correct it, and I will always remembered what I have learned. I have a Conscience, and I will use it to avoid mistakes, and not use it to punish myself. I have Morals, and I also have The Ability to Learn and to Forgive. There is no need to Over React or to Blame.

Don't ever regret, regretting is such a huge waste of time because you will never be able to calculate all the different scenarios that could have happened if your decision was different. Regret or 'What If' will never tell the whole story, or whether that one decision changed your life in any way. So it is what it is, and the only logical reaction is to learn from it and move on. Wishing things could have been different is like wishing your life away. You have already lived the life that you were wishing for when you find yourself dreaming of things that you wished for. It's hard to know what things to appreciate in your life when they only way to know that you appreciate something is when it's gone. Keep going, this ride is far from being over.

Regret is a negative conscious and emotional reaction to personal past acts and behaviors. Regret is often a feeling of sadness, shame, embarrassment, depression, annoyance, or guilt, after one acts in a manner and later wishes not to have done so.

Remorseful is feeling or expressing pain or sorrow for sins or offenses. Remorse is an emotional expression of personal regret felt by a person after they have committed an act which they deem to be shameful, hurtful, or violent. Remorse is closely allied to guilt and self-directed resentment.

Guilt is a cognitive or an emotional experience that occurs when a person believes or realizes—accurately or not—that he or she has compromised his or her own standards of conduct or has violated a moral standard and bears significant responsibility for that violation. It is closely related to the concept of remorse.

Shame is a painful, social emotion that can be seen as resulting "...from comparison of the self's action with the self's standards...". but which may equally stem from comparison of the self's state of being with the ideal social context's standard. Thus, shame may stem from volitional action or simply self-regard; no action by the shamed being is required: simply existing is enough. Both the comparison and standards are enabled by socialization. Though usually considered an emotion, shame may also variously be considered an affect, cognition, state, or condition.

Repentance is the activity of reviewing one's actions and feeling contrition or regret for past wrongs. It generally involves a commitment to personal change and the resolve to live a more responsible and humane life. Unrepentant.

Penance is repentance of Sins. Penance is remorse for your past conduct. Atone for some wrongdoing.

Absolution is the condition of being formally Forgiven by a priest in the sacrament of penance. The act of absolving or remitting; formal redemption as pronounced by a priest in the sacrament of penance.

Absolving is to let off the hook. Grant remission of a sin to.

Atone is to make amends for.

Amends is something done or paid in expiation of a wrong. Set straight or right.

Pardon

Contrition is repentance for sins one has committed. The remorseful person is said to be contrite.

Self-Compassion is extending compassion to one's self in instances of perceived inadequacy, failure, or general suffering. Being composed of three main components – self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness.

Redemption is the act of refraining from sins that are known to cause more harm then good, It is stopping oneself from doing evil.

Don't confuse Acceptance with Understanding

Acceptance
is only a pause in time, you can come back later after you have learned more about the subject and understand just what exactly is happening, then and only then do you adapt to that Reality

Adapting is to change and modify oneself to new or different conditions. Make fit for, or change to suit a new purpose. 

Adaptation is to enhance the fitness and survival of individuals by adapting, learning and changing to ones environment.

I have been ashamed of myself a few times in my life. I have done things and said things that were incredibly stupid, and they were not even close to being logical. So what causes a person to lose control, or to lose awareness, or to lose their understanding of things. You can easily say that I never learned the right things at the right time that would give me the skills and self-control and awareness that a person needs. I never learned how, and I never learned why? So I'm thankful I felt shame, at least I knew I made a mistake. It seems that shame makes us aware that we have a Conscience. Some people never feel shame about the mistakes they make. It's not that they don't feel shame, they just don't feel shame when they should. Shame comes from being able to see yourself as the other person, as well as being able to know how it feels to be victimized yourself, which mostly comes from memories of being victimized. So I know what being victimized feels like, so I can apply that feeling as reference to what people feel like when they are victims of my ignorance. But not all people learn the same way, or do we have access to the right information and knowledge.

Sometimes it's better to figure stuff out on your own, but not always.

Sometimes you do learn more by looking for the answer yourself then you would if someone just gave you the answer, but not always. You learn more from solving a problem yourself then you would if someone else solved the problem for you, but not always. Problem Solving Skills are extremely valuable, but so is getting accurate answers to questions, answers to questions that would save you lots of time and lower the amount of mistakes that you might have to make. Yes you need problem solving skills, but you also need to know how to effectively use the enormous amount of resources and knowledge that other people have. Everyone is standing on the shoulders of giants, and everyone has benefited from the efforts of others. So it's extremely important to know how those giants made their advancements, but it is also extremely important to use those advancements effectively and efficiently as we can. We need to keep advancing and developing, and we also need to keep learning and honing our skills.

“We learn more by looking for the answer to a question and not finding it than we do from learning the answer itself.”
Lloyd Alexander  (but not always, or can it apply to every situation)

Learning is a process that everyone should fully understand, and everyone should fully understand that the process of learning should continue your entire life. But for this to happen, everyone needs access to the most valuable knowledge and information that the world has to offer. And everyone should be given instructions on how to use knowledge and information effectively and efficiently as possible. If this were to happen, then the world would continually improve, and every problem would be solved.

"I don't have all the answers, but I do have more answers then most people, and I'm always learning, so my ability to answer more questions is always increasing."

There is no replacement for learning, learning is something that you have to do. If you don't keep learning, then you will suffer from your own ignorance, and most likely, make other people suffer from your ignorance.


Knowledge


Welcome to the knowledge Palace  (Knowledge College)

Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning. Knowledge is the Psychological result of Perception, Learning and Reasoning. Acquaintance with facts, truths, or principles, as from study or investigation; general erudition. Knowledge of many things. Acquaintance or familiarity gained by sight, experience, or report. The perception of fact or truth; clear and certain mental apprehension. Awareness, as of a fact or circumstance, cognitive condition of someone who understands Know and comprehend the nature or meaning of. To become aware of through the senses.

Epistemology studies the nature of knowledge, the rationality of belief, and justification.

Epistemic Modal Logic is a subfield of modal logic that is concerned with reasoning about knowledge.

Knowledge by Acquaintance I am acquainted with many people and things, which I know very little about.

Social Knowledge - Knowledge Economy

Sociology of Knowledge is the study of the relationship between human thought and the social context within which it arises, and of the effects prevailing ideas have on societies.

Open Knowledge

Knowledge Gap - Knowledge Divides

Knowledge Base

Knowledge Representation and Reasoning is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) dedicated to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language. Knowledge representation incorporates findings from psychology about how humans solve problems and represent knowledge in order to design formalisms that will make complex systems easier to design and build. Knowledge representation and reasoning also incorporates findings from logic to automate various kinds of reasoning, such as the application of rules or the relations of sets and subsets. Examples of knowledge representation formalisms include semantic nets, systems architecture, Frames, Rules, and ontologies. Examples of automated reasoning engines include inference engines, theorem provers, and classifiers.

Knowledge Representation is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) dedicated to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language.

Knowledge Visualization (mind maps)

Intuition knowledge is the ability to acquire knowledge without proof, evidence, or conscious reasoning, or without understanding how the knowledge was acquired.

Knowledge Retrieval seeks to return information in a structured form, consistent with human cognitive processes as opposed to simple lists of data items.

Knowledge Acquisition is the process used to define the rules and ontologies required for a knowledge-based system.

Knowledge Extraction is the creation of knowledge from structured (relational databases, XML) and unstructured (text, documents, images) sources. The resulting knowledge needs to be in a machine-readable and machine-interpretable format and must represent knowledge in a manner that facilitates inferencing.

Common Knowledge is knowledge that is known by everyone or nearly everyone, usually with reference to the community in which the term is used.

Category: Knowledge (wiki)

Enlightenment

Tacit Knowledge is the kind of knowledge that is difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalizing it.

Explicit Knowledge is knowledge that can be readily articulated, codified, accessed and verbalized and easily transmitted to others.

Extrinsic is not forming an essential part of a thing or arising or originating from the outside.
Intrinsic is belonging to a thing by its very nature.

Meta-knowledge is knowledge about knowledge used to create methods of planning, modeling, tagging, and modification of a domain knowledge.

Procedural Knowledge is the knowledge exercised in the performance of some task.

Body of Knowledge is the complete set of concepts, terms and activities that make up a professional domain, as defined by the relevant learned society or professional association. It is a type of knowledge representation by any knowledge organization.

(1) "Structured knowledge that is used by members of a discipline to guide their practice or work.”
(2) “The prescribed aggregation of knowledge in a particular area an individual is expected to have mastered to be considered or certified as a practitioner.”
The systematic collection of activities and outcomes in terms of their values, constructs, models, principles and instantiations, which (a) arises from continuous discovery and validation work by members of the profession and (b) enables self-reflective growth and reproduction of the profession (Romme 2016).
A set of accepted and agreed upon standards and nomenclatures pertaining to a field or profession (INFORMS 2009).
A set of knowledge within a profession or subject area which is generally agreed as both essential and generally known (Oliver 2012).

Domain of Knowledge is valid knowledge used to refer to an area of human endeavour, an autonomous computer activity, or other specialized discipline.

Knowledge Organization - KM

Self-Knowledge
Basic Knowledge
Techniques of Knowledge

Knowledge Spillover is an exchange of ideas among individuals. In knowledge management economics, knowledge spillovers are non-rival knowledge market costs incurred by a party not agreeing to assume the costs that has a spillover effect of stimulating technological improvements in a neighbor through one's own innovation. Such innovations often come from specialization within an industry.

Knowledge Management

Tribal Knowledge is any information or knowledge that is known within a tribe but often unknown outside of it. A tribe may be a group or subgroup of people that share a common knowledge. With a corporate perspective, "Tribal Knowledge or know-how is the collective wisdom of the organization. It is the sum of all the knowledge and capabilities of all the people.

Outline of Knowledge familiarity with someone or something, which can include facts, information, descriptions, and/or skills acquired through experience or education. It can refer to the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); and it can be more or less formal or systematic.

Traditional Knowledge refers to knowledge systems embedded in the Cultural traditions of regional, indigenous, or local communities.

Knowledge Transfer is the practical problem of transferring knowledge from one part of the organization to another.
Memory

General Knowledge has been defined in differential psychology as "culturally valued knowledge communicated by a range of non-specialist media" and encompassing a wide subject range.

Descriptive Knowledge is the type of knowledge that is, by its very nature, expressed in declarative sentences or indicative propositions. This distinguishes descriptive knowledge from what is commonly known as "know-how", or procedural knowledge (the knowledge of how, and especially how best, to perform some task), and "knowing of", or knowledge by acquaintance (the knowledge of something's existence).

