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Sight


Sight is anything that is seen with the Eyes. Catch sight of; to perceive with the eyes. The ability to see; the visual faculty. The range of vision. The act of looking or seeing or observing. Spatial Intelligence

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40 million people in the world are Blind, around one in every 200 people on Earth. Another 246 million have low vision to degrees that impose moderate or severe limits. Vision loss also affects hundreds of millions more people. Often relatives, devoted to aiding those who can’t see. Many become blind after many years of slow and progressive retinal degeneration.

Blind - Sight Problems


Eyes of a Baby Close UpSEE International provides sustainable medical, surgical, and educational services through volunteer ophthalmic surgeons with the objectives of restoring sight and preventing blindness to disadvantaged individuals worldwide.
American Foundation for the Blind

Blindness is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses. Some also include those who have a decreased ability to see because they do not have access to glasses or contact lenses. Visual impairment is often defined as a best corrected visual acuity of worse than either 20/40 or 20/60. The term blindness is used for complete or nearly complete vision loss. Visual impairment may cause people difficulties with normal daily activities such as driving, reading, socializing, and walking.
Myopia or Near-sightedness is a condition of the eye where light focuses in front of, instead of on, the retina. This causes distant objects to be blurry while close objects appear normal. Other symptoms may include headaches and eye strain. Severe near-sightedness increases the risk of retinal detachment, cataracts, and glaucoma.
Cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision. Cataracts often develop slowly and can affect one or both eyes. Symptoms may include faded colors, blurry vision, halos around light, trouble with bright lights, and trouble seeing at night.
Cataract Diagnosis and Treatment using LED technology to measure cataracts at a molecular level.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss. The most common type is open-angle glaucoma with less common types including closed-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma develops slowly over time and there is no pain. Side vision may begin to decrease followed by central vision resulting in blindness if not treated. Closed-angle glaucoma can present gradually or suddenly. The sudden presentation may involve severe eye pain, blurred vision, mid-dilated pupil, redness of the eye, and nausea. Vision loss from glaucoma, once it has occurred, is permanent.
Macular Degeneration is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field. Early on there are often no symptoms. Over time, however, some people experience a gradual worsening of vision that may affect one or both eyes. While it does not result in complete blindness, loss of central vision can make it hard to recognize faces, drive, read, or perform other activities of daily life. Visual hallucinations may also occur but these do not represent a mental illness.

Blindsight is the ability of people who are cortically blind due to lesions in their striate cortex, also known as primary visual cortex or V1, to respond to visual stimuli that they do not consciously see.

Testing Sight - Eye Exams


Eye Chart - stand 20 feet from the chart at eye level (cover one eye but don't close the eye or press on the eye). 20/20 vision means that the test subject sees the same line of letters at 20 feet that person with normal vision sees at 20 feet. 20/40 vision means that the test subject sees at 20 feet what a person with normal vision sees at 40 feet.
20/40 - Able to pass Driver's License Test in all 50 States. Most printed material is at this level.
20/80 - Able to read alarm clock at 10 feet. News Headlines are this size.
20/200 - Legal blindness. Able to see STOP sign letters.
Eyesight Check
Eye Test Game
Eye Health - Eye Exams 101
Eye Exam Seeing Test
20 20 20 Rule is every 20 minutes, stare and focus at an object 20 feet or more away for 20 seconds. This helps reduce eyestrain.
Improve Vision Naturally
Green Eyes of a Women Close Up Improve Eyesight (youtube)
Glasses Off App
How to See Without Glasses
ZEISS Vision Care

Eyeglass Prescription
OD = Right Eye
OS = Left Eye
DV is your prescription which corrects your ability to see things far away (distance vision)
NV means your prescription is for reading only (near vision)

Visual Acuity refers to the clarity of vision. Visual acuity is dependent on optical and neural factors, i.e., (i) the sharpness of the retinal focus within the eye, (ii) the health and functioning of the retina, and (iii) the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain. A common cause of low visual acuity is refractive error (ametropia), or errors in how the light is refracted in the eyeball. Causes of refractive errors include aberrations in the shape of the eyeball, the shape of the cornea, and reduced flexibility of the lens. Too high or too low refractive error (in relation to the length of the eyeball) is the cause of nearsightedness (myopia) or farsightedness (hyperopia) (normal refractive status is referred to as emmetropia). Other optical causes are astigmatism or more complex corneal irregularities. These anomalies can mostly be corrected by optical means (such as eyeglasses, contact lenses, laser surgery, etc.).

