is the process of
an activity, and not just a place, and is thus decentralized and deregulated.
Increasing focus on Social Networking
by using the shared learning experiences
of individuals as a basis for a
larger network of education and drawing on elements of systems to
facilitate the ability for Lifelong
in the individual and Cultural Groups
Education Initiatives -
is a group of people who share common
academic goals and attitudes, who meet semi-regularly to collaborate on
is where technical experts and other groups
co-generate new knowledge and technologies
It is the dynamic interaction between technology and society.
in when knowledge is the crucial resource
and learning is the most important process.
facilitates the learning of its
members and continuously transforms itself.
refers to the
community benefit organizations and individuals build ongoing, permanent
relationships for the purpose of applying a collective vision for the
benefit of a community.
also known as Community-based education
or Community learning and development refers to an organization's programs
to promote learning
and social development work with individuals and
groups in their communities using a range of formal and informal methods.
is a process
community members come together
to take collective action and generate solutions to common problems.
is the exchange, imparting or sharing of
information, ideas or feelings between people within a community, peer
groups, departments or units of an organization who are at or about the
same hierarchical level as each other for the purpose of coordinating
activities, efforts or fulfilling a common purpose or goal.
includes changes in nature, social institutions, social
behaviors, or social relations.
Community of Practice
(CoP) is a group of people who share a
craft and/or a profession. And then use the process of sharing information
and experiences to learn from each other, and have an opportunity to
develop themselves personally and professionally.
also known as macro practice is a
branch of social work
in the United
States that focuses on larger social systems and social change, and is
tied to the historical roots of United States social work. The field of
community practice social work encompasses community organizing, social
planning, human service management, community development, policy
analysis, policy advocacy, evaluation, mediation, electronic advocacy and
other larger systems interventions.
is a conceptual approach to social or personal development
that focuses on understanding the obstacles that inhibit people,
governments, international organizations and non-governmental
organizations from realizing their development goals while enhancing the
abilities that will allow them to achieve measurable and sustainable
Principles of Community Engagement
Knowledge Building Communities
is a community in which the primary goal is
rather than the
construction of specific products or the completion of tasks. This notion
is fundamental in Knowledge building theory. If knowledge is not realized
for a community then we do not have knowledge building. Examples of KBCs
are Classrooms, Academic research teams, Modern management companies,
Modern business R&D groups,
(Wikimedia Foundation together with its millions of
Wikipedians) Knowledge Management
Knowledge Based Economy
Knowledge Based Economy
is the use of
savoir-faire, savoir-être) to generate tangible and intangible values.
Technology and in particular knowledge technology help to transform a part
of human knowledge to machines. This knowledge can be used by decision
support systems in various fields and generate economic values. Knowledge
economy is also possible without technology.
is an approach to Knowledge Management
which claims to foster the dynamic evolution of knowledge interactions
between entities to improve
through improved evolutionary networks of
is the use of knowledge to generate tangible and intangible
is a mechanism for distributing
There are two views on knowledge and how knowledge markets can function.
One view uses a legal construct of intellectual property to make knowledge
a typical scarce resource, so the traditional commodity market mechanism
can be applied directly to distribute it. An alternative model is based on
treating knowledge as a public good and hence encouraging free sharing of
knowledge. This is often referred to as attention economy. Currently there
is no consensus among researchers on relative merits of these two
are social practices, technological and physical
arrangements intended to facilitate collaborative knowledge building,
decision making, inference or discovery, depending on the epistemological
premises and goals.
addresses the need to educate people for
the knowledge age society, in which knowledge and innovation are
pervasive. Learning is internal, (almost) unobservable process that
results in changes of beliefs, attitudes, or skills. By contrast,
Knowledge building is seen as creating or modifying public knowledge. KB
produces knowledge that lives ‘in the world’, and is available to be
worked on and used by other people.
shares and makes available to all members of the society
knowledge that may be used to improve the human condition. A knowledge
society differs from an information society in that the former serves to
transform information into resources that allow society to take effective
action while the latter only creates and disseminates the raw data.
Democratization of Knowledge
is the acquisition and spread
of knowledge amongst the common people, not just privileged elites such as
clergy and academics. Libraries—public libraries in particular—and modern
digital technology such as the internet—play a key role in the
democratization of knowledge, as they provide open access of information to the masses.
Open Knowledge Foundation
Free Knowledge Foundation
Access to Knowledge Movement
is the social, political, economic and cultural changes caused by the
spread of networked, digital information and communications technologies.
is the emerging economic order within the information society.