Nomothetic and idiographic describes two distinct approaches to knowledge, each one corresponding to a different intellectual tendency, and each one corresponding to a different branch of academe. Nomothetic is based on what Kant described as a tendency to generalize, and is typical for the natural sciences. It describes the effort to derive laws that explain types or categories of objective phenomena, in general. Idiographic is based on what Kant described as a tendency to specify, and is typical for the humanities. It describes the effort to understand the meaning of contingent, unique, and often cultural or subjective phenomena.

Knowledge Value stated “All wish to know but none wish to pay the price".
Internet

Constructivism (philosophy of education) is a philosophical viewpoint about the nature of knowledge.

Gnosticism "having knowledge", gnosis (variously interpreted as knowledge, enlightenment, salvation, emancipation or 'oneness with God') may be reached by practicing philanthropy to the point of personal poverty and diligently searching for wisdom by helping others. The world of God is represented by the upper world and is associated with the soul and perfection. The world of God is eternal and not part of the physical. It is impalpable and timeless. Gnosis taught the deliverance of man from the constraints of earthly existence through insight into an essential relationship, as soul or spirit, with a supramundane place of freedom. Gnosticism is the salvation through knowledge. Gnosis is the Greek noun for knowledge.

"Knowledge is multi dimensional with many layers. So if you only see the surface of what is known, then you will never understand knowledge enough in order to use it effectively or efficiently enough to solve problems or make positive improvements in life. This is one of the main reasons for improving education."

Curious
Inspired
Intelligence
Education

Knowing is to be cognizant or aware of a fact or a specific piece of information; possess knowledge or information. Be aware of the truth of something; regard as true beyond any doubt.  Be familiar or acquainted with a person or an object.  Not the same as Conscious or Awareness. Have firsthand knowledge of states, situations, emotions, or sensations. Highly educated; having extensive information or understanding. 

Know
What do you Know?
I know
Self Directed Learning

Acknowledging is to declare something to be true or admit the existence or reality or truth of. Express recognition of the presence or existence of, or acquaintance with.

Validity
Scientifically

Recognize is to be fully aware or cognizant of. Detect with the senses. Perceive to be the same. Exhibit recognition for (an antigen or a substrate)

Processing is to perform mathematical and logical operations on Data according to instructions or prescribed procedures in order to obtain the required information

Process - Science
Process
Thinking
Information and Data Processing
Data Analysis

Information is the knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction.  A collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn. Information is Verified Facts and Data that are Correct and Free From Error. (words, letters, numbers, diagrams, symbols) More - Details

Knowledge is Skills Learned through Experience, whether the experience is doing, watching, Reading or Listening. And then a person must have the Ability to Process and Understand the Information Correctly. More

Wisdom
is the ability to apply knowledge and Information into the correct Action to achieve a Goal, or to Solve a Problem.
Wisdom is showing good Reasoning and good judgment by Measurement or Research. Wisdom is also understanding the future and the different events that might happen. Being Aware of Trends, because some changes might be indications that bigger changes are coming, so good Preparation and Planning is needed.

Intelligence is fully understanding Knowledge, Information and Wisdom. Searching for Truth, Looking for Answers, and Learning. Artificial Intelligence

First there's information, and then there's knowing how to process and understand the information, then there's knowing
what correct action to take based on the information, knowledge and your experience.  Input - Process - Output.

"Knowledge is something that can not be easily explained, it's abstract, nonobjective, subjective and nonsubjective."

"Great knowledge often comes from the humblest of origins."

"Knowledge is love and light and vision." - Helen Keller (born with the ability to see and hear, but at 19 months old she contracted an unknown illness that left her both deaf and blind for the rest of her life).

Knowledge does not come with age, knowledge comes from learning. Experience does not guarantee learning, or that understanding will take place. And not every experience will benefit you. Though the lesson was given, there's no sure way to tell if the knowledge was correctly understood. Knowledge comes from learning, and associating what you have learned with the appropriate experiences and knowledge that you have acquired up to this point. Accumulating and building, becoming more aware and more wiser, all because you continue to learn, and not from growing older.


Be a Consumer of Knowledge

"If you Never Stop Learning you will become a little smarter each and everyday, you will continually improve things, you will become better at solving problems, you will become an even better person each day. Knowledge and information accumulates into a beautiful system of love and awareness."

Knowledge gives you Power, Power gives you Control, Control gives you Freedom, Freedom gives you Potential, Potential gives you Endless Possibilities.

The more you know, the more you understand.
The more you understand, the more control you have.
The more control you have, the more power you have.
The more power you have, the more freedom you have.
The more freedom you have, the more potential you have.
The more potential you have, the more possibilities you have.
The more possibilities you have, the greater your life can be.
There will always be more, as long as you keep learning the right things at the right time.

Schools today are just a primer. You don't finish school, because school is just an introduction. 80% of the worlds most important knowledge and information is outside the classroom. So the real learning comes after school. But that's only if you have access to the worlds most valuable knowledge and information, and, have a firm understanding about what you should be learning, and when you should learning it.

Feed the Brain

You must Consume more then just Food and Water Daily, you also need to consume Knowledge and Information Daily. Learning should be as easy as eating food. And consuming knowledge should make you feel good. Healthy food and exercise makes you healthy and strong. Healthy knowledge makes your mind strong and increases your potential. You need healthy food to live. You also need healthy knowledge to live. You need clean water to live. You also need clean information to live. Either you find clean information or learn how to filter information to make sure that it's free from errors, or viruses. Unclean information creates mistakes that don't need to be made. If you want healthy food you may need to grow it yourself. If you can't find healthy knowledge then you have to learn how to create your own healthy knowledge. Unhealthy food will cause unhealthy body, unhealthy knowledge will create an unhealthy mind with unhealthy behaviors. You need to consume knowledge and information so you you need to know what knowledge and information is important.

Accumulate

Your Brain needs Knowledge and information, so please don't forget to Feed the Mind.

It's your brain, feed it

9 Great Ways to "Feed Your Brain" - Marc David (youtube)

Food increases growth, so does knowledge.

Feed in Seymour - Little Shop Of Horrors - Feed Me (Git It) (youtube)

Information and knowledge needs to be clean and edible so that it can be easily consumed. And just like food, you have the eat the right foods in the right amounts at the right times. Imagine eating a food and having the energy from that food stay with you forever, that is what knowledge is, that is why learning the right things at the right time is so extremely important.

Life Long Learning is the same as Life Long Eating. Learning everyday is like eating everyday. You eat to live, you learn to live, you learn to live better. Not learning how to improve yourself, or not learning how to make yourself more knowledgeable about yourself and the world around you, is like eating everyday but never doing anything valuable, never working or never doing anything productive or meaningful, or never doing things that enhance or improve your life, so you're pretty much just waiting to die, which is a total waste. So please keep learning.

A Mind is a terrible thing to waste.

When feeding the hungry and starving you must also feed them knowledge and information that would educate people enough so that they will be able to solve their own problems without having to depend on others. Making them self-reliant and self-sufficient, as well as, give them the abilities to help others who are also experiencing difficulties. This is the intelligent thing to do; this is the right thing to do. Invest in education and not just agriculture. Energy from food diminishes in a few days. Knowledge stays in the memory for life. And this knowledge has the potential to create energy. Feed the mind, not just the body. Some of the energy from food should be used for learning, if not, then the energy from the food is wasted, and an opportunity is lost.

"If you don't eat, you will eventually die from starvation, if you stop learning, you will eventually die from lack of education, like the tens of thousands of people who die every single day from things they could have avoided. If they had the necessary knowledge, they would have lived full lives."

If you can learn to read on your own, from a tablet pc or other ways, then you could have access to the worlds most valuable knowledge and information. From there, you could learn how to use knowledge and information effectively to reach your goals, and learn things that are needed that would improve your life continually. Things may start out slow, but every day that you take a step, is a step closer to fulfilling your goals and creating a healthy and happy life. You must learn something new and valuable everyday. Your brain has incredible memory bank, and if you keep depositing more valuable knowledge everyday, you will have built and saved an enormous wealth of knowledge, And your personal bank of knowledge never closes, and you can carry your wealth of knowledge where ever you travel, and the knowledge yours to keep, no one could ever take it from you or steal it from you. This is why Knowledge is the worlds most perfect currency.

Information Diet


Summer School is saying that your school sucks, it's not saying that you are a slow learner.

All young people experience learning losses during the Summer Vacation because schools are inadequate and ineffective. In order to be good at something, you need to practice, when you stop practicing, your skill level decreases. When you are not actively using knowledge that you have learned, it's easy to forget what you have learned. If you don't use it you lose it. Students need to learn how to maintain their skill level and knowledge level, but they must be given the right knowledge and the right skills, if not, you're wasting time, energy resources and people. Schools need to teach students how to use their skills and knowledge in the real world, instead of just on paper. 

Summer School is a school, or a program that provides lessons and activities during the summer vacation.
Memory

Disposable Assignments

"Homework should be about homework, it should not be school work done at home. Don't force kids to take your crappie education home, if you can't teach students effectively at school, then something is wrong with the school." 
Structure

How many Hours of Homework a 15 year old gets

Homework is a set of tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed outside the class. Common homework assignments may include a quantity or period of reading to be performed, writing or typing to be completed, math problems to be solved, material to be reviewed before a test, or other skills to be practiced. The effect of homework is debated. Generally speaking, homework does not improve academic performance among children and may improve academic skills among older students. It also creates stress for students and their parents and reduces the amount of time that students could spend outdoors, exercising, playing sports, working, sleeping or in other activities.

"It's amazing how we still made progress even after all the mistakes that we made. We spent years experimenting with many different ideas, most of which did not benefit us. We have made a lot of mistakes ,and we have wasted a lot of time, but
we have learned many things. It's time to put our knowledge into actions. We know what to do, and we know what not to do. But we must do. Just knowing will not solve our problems."

"Learning should be like Life, a Chain Reaction that is Self Perpetuating and Self Sustaining."

"The more you learn the more you will see, whether that is good or bad depends on you." 

"Everyone should be an avid searcher of knowledge"

I guess this was just a natural progression of my curiosity. I went looking for adventure and I eventually found knowledge, and some of that knowledge actually pertained to me. But I wouldn't say that I found myself, I would just say that I understand myself a lot more then I did before, and I also understand the world more then I did before. Seeking knowledge is truly the greatest adventure of all time."

