- Black Holes
- Solar System
- Space Aliens
- Space Shuttle
- Space Travel
Pyramid of Complexity
on the right is not a
. It is just an Artist rendition of what our
would look like from another galaxy.
The photo above is not to make you feel
, it is only for
. Think of it as a
in your mind.
Depending on your
field of view
, you would have to be around
100,000 light years away to see this Galaxy using the naked human
eye. And as you got closer, it would almost disappear because of the
tremendous amount of space
there is between
everything, like with atoms
of the Universe from Big to Small
of the Universe from Small to Big
NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day
The Scale of the Universe - Interactive
Timeline of our Universe
It is believed that our
began. (not sure if it was the first time?)Time Line of the Universe
Chronology of the Universe
After 300 or 400 Million years later
started to form.
marks the point at which the hydrogen in the Universe
is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a
negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions,
often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
or a molecule in which the total
number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving
the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge. Ions
can be created, by either chemical or physical means, via ionization.
Shape of the Universe
high-redshift galaxy found in the constellation Ursa Major, and
is currently the oldest and most distant known galaxy in the observable
universe - 13.4 billion years old.
z8 GND 5296
is 13.1 billion years old, only about 700
million years younger than the universe.
After 9 Billion years
in our Solar System
is formed around 4.7 Billion years ago. (so life could
have started a few billion years before us in another galaxy or
in our own galaxy
4.5 Billion years
is formed. Earth day then was only 6 hours
long. Mostly Molten
collided with another planetary-mass object,
(the early Earth)
around 4.51 billion years ago. That was when the Moon Formed
, the Moon
was twice as close
then it is now causing 10,000 ft.
4 Billion years ago
cataclysm when Asteroids
bombarded the earth and moon.
Late Heavy Bombardment
3.5 Billion years ago
Billion Years since the Birth of Earth)
start to form on earth.
life from 3.7 billion years ago when Earth’s skies were
and its oceans
.Pyramid of Complexity
Timeline of Evolutionary History of Life
was about half of what it is today.
3.2 Billion years ago
Great Oxygenation Event
. Was this the first Extinction
is what makes the sky blue,
molecules in the air scatter blue light
from the sun more than they
scatter red light. New type of Green
, which created the Ozone Layer
that protected life from damaging UV Rays
and gave life
a chance to progress. Organisms Change
3 Billion years ago
Billion Years since the Birth of Earth)
and primitive animals start to evolve.
Over 2 Billion Years go by
....yada yada yada...and then....
700 - 550 million years ago
, in the
, oxygen levels in the oceans and atmosphere increased
dramatically. By 600 million years ago, the oxygen in the atmosphere
reached about one-fifth of today’s level (21 percent).
600 Million years ago
(3.9 Billion Years
since the Birth of Earth, and 2.9 Billion Years since Microorganisms Formed)
was completely covered in Ice
are a group of free-living unicellular and
colonial flagellate eukaryotes considered to be the closest living
relatives of the animals.
is a conserved part of a given
sequence and (tertiary) structure that can evolve, function,
and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain.
500 Million years ago
. Prior to the Cambrian explosion, most
were simple, composed of individual
into colonies. Over the following 70 to 80 million years, the rate of
diversification accelerated by an order of magnitude and the diversity of
life began to resemble that of today. Almost all the present
) appeared during this period, with the exception of
which are a
animals who made its
earliest known appearance later, in the Lower Ordovician.
450 Million years ago
. First land plants occurs in the
, in the form of fossil spores.
diversify in the Late
from around 430 million years ago, and the results of their
diversification are displayed in remarkable detail in an early
fossil assemblage from the
. This chert, formed in volcanic hot springs, preserved
several species of early plants in cellular detail by petrification.
Timeline of Plant Evolution
is an extant taxon that closely resembles organisms
otherwise known only from the fossil record. As a rule, to be considered a
living fossil, the fossil species must be old relative to the time of
origin of the extant clade.
400 Million years ago
is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million
years from the end of the Devonian Period 358.9 million years ago (Mya),
to the beginning of the Permian Period, 298.9 Mya. The name Carboniferous
250 Million years ago
95% of all
Ward: Earth's Mass Extinctions
(14 °F rise in temperature)
Earth took up to 10
million years to recover
A footprint of a reptile-like creature called an Isochirotherium
- an ancestor of dinosaurs and crocodiles, that roamed the area
230 million years ago - was discovered in early April by a
person out walking in Olesa de Montserrat, 40 kilometers (25
miles) north of Barcelona. Northeastern Catalonia in the Iberian
200 Million years ago
and lived for 180 Million years (over 700
are a diverse group of
of the clade Dinosauria that first appeared during the
which was a geologic period and system which spans 50.9 million years from
the end of the Permian Period 252.17 million years ago (Mya), to the
beginning of the
201.3 Mya. The Triassic is the first period of the
. Both the start and end of the period are marked by major
, mostly desert, no
broad leaf trees
, no flowers,
spun faster, moon was closer.
started braking apart
about 200 million years ago.
125 Million years ago
million years after plants evolved.100 million
from the other fragments of Gondwana and began moving
the name given to an ancient supercontinent. It is believed to have
sutured between about 570 and 510 million years ago (Mya), joining East
Gondwana to West Gondwana. Gondwana formed prior to Pangaea, and later
became part of it.
- Earths Surface65 Million years ago
Cretaceous–Paleogene Extinction Event
is also known as the
Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a mass
of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on
Earth that occurred over a geologically short period of time approximately
66 million years ago. With the exception of some ectothermic species like
the leatherback sea turtle and crocodiles, no tetrapods weighing more than
25 kilograms (55 lb) survived. It marked the end of the Cretaceous period
it, the entire Mesozoic Era, opening the Cenozoic Era that
Time after Extinction
is found in
in much higher abundance than in the
is an interval of geological time from about
252 to 66 million years ago. It is also called the Age of
Earths Early History
Dinosaurs: Giants of Patagonia (2014)
Giganotosaur 11/25/2014 - 40 min. video)
is a clade of coelurosaurian dinosaurs that
includes the birds and the non-avian dinosaurs that were more closely
related to them than to Ornithomimus velox.
is a genus of giant titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur containing a
single species.55 million years ago
evolved.50 million years ago
land mass known as India today, drifted into Asia, the
, and is still moving an inch every year.
Discovery of Human Antiquity
(30 - 50 million years)
(Michael A. Cremo)
(3.7 million years ago)
2.6 million years ago
is the earliest widespread stone tool archaeological industry in
prehistory (it is pre-dated by
tools at a single site dated to 3.3 million years ago]). Oldowan tools
were used during the Lower Paleolithic period, 2.6 million years ago up
until 1.7 million years ago, by ancient hominids across much of Africa,
South Asia, the Middle East and Europe. This technological industry was
followed by the more sophisticated Acheulean industry.
made of weights on the ends of interconnected cords, used to capture
animals by entangling their legs.
2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago
Documentary : Secrets Beneath The Ice In Antarctica HD full
600,000 years ago
, or were
or arrived here from another planet
500 million years ago or 3 billion years ago?
The Day We
Learned to Think
500,000 years ago
Archaic Humans400,000 years ago
, four ancient wooden spears found in an opencast
mine near the town (Bamford & Henderson 2003). The spears are about
400,000 years old .
250,000 years before
is an archeological site in the Valsequillo Basin near the
city of Puebla, Mexico. After excavations in the 1960s, the site became
notorious due to geochronologists' analyses that indicated human
habitation at Hueyatlaco.
100,000 years ago
Last Glacial Period
Timeline of Glaciation
75,000 years ago
Toba Catastrophe Theory
Recent African Origin of Modern Humans
Multistep food plant processing at Grotta Paglicci (Southern
Italy) around 32,600 cal B.P
23,000 years ago
People came from Siberia and East Asia to America
22,000 years ago
The Last Glacial Maximum
, the maximum extent of glaciation
within the last
100,000 years ago.
Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 20,000
BC.14,000 years ago
arrive in southern South America, first or second time?
a prehistoric group of hunter-gathers known as the
lived in Northern America. Ancient stone carvings in
Gobekli Tepe Temple in Turkey suggest that a comet struck Earth around
11,000 years ago
The last ice age ended about 11,000 years ago. Next one might be in
Global sea level rose
as the vast ice sheets of the last Ice Age
melted back, more than 120 meters or 393 feet
This melt-back lasted from about 19,000 to about 6,000 years ago, meaning
that the average rate of
was roughly 1 meter per century.
10,000 to 5,000 BC
pre-agricultural material in northwest
dates back to the 10th–8th millennium BCE. During the
pre-pottery Neolithic A
(PPNA). Circles of massive
T-shaped stone pillars
erected, the world's oldest known megaliths
More than 200 pillars in about 20 circles are currently known through
geophysical surveys. Each pillar has a height of up to 6 m (20 ft) and a
weight of up to 20 tons. They are fitted into sockets that were hewn out
of the bedrock. Archaeological site is atop a mountain ridge "Potbelly
Hill" in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of modern-day Turkey.
The MacCready explosion
states that 10,000
years ago humans and their pets and livestock made up 0.1% of terrestrial
vertebrate biomass, today it's 98%.
6,000 and 10,000 years ago
occurred. Before then
no blue eyes
. So we went from having nobody on Earth
with blue eyes 10,000 years ago, to now having 20 or 40 percent of
Europeans having blue
4,500 and 2,000 BC
More humans went from
Hunting and Gathering
to one of
, allowing the ability to support an increasingly
Humans understood that there were
patterns and cycles in life, so we created tools to help
is a period characterized by the use of bronze,
proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
is a ring of standing stones are set within earthworks in the middle of
the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England,
including several hundred burial mounds.
Indus Valley Civilization
3300–1300 BCE, regions of South Asia,
extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and
have been built by civilizations in many parts of the world. For thousands
of years, the largest structures on Earth were pyramids, which is a
structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single
point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric
was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by
the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known
fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as
for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses southeastern
Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras
and El Salvador. This region consists of the northern lowlands
encompassing the Yucatán Peninsula, and the highlands of the Sierra Madre,
running from the Mexican state of Chiapas, across southern Guatemala and
onwards into El Salvador, and the southern lowlands of the Pacific
was the first urban civilization in the historical region of southern
, modern-day southern
during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze ages, and arguably the first
civilization in the world with Ancient Egypt and the Indus Valley. Living
along the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates, Sumerian farmers were able
to grow an abundance of grain and other crops, the surplus of which
enabled them to settle in one place. Proto-writing in the prehistory dates
back to c. 3000 BC. The earliest texts come from the cities of Uruk and
Jemdet Nasr and date back to 3300 BC; early cuneiform writing emerged in
3000 BC. Modern historians have suggested that Sumer was first permanently
settled between c. 5500 and 4000 BC by a West Asian people who spoke the
Sumerian language (pointing to the names of cities, rivers, basic
occupations, etc., as evidence), an agglutinative language isolate.
From Stone Tools to Metal Tools
Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program
Paleontological Research Institution
was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient
Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and
large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa
is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest
religious monument in the world, with the site measuring 162.6 hectares
(1,626,000 m2; 402 acres). It was originally constructed as a Hindu temple
of god Vishnu for the Khmer Empire, gradually transforming into a Buddhist
temple toward the end of the 12th century. It was built by the Khmer King
Suryavarman II in the early 12th century.
was a Paleo-Eskimo culture (500 BCE–1500 CE)
that preceded the Inuit culture in Arctic North America.
refers to the group of people who spoke what is now called the
Old Norse language between the 8th and 11th centuries. The language
belongs to the North Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages, and
is the earlier form of modern Scandinavian languages.
Spheres of Costa Rica
dating back to the Aguas Buenas Period (300–800
CE) and Chiriquí Period (800–1550 CE).