Spatial Intelligence - Awareness

eye anatomy Human Eyes is an organ which reacts to light and pressure. As a sense organ, the mammalian eye allows vision. Human eyes help provide a three dimensional, moving image, normally coloured in daylight. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth. The human eye can distinguish about 10 million colors and is possibly capable of detecting a single photon.
How Human Eye Works
Anatomy of the Eye
Eye are organs of the Visual System. They provide organisms vision, the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling several photo response functions that are independent of vision. Eyes detect light and convert it into electro-chemical impulses in neurons.
Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball.
Visual Cortex (Brain)
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus is a relay center in the thalamus for the visual pathway. It receives a major sensory input from the retina. The LGN is the main central connection for the optic nerve to the occipital lobe. In humans, each LGN has six layers of neurons (grey matter) alternating with optic fibers (white matter).
Retina is the third and inner coat of the eye which is a light-sensitive layer of tissue. The optics of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina (through the cornea and lens), which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical events that ultimately trigger nerve impulses. These are sent to various visual centres of the brain through the fibres of the optic nerve. Neural retina typically refers to three layers of neural cells (photo receptor cells, bipolar cells, and ganglion cells) within the retina, while the entire retina refers to these three layers plus a layer of pigmented epithelial cells.
Optic Nerve is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. The optic nerve is derived from optic stalks during the seventh week of development and is composed of retinal ganglion cell axons and glial cells. In humans, the optic nerve extends from the optic disc to the optic chiasm and continues as the optic tract to the lateral geniculate nucleus, pretectal nuclei, and superior colliculus.
Visual System (cortext)
Electro-Magnetic Spectrum

Wills Eye Hospital
Prosthetic Iris Devices
A. Academy of Ophthalmology
Review of Ophthalmology
National Institutes of Health
Premature Births

Grey Hair
Demodex Eyelash Mites
Mydriasis (wiki)

Eye Twitching

Animal Eyes Pupil Shapes
Binocular Vision is vision in which creatures having two eyes use them together.
Spatial intelligence

Onchocerciasis (River Blindness)

Retinal Implant is a Retinal prostheses for restoration of sight to patients blinded by retinal degeneration meant to partially restore useful vision to people who have lost their photoreceptors due to retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa.
Visual Prosthesis is a experimental bionic eye visual device intended to restore functional vision in those suffering from
partial or total blindness.
Argus Retinal Prosthesis is an electronic retinal implant.

Seeing with Sound Augmented Reality
Eye Music: Hearing Colored Shapes
Music
Sound Symbolism 

Andrew Bastawrous: Get your next eye exam on a Smartphone (Video)
Peek Vision

White Eye Detector App

Visual Field Test is an eye examination that can detect dysfunction in central and peripheral vision which may be caused by various medical conditions such as glaucoma, stroke, pituitary disease, brain tumours or other neurological deficits. Visual field testing can be performed clinically by keeping the subject's gaze fixed while presenting objects at various places within their visual field. Simple manual equipment can be used such as in the tangent screen test or the Amsler grid. When dedicated machinery is used it is called a perimeter.
VisualFields easy Eye Exam App capture high-quality images of the front and back of an eye.
Retinopathy 

Bevacizumab is sold under the trade name Avastin, is an angiogenesis inhibitor, a drug that slows the growth of new blood vessels.

Diplopia is a Computer Game that has been designed using the latest research to help people with amblyopia (lazy eye) and
strabismus (crossed eyes)
Brain training video games help low-vision kids see better

Computer Vision Syndrome
Protecting your Vision
Digital Detox

Color Blindness Correction
Color-Binoculars App helps color blind individuals distinguish colors in their everyday lives
Enchroma vision science and optical technology. The only specialty eyewear that alleviates red-green color blindness, enhancing colors without the compromise of color accuracy.

American Optometric Association
Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology branch of medicine concerned with the eye and its diseases.

Braille
SyncBraille is one of the smallest, lightest, and most affordable, portable Braille Displays
Refreshable Braille Display (wiki)
Periscope Braille Tablet

Voice Browsers - Speech Recognition

Orcam is a miniature smart camera that can attach to any pair of glasses. The device takes a photo of words and reads them to the blind.

Brain-sensing technology developed by Stanford scientists allows typing at rate of 12 words per minute, could provide a way for people with movement disorders to communicate.