Human Search Engine
is an informal learning network that consists of the
people a learner interacts with and derives knowledge from in a
personal learning environment
In a PLN, a person makes a connection with another person with the
specific intent that some type of learning will occur because of that
is a process of developing and
with people and information, and communicating in such a way
so as to support one another's learning. The central term in this
definition is connections. It takes a relational stance in which learning
takes place both in relation to others and in relation to learning
is a period in human history characterized
by the shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution
brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information
- The ability to
knowledge across a community is what has allowed us go to the moon, to
build cars and freeways, to make milkshakes and movies, to veg out in
front of the TV, to do everything that we can do by virtue of living in
Ecology and Society
is the creation, distribution, use, integration and
manipulation of information as a significant economic, political, and
cultural activity. Its main driver are digital information and
communication technologies, which have resulted in an information
explosion and are profoundly changing all aspects of social organization,
including the economy, education, health, warfare, government and
democracy. The People who have the means to partake in this form of
society are sometimes called digital citizens. This is one of many dozen
labels that have been identified to suggest that humans are entering a new
phase of society. Overload
is an economy with an increased emphasis
on informational activities and information industry.
are industries that are information intensive in one way or
the other. It is considered one of the most important economic sectors for
a variety of reasons.
describes current economic, social and technological trends
beyond the Industrial Revolution. Information is a factor of production
(along with capital, labor, land (economics)), as well as a product sold
in the market, that is, a commodity. As such, it acquires use value and
exchange value, and therefore a price. All products have use value,
exchange value, and informational value. The latter can be measured by the
information content of the product, in terms of
, design, etc.
is a period in human history characterized
by the shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution
brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information
Millennium Development Goals
Urban Ecology Collaborative
Non Governmental Organization
National Service Scheme
American Community Survey
Tools for Learning
- Tools for Sharing Knowledge
Center Kids Count
Consortium For Data Science
Data Visualization Tools
Open Data Institute
to connect, equip and inspire people
around the world to innovate with data.
Service Oriented Architecture
in computer software design is
an architectural style where in services are provided to the other
components by application components, through a communication protocol
over a network. The basic fundamental principles of service oriented
architecture is independent of vendors, products and technologies. A
service is a discrete unit of functionality that can be accessed remotely
and acted upon and updated independently. It logically represents a
business activity with a specified outcome. It is self-contained. It is a
black box for its consumers. It may consist of other underlying services.
Ben Wellington: How we found the worst place to park in New York
City using Big Data
More than 1,800 public sector agencies use our
end-to-end solutions to connect with more of their citizens. Our customers
use GovDelivery to increase digital engagement, grow their digital
audience by cross-promoting content, build communities around data, and
create modern training experiences.
maintains that human development is
socially situated and knowledge is constructed through interaction with
Constructivism International Relations
of international relations are historically and socially constructed,
rather than inevitable consequences of human nature or other essential
characteristics of world politics.
is a process to identify business and
community development opportunities that could be implemented to sustain
or improve the local economy.
- Working Together
covers a series of activities at the community
level aimed at bringing about desired improvement in the social well being
of individuals, groups and neighborhoods.
mission is to improve educational outcomes for students in distressed
urban and rural neighborhoods.
: Imagine that all of the data and information about
Australia was linked and readily accessible to those with a
right and and need to use it. Imagine that this information was
connected seamlessly to our knowledge base as encapsulated in
various predictive models. Imagine a world where fit-for-purpose
information, necessary for a particular activity, regardless of
the scale of that activity, is available as and when it is
needed, ready for use, delivered to where it is needed,
sensitive to any privacy concerns.
Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Government - CSIRO
Union (EU) spatial Data Infrastructure
Economy-wide Sensor Network and Data Resource
Town Hall Meeting
is an informal public meeting, function,
or event open to everybody in a town community and held at the local
municipal building. Attendees generally present ideas, voice their
opinions, ask questions
of the public figures, elected officials, or
political candidates at the town hall. Attendees rarely vote on an issue
or propose an alternative to a situation. It is not used outside of this
secular context. Feedback
is a form of
rule used to discuss issues.
Motion in democracy
is a formal step to introduce a matter for
consideration by a group. It is a common concept in the procedure of trade
unions, students' unions, corporations, and other deliberative assemblies.
Motions can be oral or in writing, the written form being known as a
was the governing assembly of a Germanic society,
made up of the free people of the community presided over by law speakers.
Its meeting-place was called a thingstead.