(Diquis Spheres or Stone Balls)
99.9 Percent of all Species
that have existed on Earth, are now Extinct.
We are now in the 6th
at an extremely fast rate.
Holocene 6th Extinction
like a Computer
, Life hitting the Restart Button?
, for thousands of years, humans have struggled to
survive, with many
. Even in the last 2000 years, humans
are still struggling to survive. Humans have been suffering from
wars, diseases, and all kinds of
. We have made many improvements, but we still
have many problems that we have to solve. Luckily, the Earth
during the last 5,000 years has been pretty good to us. Except
for the regular
outbursts from mother nature
, we have had no major
extinction events like the previous ones.
It's estimated that
106 Billion Humans
since the beginning
, and as of
2011, 94% are
means over 99 Billion people have lived and died before you were
So everyone is standing on the Shoulders of Giants
Passing the Baton
, so please make it a good one.
Some of our Greatest Inventions and Innovations
Corporate Takeover of America Timeline
Corporate Takeover of America's Education System
"You have to have something to show for your life, something
significant, something relevant, something positive. And don't
worry about the time that was wasted, think about the time that
you still have. You don't have to finish, you just have to
start, someone else will pick up where you left off, pass your
"It's amazing to know that everyone who has lived before 1901 is dead,
and in 120 years everyone alive today will be dead. And that's
not just 7 billion people dying, it's all the other deaths that
happened in those 120 years. If 55 million people die every
year, that's almost another 7 billion people gone. We need to
get in touch with this reality. Though our lives are temporary,
our actions could continue to do damage long after we have died.
But if our actions are positive, then life will continually
improve, long after we have gone."
Remember that the universe is still young and still evolving. Only eight
percent of the potentially habitable planets that will ever form
in the universe exist today. So the bulk of possible habitable
planets - 92 percent - have yet to be born. We have a very
long future ahead us.
And after all that, here you are today....
Big History Project
principles and techniques of
and understand the geological history of Earth.
is the scientific study of life that
existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch
(roughly 11,700 years before present). Time Measuring
is the study of historical geography,
generally physical landscapes.
There is no such thing as stationary, everything is in constant
motion, we are in constant motion even when we sleep.
Physical stillness is an illusion, but it's an illusion we
sometimes need in order to relax and to find peace. But we have
to make sure that we fully understand that nothing can be still,
things are either getting better, or things are continually
getting worse. And in order to continually improve things, we have take
necessary actions, actions that are proven to help things get
better, if not, then things will continually get worse. I prefer
to have things continually improve and get better, it seems
natural, so why not take
the path of least resistance
, it's life's natural path.
And we know from History
that if you go off the path, then
adaptation is no longer available. And we are off the path on a
lot of things in our world. We need to get back on the path, and
to life's natural progression. We need to avoid
decline and retrograde. We need to stop
, We need to
stop making things worse, or bad, or unnatural, or abnormal, or
unstable. Those directions are nothing but trouble. Don't be
fooled into believing that you have
fixed a problem
, because you
may still be headed towards failure.
Retrograde and Prograde Motion
"We are either progressing
or retrograding all the while. There is no such thing as
remaining stationary in this life."
My Earth Time Scale
Since I was Born in 1960.
55 Years and 5 Months as of April 2016.
If I were born on the
planet Mars I would be 28 years old instead of 55.
has beat over 2 billion times so far.
I have traveled 37,094,025,717 miles through space so far.
I have traveled over 32,496,627,730 miles around the Sun so far.
I have traveled over 270,805,235,560 miles through the Milky Way
The Earth has had 270 major eruptions so far in my life.
A Coast Redwood's Tree growth in my lifetime was 70' 10".
Over 2 billion people have
in my lifetime.
World Population has increased by 4,378,974,225
in my lifetime.
In my life there have been 122 solar eclipses
movement in my lifetime on the East Pacific Rise
was 27' 1".
1.4 billion lost
Acres of Forest
were destroyed so far in my lifetime.
1960 the earths average temp was 57.2 in 2013, it is now 58.3
Your Life on Earth
What is Time
What we Know so Far
If you look at
the human species as a whole,
you can clearly see that we are in our
teenage years. We're rebellious, we're trying new things, we're
wasteful, we make many mistakes, we're irresponsible, and we are
clearly not mature enough to move out on our own.
Time - Measuring Time
is a Measurement System, a Process for Learning and a
important Tool that helps us Plan and Predict.
Though the timing of
are essential for
, try not to
spend to much time
, this is just one of many tools that we have.
is a difference of elapsed time
between two events as measured by observers either moving relative to each
other or differently situated from a gravitational mass or masses.
is a duration or quantity of time.
is a way of displaying a list of events in chronological order, sometimes
described as a project artifact.
is a sequence of characters or encoded information
identifying when a certain event occurred, usually giving date and time of
day, sometimes accurate to a small fraction of a second. The term derives
from rubber stamps used in offices to stamp the current date, and
sometimes time, in ink on paper documents, to record when the document was
received. Computer files contain timestamps that tell when the file was
, and digital
cameras add timestamps to the pictures they take, recording the date and
time the picture was taken.
is the science of arranging events in their order
of occurrence in time. History
is a system
of organizing days
religious, commercial or administrative purposes. This is done by giving
names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months, and years. A date
is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. A
calendar is also a physical record (often paper) of such a system. A
calendar can also mean a list of planned events, such as a
or a partly or fully chronological list of documents,
such as a calendar of wills. Periods in a calendar (such as years and
months) are usually, though not necessarily, synchronized with the
of the sun or the moon
. The most common type of pre-modern calendar was
, a lunar calendar that occasionally adds one
intercalary month to remain synchronised with the solar year over the long
History of Calendars
. The calendar in most widespread use
today is the
, introduced in the 16th century by Pope Gregory
XIII as a modification of the
, which was itself a modification of the ancient Roman
calendar. The term calendar itself is taken from calendae, the term for
the first day of the month in the
, related to the verb calare "to call out", referring to
the "calling" of the new moon when it was first seen. Latin calendarium
meant "account book, register" (as accounts were settled and debts were
collected on the calends of each month). The Latin term was adopted in Old
French as calendier and from there in Middle English as calendery the
13th century (the spelling calendar is early modern).by the
13th century (the spelling calendar is early modern).
means to take a look back at events
already have taken place.
as an abbreviation for "before the Common (or Current) Era". (Before
) is a calendar era that is often used as an
alternative naming of the
era ("in the year of the Lord"),
. A.D., is used to refer to
the years after the birth of Jesus. A.D. used to be "After Death."
years is a time scale used mainly in geology
and other scientific disciplines to specify when events in the past
is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single
describes a variety of methods that
measure the time that it takes for an object, particle or acoustic,
electromagnetic or other wave to travel a distance through a medium.
a relatively long period of time (by human
Primacy of Consciousness
was a range of eschatological beliefs that cataclysmic
or otherwise transformative events would occur on or around 21 December
The period of one complete cycle of the
equinoxes around the ecliptic, about 25,800 years.
is a method for determining the age of an object
containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon (14C),
isotope of carbon
Carbon-14 dating is based on the fact that radiocarbon is constantly being
created in the atmosphere by the interaction of cosmic rays with
atmospheric nitrogen. The resulting radiocarbon combines with atmospheric
oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxide, which is incorporated into
plants by photosynthesis; animals then acquire 14 C by eating the plants.
When the animal or plant dies, it stops exchanging carbon with its
environment, and from that point onwards the amount of 14 C it contains
begins to decrease as the 14 C undergoes radioactive decay. Measuring the
amount of 14 C in a sample from a dead plant or animal such as a piece of
wood or a fragment of bone provides information that can be used to
calculate when the animal or plant died. The older a sample is, the less
14 C there is to be detected, and because the half-life of 14 C (the
period of time after which half of a given sample will have decayed) is
about 5,730 years, the oldest dates that can be reliably measured by
radiocarbon dating are around 50,000 years ago, although special
preparation methods occasionally permit dating of older samples.
, abbreviated K–Ar dating, is a radiometric
dating method used in geochronology and archaeology. It is based on
measurement of the product of the radioactive decay of an isotope of
potassium (K) into argon (Ar). Potassium is a common element found in many
materials, such as micas, clay minerals, tephra, and evaporites. In these
materials, the decay product 40Ar is able to escape the liquid (molten)
rock, but starts to accumulate when the rock solidifies (recrystallizes).
The amount of Argon sublimation that occurs is a function of the purity of
the sample, the composition of the mother material, and a number of other
factors. These factors introduce error limits on the upper and lower
bounds of dating, so that final determination of age is reliant on the
environmental factors during formation, melting, and exposure to decreased
pressure and/or open-air. Time since recrystallization is calculated by
measuring the ratio of the amount of 40Ar accumulated to the amount of 40K
remaining. The long half-life of 40K allows the method to be used to
calculate the absolute age of samples older than a few thousand years. The
quickly cooled lavas that make nearly ideal samples for K–Ar dating also
preserve a record of the direction and intensity of the local magnetic
field as the sample cooled past the Curie temperature of iron. The
geomagnetic polarity time scale was calibrated largely using K–Ar dating.
History of Timekeeping Devices
On December 31, 2016, a "leap
" will be added to the world's clocks at 23 hours, 59 minutes
and 59 seconds
Coordinated Universal Time
is a clock device that uses an electronic transition
frequency in the microwave, optical, or ultraviolet region of the
electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its
We did not invent time
, we learned
to understand time
and use it to our advantage.
Pyramid of Complexity
AssociationsTime Line of the Universe
is the gravitationally bound system comprising the Sun and the objects
that orbit it, either directly or indirectly.[b] Of those objects that
orbit the Sun directly, the largest eight are the planets,[c] with the
remainder being significantly smaller objects, such as dwarf planets and
small Solar System bodies
. Of the objects that
orbit the Sun indirectly, the moons, two are larger than the smallest
Formation and Evolution of the Solar System
began 4.6 billion years
ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular
cloud. Most of the collapsing mass collected in the center, forming the
Sun, while the rest flattened into a protoplanetary disk out of which the
planets, moons, asteroids, and other small Solar System bodies formed.
Tallest Mountains in the Solar System
Eyes on the Solar System
The Solar System to Scale on a dry lakebed in Nevada
Latest view of
Jupiter from NASA’s Juno spacecraft
of Pluto - NASA New Horizons
Mars Map that's Perfect everyday Earthlings
is a giant
planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
are the gas giants of the Solar System.
System's Motion through Space
: The Resonance Project /
Nassim Haramein (youtube)Interesting Theory's
Helical Model - Our Solar System is a Vortex
Helical Model - our Galaxy is a Vortex
The above videos are not totally accurate,
for all intensive purposes
, it's good enough for now.
is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in
three-dimensional space. It has the property that the tangent line at any
point makes a constant angle with a fixed line called the axis.
meaning circle moving on another circle, was a geometric
model used to explain the variations in speed and direction of the
apparent motion of the Moon, Sun, and planets. In particular it explained
the apparent retrograde motion of the five planets known at the time.