"I'm sometimes 20 or 30 questions ahead of the current question, only because the current question needs certain questions answered first before you can even start to figure out just exactly what the actual question is, and sometimes people are just asking the wrong question, which makes it almost impossible to answer correctly."

"When you're 5 to 10 questions ahead of the conversation, you are at a level of thinking that solves problems a lot faster."

"Some people just ask questions but never really look for the answers, I like to search for answers because searching for answers is much more rewarding instead of just wondering what the answers might be."

"If you don't try to be great at something then you will never be great at anything. But you can be good at doing many things, which could count as doing something great, but being really good at something will have its own rewards."

"I sometimes feel like a black hole, and my curiosity is the gravitational force that gradually pulls in knowledge and information from the universe. The more knowledge and information I consume, the farther I see. Everyday is another step forward on a never ending quest to understand more. Breaking down knowledge into smaller more defined elements. With each element symbolizing a doorway in the hallways of knowledge. And each door acting like an electrical circuit, open or closed, on or off. Eerily similar to my computer counterpart. But instead of words being defined as zeros and ones, the words in my mind are defined by on or off. On or Off? Natural intelligence and Artificial intelligence working together in harmony as if they were one. Ones and zeros, on or off...Huston, we have lift off...Engage."

"Learn as if you will live forever...because there is a chance that you may live forever"

"If you don't learn the things that matter, then learning doesn't matter."

Memory

Learning Games

 

Questioning


Questioning is the need for more information in order to understand something more accurately. Questioning is verify the accuracy of the information presented.

Questioning is a linguistic expression used to make a request for information, or the request made using such an expression. The information requested should be provided in the form of an answer.

Question is to challenge the accuracy, probity, or propriety of. A sentence of inquiry that asks for a reply. Uncertainty about the truth or factuality or existence of something. Place in doubt or express doubtful speculation.

Inquiry is a search for knowledge. A systematic investigation of a matter of public interest

Sometimes when people ask a question, the original question is not the actual question that they are asking. They are in fact asking other questions, most likely because they're making false assumptions or they have no idea which questions they should be asking. So you might have to verify what the actual questions are that someone is asking, without you yourself making any assumptions. This also applies to certain answers that people may give. The answer someone gives might not be the whole story, so you may have to investigate and ask a few more questions in order to get the truth. This type of awareness and skill is the power of Human Intelligence, an ability that Artificial Intelligence will never be able to accurately reproduce or imitate. And when things can't be accurate, then they can't be trusted, whether it's a machine or a human. Listen, and then Analyze. There may be a story within a story. Example Scenario: I know this person, so when they ask a particular question at a particular time, I know what they are really asking me. And when they answer a particular question at a particular time, sometimes the answer is saying that they don't want to talk about this particular subject at this particular time. They may also be saying that they are unclear how to answer that question accurately. Example Questions and Answers: So how do you feel? I'm OK. Where have you been? Around. Do you want to talk about something? Not right now.

Trick Questions (missleading)

Skepticism is doubting the truth or accuracy of something. Questioning certain knowledge or beliefs.

Doubt is being unsure of something. Uncertainty about the truth or factuality or existence of something.

Skeptic - Skeptic - Validation

Cynic is someone who is critical of the motives of others.

Scrutiny is to examine carefully for accuracy with the intent of verification. The act of examining something closely (as for mistakes). To look at critically or searchingly, or in minute detail. A prolonged intense look. 
Strict Scrutiny

Why is a consideration which justifies or explains.

Cartesian Doubt is a systematic process of being skeptical about (or doubting) the truth of one's beliefs, which has become a characteristic method in philosophy.

Fallibilism is the philosophical principle that human beings could be wrong about their beliefs, expectations, or their understanding of the world.

Fallacies is a misconception resulting from incorrect reasoning.

Falsifiability is a statement, hypothesis, or theory with the inherent possibility that it can be proved false.

Epistemology studies the nature of knowledge, the rationality of belief, and justification.

Intermediate Scrutiny is the second level of deciding issues using judicial review. The other levels are typically referred to as rational basis review (least rigorous) and strict scrutiny (most rigorous). In order to overcome the intermediate scrutiny test, it must be shown that the law or policy being challenged furthers an important government interest by means that are substantially related to that interest. That should be contrasted with strict scrutiny, the higher standard of review that requires narrowly tailored and least restrictive means to further a compelling governmental interest.

Inquest is a judicial inquiry in common law jurisdictions, particularly one held to determine the cause of a person's death.

Pseudoscience describe a claim, belief, or practice presented as scientific, but which does not adhere to the scientific method.

Pseudoscientific - Time Cube

Scientific Misconceptions are commonly held scientific beliefs that have no basis in actual scientific fact. Scientific misconceptions can also refer to preconceived notions based on religious and/or cultural influences. Many scientific misconceptions occur because of faulty teaching styles and the sometimes distancing nature of true scientific texts.

Didaskalogenic, given their inherently abstract nature, many scientific concepts, such as Newton's laws of motion, directly conflict a "working" and immediate understanding of the world. Where this is the case, such conceptual conflicts can give rise to serious obstacles to students' acceptance and understanding of scientific ideas. In contrast, a wide range of other scientific ideas, assumptions, and concepts are not obviously related to practical experience. Students misconceptions about these more abstract scientific ideas, for example, the atomic theory, the wave–particle nature of light, the cell theory of biological organization, and the theory of evolution are often grounded in past instruction. In analogy to physician-induced (iatrogenic) disease (iatrogenesis), didaskologenic (or didaktikogenic) (from the Greek dáskalos for "teacher") ideas (and misconceptions) arise from and are reinforced during the course of instruction. Particularly in the more abstract sciences, where many ideas are inherently counter-intuitive, didaskologenic scientific misconceptions often arise through the use of inappropriate analogies in the course of instruction. As examples, there are the ideas that the breaking of a bond can release energy (when all bonds require energy to break), the depiction of molecular processes using non-random molecular motions, the depiction of electron orbitals, and the molecular level effects of mutations on organismic phenotypes. A number of such errors are found in textbooks and various instructional animations.

Beliefs - Money

Pathological Science is an area of research where "people are tricked into false results.

Misrepresentation refers to a false statement of fact made by one party to another party, which has the effect of inducing that party into the contract.

Closed-Ended Question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.

Questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.

Opinion Pole - Q & A

Questionnaire Construction is a series of questions asked to individuals to obtain statistically useful information about a given topic – when properly constructed and responsibly administered, become a vital instrument by which statements can be made about specific groups, or people, or entire populations.

Etiology is the study of causation, or origination.

Learning Methods
Scientific Inquiry

Cross-Examination is the interrogation of a witness called by one's opponent. It is preceded by direct examination, which is the process of adducing evidence from witnesses in a court of law.

Socratic Method is a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presumptions. Debate

Socratic Questioning is disciplined questioning that can be used to pursue thought in many directions and for many purposes, including: to explore complex ideas, to get to the truth of things, to open up issues and problems, to uncover assumptions, to analyze concepts, to distinguish what we know from what we don't know, to follow out logical implications of thought or to control the discussion.

Problem Solving
Philosophy
Creative Thinking
Investigation

Dialectic is a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.

Frequently Asked Questions - FAQ

Internet Searches
Communication
Seek more Information

Twenty Questions is a game where one player is chosen to be the answerer. That person chooses a subject (object) but does not reveal this to the others. All other players are questioners. They each take turns asking a question which can be answered with a simple "Yes" or "No." In variants of the game, multiple state answers may be included such as the answer "Maybe." The answerer answers each question in turn. Sample questions could be: "Is it bigger than a breadbox?" or "Can I put it in my mouth?" Lying is not allowed in the game. If a questioner guesses the correct answer, that questioner wins and becomes the answerer for the next round. If 20 questions are asked without a correct guess, then the answerer has stumped the questioners and gets to be the answerer for another round. Careful selection of questions can greatly improve the odds of the questioner winning the game. For example, a question such as "Does it involve technology for communications, entertainment or work?" can allow the questioner to cover a broad range of areas using a single question that can be answered with a simple "yes" or "no". If the answerer responds with "yes," the questioner can use the next question to narrow down the answer; if the answerer responds with "no," the questioner has successfully eliminated a number of possibilities for the answer. The game encourages deductive reasoning and creativity.

Twenty Questions (PDF)
Can you Solve the Three Gods Riddle? - Alex Gendler (youtube)

Answer is a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem. A statement (either spoken or written) that is made to reply to a question. The speech act of replying to a question. Understand the meaning of. Be sufficient; be adequate, either in quality or quantity. Be satisfactory for; meet the requirements of or serve the purpose of. React verbally. Show a response or a reaction to something. A result.

Answer is a reply to a question. It can be solution, a retaliation or a response to it.

Validity
Bias Errors

How many questions do you think you need to ask in order to fully understand something? Depends on the answers.
Why? Why does this matter?
What? What is the most important matter at this moment? What are the priorities?
Where? Is the location relevant? Where is this information leading to?
Who? What person or people is this in reference to? Does it matter who it is?
When? When will this information affect me? When will I need to end this transmission?
How? How did this happen? How did this transmission first initiate?
Do I have the time? Do I care what time is?
Am I learning something? Am I teaching something?
Are there any other questions that I should be asking?
After the transmission is completed, please show appreciation without discrimination.
So what's next?

You need to know the difference between Opinion and Fact, and you also need to know why some people Criticize. Some people have personal motives when giving opinions, so they are corrupted, narrow minded and very dangerous. 

Misleading Questions (trick questions)

So called Experts need to be questioned too, as well as the Research.

Don't Blindly Believe

Being able to explain and ask a question correctly is half the job of getting the correct answer that you are seeking.

One of the main goals of Questioning is to help you avoid Jumping to Conclusions, but you have to be asking the right questions.

"Sometimes people don't know what questions to ask, and other times, people believe they know the answers, so they don't bother asking questions."

"Asking a stupid question usually gets a stupid answer, but asking no question, gets no answer."

"I question everything, even myself."

People who decline information or avoid certain information are just misinformed and really don't understand the benefits of information and how knowing things actually helps their decision making. This is just another side effect of our failing education system that is combined with our ignorant media outlets. If people were better informed on how to use information, and better educated to correctly understand information, then people would never decline or avoid information, in fact people would seek information instead of waiting for it to appear. People opting to remain ignorant is just a learning disability that they can easily fix.