Right to Assemble
is a public
meeting or assembly for open discussion.
is a property that is open to public expression and
Public Forum Debate
is a style of debate for teams of two. Individuals
give short (2-4 minute) speeches; these are interspersed with 3 minute
"crossfire" sections, questions and answers between opposed debaters. The
winner is determined by a single judge who also serves as a referee
(timing sections, penalizing incivility, etc).
is an online discussion site where people can hold
conversations in the form of posted messages. They differ from chat rooms
in that messages are often longer than one line of text, and are at least
temporarily archived. Also, depending on the access level of a user or the
forum set-up, a posted message might need to be approved by a moderator
before it becomes visible.
also known as protocols
or, informally, notes, are the instant
of a meeting or hearing. They typically describe the
events of the meeting and may include a list of attendees, a statement of
the issues considered by the participants, and related responses or
decisions for the issues. Minutes may be created during the meeting by a
typist or court reporter, who may use shorthand notation and then prepare
the minutes and issue them to the participants afterwards. Alternatively,
the meeting can be audio recorded, video recorded, or a group's appointed
or informally assigned secretary may take notes, with minutes prepared
later. Many government agencies use minutes recording software to record
and prepare all minutes in real-time. Minutes are the official written
record of the meetings of an organization or group. They are not
transcripts of those proceedings. Using Robert's Rules of Order Newly
Revised (RONR), the minutes should contain mainly a record of what was
done at the meeting, not what was said by the members. The organization
may have its own rules regarding the content of the minutes. For most
organizations or groups, it is important for the minutes to be terse and
only include a summary of the decisions. A verbatim report (transcript) is
typically not useful. Unless the organization's rules require it, a
summary of the discussions in a meeting is neither necessary nor
appropriate. The minutes of certain groups, such as a corporate board of
directors, must be kept on file and are important legal documents. Minutes
from board meetings are kept separately from minutes of general membership
meetings within the same organization. Also, minutes of executive sessions
may be kept separately. Committees are not required to keep formal minutes
although less formal notes may be taken. For committees, their formal
records are the reports submitted to their parent body.
proceeding before a court
body or officer, such
as a government agency or a Parliamentary committee.
holds that those who are affected by a
decision have a right to be involved in the
to Public Participation is similar to the
Right to Information
is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to
vote on a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a
graphs) - Performance
is the process, or act of
live audience. This speech is
with three general
purposes: to inform
, to persuade, and to entertain. Closely allied to
," although the latter is more often associated with commercial
activity, public speaking is commonly understood as formal, face-to-face
talking of a single person to a group of listeners.
is an oral presentation intended to present
information or teach people about a particular subject, for example by a
university or college teacher. Lectures are used to convey critical
information, history, background, theories, and equations. A politician's
speech, a minister's sermon, or even a businessman's sales presentation
may be similar in form to a lecture. Usually the lecturer will stand at
the front of the room and recite information relevant to the lecture's
in public speaking is a talk that establishes a main
underlying theme. In corporate or commercial settings, greater importance
is attached to the delivery of a keynote speech or keynote address. The
keynote establishes the framework for the following programme of events or
convention agenda; frequently the role of keynote speaker will include
that of convention moderator. It will also flag up a larger idea – a
literary story, an individual musical piece or event.
is someone who presides over a
forum or debate. Someone who
and attempts to avoid violence. The moderator role
is to act as a neutral participant in a debate or discussion, holds
participants to time limits and tries to keep them from straying off the
topic of the questions being raised in the
is an elected official who presides over the Town Meeting
form of government.
is a person whose role is to act as a
in a debate or
discussion, holds participants to time limits and trying to keep them from
straying off the topic of the questions being raised in the debate.
Sometimes moderators may ask questions intended to allow the debate
participants to fully develop their argument in order to ensure the debate
moves at pace. In panel discussions commonly held at academic conferences,
the moderator usually introduces the participants and solicits questions
from the audience. On television and radio shows, a moderator will often
take calls from people having differing views, and will use those calls as
a starting point to ask questions of guests on the show. Perhaps the most
prominent role of moderators is in political debates, which have become a
common feature of election campaigns. The moderator may have complete
control over which questions to ask, or may act as a filter by selecting
questions from the audience.
is someone engaged or elected to speak on
behalf of others.
something to the table. no matter who you are or where you are from, or
what disability you may have, everyone has something valuable to share,
Sometimes negative feedback is where
someone just wants to discredit
you without any evidence or facts to prove
their opinion. The same problem with positive feedback, sometimes people
just want to credit
you without any evidence or facts that proves that you deserve the
credit, so it may end up giving you a false
sense of security
, or have you appreciate someone or something under
. Feedback needs to be accurate and factual without
is a process where people who live in proximity
to each other come together
into an organization that acts in their shared self-interest.Activism
is a unit or formation established to work on a
single defined task or activity.