Secondarily, it also explained changes in the apparent distances of the
planets from Earth
the gravitationally curved path of an object about a point in space, for
example the orbit of a planet about a star or a natural satellite around a
planet. Orbits of planets are typically elliptical, and the central mass
being orbited is at a focal point of the ellipse.
not centered, rounded like an egg.
is the orbit at a fixed distance around any point by an
object rotating around a fixed axis.
is the application of ballistics and celestial
mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and
is the acute (smaller) angle between a
reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of an object in
orbit around another object.
occurs when two orbiting bodies exert a regular,
periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their
orbital periods are related by a ratio of two small integers. The physics
principle behind orbital resonance is similar in concept to pushing a
child on a swing, where the orbit and the swing both have a natural
frequency, and the other body doing the "pushing" will act in periodic
repetition to have a cumulative effect on the motion. Orbital resonances
greatly enhance the mutual gravitational influence of the bodies, i.e.,
their ability to alter or constrain each other's orbits.
is an interaction of a particle's spin with its
. The first
and best known example of this is that spin–orbit interaction causes
shifts in an electron's
levels due to electromagnetic interaction
between the electron's spin and the magnetic field generated by the
electron's orbit around the nucleus. This is detectable as a splitting of
spectral lines, which can be thought of as a Zeeman Effect due to the
internal field. A similar effect, due to the relationship between angular
momentum and the strong nuclear force, occurs for protons and neutrons
moving inside the nucleus, leading to a shift in their energy levels in
the nucleus shell model. In the field of spintronics, spin–orbit effects
for electrons in semiconductors
and other materials are explored for
technological applications. The spin–orbit interaction is one cause of magnetocrystalline anisotropy.
also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis
and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial
plane and orbital plane. It differs from orbital inclination.
is a gravity-induced, slow, and continuous change in
the orientation of an astronomical body's rotational axis. In particular,
it can refer to the gradual shift in the orientation of Earth's axis of
rotation, which, similar to a wobbling top, traces out a pair of cones
joined at their apices in a cycle of approximately 26,000 years.
is the astronomical model in which the Earth
and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Not only does every planet go around the sun in the same direction
, but upwards of 99% of
and other small features do too. Note that this plane
of rotation in our solar system does not match up with the
overall plane of galactic rotation
direction of rotation within individual star systems is largely unaffected
by the galaxy, but the systems themselves do all orbit the galactic core
in one direction. Action Physics
Why we see the same Stars every night
is the astronomical measure of the observed
changes in apparent positions of stars in the sky as seen from the center
of mass of the Solar System compared to the imaginary fixed background of
the more distant stars.
Earth and Venus Orbit
is a gravity-induced, slow, and continuous
change in the orientation of an astronomical body's rotational axis.
is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a
rotating body. In an appropriate reference frame it can be defined as a
change in the first Euler angle, whereas the third Euler angle defines the
Age of Aquarius
is an astrological term denoting either the
current or forthcoming astrological age, depending on the method of
calculation. Astrologers maintain that an astrological age is a product of
the earth's slow precessional rotation and lasts for 2,160 years, on
average (26,000-year period of precession / 12 zodiac signs = 2,160
Planets of our solar system rotate around the sun at different
Apparent Retrograde Motion
is the apparent motion of a
planet in a direction opposite to that of other bodies within its system,
as observed from a particular vantage point. Direct motion or prograde
motion is motion in the same direction as other bodies.
Retrograde and Prograde Motion
is motion in the direction
opposite to the movement of something else and the contrary of direct or
prograde motion. This motion can be the orbit of one body about another
body or about some other point, or the rotation of a single body about its
axis, or other phenomena such as precession or nutation of the axis. In
reference to celestial systems, retrograde motion usually means motion
which is contrary to the rotation of the primary, that is, the object
which forms the system's hub.
occurs when a planet or other stellar
satellite interacts with a disk of gas or planetesimals, resulting in the
alteration of the satellite's orbital parameters, especially its
semi-major axis. Planetary migration is the most likely explanation for
hot Jupiters, extrasolar planets with jovian masses, but orbits of only a
Thunderbolts of the Gods
Symbols of an Alien Sky: The Lightning Scarred Planet, Mars
Jupiter was once close to Mars
The Resonance Project
Pluto's Largest Moon Charon
2014 QZ224 dwarf planet is about 330 miles across and some 8.5 billion
miles from the sun. It takes 1,100 years to complete one orbit
Eris and Makemake have all been discovered in the past decade or so. Add
to that Pluto.
Planets that have no stars are called
there may be billions of rogue planets in the Milky Way.
is a gravitationally bound system of stars
remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.
is the galaxy that contains our Solar
. The Milky Way is a combination of smaller galaxies. Our galaxy contains 200–400 billion
, with at least 50
, 500 million of which could be located in the
of their parent star.
travels at 447,000 MPH and takes 250 Million
years to complete one
Shedding light on Galaxies’ rotation secrets
is moving 486,000 Mph.
takes one day to
rotate, spins 1,050 MPH and travels 67,000 miles per hour. Earth
orbits the Sun once every 366.26 times it rotates about
its own axis, which is equal to 365.26
Our Galaxy Is the
the center of the
GLIMPSE of the Milky Way
Barred Spiral Galaxy
, and is estimated to be about 13.2
billion years old.
The Milky Way's
is 26,000 light years away.
We have estimated the size of our galaxy to be around 125,000
. But the latest evidence may bring that size to
almost 150,000 light-years in
Video of Space at Night shows Rotation of Earth
The Milky Way is moving at a rate of
552 to 630 km per second, being pushed away from the
at 600,000 mph with respect to this local
co-moving frame of reference sideways stellar motion.
is a gravitational anomaly in intergalactic
space at the center of the Laniakea Supercluster that reveals the
existence of a localised concentration of mass tens of thousands of times
more massive than the Milky Way.
Galactic Coordinate System
is a celestial coordinate system
in spherical coordinates, with the Sun as its center, the primary
direction aligned with the approximate center of the Milky Way galaxy, and
the fundamental plane approximately in the galactic plane. It uses the
right-handed convention, meaning that coordinates are positive toward the
north and toward the east in the fundamental plane.
is the ancient art and science of position fixing that enables a
to transition through a space without having to rely on
estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position.
Celestial navigation uses "sights," or angular measurements taken between
a celestial body (the sun, the moon, a planet or a star) and the visible
horizon. The sun is most commonly used, but navigators can also use the
moon, a planet or one of 57 navigational stars whose coordinates are
tabulated in the Nautical Almanac and Air Almanacs.
Galaxy Rotation Curve
is a plot of the orbital speeds of
visible stars or gas in that galaxy versus their radial distance from that
galaxy's centre. It is typically rendered graphically as a plot.
is a small galaxy composed of up to several
billion stars, a small number compared to the Milky Way's
200–400 billion stars.
The Milky Way Churns Out Seven New Stars Per Year, Scientists
But what Shuts Down
in Galaxies? Galaxies originally form when
large clouds of hydrogen gas collapse and are converted into
stars, if you remove that gas, the
galaxy cannot grow further
is a large group of smaller galaxy clusters or galaxy
groups, which is among the largest-known structures of the cosmos. The
Milky Way is part of the Local Group galaxy cluster (that contains more
than 54 galaxies), which in turn is part of the Laniakea Supercluster.
This supercluster spans over 500 million light-years, while the Local
Group spans over 10 million light-years. The number of superclusters in
the observable universe is estimated to be 10 million.
is a large cluster of galaxies that contains
over 1,000 identified galaxies.There are about four dozen galaxies that we know of circling our
The photo above
, in about 4 Billion years from now in 2017, the Galaxy Andromeda and the
Milky way will come in contact with each other to form one big Galaxy.
But the chance of even two stars colliding is
negligible because of the huge distances between the stars. The
2.5 million light-years from Earth, contains about 1 trillion stars and the Milky
Way contains about 300 billion. In order to see this image above would
mean that Andromeda Galaxy is still around 100,000 light years away.
Andromeda and Milky Way Collision
is a spherical collection of stars that orbits a
galactic core as a satellite. Globular clusters are very tightly bound
by gravity, which gives them their spherical shapes and relatively high
stellar densities toward their centers. Globular clusters, which are found
in the halo of a galaxy, contain considerably more stars and are much
older than the less dense galactic, or open clusters, which are found in
the disk. The galactic halo is an extended, roughly spherical component of
a galaxy which extends beyond the main, visible component. Several
distinct components of galaxies comprise the halo: the galactic spheroid
(stars). the galactic corona (hot gas, i.e. a plasma). the dark matter
halo. The distinction between the halo and the main body of the galaxy is
clearest in spiral galaxies, where the spherical shape of the halo
contrasts with the flat disc. In an elliptical galaxy, there is no sharp
transition between the body of the galaxy and the halo.
are two irregular dwarf galaxies visible from the
southern hemisphere; they are members of the Local Group and are orbiting
the Milky Way galaxy. Because they both show signs of a bar structure,
they are often reclassified as Magellanic spiral galaxies. The two
galaxies are: Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), approximately 160,000
light-years away. Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), approximately 200,000
light years away.
look at the ATLASGAL image of the plane of the Milky Way
"I was given something wonderful, something that changed me forever. A
vision of the universe."
Quote from the 1997 Film "Contact"
all of Time
contents. It includes Planets
, minor planets, Stars
, the contents of intergalactic space, and all matter and
energy. The size of the entire Universe is unknown.
Wendy Freedman: This new telescope might show us the beginning
of the universe
The most distant galaxy ever seen '
The galaxy dated back to a time just 480 million years after the
Giant Galaxies die from the inside out
: Star formation shuts
down in the centers of elliptical galaxies first. Older galaxies
may only seem to be moving faster because in the past, time was
Charting the Slow Death of the Universe
is an international
team of astronomers studying more than 200,000 galaxies has measured the
energy generated within a large portion of space more precisely than ever
before. They confirm that the energy produced in a section of the Universe
today is only about half what it was two billion years ago and find that
this fading is occurring across all wavelengths from the ultraviolet to
the far infrared. Is the Universe slowly dying?
Entropy Black Holes
Space Observation Tools
The National Radio Astronomy Observatory
Tiny1: The World's Smallest Astronomy Camera
Worlds Most Powerful 3.2-Gigapixel Digital Camera
Journeys - Hubble: Universe in Motion
Open Source Virtual Telescope and Interactive Universe Images
for Students and the General Public
Manned Orbiting Laboratory
(MOL),was a 963 military reconnaissance
National Reconnaissance Operations Center
program was a highly secretive Soviet military space station program where
3 crewed military reconnaissance stations were launched between 1973 and
is a technology used to improve the performance of
optical systems by reducing the effect of wavefront distortions: it aims
at correcting the deformations of an incoming wavefront by deforming a
mirror in order to compensate for the distortion. It is used in
astronomical telescopes and laser communication systems to remove the
effects of atmospheric distortion, in microscopy
, optical fabrication and
in retinal imaging systems to reduce optical aberrations. Adaptive optics
works by measuring the distortions in a wavefront and compensating for
them with a device that corrects those errors such as a deformable mirror
or a liquid crystal array. Satellites
is a technology used with reflecting telescopes
developed in the 1980s, which actively shapes a telescope's mirrors to
prevent deformation due to external influences such as wind, temperature,
mechanical stress. Without active optics, the construction of 8 metre
is not possible, nor would telescopes with segmented
mirrors be feasible.Eyes in
The Universe looks like one large experiment
, trying all kind of
things. Not every planet has life, not every star gives life,
but you can still learn something from all these different
Space Travel 1 of 5 HQ - The Universe
M60-UCD1 Dwarf Galaxy with Black hole 5 times bigger then the
Colliding Galaxies Leave a Trail of Stars (NGC 4676)
Whirlpool Galaxy (M51)
Spiral Galaxy NGC 7714
Cats Eye Nebula Dying Star
Galaxy Pair Arp 87
Antennae Galaxies NGC 4038 NGC 4039
Sombrero Galaxy (M104)
There are more stars in space than there are
grains of sand
on every beach on Earth.