Media Literacy
Propaganda
Information Literacy
Denial
Morals
Memory
Self-Directed Learning


Educational Philosophy and Theory, Vol. 33, Nos. 3 & 4, 2001

Questioning as an Epistemic Process of Critical Thinking
POLYCARP IKUENOBE
Department of Philosophy, Kent State University

Introduction:

The idea of questioning one’s idea is regarded by many as an affront. This attitude towards questioning suggests that it is rude, especially when it is persistent. Questioning is considered a way of casting aspersions on one’s ability or the reasonableness of one’s view. Questioning is often taken to mean that one is not making a good point or one is not articulating one’s ideas properly. As a result, questioning tends to engender a defensive response. This attitude has a long tradition. It was responsible for how Socrates was received by Athenians, and why he was eventually killed. By questioning persistently for justifications and clarifications, Socrates got on people’s nerves and sometimes humiliated them; he made people realize they did not quite know what they thought they knew. This angered them. Socrates argued that the attitude of wanting one’s ideas to be always ‘validated’ and not questioned is intellectually stagnating and is a mark of ‘ignorance’. He pointed this out in his idea of ‘wisdom’. A wise person is one who is always willing to ‘learn’. Such a person assumes tentatively that she does not know. She is willing to methodologically suspend her belief and question it for the purpose of exploring it, to expand her knowledge. The process of questioning—for the purpose of eliciting information and adequate justifications—represents an epistemic attitude which is necessary for critical thinking. Such attitude is often what teachers want to engender in students as critical thinkers. In this paper I explore, in general, the sense in which questioning may be regarded as an epistemic process of critical thinking and I offer a theoretical foundation and argument for encouraging such process. More specifically, I do this by analyzing the notion of questioning, to show its logic as an open-ended process of inquiry and its function, as a process of critical thinking. Critical thinking involves a disposition to a rigorous process of inquiring, learning and acquiring knowledge, in terms of rationally evaluating and justifying beliefs. I argue that the open-ended logic of questioning reveals its epistemic feature and heuristic value as a process of critical thinking. And that the epistemic value of this process is given credence and motivated by human fallibilism. The realization of such fallibility and the effort to avoid or correct errors is a motivation for critical thinking, construed in terms of fallibilistic epistemology. The epistemic value of questioning is usually not adequately appreciated, hence its negative connotation. An appreciation of the plausible epistemic basis and value of questioning may obviate the negative connotation it engenders. This apparent problem unduly hangs clouds over questioning as an epistemic process and a pedagogical tool. Any theoretical effort to motivate questioning as a process of learning and teaching will be adequate only if it is sensitive to this problem. We should bear in mind the theoretical connection between the process or method of learning or acquiring knowledge (epistemology) and the tools or methods for teaching (pedagogy). The process or method of imparting knowledge, teaching and helping people learn and the process or method of acquiring knowledge are theoretically coextensive. As such, questioning may be a valuable tool for teaching and learning critical thinking skills. I do not provide a detailed description of how this strategy could be used in class the way Hyman (1979), Dillon (1983) and Blosser (1973) do. I only provide a theoretical foundation and justification for its use in relation to teaching and acquiring critical thinking skills and abilities. Thus my concern is whether there is a way to motivate questioning or highlight its value both as a process of acquiring knowledge and of teaching, to make it appealing. I suggest that exploring the logic, epistemology and functions of questioning as an epistemic process of critical thinking may be able to do this. In order to appreciate how questioning may be construed as an epistemic process of critical thinking, we need to understand the nature of critical thinking and its plausible motivation. We may start by addressing the following questions: (1) What is critical thinking? (2) What are its epistemological features and motivation? (3) What are the logical and epistemological nature and functions of questioning? (4) How does the nature and function of questioning make it a process of critical thinking? Fallibilism and an Epistemic View of Critical Thinking Critical thinking involves the rigorous process or method of ascribing reasonableness to a belief. In Goldman’s view (1986), an epistemic theory of justified belief is necessary to account for a justifiable ascription of reasonableness to a belief. A plausible epistemic conception of the process of critical thinking may be couched in terms of a normative fallibilistic epistemology. This view is grounded in the fact of human fallibilism, the limitations in human cognitive abilities, our awareness of such a fact and the conscious effort and willingness to avoid or mitigate such fallibilism. Such effort or willingness involves adopting a rigorous and critical attitude for evaluating a belief, which requires that we be tentative about the reasonableness of our beliefs and that we be always open to other plausible evidence or counter evidence. Fallibilism in this sense implies that we accept a belief tentatively in the context of the currently available evidence. We may need to distinguish between substantive skepticism and fallibilism (which is a kind of methodological skepticism). Substantive skepticism says we do not or cannot have knowledge. This view is considered incoherent because to say that we do or cannot have knowledge is to imply that we do in fact have some knowledge, which is that we cannot have knowledge. Fallibilism says we could be mistaken but grants that we do in fact know some things. The implication of fallibilism for critical thinking is that we should adopt stringent methods, whereas the implication of substantive skepticism is that there is no need to try. An epistemic view of critical thinking specifies how we ought to acquire and justify beliefs. This process must involve rigorous inquiry and the critical analysis and evaluation of evidence. The normative view regarding how we ought to acquire beliefs implies that we have an epistemic obligation to use the appropriate method or process that will lead to reasonable beliefs. If we do not, there is a reasonable basis to make an epistemic judgment that we do not have a reasonable belief. However an epistemic theory must be sensitive to human fallible cognitive processes, which are the causal and justificatory basis for acquiring belief. These causal processes and beliefs are circumscribed by and contingent on the facts about one’s context and condition. So the normative view of fallibilism is parasitic on some factual properties and conditions about human fallibilism. The normative view presupposes, in part, that we are cognitively capable of using the normatively prescribed process or method. One needs to appreciate the distinction between the factual and epistemic claims about fallibilism in order to understand the plausible connection between them, as a way to illuminate the epistemic notion of critical thinking. The epistemic claim of fallibilism involves a prescription to adopt critical thinking process and attitude regarding what ought to be considered knowledge. It specifies the rigorous standards by which we determine whether one’s belief is justified or reasonable. To the extent that we are aware of our fallibility, we should make reasonable efforts to guard against, avoid and correct our errors. This involves being tentative and methodologically skeptical (McPeck, 1981). It involves questioning and ‘methodologically casting aspersions’ on beliefs and evidence, being open to new evidence and being willing to change one’s beliefs with new evidence. This process is methodologically adversarial and confrontational. According to Siegel (1988), Fallibilism is ‘the thesis that all our knowledge-claims are open to revision and are possibly mistaken’ (p. 145n). This statement regarding the nature and motivation for critical thinking is ambiguous in a sense. It could be understood as a factual thesis about the nature of human knowledge-claims. It could also be understood as a normative statement regarding how we ought to determine the nature of a knowledge-claim. This is the view that is directly relevant to the nature of critical thinking as an epistemic process of inquiry. We need to know how such factual statements may motivate an epistemic view of critical thinking as a process by which we ought to reason, acquire beliefs or engage in inquiry. Fallibilistic epistemology, as a normative thesis, says that S knows that q, if and only if there is a justification r for S’s belief that q, such that r being a confirmed and ‘undefeated’ evidence for q only makes it highly probable that q is true. This theory allows a person to know ‘something’ on the condition that a plausible justification exists in support for what one claims to know, such that the supporting evidence being well confirmed and ‘undefeated’ only makes it reasonable to believe that what one claims to know is highly likely to be true. Fallibilistic epistemology implies that if a belief is well confirmed and we have no negative evidence or ‘defeater’ to vitiate our justification, we hold it as conditional knowledge or justified belief in the given context of relevant alternatives and available evidence, we are able to get new information to improve our state of knowledge, such that when the hitherto warranted evidence no longer supports our beliefs, we are bound to modify our beliefs. There is a plausible universal and intuitive appeal for fallibilistic epistemology. Part of this appeal derives from the obvious truth that human beings are by their nature susceptible to error. Human beings realize as part of their rationality that they are fallible, and this is reacted in their cognitive processes which play an important role in their process of acquiring, justifying and modifying beliefs. Our perception and reasoning are susceptible to error, and since knowledge is a product of either the process of reasoning or perception or both, it is invariably susceptible to error—as a function of the ‘faulty’ process. However people have strong intuitions that we do know many things. Fallibilistic epistemology is the attempt to articulate a theory of knowledge, which will square with our common-sense view that we do know many things, and that we are also susceptible to error. It is an attempt to avoid substantive skepticism in spite of our fallible cognitive processes. Fallibilism provides a foundation for Nicholas Burbules’ (1991) conception of critical thinking as reasonableness, which he argues, involves ‘being willing to admit that one is wrong’ (p. 250). Such reasonableness suggests that we are willing to evaluate evidence and that we make concerted efforts to provide adequate justifications. Since we can be in error, we should not immediately accept a belief without proper examination. Critical thinking specifies a set of attitudes, processes, methods and contexts which will facilitate our ability to do inquiry, to avoid and correct errors so as to arrive at a reasonable belief. Such attitudes include, according to D’Angelo (1971), open-mindedness, intellectual curiosity, flexibility, intellectual honesty, methodological skepticism, persistence, objectivity and respect for views (pp. 7–9). The plausible connection between the factual and epistemic claims of fallibilism—in terms of the factual claim motivating the epistemic claim—may be illuminated by the ‘ought implies can’ principle. What we ought to do implies what we can indeed do. If we cannot do something, then it is unreasonable to expect that we ought to do it or make a judgment about us on the basis of a standard which we cannot achieve. This suggests that we may not hold one ‘epistemically responsible’ persona or epistemically evaluate one’s belief on the basis of what it is impossible for one to do or avoid doing. So considerations about how we ought to acquire knowledge or what ought to be considered knowledge (epistemic claim) has to be sensitive to, or parasitic on, considerations regarding how we can possibly acquire knowledge and what we can possibly know (factual claim). If we ought (or are expected) to acquire knowledge or justified belief by the process of questioning and critical examination, then (1) we must, given our cognitive abilities, be capable of engaging is such process, and (2) the conditions and context which support such processes of questioning and examination must exist. Such context includes what Bridges characterizes as moral preconditions, namely: reasonableness, receptivity, peaceableness, orderliness, truthfulness, freedom, equality and respect (Bridges, 1979, pp. 21–24). These conditions imply that we do not see questioning as critical thinking ability in a negative light; we should be receptive to it instead. They imply that we provide a motivation for the requisite abilities and investigate the ‘contexts that support or encourage them; and into the barriers that impede them’ (Burbules, 1991, p. 250). The epistemic importance of the plausible connection between the factual and normative theses of fallibilism with respect to critical thinking has to do with the idea that the factual thesis and our realization of such fact engender that we set a high and rigorous standard for acquiring knowledge, with a view to avoiding or correcting errors: this is the motivation for critical thinking. The fact that our knowledge is only highly probable (given human fallibilism) implies that there is a window of opportunity for one to be in error. Insofar as such a window exists, no matter how small, we should be committed to questioning and critically exploring it. This is because the most reasonable belief is one which approximates the truth and is held by one based on critical thinking. Truth in some metaphysical or logical sense is an ideal (Popper, 1985; Russell, 1965) that we are trying to epistemically get at by a process of inquiry. This requires that we engage in the process of critical thinking which is more likely to get us closer to such an ideal. It is assumed that given our fallibilism, we may not know what the truth is or arrive at the ideal, in terms of the true metaphysical nature of reality. Truth in this metaphysical sense is the actual state of affairs or reality itself in terms of what Kant calls the noumena, to which statements approximately correspond. It is in this regard that Popper sees truth epistemically as a verisimilitude. Human knowledge can be conceived only in terms of a verisimilitude because it is based on induction, the ‘defeasibility’ of available evidence, and susceptibility to error; this necessitates critical thinking. The more rigorous our critical thinking and the more the belief is confirmed via such processes, the nearer to the truth our knowledge will be and the more reasonable. Bertrand Russell (1959) argues that most of our beliefs are based on induction, and we accept them because they have a probability of being true. The higher the probability the nearer we are to truth, but we may never reach the truth because there is always the possibility of error. He concludes that the highest probability is all we ought to seek via a critical process; it is all that we can achieve. To accept a belief as the truth (as opposed to an approximation of the truth or the most reasonable belief) is, in some sense, to say that the belief is no longer open to question or further consideration of new evidence. The inquiry is closed! This attitude is considered in many relevant contexts as dogmatic. This is inconsistent with the idea of critical thinking and fallibilism. So the attitude or principle of rigorous inquiry which a critical thinker must have entails an understanding of the criteria for assessing reasons offered for the justification of one’s beliefs and being able to apply these criteria. This idea is couched in the normative notion of ‘reason’ and its cognates, such as rationality, evaluation, justification, reasonableness, assessment and judgment, which feature pervasively in the different conceptions of critical thinking. To think critically involves being able to question and evaluate beliefs in order to optimize the reasonableness of a belief. This is a process of placing evidential strictures on one’s doxastic attitude and the process of justification, to approximate the truth. After critically evaluating and questioning a number of evidence, then one is ‘moved’ to make the judgment that there is adequate evidence to consider it reasonable. 