is a body of one or more persons that is
subordinate to a deliberative assembly. Usually, the assembly sends
matters into a committee as a way to explore them more fully than would be
possible if the assembly itself were considering them. Committees may have
different functions and the type of work that each committee does would
depend on the type of organization and its needs.
is a written offer from a seller to a prospective buyer. Business
proposals are often a key step in the complex sales process—i.e., whenever
a buyer considers more than price in a purchase. A proposal puts the
buyer's requirements in a context that favors the seller's products and
services, and educates the buyer about the capabilities of the seller in
satisfying their needs.
Public Awareness campaigns
can motivate changes in behavior in a
number of ways as well as making people well-informed so that
they make wiser consumer choices.
Public Awareness Campaign
Public Service Announcement
is a message in the public
interest disseminated by the media without charge, with the objective of
raising awareness, changing public attitudes and behavior towards a social
Public Information Film
are a series of government
commissioned short films.
is an official review of events or actions ordered
by a government body. Right to
"We need to teach people how to be
consumers of knowledge and information instead of consumers of
that actually lower the quality of life,
and cause more harm then good.
Consuming knowledge and
information on a daily basis
is good for you, just like exercising and eating healthy."
Citizen Feedback - Surveys
I'm always disappointed in
because most are so ignorant and so wasteful, mostly
because all the questions that they ask are not even clear
enough to be answered correctly,
like most tests
. And most of these surveys are
who will only
exploit people for their opinions, and not help them like they
claim they will. An
that seeks peoples opinions has to be
informative and educational at the same time, otherwise it is a
total waste of paper, time, people and resources. And the worst
part is that most of the time the information from surveys will
most likely be exploited, which will waste even more time,
people and resources. So one part of the
should be about getting valuable feedback
from people, and one part should be about explaining the
, and one part should be about
information and important knowledge pertaining to the subjects
When you give people more information and more knowledge about
subjects, it helps people understand more about the facts of the
subject so that people can now have a more
People should only answer the questions that they
can accurately answer
. People should also
know what they're voting for
. Plus you
should always show previous survey numbers and how that particular
information was used to make changes. You want to let people know that
their opinions matter, but more importantly, you have to use those moments
as a chance to educate people more about their surroundings and show them
other ways of how they can help make improvements without having to wait
for changes, changes that will never come or changes that will come with a
huge price to pay.
(cause and effect)
You have to make sure that people are not
Public Opinion Measuring
Question and Answer Formats
is a form or document
in real time at
the location where the data is generated. The data it captures can be
quantitative or qualitative. When the information is quantitative, the
check sheet is sometimes called a tally sheet
provide dialogue among movements within large groups. Impromptu
straw polls often are taken to see if there is enough support for an idea
to devote more meeting time to it, and (when not a secret ballot) for the
attendees to see who is on which side of a question. However, in meetings
subject to Robert's Rules of Order, straw polls are not allowed. Among
political bodies, straw polls often are scheduled for events at which many
people interested in the polling question can be expected to vote.
Sometimes polls conducted without ordinary voting controls in place (i.e.,
on an honor system, such as in online polls) are also called "straw
polls". The idiom may allude to a straw (thin plant stalk) held up to see
in what direction the wind blows, in this case, the wind of
an unofficial private
of an election count
carried out under Proportional Representation using the Single
into an electorate are reflected
proportionately into the elected body. If n% of the electorate support a
particular political party, then roughly n% of seats will be won by that
party. The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the
result: not just a plurality, or a bare majority, of them. The most
prevalent forms of proportional
require the use of multiple-member voting
(also called super-districts), as it is not possible to fill
a single seat in a proportional manner. In fact, the implementations of PR
that achieve the highest levels of proportionality tend to include
districts with large numbers of seats. The most widely used families of PR
electoral systems are party list PR, the single transferable vote (STV),
and mixed member proportional representation (MMP).
is the selection of individuals, groups or data for analysis in such a way
that proper randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the
sample obtained is not representative of the population intended to be
means by which a
by a certain minimum number of
can force a
public vote (plebiscite).
is the greater part, or more than half, of the total. It is a subset of a
set consisting of more than half of the set's elements.