Why do we see the same Stars every Night?
is an imaginary sphere of arbitrarily large
radius, concentric with Earth. All objects in the observer's sky can be
thought of as projected upon the inside surface of the celestial sphere,
as if it were the underside of a dome or a hemispherical screen. The
celestial sphere is a practical tool for spherical astronomy, allowing
observers to plot positions of objects in the sky when their distances are
unknown or unimportant.
is a great circle on the imaginary celestial sphere, in the same plane as
the Earth's equator. In other words, it is a projection of the terrestrial
equator out into space. As a result of the Earth's axial tilt, the
celestial equator is inclined by 23.4° with respect to the ecliptic plane.
is a star that, as viewed from a given
latitude on Earth, never sets (that is, never disappears below the
horizon), due to its proximity to one of the celestial poles. Circumpolar
stars are therefore visible from said location toward nearest pole for the
entire night on every night of the year (and would be continuously visible
throughout the day too, were they not overwhelmed by the Sun's glare).
is a working assumption that arises
from a modified cosmological extension of Copernicus's heliocentric
universe. Under the modified Copernican principle, neither the Sun nor the
Earth are in a central, specially favored position in the universe. In
some sense, it is equivalent to the mediocrity principle. More recently,
the principle has been generalized to the relativistic concept that humans
are not privileged observers of the universe.
Principle of Locality
states that an object is only directly
influenced by its immediate surroundings. A theory which includes the
principle of locality is said to be a "local theory". This is an
alternative to the older concept of instantaneous "action at a distance".
Locality evolved out of the field theories of classical physics. The
concept is that for an action at one point to have an influence at another
point, something in the space between those points (such as a field, wave,
or particle) must carry (i.e. "mediate") the action. To exert an
influence, something must travel through the space between the two points,
carrying the influence.Image of the Angle
our Solar System as it Travels through the Milky Way
How to read a Celestial Planisphere Chart
is a star chart analog computing instrument in the form of two
adjustable disks that rotate on a common pivot. It can be adjusted to
display the visible stars for any time and date. It is an instrument to
assist in learning how to recognize stars and constellations. The
astrolabe, an instrument that has its origins in Hellenistic astronomy, is
a predecessor of the modern planisphere. The term planisphere contrasts
with armillary sphere, where the celestial sphere is represented by a
three-dimensional framework of rings.
Using Stars to Navigate
DIY Star Projector
Uncle Milton Star Theatre Pro
The number of
are estimated to be
around is 300,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.
That is 300 Sextillion.
The Sun Moves too
everything moves together.
The star is known as
, or Scholz's star. Today, it's 20
light-years away from us in the
. But in a study
Astrophysical Journal Letters
, researchers say it passed
us at a distance of 5 trillion miles (8 trillion kilometers, or
astronomical units, or 0.8 light-years). No other star has been
known to come
that close. A different star called
might make a dangerous pass through
240,000 to 470,000 years from now.
Sky and Telescope
Clear Dark Sky
NASA YouTube Channel
Center of Milky Way Rises over Texas Star Party
The European Space Agency
Eyes in Space
is a natural science that studies celestial
objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics
, and chemistry
an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their
evolution. The objects of interest include planets, moons, stars,
galaxies, and comets; while the phenomena include supernovae explosions,
gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation. More
generally all astronomical phenomena that originate outside Earth's
atmosphere is within the perview of astronomy. A related but distinct
subject, physical cosmology, is concerned with the study of the Universe
as a whole.
is the study of the movements and relative
positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about
human affairs and terrestrial events.
are symbols used to represent astronomical objects, theoretical
constructs and observational events in astronomy. The earliest forms of
these symbols appear in Greek papyri of late antiquity.
is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of
physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the heavenly bodies,
rather than their positions or motions in space.
is one of the four fundamental states of matter
the others being solid, liquid, and gas. A plasma has properties unlike
those of the other states.
Constellation is formally defined as a region of the
celestial sphere, with boundaries laid down by the International
Astronomical Union (IAU). The constellation areas mostly had their origins
in Western-traditional patterns of stars from which the constellations
take their names.
Age of Aquarius
is an astrological term denoting either the current or forthcoming
astrological age, depending on the method of calculation. Astrologers
maintain that an astrological age is a product of the earth's slow
precessional rotation and lasts for 2,160 years, on average (26,000-year
period of precession / 12 zodiac signs = 2,160 years).
is the study of the largest-scale
structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental
questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.
is the universe regarded as a complex and orderly
system; the opposite of chaos.
is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
Physical cosmology is the scholarly and scientific study of the origin,
large-scale structures and dynamics, and ultimate fate of the universe, as
well as the scientific laws
that govern these realities.
was created about 13.7 Billion years ago, was it the First time or Second Time? When the Universe began, was
Present then? Was
Present then? What is Space
a theory of the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the
earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The
model describes how the universe expanded from a very high density and
high temperature state, and offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad
range of phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic
microwave background, large scale structure and
The Big Bang Never Happened
(youtube)Big Bang never
is a theory of exponential expansion of space in
the early universe. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10−36 seconds after
the conjectured Big Bang singularity to sometime between 10−33 and 10−32
seconds after the singularity. Following the inflationary period, the
Universe continues to expand, but at a less rapid rate.
is a hypothetical scientific model of the
formation of the known universe. It was originally suggested as
a property of the cyclic model or oscillatory universe
interpretation of the Big Bang where the first cosmological
event was the result of the collapse of a previous universe;
however, it is also a consequence of applying loop quantum
gravity techniques to Big Bang cosmology and this need not be
Conformal Cyclic Cosmology
the universe iterates through
Universe The Cosmology Quest
Everything and Nothing with Jim Al-Khalili
- What we know so far
is 13.2 billion
light years away
how do we know if
it's moving away from us, towards us, or if it's even still
from the sun takes 8 minutes to reach us, if it went
out 7 minutes ago we wouldn't know it for another minute.
is the most widely accepted model in the
field of cosmogony to explain the formation and evolution of the Solar
System. It suggests that the Solar System formed from nebulous material.
was a coordinated study to determine the
morphologies of galaxies in distant clusters and to investigate the
evolution of galaxies as a function of environment and epoch. Eleven
clusters were examined and a detailed ground-based and space-based study
was carried out.
Space In Motion
just like the
planets and the stars
Maybe the Big Bang is the reason why we're
through the universe?
Formation and evolution of the Solar System
Maybe the Big Bang was needed to create motion, which is needed
is the matter that exists in the space between the
star systems in a galaxy. This matter includes gas in ionic, atomic, and
molecular form, as well as dust and cosmic rays. It fills interstellar
space and blends smoothly into the surrounding intergalactic space. The
energy that occupies the same volume, in the form of electromagnetic
radiation, is the interstellar radiation field.
is an underlying background energy that exists in space throughout the
entire Universe. One contribution to the vacuum energy may be from virtual
particles which are thought to be particle pairs that blink into existence
and then annihilate in a timespan too short to observe. Their behavior is
codified in Heisenberg's energy–time uncertainty principle. Still, the
exact effect of such fleeting bits of energy is difficult to quantify. The
vacuum energy is a special case of zero-point energy that relates to the
was formed about 4.54 billion years ago. The third planet from
the Sun, the densest planet in the
the largest of the Solar System's four
, and the only astronomical object known
to accommodate life. During one orbit
around the Sun,
Earth rotates about its own axis
366.26 times, creating
365.26 solar days or one sidereal year. The Earth has
5 Directions of Motion
(Wobble, Spin, Orbit
around the Sun,
Orbit around the
, and Moving through space in the same direction as
our Galaxy. Earth's Circumference: 24,901.46 miles or 40,075.017
km. Radius: 3,959 mi. Area: 196.9 million mi². Mass: 5.972 ×
10^24 kg. Distance from Sun
: 92.96 million mi.
length of an Earth day
has grown by 1.8
milliseconds per century.
Future of the Earth
can be extrapolated based upon the
estimated effects of several long-term influences. These include the
chemistry at Earth's surface, the rate of cooling of the planet's
interior, the gravitational interactions with other objects in the Solar
System, and a steady increase in the Sun's luminosity. An uncertain factor
in this extrapolation is the ongoing influence of technology introduced by
humans, such as climate engineering, which could cause significant changes
to the planet. The current Holocene extinction is being caused by
technology and the effects may last for up to five million years. In turn,
technology may result in the extinction of humanity, leaving the planet to
gradually return to a slower evolutionary pace resulting solely from
long-term natural processes.
Age of the EarthEclipse
is a coordinate system, and a set of reference points,
used to locate places on the Earth (or similar objects). An
approximate definition of sea level is the datum WGS 84, an ellipsoid,
whereas a more accurate definition is Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008),
using at least 2,159 spherical harmonics.
are special functions defined on the surface of a
sphere. They are often employed in solving partial differential
equations that commonly occur in science. The spherical harmonics are a
complete set of orthogonal functions on the sphere, and thus may be used
to represent functions defined on the surface of a sphere, just as
circular functions (sines and cosines) are used to represent functions on
a circle via Fourier series. Like the sines and cosines in Fourier series,
the spherical harmonics may be organized by (spatial) angular frequency,
as seen in the rows of functions in the illustration on the right.
Further, spherical harmonics are basis functions for SO(3), the group of
rotations in three dimensions, and thus play a central role in the group
theoretic discussion of SO(3).
the earth is not perfectly Round.
is the measurement and representation of the Earth
(or any planet), including its gravitational field, in a
three-dimensional time-varying space
. Geodesists also study
geodynamical phenomena such as crustal motion, tides, and polar
motion. For this they design global and national control
networks, using space and terrestrial techniques while relying
on datums and coordinate systems.
Historia Da Terra (Earth Story with
, History of our Planet)
Story: Video 1.The age of the Earth (1 of 6 )
Rotation & Revolution around a moving Sun
is an astronomical event that occurs twice each year (in June and
December) as the Sun reaches its highest or lowest excursion relative to
the celestial equator on the celestial sphere. The seasons of the year are
directly connected to both the solstices and the equinoxes.
motion around the Sun, not as simple as I thought
is the statistics of weather, usually over a 30-year interval.
It is measured by assessing the patterns of variation in temperature,
humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle
count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long
periods of time. Climate differs from weather, in that weather only
describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region.
A region's climate is generated by the climate system, which has five
components: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and
is when the temperatures in certain regions are
generally relatively moderate, rather than extremely hot or cold, and the
changes between summer and winter are also usually moderate.
is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology and hours
of daylight. Seasons result from the yearly orbit of the Earth around the
Sun and the tilt of the Earth's rotational axis relative to the plane of
the orbit. In temperate and polar regions, the seasons are marked by
changes in the intensity of sunlight that reaches the Earth's surface,
variations of which may cause animals to go into hibernation or to
migrate, and plants to be dormant. During May, June, and July, the
northern hemisphere is exposed to more direct sunlight because the
hemisphere faces the sun. The same is true of the southern hemisphere in
November, December, and January. It is the tilt of the Earth that causes
the Sun to be higher in the sky during the summer months which increases
the solar flux. However, due to seasonal lag, June, July, and August are
the hottest months in the northern hemisphere and December, January, and
February are the hottest months in the southern hemisphere.
consists of periodic, repetitive, and generally regular and predictable
patterns in the levels of a time series. Seasonality can repeat on a
weekly, monthly or quarterly basis, these periods of time are structured
and occur in a length of time less than a year.
is a three-dimensional, spherical, scale model of Earth
(terrestrial globe or geographical globe) or other celestial body such as
a planet or moon.
was a human spaceflight program
developed by NASA, the space agency of the United States, from 2005 to
2009. The major goals of the program were "completion of the International
Space Station" and a "return to the Moon no later than 2020" with a crewed
flight to the planet Mars as the ultimate goal.
refers to the experience of seeing firsthand
the reality of the Earth in space, which is immediately understood to be a
tiny, fragile ball of life, "hanging in the void", shielded and nourished
by a paper-thin atmosphere. From space, national boundaries vanish, the
conflicts that divide people become less important, and the need to create
a planetary society with the united will to protect this "pale blue dot"
becomes both obvious and imperative. Third-hand observers of these
individuals may also report a noticeable difference in attitude. This is a cognitive shift in awareness reported
by some astronauts and cosmonauts during spaceflight, often while viewing
the Earth from orbit or from the lunar surface.
with support of an object.