330 P. Ikuenobe It is in this sense that Siegel (1988) argues that critical thinking involves being ‘appropriately moved by reasons’ (pp. 32–42) to accept a belief after a rigorous process of questioning. This involves using the reasoning skills, critical dispositions, attitudes and habits that are required to assess statements, beliefs and issues as a basis for accepting them as reasonable. He accepts that the criteria by which we assess the appropriateness of the reasons which ‘move’ us to accept beliefs as reasonable are fallible, open to revision and are possibly mistaken (p. 145). Thus critical thinking ‘may include the use (or rejection) of methods, strategies and techniques as exemplars’ (McPeck, 1981, p. 13), which requires questioning our fundamental methods. This suggests why we may not accept a belief as the truth such that we regard further inquiry closed. Critical thinking process suggests some strictures which may help us to minimise our fallible tendencies. Siegel (1988) makes this point rather ambiguously with respect to the connection between critical thinking and fallibilism, when he argues that ‘Fallibilism… requires that we keep open the possibility of criticizing the very criteria of legitimate criticism we utilize’ (p. 144n). It is not clear whether it is the fact of human fallibilism and our awareness of it that requires this or the epistemic standard regarding how we ought to know, or both, in the sense that the epistemic is dependent or parasitic on the factual. So a robust sense of critical thinking may be seen as a fallibilistic epistemic process of questioning and evaluating statements, beliefs, arguments, knowledge and experience. Being able to question as a rigorous process of inquiry, to evaluate evidence and determine the reasonableness of a belief, is regarded as the hallmark of a critical thinker, who is also regarded as the paradigm of a liberally educated person. This process implies that all available evidence, assumptions and general network of beliefs in a given context be questioned and critically examined and evaluated. This, according to Paul (1982), involves a broad view or a ‘strong’ sense of critical thinking. This involves, (1) the avoidance of atomistic view of logical errors in individual reasoning, (2) a concern about self-deception with respect to reasoning, and (3) the disposition of a person in a given context to have a reasonable doxastic attitude. It also requires some sensitivity to the psychological, sociocentric, cognitive and egocentric components of one’s world-views, which shape one’s beliefs and reasoning. The ‘strong’ sense of critical thinking requires the exploration of the network of arguments, issues and views as the context for justification, in the attempt to ‘depersonalise’ one’s world-view. This strong view demands that people be willing and encouraged to actively question, challenge and criticize their most fundamental beliefs. A core feature of some conceptions of critical thinking involves having a disposition, attitude, and willingness, (1) to actually use one’s abilities to effectively analyze issues, solve problems, reason, organize and express ideas, and make reasoned judgments, and (2) to contextualize the use of these abilities to different relevant subject matters. According to Morgan & Wayne (1995), one of the points ‘of agreement among the definitions concerns the effective component of critical thinking. Critical thinking is dependent upon a person’s disposition to use it’ (p. 338). Critical thinking involves a disposition which depends on a context that allows for its development and use. Hence the process of questioning needs to be taught in the context of a subject matter. We also need to teach how it is best used to achieve the requisite result. This idea is illuminated by Aristotle’s view of virtue. Critical thinking involves, in some sense, the practical disposition to be epistemically virtuous. Such virtue would emerge only if someone learns to do virtuous acts all the time and thus forms the habit of doing virtuous acts; this requires a context which engenders such disposition and actions. Hence many theorists (McPeck, Siegel and Burbules, among others) see critical thinking as a set of intellectual behaviors and abilities which have to be used, nurtured and demonstrated—but only when such a context exists. The Logic and Epistemology of Questioning Hintikka argues that a striking feature of questioning as a philosophical method, and in my view as an epistemic process, is its inherent open-ended process, in that there is the possibility of one question to lead to another. The process of questioning implies that it has the logic of open-ended question-and-answer sequences. Questioning implies a process of continuously opening up issues about the reasonableness of a belief; it requires providing better evidence or counter-evidence. This idea is coextensive with the idea that, with better evidence or counter-evidence, what we thought we knew could in fact be false—which is the idea that we are indeed fallible. The epistemic standard of fallibilism which is parasitic on this idea or fact about human fallibilism provides a theoretical motivation for critical thinking, which involves the need for us to acquire and adopt a fallible disposition and critical attitude. Such an attitude or disposition involves using the process of questioning to critically engage in inquiry. Such an attitude can be learned if one can be taught to appreciate the logic, functions and significance of questioning with respect to knowledge acquisition. However it is pertinent to address more precisely the logic of questioning as an open-ended process. In this regard, Jaakko Hintikka’s analysis of questioning as a philosophical method may illuminate its nature as an epistemic process of critical thinking. In his analysis, he argues that questioning ‘offers a useful model for many different types of knowledge-seeking’ (1984, p. 25). These types of knowledge-seeking include, in my view, learning, inquiring, eliciting information, reasoning, evaluating evidence and determining the reasonableness of a belief. Hintikka construes questioning as having a logical structure, which involves a question-and-answer sequence. A question has a logical correlative in terms of an answer, which provides the information being sought by questioning. It is by virtue that this logic may be seen as an epistemic process of critical thinking, to the extent that critical thinking involves the process and attitude of being always open to new evidence and questioning one’s evidence and the reasonableness of beliefs. This logic implies that we should never dogmatically accept a belief or regard any issue as settled. However we may accept that an issue is tentatively settled and a belief is unquestionable given the evidence we have. To regard an issue as unquestionable implies an attitude of dogmatism which is opposed to the fact that we may be mistaken. This is also akin to the idea of critical thinking insofar as critical thinking is opposed to dogmatism. To the extent that questioning has the logic of opening up a new set of question-and-answer sequences and the opportunity to be open to new evidence it is not dogmatic. The logic of questioning implies that we have the attitude that we may be mistaken. This logic indicates its value as an epistemic process of critical thinking. This logic is manifested in our ordinary use of language. When we say that the point is ‘unquestionably’ correct, this implies that the issue is resolved, it is understood and no further questions may be asked to explore it further. But if it is questionable, then it has to be explored or clarified further. By this open-ended logic of questioning, ‘we can discuss and evaluate, not just someone’s state of knowledge at a given time (vis-a-vis the evidence one has at the time) but also entire strategies of knowledge-seeking’ (Hintikka, 1984, p. 30). Anytime a person asks a question, she is seeking information in the form of an answer. This information seeks to eliminate some plausible alternative answers to the question. For instance, the question ‘What caused the American civil war?’ suggests that there is a logical correlative in terms of an answer, ‘x caused the American Civil War.’ The question seeks information regarding x, which ‘is a conclusive answer if and only if it provides the questioner with the information that was requested’ (Hintikka, 1984, p. 27). For this information to be knowledge, (1) it must be true or at least likely to be true, (2) the person who provides it is honest, serious and sincerely believes in it, and (3) it is backed up by sufficient and ‘undefeated’ evidence. When the information is presented to the questioner and she accepts it, it becomes reasonable for her to say truly ‘I know that so-and-so caused the American Civil War’. The information presents a factor in a possible range of factors that may have caused the American Civil War. The information may not imply that one and only one factor caused the American Civil War. The person who provides the information must not absolutely believe that one and only one factor caused the American Civil War. Her belief or answer can be further questioned or explored to determine its adequacy and reasonableness. There may be other information, evidence, factors and insights that have not been explored which may justify one’s belief. This idea is given credence by the iterative nature of justification which might be understood against the background of human fallibilism. If I use x to justify my belief y, then I need to justify x with z, and z with w, and so on. Hence a belief is reasonable only in the context of evidential or inferential relations among all available beliefs and evidence. Thus the value of any answer is determined in terms of the information it provides for the questioner in the context of the inferential and evidential relations among all available evidence and accepted beliefs and the opportunity and possibility for it to lead to further indeterminate question-and answer sequences. However an answer to a question may not satisfy a questioner. In this regard, the notion of questioning has a psychological correlative, which is the expectation that an answer should provide some information and satisfaction. This derives from the idea that an answer must satisfy our curiosity and make sense, in that we believe it is likely to be true based on its evidential relations to our background beliefs, meta-beliefs and conceptual scheme. We are then emotionally satisfied by an answer if it makes sense to us; it is consistent with our coherent set of beliefs; hence it is considered justified. If the information is inconsistent with our system of beliefs and our expectation of what the ‘correct’ answer should be, then we are not likely to be satisfied with the answer provided. Such inconsistency provides an uncomfortable feeling of dissatisfaction with the answer provided. The process of questioning helps us to critically think and react on our background beliefs and the inferential relation between answers and our beliefs, to make sense of it in order to satisfy us. Thus questioning is a powerful epistemic tool, with tremendous value in that it allows us to regard any issue as open—it is not unquestionable. This open-ended logic of questioning, Hintikka (1984) argues, derives in part from the fact that questions are usually not asked in vacuum, but within the context of some assumptions, background beliefs, meta-beliefs and the available information. There are explicit or implicit evidentiary and inferential links between assumptions, evidence or justification, and answers or beliefs, which questions, and the process of questioning, seek to bring out, to get a satisfactory answer. In this regard, questions and answers are context- or theoryladen in the same way in which the reasonableness of a belief is contextual in relation to the available evidence. This gives credence to the idea that critical thinking as a process of questioning and determining the reasonableness of a belief is also contextual (Burbules, 1991). The assumptions and context that underlying questions raise are in themselves antecedent questions, which have to be answered in order to provide adequate information which may illuminate the target question. Just as a question presupposes other questions and answers, an answer is also provided within the context of assumptions about other questions and answers. These assumptions may raise questions which have to be answered, to see how the individual who provides an answer ‘makes’ the logical question-and-answer connection or the inferential connection between belief and evidence. This includes observational or perceptual beliefs and evidence. What we claim to know, as the basis for answers, may derive from observations and beliefs. They are a kind of inference which is made on the basis of our conceptual scheme, background beliefs and meta-beliefs. Critical thinking in this regard involves the process of questioning, examining and evaluating beliefs to determine whether our experience and beliefs are warranted. We may say that the process of observation involves critical thinking: that of making a reasoned connection between our conceptual scheme or background beliefs as evidence and our perception. For instance my ability to adequately observe, justifiably believe, identify or know that a certain object is a chair suggests that I do have some concept of a chair. This means that the object that I perceive falls into the conceptual category of things that I think of as ‘chairlike’. So if my concept of chair is correct, and my ‘perception’ of the features of the object is correct, my identification of the object as a chair cannot be false; it follows necessarily from my premisses. We can ‘see’ and evaluate a conceptual scheme and the reasoning process of making observations by asking some appropriate questions. If someone asks me why I identify x as a chair, I would answer by providing the necessary and sufficient conditions for what I think must hold for an object to be designated as a chair. I would catalogue the relevant features of a chair that the thing x has and I would say that it is as a result of these features that I have categorized x as a chair. You will then have an idea of my beliefs about the nature of a chair, the object x, and my reasoning in terms of how I make the connection between my idea of the nature of a chair and the features of x as observations or beliefs. The fact that a question-and-answer sequence has the possibility of generating other series of question-and-answer sequences suggests that there is always the possibility of exploring the context and assumptions which underpin the questions and answers. This helps one to come to grips with one’s fallibilism and assumptions which were not obvious. If a set of assumptions is seen as plausible, then one is able to know this in relation to one’s belief and answers. If they are not plausible, then they have to be jettisoned, modified or changed. This idea of seeing a network of assumptions and beliefs and questioning or examining them is what is captured by Paul’s (1982) view of ‘strong’ critical thinking. When certain assumptions are questionable and therefore questioned, then one realizes that the basis for one’s answer is suspect. One can reasonably see how such assumptions may contaminate one’s answer for one to be mistaken. One may see how differences or similarities in assumptions, evidence and reasoning may illuminate a view and make it understandable. This realization may engender the process of critical thinking and a positive attitude towards questioning. The Functions of Questioning: epistemic and pedagogical implications From the analysis of logic questioning, we can, in some sense, see some of the functions it performs and their epistemological and pedagogical implications. Questioning performs the functions of increasing our overall knowledge, which may result in our ability to avoid or correct errors because we are fallible. It helps us to get a deeper understanding of issues. In this regard, we may identify two fundamental functions of questioning. The primary function is that it is information-seeking. An answer to a question provides information which adds something to the epistemic state of the questioner. The secondary function is that it engenders critical analysis. Questioning can help us to explore issues about the initial information provided, to determine its adequacy. This secondary function of questioning includes, among others, challenging and criticizing in a positive and constructive way, to help people explore their ideas. The questioning that proceeds after an initial question has been answered may be for the purpose of exploring and providing new perspectives. This could be in the form of playing the ‘devil’s advocate’, in order to provide an opportunity for both the questioner and the questionee to react on a belief and the underlying reasoning or evidence. The function of questioning is illuminated by its logic, which is similar to the logic of dialectics. Such a dialectical process involves seeing the answer to a question as a thesis, which can be further questioned to arrive at an antithesis. The antithesis can in turn be questioned to arrive at a synthesis, and this may be seen as a different thesis which can be questioned ad indium. This open-ended nature of questioning involves a method of moving knowledge and inquiry forward. With respect to the primary and secondary functions of questioning, we may distinguish between fact-finding questions and analytical questions. Fact-finding questions are questions which require one to supply informational facts which are verifiable. For instance, I may ask, ‘On what date did America become an independent country?’ or ‘Who is the author of Macbeth?’ These questions are fact-finding, in that they are seeking specific answers in the form of facts which can be verified. The notion of ‘information-seeking’ is broader than the notion of ‘fact-finding’. One may seek information in terms of opinions or ideas which may not constitute facts. If, for instance, I ask in an Ethics class, ‘What is your stance on abortion?’ or ‘What is the argument for your stance?’, I am seeking information about a plausible opinion and reasons which are not facts as such. These are not fact-finding questions but are information-seeking; thus, all fact-finding questions are information-seeking, but the converse is not true. An analytical question is one which requires one to explore, explicate, examine, clarify, dissect, react on and relate issues or ideas. Analytical questions unlike fact-finding questions might help to elicit the reasoning behind an idea in order to fully unpack it and make it accessible and understandable, such that the reasonableness of the idea may be evaluated and determined. The following may constitute a systematic sequence of analytical questions in social and moral discourse: What do you mean when you say all humans are equal? What does equality mean? Can we distinguish between factual and prescriptive equality? In what sense are all human beings equal? Are you saying that as an adult, I am equal to a one-year-old baby? Do you want to suggest that a medical doctor should receive the equal wage to a cashier in a McDonalds restaurant? These questions do not seek facts as such, but they seek to explicate and analyze issues and concepts. These analytical questions are information-seeking in the primary sense; they open up the opportunity to ask further exploratory questions, to improve one’s epistemic state. So analytical questions may be information-seeking as well. Hintikka draws an analogy between the analytical-information-seeking variant of questioning in interrogation and deductive reasoning (1984, p. 35). He provides an example of this in Plato’s dialogue, Meno, which shows how by questioning, Socrates helped a slave-boy to analytically elicit complicated knowledge of geometry. This represents a classic case of how appropriate questioning may help someone to unearth tacit knowledge or unpack complex and implicit meaning of concepts. In this sense, analytical questions involve a process of critical thinking, in that they seek to explore implicit meanings, inferences, underlying assumptions and justifications. They involve exploring implications of ideas and the evidential or causal relations among evidence, ideas, contexts, patterns and trends. From the distinction and characterization of fact-finding and analytical questions, we can see that statements regarding the evidentiary or inferential connection between answer and question may be either a posteriori and synthetic or a priori and analytic. For instance, a question may be a way of requesting that one makes some analytic connections between two sets of ideas in order to clarify meaning. For instance, one might ask, ‘What do you mean when you say Jane is a spinster?’. The answer would be, ‘I mean that Jane is an unmarried female’. The question requires that one articulates the idea of ‘spinster’ which is not fully grasped by the questioner in terms of ‘unmarried female’. A question could also be a request for one to be aware of and to react on one’s tacit reasoning process or belief. In making the connection between inference or reasoning (which has relevance to the notion of critical thinking) and questioning, Hintikka (1981, 1983) argues very forcefully that what people call ‘inference’ or ‘deduction’ in a nonphilosophical parlance is actually a sequence of implicit question and answer. We sometimes see this in a court of law where a lawyer may use questions to elicit a set of answers from witnesses, from which she makes inferences and connections as a basis for making her cases, and by which a judge or jury decides a case regarding guilt or innocence. The questions in this case elicit tacit or implicit information. The principle of fallibilism, which requires us to be methodologically tentative about our beliefs, is a motivation for questioning, as a process of seeking information, activating tacit knowledge, evaluating evidence and examining beliefs. This principle governs the quest for the best deductive procedures (Hintikka, 1981, 1983). It has to do with a process of infusing rigor into inquiry, making sure that there is consistency or coherence among beliefs and that there is appropriate justifiatory connection between belief and evidence. The truth of a proposition in a deduction is evidentially transmitted to other propositions that it entails to form a consistent and justifiable set of propositions. This principle explains how we rationally form, justify, modify or change our beliefs. However it is pertinent to distinguish between the proper epistemic sense of questioning, that which performs the above functions and has the requisite logic and heuristic value, and the attenuated senses of questioning, which may legitimately engender negative attitudes. Some of these attenuated senses of questioning are used in a confrontational manner for badgering and as a rhetorical device. These senses my analysis of questioning as an epistemic process of critical thinking wants to delegitimise, to obviate the negative attitude. Questioning is supposed to help build a bridge between a questioner and questionee in terms of the each sides cognitive state; such possibility is vitiated by the negative attitude associated with it. If I ask a question with the expectation that you will understand my question and provide me with a plausible answer, then my assumption is that we do at least have similar or coextensive background beliefs or cognitive abilities. We have ideas about the nature of rational processes or background and meta-beliefs that a person should have in order to engage in a meaningful question-and-answer sequence for the sake of examining issues and improving knowledge. Critical Examination of Questioning as a Process of Critical Thinking In the Humanities, analytical questioning is used to explore the components of an issue, the reasoning behind views and beliefs, and their implications, such that one can come to a better understanding, and perhaps, different ways of looking at an issue. This point is usually not well appreciated by many students. They think that learning involves knowing the correct answer to a question, which is synonymous with knowing the truth. Thus they are more interested in finding the true answer to a question. Once we have arrived at an answer which represents the ‘truth’, inquiry ends. Their view is that the notion of truth is absolute. We should not question the answer any further to explore its implications, assumptions, merits and flaws. Although some students appreciate the importance of an intellectual inquiry in its attempt to arrive at truth, they do not seem to appreciate the importance of the rigorous, analytical and critical process for arriving at truth: that the rigor of the process determines in part the reasonableness of what is accepted as true. Such reasonableness depends on the adequacy of the evidence and the method bringing evidence to bear on our beliefs. As far as many students are concerned, if questioning has any merit at all, it is vitiated by what is considered its adversarial and confrontational approach, which engenders a negative attitude. This attitude towards questioning is similar to Moulton’s (1983) attitude towards the method of analytic philosophy. She argues that this method involves constantly looking for better reasons and counter-examples to refute or rebut another person’s argument. She argues that this method is fundamentally adversarial and it is not conducive for learning philosophy. Although Moulton’s argument is instructive regarding the attitude associated with the adversarial method, she does not address the adequacy of the rigour of such a method. One gets the impression that she is suggesting that the adequacy of the rigor of the method is irrelevant insofar as it engenders a negative attitude. However if questioning is seen as reacting this adversarial approach, then one can appreciate why, according to Moulton’s arguments regarding the negative attitude, it may not be seen as a tool that is conducive for teaching and helping students learn. It is also pertinent to mention that if one appreciates the heuristic value of questioning, the negative attitude it generates may be for the most part deemed unwarranted. One heuristic value of an argument for questioning in relation to fallibilistic epistemology is that it represents the falsification method of inquiry in science. Science is generally accepted as involving a paradigm case of rigorous inquiry. Questioning represents the rigorous process of testing a belief as a hypothesis. In an attempt to falsify it, we question the reasons and evidence that are brought to bear on it. This process, which many have characterized as critical thinking, may be uncomfortable. Because people usually emotionally invest in their beliefs, when the beliefs are deemed to be awed or unjustifiably held, it appears as if they have lost their investment. This is the idea reacted in the old saying ‘if ignorance is bliss it is folly to be wise’. The corollary of this idea is that if wisdom is unpleasant, then it is appropriate to be ignorant: if the process of learning and acquiring ‘wisdom’ is not pleasurable, then it is apparently more comfortable to be ignorant. A learning process is a humbling process, thus it is unpleasant. But the actual feeling involved in one’s realization and state of knowing (as opposed to the process of knowing) is pleasant, hence it is unpleasant if it turns out we do not actually know what we thought we knew. It is in the sense of such a possibility that learning, which derives from critical thinking, is an on-going, never-ending process. We always entertain doubt and question in order to expand our knowledge. Thus the rigorous process of acquiring knowledge is open-ended; this suggests why, given fallibilism, the open-ended logic of questioning is coextensive with the open-ended process of acquiring knowledge. 338 P. Ikuenobe However the open-ended implication of questioning and the indeterminacy of question-and-answer sequences could be seen as implying an unsatisfactory epistemological position. This is the position of perpetual or absolute skepticism, which is that, since we cannot be certain about our knowledge because we could be in error, therefore, we cannot have knowledge. If we cannot be certain about any belief because it is always open to question (not ‘unquestionable’), then it is not worth the name knowledge. So if we can always doubt our knowledge, it seems to follow that we do not know, since what we know should not be susceptible to doubt or error. This conclusion is a non-sequitur because the fact that we are sometimes in error (fallibilism) does not imply that we are always in error (skepticism). By a nonvacuous contrast, if we know when we are in error, then we should know when we are not likely to be in error. We do have strong intuitions that we know many things. The implication of open-endedness, Hintikka (1984) argues, should not count against the value of questioning as a philosophical and epistemic tool; hence, in my view, it can be used as a tool for teaching and learning. He argues instead that this view of questioning highlights its heuristic value as a methodology of learning and imparting knowledge. That it implies this interesting epistemic situation is a strong reason to favor it; it involves the process of exploring and examining beliefs to avoid dogmatism. However the fact that questioning can help us avoid dogmatism and move knowledge forward, in terms of the possibility of highlighting a lack of appropriate justification, it may lead to the frustration that we cannot arrive at the truth, especially in the Humanities, where many of the issues are abstract and conceptual. This is an indication of human nature with fallible cognitive processes; we should neither be frustrated about it nor lament it. Since questioning as an epistemic process helps to foster growth in knowledge, to avoid questioning is to foreclose growth in knowledge that may be brought about by new and rigorous perspectives, and to tend towards dogmatism. The connection between questioning and critical thinking can be understood, in part, by seeing that they are both conceptually grounded in the theory of fallibilistic epistemology—which is motivated by the facts about human fallibilism. In this sense, at least, they are conceptually coextensive. However we may also see questioning as theoretically motivated by fallibilism, where the process of questioning involves the process of critical thinking. Fallibilism helps us to make sense of the open-ended nature of the logic of questioning as a process of acquiring knowledge. Questioning and critical thinking both involve a process by which we are sensitive to human fallibilism and are able to bring about approximation to truth and progress in knowledge. We are able to bring about progress because, by the rigorous process of questioning involved in critical thinking, we unearth and explore what we did not know before or initially see as reasonable. We question and justify our beliefs so that those that are justifiable will be sustained and those that cannot be justified will be further questioned, examined, modified or changed. But the converse, that progress implies questioning with respect to rigorous critical analysis is not necessarily true, because progress could arise from guesses, fortuitous revelations and accidental discoveries without any concerted and rigorous efforts to question, inquire and examine. Given the plausibility of these statements, by modus tollens, to deny growth implies the denial of rigor inherent in questioning regarding critical thinking. An important character and value of rigorous and critical inquiry is its ability to bring about progress in knowledge. This is engendered by the process and method of questioning. This argument may be illuminated by Thomas Kuhn’s (1970) conceptual distinction between ‘normal’ and ‘revolutionary’ sciences. Kuhn argues that ‘revolutionary’ science has rigor, because it involves questioning and critical examination; this involves seeking new evidence, trying to falsify old theories, thus facilitating progress and growth in human knowledge. The concept of critical thinking and the associated principles and process involves being able eschew dogmatism and avoidable errors. This epistemic process of eschewing dogmatism requires that we be appropriately moved by reason, which involves, according to Siegel (1988), ‘a proper understanding of the relevance of reasons and the rules of inference and evidence’ (p. 43). This idea is captured by the notion of ‘constructive’ questioning or criticism, which is a rigorous process by which one may systematically bring evidence to bear on belief, to bring about growth and progress in knowledge. Lack of such process can lead to intellectual stagnation and decay. In this sense, questioning may be seen as an aspect of critical thinking which involves the process and general context of learning, the acquisition of knowledge and education. My analysis of questioning shows how its logic and functions provide a context which may encourage the epistemic virtue of the process of examining evidence as a basis for optimizing the reasonableness of beliefs and how lack of such context may impede the process. Paradoxically the advantage and heuristic value of fallibilism as a grounding for the process of questioning with respect to critical thinking may be part of the problem and the negative attitude usually associated with questioning. The relationship between questions and answers also creates an epistemic problem similar to Meno’s paradox. If I ask a question seeking information, I should already ‘know’ (implicitly) or presuppose an answer. If I do not already ‘know’ (implicitly) an answer, I would not know if the answer that is provided is the correct one in order to accept it as satisfying my inquiry. I would not even ask the question if I did not already ‘know’ (implicitly) the correct answer I should accept. The notion of question thus seems to suggest that one somehow presupposes the answer or a plausible range or spectrum of alternatives, hence one questions to get something that falls into the spectrum, to validate what one knows. At the same time, if one does not already know what the information or spectrum is, one will not know what one is looking for because even if one lands it one will not recognize it as representing what one is looking for, since one does not ‘know’ it. However the logic of questioning in its open-ended process helps us to avoid this epistemic problem in Meno’s paradox. The logic of questioning implies that nothing is absolutely known; assumptions are open to questioning and further exploration. By questioning the assumptions underlying questions and answers in an open-ended sense, we are able to clarify our ideas. When we ask a question, we do so within the contexts of our background beliefs, available evidence or knowledge, meta-beliefs and conceptual scheme. When we accept an answer, we do so tentatively within 340 P. Ikuenobe these contexts as inference to the best explanation which could be questioned further given better evidence. 