VoiceOver Gesture Support, Text to Speech, Braille Display Mirroring

Vision Correcting Light Field Display 

Blind Ambition Vision-impaired & Low Vision Tool (youtube)
Daniel Kish: How I use Sonar to Navigate the World (youtube)
Sonar is a technique that uses sound propagation to navigate, communicate with or detect objects.
SmartCane device is an electronic travel aid which fits on the top fold of the white cane.
BuzzClip, wearable ultrasound for visually impaired people
How new technology helps blind people explore the world (video and text)

Smartphone Technologies
Artificial Intelligence

Narrator Text–to–Speech Utility
Read Speaker
JAWS Screen Reader
Daisy Consortium
KNFB Reader
The Read 'n Style Pen: Turn any text to audio. The world's first digital reading tool created by and for dyslexics.

Audible Books
Audio Books
Audio Books
E-Books
Audiobooks

Hearing - Testing
Ears
Dizzy Head Spins

Haptic Communication refers to the ways in which people and other animals communicate and interact via the sense of touch. As well as providing information about surfaces and textures, touch, or the haptic sense, is a component of communication in interpersonal relationships that is nonverbal and nonvisual. Touch is extremely important for humans and is vital in conveying physical intimacy. Haptics is a branch of nonverbal communication.
Touch
Morse Code
Sensory Substitution
Brain Plasticity

Human Echolocation is the ability of humans to detect objects in their environment by sensing echoes from those objects, by actively creating sounds – for example, by tapping their canes, lightly stomping their foot, snapping their fingers, or making clicking noises with their mouths – people trained to orient by echolocation can interpret the sound waves reflected by nearby objects, accurately identifying their location and size. This ability is used by some blind people for acoustic wayfinding, or navigating within their environment using auditory rather than visual cues. It is similar in principle to active sonar and to animal echolocation, which is employed by bats, dolphins and toothed whales to find prey.
Shorts: Daniel Kish's echolocation in action (youtube)

Talking Barcode Scanners

Sheila Nirenberg: A Prosthetic Eye to treat Blindness (video)
Can Blind People Draw? (youtube)
Ron Mccallum: How Technology allowed me to Read (video)
The Blind Woman Who Saw Rain (youtube)

Suppression of an eye is a subconscious adaptation by a person's brain to eliminate the symptoms of disorders of binocular vision such as strabismus, convergence insufficiency and aniseikonia. The brain can eliminate double vision by ignoring all or part of the image of one of the eyes. The area of a person's visual field that is suppressed is called the suppression scotoma (with a scotoma meaning, more generally, an area of partial alteration in the visual field). Suppression can lead to amblyopia.

Aphantasia: How It Feels To Be Blind In Your Mind

Amazon Echo voice activated search and information.
Information Stations 

Be My Eyes Smartphone App that allows a blind person to use friends and family to help identify things using video.

How Do A Blind Person & A Deaf Person Communicate? (with Rikki Poynter) (youtube)

Lechal Haptic Footwear

Injecting a benign virus that carries good copies of a malformed gene in the retina.
Visual Cortex Activity in Early and Late Blind People

Leber Congenital Amaurosis is an eye disorder that primarily affects the retina, which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this disorder typically have severe visual impairment beginning in infancy. The visual impairment tends to be stable, although it may worsen very slowly over time.

Special Education
People with Disabilities are Gifts from God


Eye Color


Brown eyes are the most common eye color in the world with over 55% of the world's population having brown eyes.
Hazel eyes are around 5-8% of the world's population. Hazel eyes are similar to brown eyes, although they are typically lighter in color, and have more of a green-yellow tint. Hazel eyes have a higher concentration of melanin (pigment) around the eye's border, which can result in a multi-colored appearance that varies between copper and green depending on the lighting.
Blue eyes are around 8% of the world's population.  History of Eye Color
Green eyes are often confused with hazel eye color, yet is entirely separate and distinct. Green eye color is the rarest color found around the world, and it is estimated that only around 2% of the world's population has green colored eyes. Green eye color is a result of a mild amount of pigmentation in the eye with a golden tint. When combined with the natural blue scattering of the eye, the colors mix to give a green appearance. Green eye color is most common in northern and central Europe, but can also be found in western Asian cultures on rare occasion.
Silver eyes are also quite rare. Silver eyes are the result of a very low amount of pigmentation in the eye, which reflects a gray-silver appearance. Amber eyes show off a yellow-copper tone, which results from the yellow colored pigment lipochrome.
Amber eyes are very rare worldwide, and are most common in Asia and South American countries. Amber eye color can range from golden yellow to a more copper tone.

Eye Color is a polygenic phenotypic character determined by two distinct factors: the pigmentation of the eye's iris and the frequency-dependence of the scattering of light by the turbid medium in the stroma of the iris.




The Thinker Man