Solar Eclipse Shadow on the Earth taken from Space
Why does a Lunar Eclipse move Eastward even though the Earth Rotates from
West to East? The Earth Rotates counter clockwise or west to east. The
travels in the same direction. The Moon takes 27.3 days to travel
once around the earth, that is why the moon travels east to west in
the sky during earths 24 hour to spin cycle. So the earth is spinning
faster then the moon even though the moon is moving faster at 3,400
km/hour when compared to earths spinning speed of 1,670 km/hr at the
equator. To keep up with the shadow of the eclipse you would have to
be traveling at Mach 1.5 or 1150.9 mph. (eclipse
is a layer of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is
held in place by the gravity of that body. An atmosphere is more likely to
be retained if its gravity
is high and the
atmosphere's temperature is low.
: 700 to 10,000 km (440 to 6,200 miles).
: 80 to 700 km (50 to 440 miles).
: 50 to 80 km (31 to 50 miles).
: 12 to 50 km (7 to 31 miles).
: 0 to 12 km (0 to 7 miles).
is the loss of planetary atmospheric gases or
to outer space. A
number of different mechanisms can be responsible for atmospheric escape,
operating at different time scales; the most prominent is Jeans Escape,
named after British astronomer Sir James Jeans, who described the process
of atmospheric loss to the molecular kinetic energy
Atmosphere of Earth
at sea level, by contrast, is packed with about 100
billion billion molecules
per cubic centimetre.
or inner magnetosphere, is a region of the
consisting of low energy (cool) plasma. It is located above the
ionosphere. The outer boundary of the plasmasphere is known as the
plasmapause, which is defined by an order of magnitude drop in plasma
is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere, and is also
where all weather takes place. It contains approximately 75% of the
atmosphere's mass and 99% of the total mass of water vapor and aerosols.
The average depths of the troposphere are 20 km (12 mi) in the tropics, 17
km (11 mi) in the mid latitudes, and 7 km (4.3 mi) in the polar regions in
winter. The lowest part of the troposphere, where friction with the
Earth's surface influences air flow, is the planetary boundary layer. This
layer is typically a few hundred meters to 2 km (1.2 mi) deep depending on
the landform and time of day. Atop the troposphere is the tropopause,
which is the border between the troposphere and stratosphere. The
tropopause is an inversion layer, where the air temperature ceases to
decrease with height and remains constant through its thickness.
is a constituent of the troposphere (it is also an
important constituent of some regions of the stratosphere commonly known
as the ozone layer). The troposphere extends from the Earth's surface to
between 12 and 20 kilometers above sea level and consists of many layers.
Ozone is more concentrated above the mixing layer, or ground layer.
Ground-level ozone, though less concentrated than ozone aloft, is more of
a problem because of its health effects.
region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet
) radiation. It contains high concentrations of ozone
(O3) in relation to other parts of the atmosphere, although still small in
relation to other gases in the stratosphere. The ozone layer contains less
than 10 parts per million of ozone, while the average ozone concentration
in Earth's atmosphere as a whole is about 0.3 parts per million. The ozone
layer is mainly found in the lower portion of the stratosphere, from
approximately 20 to 30 kilometres (12 to 19 mi) above Earth, although its
thickness varies seasonally and geographically.
is a highly
reactive nonmetal and oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most
as well as other compounds. By mass,
is the third-most
abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen
and helium. At standard
temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen,
a colorless and odorless diatomic gas
with the formula
. This is an important part of the
atmosphere and diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's
atmosphere. Additionally, as oxides the element makes up almost half of
the Earth's crust. In one atom of oxygen
is 8 protons. In one molecule of oxygen gas, which is O2, 2 times 8 = 16
protons. Every Breath you Take
is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom
and one other element in its chemical formula.
The ground state of
dioxygen is known as triplet oxygen because it has two unpaired electrons.
The first excited state, singlet oxygen, has no unpaired electrons and is
metastable, which means it is continuing in its present state of
equilibrium unless sufficiently disturbed to pass to a more stable state
the electron configuration of the oxygen molecule has
two electrons occupying two molecular orbitals (MOs) of equal energy (that
is, degenerate MOs), therefore remaining unpaired. These orbitals are
classified as antibonding and are of higher energy, so the resulting
bonding structure between the oxygen atoms is weakened (i.e., is higher in
energy)—for instance, it is higher in energy than the bonding in
dinitrogen, where the corresponding antibonding orbitals are empty.
is a high-energy form of oxygen. A gas with the formula
O2, its physical properties differ only subtly from those of the more
prevalent triplet ground state of O2. In terms of its chemical reactivity,
however, singlet oxygen is far more reactive toward organic compounds.
Geological History of Oxygen
Great Oxygenation Event
is when oceanic
are believed to have become the first
to produce oxygen by
Before the GOE, any free oxygen they produced was
captured by dissolved iron or organic matter. The GOE was
the point in time when these oxygen sinks became saturated, at which point
oxygen, produced by the cyanobacteria, was free to escape into the
atmosphere. Oxygen is the byproduct of life intervening in our planet’s
geochemical cycles: harvesting solar energy to split water molecules,
keeping the Hydrogen Atoms
and reacting them with
organic food and body parts, but spitting the oxygen back out. In Earth’s
upper atmosphere some of this oxygen, under the influence of
, is transformed into ozone, O3, which shields
Earth’s surface from deadly ultraviolet, making the land surface
habitable. When it appeared, this shield allowed life to leave the ocean
and the continents to become green with forests. O2 rendered the once
deadly continents habitable for life.
Oxygen Minimum Zone
is the zone in which oxygen saturation
in seawater in the ocean is at its lowest. This zone occurs at depths of
about 200 to 1,000 meters, depending on local circumstances.
There is more oxygen in forests and in
green areas then there is in deserts and in cities
. Air would
also be cleaner and more humidified in forests and in other
green areas like near waterfalls. Cities have less oxygen
because there are
and more pollution. There is also more oxygen at lower altitudes
and less oxygen at higher altitudes. The arctic and Antarctic
regions have the highest oxygen ratios. Oxygen saturation is
inversely proportional to the temperature of the water and
life is abundant in cold waters. The amount of
oxygen produced by
single cell organisms
is way more than that produced by
Global Oxygen Levels are Dropping
Carbon Dioxide in Earth's Atmosphere
. Earth's atmosphere currently
constituting about 0.04% of
is a graph which plots the ongoing change in
in Earth's atmosphere since 1958.
Percent Oxygen in Air
chemical element with symbol N and
Atomic Number 7
. The lightest member of group 15 of the periodic
table, often called the pnictogens. The name comes from the Greek πνίγειν
"to choke", directly referencing nitrogen's asphyxiating properties.
astronomers make real-time, 3D movies of plasma tubes drifting
flow of gases
on a large scale. On
the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of
Amazing Mirror & Air Experiment!
(youtube) This is a demonstration of
the Schlieren effect. This setup allows you to see changes in air density.
The point light source is aimed at the concave mirror. The concave mirror
reflects to a focal point. There you use a sharp edged object to partially
block the light which helps create a shadow effect that allows you to see
air movement. Flying
or air bombs, is a small downdraft that moves in a way
opposite to a tornado. Microbursts are found in strong thunderstorms.
is a difference in wind speed and/or direction over a relatively
short distance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric wind shear is normally
described as either vertical or horizontal wind shear. Vertical wind shear
is a change in wind speed or direction with change in altitude. Horizontal
wind shear is a change in wind speed with change in lateral position for a
is a boundary separating thunderstorm-cooled air
(outflow) from the surrounding air; similar in effect to a cold front,
with passage marked by a wind shift and usually a drop in temperature and
a related pressure jump.
horizontal dimensions generally range from
around 5 kilometers to several hundred kilometers. Vertical velocity often
equals or exceeds horizontal velocities in mesoscale meteorological
systems due to nonhydrostatic processes such as buoyant acceleration of a
rising thermal or acceleration through a narrow mountain pass.
is a tropical atmospheric circulation that features air rising
near the equator, flowing poleward at 10–15 kilometers above the surface,
descending in the subtropics, and then flowing equatorward near the
surface. This circulation creates the trade winds, tropical rain-belts and
hurricanes, subtropical deserts and the jet streams.
is a narrow corridor or filament of concentrated
moisture in the atmosphere. Atmospheric rivers consist of narrow bands of
enhanced water vapor transport, typically along the boundaries between
large areas of divergent surface air flow, including some frontal zones in
association with extratropical cyclones that form over the oceans.
storms are the most commonly represented and
recognized type of atmospheric rivers; they are given the name due to the
warm water vapor plumes originating over the Hawaiian tropics that follow
a path towards California.
the amount of
in the air. Water vapor is the gaseous state of
and is invisible. Humidity indicates the likelihood of
. Higher humidity reduces the effectiveness of
cooling the body by reducing the rate of
of moisture from the skin. This effect is
calculated in a
is the temperature
at which dew forms and is a measure of
atmospheric moisture. It is the temperature to which air must be
cooled at constant pressure and water content to reach
saturation. A higher dew point indicates more moisture in the
air; a dew point greater than 20 °C (68 °F) is considered
uncomfortable and greater than 22 °C (72 °F) is considered to be
extremely humid. Frost point is the dew point when temperatures
are below freezing. The dew point is the temperature at which
the moisture (water vapor) in the air begins to condense. The warmer the
air is, the more moisture it can hold. Condense
is to change or cause to change from a gas
to a liquid
the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid
phase, and is the reverse of
is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from the surface of a
liquid into a gaseous phase that is not saturated with the evaporating
substance. Once the air temperature reaches the dew point, fog will form.
It also determines whether it will rain or snow. The dew point determines
how high the danger is for a grass or brush fire during a dry spell. It
affects whether you will have to clean the frost off your windshield in
the morning. The dew point determines how uncomfortable you will feel on a
warm summer day. When you
, the water on your skin evaporates and cools your body, this
is your temperature regulating
at work. When the dew point is high, the evaporation rate is
very slow because there is so much water vapor in the air, and you don't
get the cooling effect from your wet skin. The dew point also affects how
you feel when you get out of a pool, lake or the ocean. On those days when
the dew point is very low, you will feel cooler than when the dew point is
high. This is because when the dew point is low, the water on your skin
evaporates faster thus cooling you off.
sometimes also called barometric
pressure, is the
exerted by the weight of air in the
atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet). In most
circumstances atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by
the hydrostatic pressure caused by the weight of air above the
measurement point. Low-pressure areas have less atmospheric mass
above their location, whereas high-pressure areas have more
atmospheric mass above their location. Atmospheric pressure
decreases with increasing elevation.
is a measure of the distance
which an object or light can be clearly discerned. The transparency of
Surface Weather Observation
are the fundamental data used for safety as well as climatological reasons
to forecast weather
and issue warnings worldwide. They
can be taken manually, by a weather
, by computer through the use of automated weather stations,
or in a hybrid scheme using weather observers to augment the otherwise
or UV Index, is an international standard
measurement of the strength of
a particular place and time.
starts with measurements of current total
over the entire globe, obtained via two
satellites operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration. These data are used to produce a forecast of
stratospheric ozone levels for the next day at many points
across the country. A computer model uses the ozone forecast and
the incident angle of sunlight at each point to calculate the
strength of UV radiation at ground level. Sunlight angle is
determined by latitude, day of year, and time of day (solar
noon). The strength of UV radiation is calculated for several
wavelengths between 280 and 400 nm, the full spectrum of UVB
(280-314 nm) and UVA (315-400 nm) radiation.
Factors that determine the UV Index
The thickness of the ozone layer over your city (detected using
The cloud cover over your city (clouds block UV radiation to
Air pollution: Similar to the way clouds shield the Earth's
surface from the suns UV, urban smog can reduce the amount of UV
energy reaching the Earth by reflecting UV back towards space or
The time of year
(in winter, UV radiation is lower than in the
summer because of the sun's angle)
Time of day: On any day the greatest amount of UV reaches the
Earth around midday when the sun is at its highest point. Up to
50% of daily UV radiation levels is received between 11am and
The elevation of your city (higher elevations get more UV
Latitude: Since the sun's UV energy impacts the Earth's
surface at the most direct angle over the equator it is the most
intense at this latitude.