Conclusion
I have analyzed questioning to show its connection with fallibilistic epistemology as a basis to motivate critical thinking as a process of inquiry. By questioning texts, views, assumptions and beliefs, students may be able to learn the process of inquiry and acquire the ability and disposition of critical thinking. My analysis seems to lend credence to some commonplace views regarding how teaching and using the process of questioning could help students acquire critical thinking abilities. This requires that,
(1) instructors motivate questioning by explaining to students its logic, functions and basis as an epistemic process—this may help to vitiate the negative attitudes and implications;
(2) students have to see the connections among questioning, critical thinking, inquiry and learning, and fallibilism;
(3) instructors have to develop a constructive and non-threatening way to ask questions and teach students a process of asking questions so that one does not alienate and intimidate;
(4) the instructor must create, in general, a classroom environment that will allow students to express themselves, and they must be given the opportunity to actively participate in their own learning process, which involves acquiring the skills of questioning for the purpose of bringing about understanding, growth and progress in knowledge.

References
BLOSSER, P.E. (1973) Handbook of Effective Questioning Techniques (Worthington, Education Associates).
BRIDGES, D. (1979) Education, Democracy and Discussion (Windsor, England, NFER).
BURBULES, N. (1991) Rationality and Reasonableness: A Discussion of Harvey Siegel’s Relativism
Refuted and Educating Reason, Educational Theory, 41(2), pp. 235–252.
D’ANGELO, E. (1971) The Teaching of Critical Thinking (Amsterdam, B.R. Gruner).
DILLON, J.T. (1983) Teaching and the Art of Questioning (Bloomington, IN, Phi Delta Kappa, No.194).
GOLMAN, A. (1986) Epistemology and Cognition (Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press).
HINTIKKA, J. (1981) The Logic of Information-Seeking Dialogues: A Model, in: W. ESSLER &W.
BECKER (Eds) Konsepte der Dialektik (Frankfurt, Vittorio Klostermann).
HINTIKKA, J. (1983) Rules, Utilities, and Strategies in Dialogical Games, in: J. HINTIKKA & L.
VAINA (Eds) Cognitive Constraints on Communication (Dordrect, Holland, D Reidel).
HINTIKKA, J. (1984) Questioning as a Philosophical Method, in: J.H. FETZER (Ed.) Principles of
Philosophical Reasoning (Totowa, NJ, Rowman & Allanheld).
HYMAN, R.T. (1979) Strategic Questioning (Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall).
KUHN, T. (1970) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago, University of Chicago Press).
MCPECK, J. (1981) Critical Thinking and Education (New York, St Martins Press).
MORGAN, J. & WAYNE, R. (1995) Critical Thinking—What Does that Mean?, Journal of College
Science Teaching, March/April, pp. 336–340.
MOULTON, J. (1983) A Paradigm of Philosophy: the adversary method, in: S. HARDING &M.B.
HINTIKKA (Eds) Discovering Reality (Boston, MA, D. Reidel & Co.).
PAUL, R.W. (1982) Teaching Critical Thinking in the ‘Strong’ Sense: A Focus on Self-Deception,
World Views and a Dialectical Mode of Analysis, Informal Logic Newsletter, 4(2), pp. 2–7.
Questioning as an Epistemic Process 341
POPPER, K. (1985) Truth and Approximation to Truth, in: D. MILLER (Ed.) Popper Selections
(Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press).
RUSSELL, B. (1959) The Problems of Philosophy ( New York, Oxford University Press).
RUSSELL, B. (1965) An Inquiry Into Meaning and Truth ( Baltimore, Penguin Books).
SIEGEL, H. (1988) Educating Reason (New York, Routledge).