Misuse of Statistics
the casual observer into believing something other than what the data
is a human research survey of public opinion from a
particular sample. Opinion polls are usually designed to represent the
opinions of a group of people by conducting a series of questions and then
ratio or within confidence intervals. This is not
so accuracy is
Survey in human research
is a list of
aimed at extracting
specific data from a particular group of people. Surveys may be conducted
by phone, mail, via the internet, and sometimes face-to-face on busy
street corners or in malls. Surveys are used to increase knowledge in
fields such as social research and demography. Survey research is often
used to assess thoughts, opinions, and feelings. Surveys can be specific
and limited, or they can have more global, widespread goals. Psychologists
and sociologists often use surveys to analyze behavior, while it is also
used to meet the more pragmatic needs of the media, such as, in evaluating
political candidates, public health officials, professional organizations,
and advertising and marketing directors. A survey consists of a
predetermined set of questions that is given to a sample. With a
representative sample, that is, one that is representative of the larger
population of interest, one can describe the attitudes of the population
from which the sample was drawn. Further, one can compare the attitudes of
different populations as well as look for changes in attitudes over time.
A good sample selection is key as it allows one to generalize the findings
from the sample to the population, which is the whole purpose of survey
Needed to Educate
Types of Surveys
detailed critical inspection. Short descriptive summary (of events).
Consider in a comprehensive way. Look over carefully or inspect. Make a
survey of; for statistical purposes.
describes the process
of selecting a sample of elements from a target population to conduct a
survey. The term "survey" may refer to many different types or techniques
. In survey sampling it
most often involves a questionnaire
used to measure the characteristics and/or attitudes of people. Different
ways of contacting members of a sample once they have been selected is the
subject of survey data collection. The purpose of sampling is to reduce
the cost and/or the amount of work that it would take to survey the entire
target population. A survey that measures
the entire target population is called a census. Survey samples can be
broadly divided into two types: probability samples and non-probability
samples. Probability-based samples implement a sampling plan with
specified probabilities (perhaps adapted probabilities specified by an
adaptive procedure). Probability-based sampling allows design-based
inference about the target population. The inferences are based on a known
distribution that was specified in the study protocol. Inferences from
probability-based surveys may still suffer from many types of bias.
Surveys that are not based on probability
have greater difficulty measuring their
or sampling error. Surveys based
on non-probability samples often fail to represent the people in the
Sampling in statistics
is concerned with the selection of a subset of
individuals from within a statistical population to estimate
characteristics of the whole population. Two advantages of sampling are
that the cost is lower and data collection
is faster than measuring the entire population. Each observation measures
one or more properties (such as weight, location, color) of observable
bodies distinguished as independent objects or individuals. In survey
sampling, weights can be applied to the data to adjust for the sample
design, particularly stratified sampling. Results from probability theory
and statistical theory are employed to guide the practice. In business
and medical research
is widely used for gathering information about a population. Acceptance
sampling is used to determine if a production lot of material meets the
governing specifications. The sampling process comprises several stages:
Defining the population of concern. Specifying a sampling frame, a set of
items or events possible to measure. Specifying a sampling method for
selecting items or events from the frame. Determining the sample size.
Implementing the sampling plan. Sampling and data collecting.
is the procedure
of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of
a given population.
Survey Data Collection
are any of a number of ways in which data can
be collected for a statistical survey. These are methods that are used to
collect information from a sample of individuals in a systematic way.
First there was the change from traditional paper-and-pencil
interviewing (PAPI) to computer-assisted interviewing (CAI). Now,
face-to-face surveys (CAPI), telephone surveys (CATI), and mail surveys (CASI,
CSAQ) are increasingly replaced by web surveys.
General Social Surveys
studies the sampling of individual units from a population
and the associated survey data collection
techniques, such as
questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and
accuracy of responses to surveys. Survey methodology includes instruments
or procedures that ask one or more questions that may, or may not, be
answered. Statistical surveys are undertaken with a view towards making
statistical inferences about the population being studied, and this
depends strongly on the survey questions used. Polls about public opinion,
public health surveys, market research surveys, government surveys and
censuses are all examples of quantitative research that use contemporary
survey methodology to answer questions about a population. Although
censuses do not include a "sample", they do include other aspects of
survey methodology, like questionnaires
, interviewers, and nonresponse
follow-up techniques. Surveys provide important information for all kinds
of public information and research fields, e.g., marketing
psychology, health professionals and sociology.
advice about the attitudes and behaviors of employees, customers.
Question and Answer
can provide great feedback. But you also need to
print out these forms for people without access to technology.
every News Paper in the world needs to print out Q&A's at least
once a week.
Voting has the same problems
Testing also has the same problems