BloomSky World's Smartest Weather Camera Station
camera station with real-time images, time-lapse & precise weather data.
MonitoringEyes in the
is an aerosol comprising a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen
crystals, or particles suspended in the atmosphere
above the surface of a planetary body. The droplets and crystals may be
made of water or various chemicals. On Earth, clouds are formed as a
result of saturation of the air when it is cooled to its dew point, or
when it gains sufficient moisture (usually in the form of water vapor)
from an adjacent source to raise the dew point to the ambient temperature.
They are seen in the Earth's homosphere (which includes the troposphere,
stratosphere, and mesosphere). Nephology is the science of clouds which is
undertaken in the cloud physics branch of meteorology.
All About Clouds
for Kids: Types and Names of Clouds - FreeSchool
The Three Main
Clouds - Cirrus, Stratus, Cumulus
Cumulus (white fluffy)
and Stratus (blanket) are low clouds below 6,500 feet. Cirrus clouds are
above 20,000 feet.
- Roll cloud - Mustache Cloud.
or Electric Blue Polar Cloud, are tenuous cloud-like
phenomena that are the "ragged edge" of a much brighter and pervasive
polar cloud layer called polar mesospheric clouds in the upper atmosphere,
visible in a deep twilight. They are made of ice crystals. These clouds
can be observed only when the Sun is below the horizon for the observer,
but while the clouds are still in sunlight.
Electric-Blue Clouds Appear Over Antarctica
Polar Mesospheric Clouds
Polar Stratospheric Cloud
is any disturbed state of an environment or
astronomical body's atmosphere especially affecting its surface, and
strongly implying severe weather. It may be marked by significant
disruptions to normal conditions such as strong wind, hail, thunder and
lightning (a thunderstorm), heavy precipitation (snowstorm, rainstorm),
heavy freezing rain (ice storm), strong winds (tropical cyclone,
windstorm), or wind transporting some substance through the atmosphere as
in a dust storm, blizzard, sandstorm, etc. Storms have the potential to
harm lives and property via storm surge, heavy rain or snow causing
flooding or road impassibility, lightning, wildfires, and vertical wind
shear; however, systems with significant rainfall and duration help
alleviate drought in places they move through. Heavy snowfall can allow
special recreational activities to take place which would not be possible
otherwise, such as skiing and snowmobiling.
is a small, weak whirlwind over water (or sometimes wet land)
that has drawn fog into the vortex, thus rendering
Weather Prediction ServicesRain
Scientific Modeling Atmosphere Composition Diagram
Earth's Magnetic Field
extends 370,000 miles (600,000
kilometers) above the planet's surface. The Earth's
originates in the earths core. Earth has a giant ball of iron at
surrounded by an outer layer of molten metal. The
motion of the liquid in the outer core is driven by heat flow
from the inner core, which creates a
Rotating Magnetic Field
. Earth's Magnetic Field
protects earth from
Van Allen Radiation Belt
is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which
originate from the solar wind that is captured by and held around a planet
by that planet's magnetic field. The Earth has two such belts and
sometimes others may be temporarily created.
found that Mars and Venus do not have a significant magnetic field.
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune all have magnetic fields much
stronger than that of the Earth. Jupiter is the champion- having the
largest magnetic field.
So why doesn't the Moon get pulled into the earth
by its gravitational Pull?
Because the Earth is moving, so the Moon
is chasing the Earth, just like the Earth gets pulled by gravity from the
Sun. And also Earths gravity gets weaker as you go further out. The moon
does not fall to Earth because it is in an
which is the gravitationally
curved path of an
object about a point in space.
Laws of Motion
Impenetrable Barrier in Space
Human Body Magnetic Field
happens once every few hundred thousand
years. The magnetic poles
flip so that a compass would point
south instead of north. The flip takes around a hundred to a few
thousand years to complete. During past polarity flips there
were no mass extinctions or evidence of radiation damage. Most
reversals are estimated to take between 1,000 and 10,000 years. The latest
one, the Brunhes–Matuyama reversal, occurred 780,000 years ago, and may
have happened very quickly, within a human lifetime.
is the study of the record of the Earth's magnetic
field in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials. Certain minerals in
rocks lock-in a record of the direction and intensity of the magnetic
field when they form.
Earth's Magnetic Field Is Weakening 10 Times
is a local variation in the Earth's magnetic field resulting from
variations in the chemistry or magnetism of the rocks.
"I don't think you fully understand the gravity
of this situation"
Ancient Jars Found in Judea Reveal Earth's Magnetic Field is Fluctuating,
Aurora Borealis from Space in Ultra-High Definition (4K)
The Aurora Borealis is most often seen in a striking green
color, but it also occasionally shows off its many colors
ranging from red to pink, blue to purple, dark to light. The
reason that the aurora is seen in so many colors is that our
atmosphere is made up of many different compounds like Oxygen
and Nitrogen. When the charged particles that come from the sun
hit the atoms and molecules of the Earth's atmosphere, they
excite those atoms, giving off light. Different atoms give off
different colors of the spectrum when they are excited. A
familiar example is the Neon lights that we see on many business
signs in our modern world. The Neon lights contain the gas Neon.
These lights have electricity run through them to excite the
Neon gas. When the Neon is excited, it gives off a brilliant
red-orange color. The Neon lights are the same idea as the
aurora, only on a lot smaller scale.
Different gases give off different colors when they are excited.
Oxygen at about 60 miles up gives off the familiar yellow-green
color, Oxygen at higher altitudes (about 200 miles above us)
gives the all red auroras. Ionic Nitrogen produces the blue
light and neutral Nitrogen gives off the red-puple and the
rippled edges. Imagine if the atmosphere were made of Neon gas and Sodium
gas. We would see red-orange and yellow auroras!
Australis Southern Lights
Northern Lights Centre
is a natural light display in the sky, predominantly
seen in the high latitude (Arctic and Antarctic) regions.[a] Auroras are
produced when the magnetosphere is sufficiently disturbed by the solar
wind that the trajectories of charged particles in both solar wind and
magnetospheric plasma, mainly in the form of electrons and protons,
precipitate them into the upper atmosphere (thermosphere/exosphere), where
their energy is lost. The resulting ionization and excitation of
atmospheric constituents emits light of varying colour and complexity. The
form of the aurora, occurring within bands around both polar regions, is
also dependent on the amount of acceleration imparted to the precipitating
particles. Precipitating protons generally produce optical emissions as
incident hydrogen atoms after gaining electrons from the atmosphere.
Proton auroras are usually observed at lower latitudes.
are lines of constant latitude, or
as circles parallel to the
. Specifies the
north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface, which
ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° (North or South) at the
to or in the plane of the horizon or a base line.
(lines running from the North Pole to
the South Pole
) is a geographic coordinate that specifies the
east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
is straight up and down at
(90°) to the plane of the horizon or a base line. (My Home in
Danbury, Ct. is 41.3948° North Latitude, 73.4540° West Longitude).
is the study and practice of making maps. Combining
science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that
reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information
effectively. The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to:
Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This is
the concern of map editing. Traits may be physical, such as roads or land
masses, or may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries.
Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media. This is the
concern of map projections. Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object
that are not relevant to the map's purpose. This is the concern of
generalization. Reduce the complexity of the characteristics that will be
mapped. This is also the concern of generalization. Orchestrate the
elements of the map to best convey its message to its audience. This is
the concern of map design. Modern cartography constitutes many theoretical
and practical foundations of geographic information systems.
is a cylindrical standard map projection for
nautical purposes because of its ability to represent lines of constant
course, known as rhumb lines or loxodromes, as straight segments that
conserve the angles with the meridians. Although the linear scale is equal
in all directions around any point, thus preserving the angles and the
shapes of small objects (which makes the projection conformal), the
Mercator projection distorts the size of objects as the latitude increases
from the Equator to the poles, where the scale becomes infinite. So, for
example, landmasses such as Greenland and Antarctica appear much larger
than they actually are relative to land masses near the equator, such as
is a systematic transformation of the latitudes and
longitudes of locations on the surface of a sphere or an ellipsoid into
locations on a plane. Map projections are necessary for creating maps. All
map projections distort the surface in some fashion. Depending on the
purpose of the map, some distortions are acceptable and others are not;
therefore, different map projections exist in order to preserve some
properties of the sphere-like body at the expense of other properties.
There is no limit to the number of possible map projections.
is a doubly reflecting
measure the angle between any two visible objects. The primary use of a
sextant is to determine the angle between an astronomical object and the
horizon for the purposes of celestial navigation. The determination of
this angle, the altitude, is known as sighting (or shooting) the object,
or taking a sight. The angle, and the time when it was measured, can be
used to calculate a position line on a nautical or aeronautical chart.
Common uses of the sextant include sighting the sun at solar noon or
Polaris at night (in the Northern Hemisphere) to determine latitude.
Sighting the height of a landmark can give a measure of distance off and,
held horizontally, a sextant can measure angles between objects for a
position on a chart. A sextant can also be used to measure the lunar
distance between the moon and another celestial object (such as a star or
planet) in order to determine Greenwich Mean Time and hence longitude.
is the process of determining the location of
a point by forming triangles to it from known points. Specifically in
surveying, triangulation per se involves only angle measurements, rather
than measuring distances to the point directly as in trilateration; the
use of both angles and distance measurements is referred to as
triangulateration. Same Stars
is a function of the
place and person
Celestial Coordinate System
is a system for specifying positions of celestial objects:
satellites, planets, stars, galaxies, and so on. Coordinate systems can
specify a position in 3-dimensional space
merely the direction of the object on the celestial sphere, if its
distance is not known or not important.
Geographic Coordinate System
is a coordinate system used in geography
that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers,
letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of
the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the
numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is
latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a
two-dimensional map requires a map projection.
is the study of the shape and features of the
surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including
planets, moons, and asteroids. The topography of an area could refer to
the surface shapes and features themselves, or a description (especially
their depiction in maps).
topological map in the form of a schematic diagram used to illustrate the
routes and stations within a public transport system—whether this be bus
lines, tramways, rapid transit, commuter rail or ferry routes. The main
components are color coded lines to indicate each line or service, with
named icons to indicate stations or stops.Cartesian
is a standard for use in cartography, geodesy, and
(Global Positioning System). It comprises a standard coordinate
system for the Earth, a standard spheroidal reference surface (the datum
or reference ellipsoid) for raw altitude data, and a gravitational
equipotential surface (the geoid) that defines the nominal sea level.
Beneath the Surface of planet
consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet; which may be
composed of solid and liquid layers. Cores of specific planets may be
entirely solid or entirely liquid. In the Solar System, core size can
range from about 20% (Moon) to 85% of a planet's radius (Mercury). Gas
giants also have cores, though the composition of these are still a matter
of debate and range in possible composition from traditional stony/iron,
to ice or to fluid metallic hydrogen.[ Gas giant cores are proportionally
much smaller than those of terrestrial planets, though theirs can be
considerably larger than the Earth's nevertheless; Jupiter has one 10–30
times heavier than Earth, and exoplanet HD149026 b has a core 67 times the
mass of the Earth.
Nickel is Crucial for the Earth’s Magnetic Field
. Earth's hot core,
consisting mainly of iron, is responsible for the 'dynamo effect,' which
creates a magnetic field. But with
alone, this effect
cannot be explained. A team of researchers has shown that the theory of
the geodynamo has to be revised. It is crucial for the dynamo effect that
the earth's core contains up to 20 percent nickel -- a metal, which under
extreme conditions behaves quite differently from iron.
describes the process through which a rotating, convecting, and
electrically conducting fluid can maintain a
over astronomical time scales.