ISSN 0013-1857 print; ISSN 1469-5812 online/01/03&40325-17 Ó 2001 Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia
DOI: 10.1080/00131850120064063326 P. Ikuenobe





The Moody Blues- Question (youtube)   Question (wiki)

Lyrics

Why do we never get an answer
When we're knocking at the door
With a thousand million questions
About hate and death and war

It's where we stop and look around us
There is nothing that we need
In a world of persecution
That is burning in it's greed

Why do we never get an answer
When we're knocking at the door
Because the truth is hard to swallow
That's what the wall of love is for

It's not the way that you say it
When you do those things to me
It's more the way that you mean it
When you tell me what will be

And when you stop and think about it
You won't believe it's true
That all the love you've been giving
Has all been meant for you

I'm looking for someone to change my life
I'm looking for a miracle in my life
And if you could see what it's done to me
To lose the the love I knew
Could safely lead me through

Between the silence of the mountains
And the crashing of the sea
There lies a land I once lived in
And she's waiting there for me

But in the gray of the morning
My mind becomes confused
Between the dead and the sleeping
And the road that I must choose

I'm looking for someone to change my life
I'm looking for a miracle in my life
And if you could see what it's done to me
To lose the the love I knew
Could safely lead me to
The land that I once knew
To learn as we grow old
The secrets of our souls

It's not the way that you say it
When you do those things to me
It's more the way you really mean it
When you tell me what will be

Why do we never get an answer
When we're knocking at the door
With a thousand million questions
About hate and death and war

It's where we stop and look around us
There is nothing that we need
In a world of persecution
That is burning in it's greed

Why do we never get an answer
When we're knocking at the door...





I Know

Ben Dunlap: The life-long learner (youtube)

Sometimes there are questions that you need to answer that go way beyond the Five W's, like the Philosophical Questions and the Logical Questions, questions that if answered correctly will help paint a clearer picture.

Who? When? Where? Why? What? How?

Five W's and H Who? When? Where? Why? What? How?

Some statements create more questions then they answer. When people generalize or make assumptions, it forces other people ta ask questions because the person did not specify any meaning about their statement. And some questions create more questions. Not to say that the newly created questions are relevant or important, or does it mean that we should be discouraged from asking questions just because it may lead to more work or more questions. It only means that we must realize that just because we answered one question, that does not necessarily mean that we have answered all the questions completely. Some investigations need further inquiring in order for us to better understand something, this way we have a better chance of making the right decision

Knowing is a lot better then not knowing, but believing that you know enough is the most damaging thing in the world.

No Such thing as a stupid question is a popular phrase that has had a long history. It suggests that the quest for knowledge includes failure, and that just because one person may know less than others they should not be afraid to ask rather than pretend they already know. In many cases multiple people may not know but are too afraid to ask the "stupid question"; the one who asks the question may in fact be doing a service to those around them.

Never discourage a child's need for answers  

Movie clip where the kid keeps asking the question 'Why ?' over and over again. This is a clip from the HBO pilot show called Lucky Louie. You should always answer with better answers of course.

"It's better not knowing what you don't know, then not even knowing that you don't know. Even if the pursuit of knowledge creates more questions, at least you know that there are more questions to answer, because if you didn't know that there was more questions to ask, then you will never become more knowledgeable. Learning is a good thing. Ignorance is a bad thing."

Asking too many questions can sometimes have the opposite effect by making things more complicated then they need to be. Stick with the known facts and hold the philosophy for a later time when more is known about the problem

When giving answers you want to avoid being superfluous. So how do you know how much information a person requires? By giving that person an answer and then saying that there is more information if needed. So depending on that person's knowledge, and their ability to know when more information is needed, will ultimately determine how much information is needed.

Information Overload

A funny thing happens when learning, the more you know the more you will realize what you don't know, which is not bad because now you know what you don't know, so you're still learning. But now you're a little more aware, and you now have more choices and more options, with several choices being, Do you need to seek out missing knowledge on your own? Or find someone who has the missing knowledge that you need? Or, if unable to access needed information, what actions can you make, without looking ignorant?

Learning how much you don't know is just the beginning... 
I Know Enough
Know it All
Knowing Everything
Fallacies

Our desire to know things and to learn things is either a gift from God or just a natural process that life created in order for life to prosper and survive. If we did not have this gift to learn we would not be here. So if you take this gift for granted, or ignore its potential, your life will be meaningless and very unproductive. 

Memory
Self Directed Learning

Knowing more and more about less and less until you know everything about nothing, is just another idiom for idiots.

"One side effect of learning is that the more you learn about the world, the more you will realize how many problems there are in the world, which is a good thing. Because you can't solve a problem if you don't realize a problem exists. Don't be discourage by knowing how f*cked up the world is, be thankful that you know it. And be thankful that this is not all that you know, because you also know how wonderful life is. You have to balance yourself between fixing the problems and enjoying life."

"What ever you do, do not discourage yourself from learning, or frustrate yourself because of difficulties. Obstacles and obstructions are a  part of life. They are not barriers, they are only problems that require a little more thinking in order to solve them."



what have you learned?




What have we Learned? so far?



Rating System


In order to speed up the process of choosing and deciding what is the best or the most valuable product or process, you need a rating system that can quickly calculate the most important aspects and features, and at the same time explain why these aspects are the most important. A person might have particular needs, so then and only then, does a product or process need to be changed or modified. A Rating System can never be about opinions, it can only be based on scientific research, facts, statistics, user feedback and predictions. A Rating System can never be accurately measured using money because money does not have any useful information attached to it. Money only indicates the price of something, money does not calculate the true cost, the amount time, the amount of people, the amount of resources, its durability, its recyclability, its ease of repair, its ease of upgrading, or the impacts and the side effects that a particular product or process has on the environment or people.

Rating is the evaluation or assessment of something, in terms of quality (as with a critic rating a novel), quantity (as with an athlete being rated by his or her statistics), or some combination of both. Rating System for Movies.

Ratings and Reviews from others helps us to choose, but not without risk. There's more to choosing then meets the eye.

Ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is either 'ranked higher than', 'ranked lower than' or 'ranked equal to' the second. In mathematics, this is known as a weak order or total preorder of objects. It is not necessarily a total order of objects because two different objects can have the same ranking. The rankings themselves are totally ordered. For example, materials are totally preordered by hardness, while degrees of hardness are totally ordered.

Rank refers to the relative position, value, worth, complexity, power, importance, authority, level, etc. of a person or object within a ranking.

Inter-Rater Reliability is the degree of agreement among raters. It gives a score of how much homogeneity, or consensus, there is in the ratings given by judges. It is useful in refining the tools given to human judges, for example by determining if a particular scale is appropriate for measuring a particular variable. If various raters do not agree, either the scale is defective or the raters need to be re-trained. There are a number of statistics which can be used to determine inter-rater reliability. Different statistics are appropriate for different types of measurement. Some options are: joint-probability of agreement, Cohen's kappa and the related Fleiss' kappa, inter-rater correlation, concordance correlation coefficient and intra-class correlation.

Cohen's Kappa is a statistic which measures inter-rater agreement for qualitative (categorical) items. It is generally thought to be a more robust measure than simple percent agreement calculation, since κ takes into account the agreement occurring by chance.

Fleiss' Kappa is a statistical measure for assessing the reliability of agreement between a fixed number of raters when assigning categorical ratings to a number of items or classifying items.

Focus Group is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. Questions are asked in an interactive group setting where participants are free to talk with other group members. During this process, the researcher either takes notes or records the vital points he or she is getting from the group. Care should be noted to select members of the group carefully for effective and authoritative responses.

Statistics
Rating Systems
Observer Effect
Consumer Search
Surveys - Public Feedback

Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. It can assist an organization, program, project or any other intervention or initiative to assess any aim, realisable concept/proposal, or any alternative, to help in decision-making; or to ascertain the degree of achievement or value in regard to the aim and objectives and results of any such action that has been completed. The primary purpose of evaluation, in addition to gaining insight into prior or existing initiatives, is to enable reflection and assist in the identification of future change.

Testing Errors

Reputation is an opinion about that entity, typically a result of social evaluation on a set of criteria.

Even Popularity can be Flawed

Expert Opinion, or an uneducated opinion, both can have value, and both can have very little Value.

Critic

Questions and Answers System
Research
Testing

Review is to appraise critically. Critical evaluation. Examination.

How to Spot a Fake Review on Amazon

Fake Spot has 236,337,760 Total Reviews Analyzed.

Consumer Review Fairness Act of 2016- H.R.5111 restricts people from writing fake reviews or having other people write fake reviews on their behalf.  But how will this stop the propaganda?

A Rating System must standardized, incorruptible and easily deciphered. (5 Star)

The Rating System must be able to be updated when user feedback reveals new insights or new information.

Calculations - Techniques - Processes - Facts - Figures - Weights - Measures and Size - Dimensions - Technical Descriptions - Manufacturer Sustainability - Recyclable - Ingredients - Chemicals used - Parts - Components - Comparisons to other Techniques
Unbiased Product Reviews or User Feedback that analyzes and evaluates a product accurately.  Empirical Evidence.

Quality is something of superior grade. An essential and distinguishing attribute. A characteristic property that defines the apparent individual nature of something. Excellence or worth measured by long lasting, durable, repairable, recyclable.
Quality Control

Characteristic is any measurable property of a device measured under closely specified conditions.

Rating is an appraisal of the value of something. An expert estimation of the quality, quantity, and other characteristics of someone or something. 

Bidding does not determine value or the actual cost of a product or service, it only determines the price that someone is willing to pay.


Young Man Reading a Book in a Library Book Shelf




The Thinker Man