Structure of the Earth
is layered in spherical shells, like an onion. These layers can be defined
by their chemical and their rheological properties. Earth has an outer
silicate solid crust, a highly viscous mantle, a liquid outer core that is
much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core. Scientific
understanding of the internal structure of the Earth is based on
observations of topography and bathymetry, observations of rock in
outcrop, samples brought to the surface from greater depths by volcanoes
or volcanic activity, analysis of the seismic waves that pass through the
Earth, measurements of the gravitational and magnetic fields of the Earth,
and experiments with crystalline solids at pressures and temperatures
characteristic of the Earth's deep interior.
As the continents mash against each other, their collision
gradually slows, but mountain growth has apparently stayed
relatively constant from the past to the present. People thought
because the Earth is cooling that plate movements would slow
down. Continental drift is caused by heat deep in the planet,
driving the convection of material in the
eight major and numerous minor tectonic plates on the planet's
surface are moved by these convection currents.
Satellites help discover a Jet Stream in the Earth’s Core
refers to forces and events leading to a large
structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and
uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between
"rocky",or "sphere" is the rigid, outermost
shell of a terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite that is
defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
outermost layer of the Earth that is composed of
and subject to soil formation
processes. It exists at the interface of the lithosphere, atmosphere,
. The sum total of all
water and air is termed as the "pedosphere". The pedosphere is the skin of
the Earth and only develops when there is a dynamic interaction between
(air in and above the soil),
biosphere (living organisms), lithosphere (unconsolidated regolith and
the hydrosphere (water in, on and below the soil). The pedosphere is the
foundation of terrestrial life on this planet. There is a realization that
the pedosphere needs to be distinctly recognized as a dynamic interface of
all terrestrial ecosystems and be integrated into the Earth system science
refers to "the Earth beneath our feet" or terra firma, the
planet's solid surface and its interior.
of a geographic location is its height above or below a
fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical
model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface
(see Geodetic system, vertical datum). Elevation, or geometric height, is
mainly used when referring to points on the Earth's surface, while
altitude or geopotential height is used for points above the surface, such
as an aircraft in flight or a spacecraft in orbit, and depth is used for
points below the surface.
Interesting information about the Earth
Did you know that if the
earth were the size of a
, it would be as smooth as a
High and Low Areas Chart
If you took all the water on earth and put it into a ball, the
ball would be half the size of the
, around 860 miles in
A day on Earth is actually 23 Hrs, 56 Mins and 4.1 Seconds long.
23.5 Degrees North Latitude
On Mercury, a day is two years long.
The Earth is slowing at a rate of
4.7×10−4 miles per second every 100 years due to tidal forces of
is currently moving away from the Earth at about 3.8
centimeters per year.
is about the same temperature as the surface of
the Sun, approximately 5700 K (5430 °C)
The earth is has 8.6 million
a day. 3.6 trillion lightning strikes each
year. Lightning hits the earth an
100 times per second on average
the movement of air produces
Global Atmospheric Electrical Circuit
is the continuous movement of
between the ionosphere and the earth's surface. This flow
is powered by thunderstorms, which cause a build-up of positive charge in
the ionosphere. In fair weather this
positive charge slowly flows back
to the surface. - Super Bolt - The Brain
Earth may be the only planet in our solar system with
, which move 2 CM's a year.
List of 15 Tectonic Plates
There are several million
occurring in the world each year, mostly low in
. There are 14,000 earthquakes of magnitude 4 or
greater every year, approximately 40 per day.
The total Number of Earthquakes per year
with 8 or Higher
Magnitude is only 1. Between 7-7.9 is 18, 6-6.9 is 120,
5-5.9 is 800, 4-4.9 6 is 200, 3-3.9 is 49,000.
The Largest Recorded Earthquake in the World is 9.5 on the
are a type of
, and are one of the two main types of elastic body waves,
called seismic waves in seismology, that travel through a continuum and
are the first waves
from an earthquake to arrive at a seismograph. The
continuum is made up of gases (as sound waves), liquids, or solids,
including the Earth. P-waves can be produced by earthquakes and recorded
by seismographs. The name P-wave can stand for either pressure wave as it
is formed from alternating compressions and rarefactions or primary wave,
as it has the highest velocity and is therefore the first wave to be
Earths deepest part of the ocean
. 7 Miles Deep
in the western Pacific Ocean, to the east of the Mariana Islands. The
trench is about 2,550 kilometres (1,580 mi) long with an average width of
69 kilometres (43 mi). It reaches a maximum-known depth of 10,994 metres
(36,070 ft) (± 40 metres [130 ft]) at a small slot-shaped valley in its
floor known as the Challenger Deep, at its southern end, although some
unrepeated measurements place the deepest portion at 11,034 metres (36,201
ft). It is a
moves under another and is forced or sinks due to
gravity into the mantle. Producing mostly
produce no lava with very little earth quakes.
Lakes and Oceans Depth Chart
Earths Highest Lowest Points
An estimated 50-80% of all life on earth is found under the
ocean surface with 2/3's not even identified.
70 to 90% of all
occurs under the ocean.
Some of the
Sounds that you will Hear on Earth
Earth also has other natural occurring events that sometimes
causes major problems and death.
Causes of Death
in the form of droplets that have
condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then precipitated—that is,
become heavy enough to fall under gravity. Rain is a major component of
the water cycle and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water
on the Earth. It provides suitable conditions for many types of
ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric
power plants and crop
Even knowing that the earth
has 100 lightning strikes every second, and has earthquakes
every minute, and has 1,000's of fires burning everyday, with
hitting the earth every day, I have had a mostly
a calm life in Danbury Ct. from 1960 till 2015.
Being born in
1960 was extremely lucky
Turning 40 in 2000
is an overflow of water that submerges land which is
. Flooding may occur as an
overflow of water from water bodies, such as a river, lake, or ocean, in
which the water overtops or breaks levees, resulting in some of that water
escaping its usual boundaries, or it may occur due to an accumulation of
rainwater on saturated ground in an areal flood. While the size of a lake
or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation
and snow melt, these changes in size are unlikely to be considered
significant unless they flood property
or drown domestic animals.
between the atmosphere
and an earth-bound object. They mostly originate in a
and terminate on the ground, called cloud to ground
(CG) lightning. A less common type of strike, called ground to cloud (GC),
is upward propagating lightning initiated from a tall grounded object and
reaches into the clouds. About 25% of all lightning events worldwide are
strikes between the atmosphere and earth-bound objects.
The bulk of lightning events are intra-cloud (IC)
or cloud to cloud (CC), where discharges only occur high in the atmosphere
A single lightning event is a "flash", which is a complex, multi-stage
process, some parts of which are not fully understood. Most cloud to
ground flashes only "strike" one physical location, referred to as a
"termination". The primary conducting channel, the bright coursing light
that may be seen and is called a "strike", is only about one inch in
diameter, but because of its extreme brilliance, it often looks much
larger to the human eye and in photographs. Lightning discharges are
typically miles long, but certain types of horizontal discharges can be
upwards of tens of miles in length. The entire flash lasts only a fraction
of a second. Most of the early formative and propagation stages are much
dimmer and not visible to the human eye.
There are also other events that threaten us that can be
The photo on right is the number of
burning on earth, as seen at night.
- Wood Stoves
- 'Earth on Fire' 2014
is a scientific discipline concerned with
natural processes involving fire in an ecosystem and the ecological
effects, the interactions between fire and the abiotic and biotic
components of an ecosystem, and the role of fire as an ecosystem process.
is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation
that occurs in the countryside or rural area. Depending on the type of
vegetation where it occurs, a wildfire can also be classified more
specifically as a brush fire, bush fire, desert fire, forest fire, grass
fire, hill fire, peat fire, vegetation fire, or veld fire.
is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the
countryside or rural area. Depending on the type of vegetation where it
occurs, a wildfire can also be classified more specifically as a brush
fire, bush fire, desert fire, forest fire, grass fire, hill fire, peat
fire, vegetation fire, or veld fire. Fossil charcoal indicates that
wildfires began soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants
420 million years ago
. Wildfire’s occurrence
throughout the history of terrestrial life invites conjecture that fire
must have had pronounced evolutionary effects on most ecosystems' flora
and fauna. Earth is an intrinsically flammable planet owing to its cover
of carbon-rich vegetation, seasonally dry climates, atmospheric oxygen,
and widespread lightning and volcano ignition.
Fuel Reduction Programme
Smoke from 2015 Indonesian Fires may have Caused 100,000 Premature Deaths
Salvaging Fire-Killed Trees
Reclaiming Timber after the Flames
Fire Burned Trees
Letting Nature Heal itself doesn't always happen
Emerald Ash Borer
Tree Ring AnalysisLaboratory of
Tree-Ring Research at the University of Arizona
Spontaneous Human Combustion
is a term encompassing reported
cases of the combustion of a living (or very recently deceased)
human body without an apparent external source of ignition. In
addition to reported cases, examples of SHC appear in
literature, and both types have been observed to share common
characteristics regarding circumstances and remains of the
victim. Forensic investigations have attempted to analyze
reported instances of SHC and have resulted in hypotheses
regarding potential causes and mechanisms, including victim
behavior and habits, alcohol consumption and proximity to
potential sources of ignition, as well as the behavior of fires
that consume melted fats. Natural explanations, as well as
unverified natural phenomena, have been proposed to explain
reports of SHC. Current scientific consensus is that most, and
conjectures perhaps all, cases of SHC involve overlooked
external sources of ignition.
is the name given to the partial destruction of
a human body by fire, when the clothing of the victim soaks up
melted human fat and acts like the wick of a candle. The wick
effect is a phenomenon that is found to occur under certain
conditions, and has been thoroughly observed
Nature Features Deserts: Living in Extremes
(2015) 1 hr. 26 min.
Volcano Seen from Space
About 70% of the Volcanism on Earth occurs Underwater
Seafloor Volcano Pulses may Alter Climate
Discovering the Deep
Efficient removal of recalcitrant deep-ocean dissolved organic
matter during hydrothermal circulation
New Lava Flows at Axial Seamount are Confirmed
Seamount eruption of April 2015 confirmed
Orbiting Mechanical Satellites
There are approximately 1,300 nonfunctional
22,000 mile above earth. Moon
Debris: 1957 - 2015
Almost 20,000 pieces of
currently orbiting the Earth.
Science Exhibition 2016: Cleaning up space junk
Active Debris Removal (ADR) capture and deorbit two space debris
Darpa Satellite Scavenging Phoenix Project
Space Junk Tether
Space Debris Clean-up
Let's clean up the space junk orbiting Earth: Natalie Panek
interactive text)Satellite Images
of Concerned Scientists
says there are 1,419
Earth. There are estimates of roughly 2,600 satellites that no longer work
floating in space. Some of the biggest telecommunications satellites can
weigh several tons, be the size of a bus, and orbit from a fixed point
about 22,000 miles (35,000 km) above Earth. On
November 15 2016
filed a lengthy application with the Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) to launch 4,425 new satellites
Each satellite in SpaceX's planned constellation will weigh about 850 lbs
(386 kg) and be roughly the size of a MINI Cooper car. They will orbit at
altitudes ranging from 715 miles (1,150 km) to 790 miles (1,275 km). Each
satellite could cover an ellipse about 1,300 miles (2,120 km) wide. That's
about the distance from Maine to the Florida panhandle. With deployment of
the first 800 satellites, SpaceX will be able to provide widespread U.S.
and international coverage for
," A speed of 1 Gbps. The global average for
internet speed in late 2015, according
Akamai's "State of the Internet" report
, was 5.1 Mbps per user — about
200 times slower than SpaceX's target — with most of the higher speeds
tied up in cable and fiberoptic connections. Downlink capacity to users
ranging from 17 to 23 Gbps.
ISRO Launches 104
Satellites in a Single Rocket Launch
- a world record as of 15/02/2017
Low Earth Orbiting Satellite
is an orbit
around Earth with an altitude
between 160 kilometers (99 mi) (orbital
of about 88 minutes), and 2,000 kilometers (1,200 mi) (about
127 minutes). Objects below approximately 160 kilometers (99 mi) will
experience very rapid
and altitude loss. The orbital velocity needed to
maintain a stable low Earth orbit is about 7.8 km/s, but reduces with
increased orbital altitude.
High Earth Orbit
is a geocentric orbit with an altitude entirely above
that of a geosynchronous orbit (35,786 kilometres (22,236 mi).
is a circular orbit 35,786 kilometres (22,236 mi)
above the Earth's equator and following the direction of the Earth's
is an orbit around the Earth with an orbital
period of one sidereal day.
is the region of space around the Earth above low Earth orbit
(altitude of 2,000 kilometres (1,243 mi)) and below geostationary orbit
(altitude of 35,786 kilometres (22,236 mi)).
List of Orbits
Satellite Building Kits
Over a span of 12 years, the
captured more than 800,000 images. That's 2.1 million feet of film.
Asteroids - Meteorites
is a small rocky or metallic body travelling
through outer space.
Did you know that 100 tons of
and dust enter our atmosphere everyday? Even
space rocks up to 25 metres across (80 feet) will likely explode and
disintegrate in the upper layers of our atmosphere, causing little or no
damage, according to NASA. The Moon is bombarded by so much space rock
that its surface gets a complete facelift every 81,000 years. Varieties
of space dust, barely the width of a human hair. These photomicrographs
were made with a special camera setup that magnifies the dust grains
nearly 3,000 times. (Credit Jan Braly Kihle/Jon Larsen)
An urban collection of modern-day large micrometeorites:
variations in the extraterrestrial dust flux through the Quaternary
is an extraterrestrial particle, ranging in size from 50 µm to 2 mm,
collected on the Earth's surface. Micrometeorites are micrometeoroids
which have survived entry through the Earth's atmosphere. They differ from
meteorites in being smaller, more plentiful and different in composition
and are a subset of cosmic dust, which also includes the smaller
interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Micrometeorites enter the Earth's
atmosphere with high velocities (at least 11 km/s) and undergo heating
through atmospheric friction and compression. Individual micrometeorites
weigh between 10-9 and 10-4 g and collectively contribute most of the
extraterrestrial material that has come to the present day Earth. Fred
Lawrence Whipple first coined the term "micro-meteorite" to describe
dust-sized objects that fall to the Earth. Sometimes meteoroids and
micrometeoroids entering the Earth's atmosphere are visible as meteors or
"shooting stars", whether or not they reach the ground and survive as
meteorites and micrometorites.
Space Dust Photo
- Image 2
is a tiny meteoroid; a small particle of rock in space, usually weighing
less than a gram. A micrometeorite is such a particle that survives
passage through the Earth's atmosphere and reaches the Earth's surface.
Figure 3: Oxygen and chromium isotopic composition of Meteorites
are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
is any small Solar System body whose orbit
brings it into proximity with Earth.
comprises a number of methods by which near-Earth
objects (NEO) could be diverted, preventing destructive impact events.
Could See All The Asteroids, What Would The Sky Look Like
is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to
the Sun, heats up and begins to outgas, displaying a visible
atmosphere or coma, and sometimes also a tail.
Symbols of an Alien Sky: The Electric Comet
Documentary on youtube)
List of Earth-Crossing Minor Planets
is a near-Earth asteroid whose
orbit crosses that of Earth as observed from the ecliptic pole of Earth's
Cross orbits of smaller moons that collided and merge, slowly building the
Our Solar System
natural satellite, orbits the Earth every 27.3 days.
The Moon keeps nearly the same face turned towards the Earth at all times.
The moon is 238,857 miles from the Earth
and has a diameter of
2,160 miles. The Moon is currently moving away from the Earth at
about 3.8 centimeters per year. is an astronomical body that
orbits planet Earth, being Earth's only permanent natural satellite
It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the
, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to
the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary). Following Jupiter's
satellite Io, the Moon is second-densest satellite among those whose
densities are known. The average distance of the Moon from the Earth is
384,400 km, or
1.28 light-seconds. The Moon is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion
, not long after Earth. There are several hypotheses for its
origin; the most widely accepted explanation is that the Moon formed from
the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth and a Mars-sized
body called Theia. Eclipse
Far Side of
is the hemisphere of the Moon that always faces away from
Earth. The far side's terrain is rugged, with a multitude of impact
craters and relatively few flat lunar maria. It has one of the largest
craters in the Solar System, the South Pole–Aitken basin. Although both
sides of the moon experience two weeks of sunlight
followed by two weeks of night
, the far
side is sometimes incorrectly referred to as the "Dark
Side of the Moon
is a type of co-orbital motion of a
small orbiting body relative to a larger orbiting body (such as Earth).
The orbital period of the smaller body is very nearly the same as for the
larger body, and its path appears to have a horseshoe shape as viewed from
the larger object in a rotating reference frame.
is the shape of the illuminated (sunlit) portion of the Moon as seen by an
observer on Earth. The lunar phases change cyclically as the Moon orbits
the Earth, according to the changing positions of the Moon and Sun
relative to the Earth. The Moon's rotation is tidally locked by the
Earth's gravity, therefore the same lunar surface always faces Earth. This
face is variously sunlit depending on the position of the Moon in its
orbit. Therefore, the portion of this hemisphere that is visible to an
observer on Earth can vary from about 100% (full moon) to 0% (new moon).
The lunar terminator is the boundary between the illuminated and darkened
hemispheres. Each of the four "intermediate" lunar phases (see below) is
roughly seven days (~7.4 days) but this varies slightly due to the
elliptical shape of the Moon's orbit. Aside from some craters near the
lunar poles such as Shoemaker, all parts of the Moon see around 14.77 days
of sunlight, followed by 14.77 days of "night". (The side of the Moon
facing away from the Earth is sometimes called the "dark side", which is a
- Solar Eclipse
is the first phase of the Moon, when it orbits not seen from the Earth,
the moment when the Moon and the Sun have the same
. The Moon is not visible at this time except when
it is seen in silhouette during a solar eclipse when it is illuminated by
earthshine. See the article on phases of the Moon for further details. A
is when the moon is in between the
earth and the sun, which causes more gravitational pull
earth. There is also more gravitational pull on the earth from
the moon when the moon is the closet to the earth during it's
elliptical orbit. During these moments when the gravitational pull is
at it's peak, the earth has higher ocean tides and sometimes
experiences earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
is an extreme point in an object's orbit.
Moon Rise Times
attempts to account for the motions of the Moon.
is an optical illusion which causes the Moon
to appear larger near the horizon than it does higher up in the sky.
Supermoon Lunar Eclipse | NASA
- Neil Armstrong
was the first
Human on the Moon
on July 20,1969.
"One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind"
EARTHRISE: The First Lunar Voyage Apollo 8 Mission
Elton John - Rocket Man
Control to Major Tom by David Bowie
I wouldn't say that planet earth is blue and there's nothing I
can do, I would say
always something to do
, especially on planet earth, but if
you had to express a particular feeling based on a particular
time period in human history, then the lyrics are perfect.
Living in Space
Moons of Earth
Asteroid 3753 Cruithne
"What can we gain by sailing to the moon if we are not able to
cross the abyss that separates us from ourselves?"
You Can Fit Every Planet In The
Solar System Between Earth And The Moon
Planet Average Diameter (km)
Total = 380,008
The average distance from the Earth to
the Moon is 384,400 km. And check it out, that leaves us
with 4,392 km to spare.
could fit. 2,302 km
1 AU = 150 million kilometers (93 million miles).
The moon doesn’t have an
atmosphere or a magnetic field to protect us from the Sun, meteors or
cosmic rays, so we can’t live on its surface. But a team of Japanese
scientists looking at some deep lunar pits think they’ve found more than
just a hole—they think they’ve found tunnels that cut through our
satellite’s volcanic rock for miles. They might be our first home beyond
Voyager 1 - Space Probe
is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5,
Voyager 1 Gold Record Messages
are already out of date, oh
well, It's like the difference between what you would say
when you are 5 years old compared to what you would say when you
are 50 years old. I just hope that intelligent life
has a good sense of humor, otherwise they will be in for a big
robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores
further into outer space. A space probe may approach the Moon; travel
through interplanetary space; flyby, orbit, or land on other planetary
bodies; or enter interstellar space.
Deep Space 1
was launched on 24 October 1998 and carried out
a flyby of asteroid
, which is a small Mars-crossing asteroid that orbits the Sun
once every 3.58 years.Space Travel
- Space Probes
for Data Storage
was a partially reusable low Earth
orbital spacecraft system. The first of four orbital test flights occurred
in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982. Five complete
Shuttle systems were built and used on a total of 135 missions from 1981
to 2011, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida.
Operational missions launched numerous satellites, interplanetary probes,
and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST); conducted science experiments in
orbit; and participated in construction and servicing of the International
Space Station. The Shuttle fleet's total mission time was 1322 days, 19
hours, 21 minutes and 23 seconds. The Space Shuttle was retired from
service upon the conclusion of Atlantis's final flight on July 21, 2011.
Space Shuttle Program
12 miles high is the limit for a human without a
, you can actually survive in space for 2 minutes
without a Space Suit, so what would you do in those last 2
Suit Up -
50 Years of Spacewalks
Smoke and fire RS 25 Rocket Engine Test
conducted a developmental test firing of the RS-25 rocket
engine, on August 13 at the agency’s Stennis Space Center in
Mississippi. The 535 second test was the sixth in the current
series of seven-tests of the former space shuttle main engine.
Four RS-25 engines will power the core stage of the new Space
Launch System (SLS) rocket , which will carry humans deeper into
space than ever before, including to an asteroid and Mars.
is a planned experimental spaceplane/booster
designed to deliver small satellites into orbit for the U.S. Military. It
is intended to be reusable as frequently as 10 times in 10 days. The XS-1
is to directly replace the "first stage" of a multistage rocket that will
be capable of flying at hypersonic speed at suborbital altitude, enabling
one or more expendable upper stages to separate and deploy a payload into
low Earth orbit. The XS-1 would then return to Earth, where it could be
serviced fast enough to repeat the process at least once every 24 hours.
is an American rocket and missile propulsion
manufacturer. Headquartered in Sacramento, California, the company is
owned by Aerojet Rocketdyne Holdings. Aerojet Rocketdyne was formed in
2013 when Aerojet (then owned by GenCorp) and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne
were merged, following the latter's acquisition by GenCorp from Pratt &
Whitney. On April 27, 2015, the name of the holding company, GenCorp, was
changed from GenCorp, Inc. to Aerojet Rocketdyne Holdings, Inc.
International Space Station
is a habitable artificial
satellite, in low Earth orbit. Its first component launched into orbit in
1998, and the ISS is now the largest artificial body in orbit and can
often be seen with the naked eye from Earth. The ISS consists of
pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays, and other components.
ISS components have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets, and
American Space Shuttles. The ISS serves as a microgravity and space
environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments
in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology, and other
fields. The station is suited for the testing of spacecraft systems and
equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars. The ISS maintains an
orbit with an altitude of between 330 and 435 km (205 and 270 mi) by means
of reboost manoeuvres using the engines of the Zvezda module or visiting
spacecraft. It completes 15.54 orbits per day.
International Space Station
(150 billion Dollars)
Space Station Commander Provides Tour of Orbital Laboratory
(youtube) Best Space Station Tour Ever
The ISS takes about 90 minutes to complete one orbit. Astronauts
living on-board experience 16 sunrises and sunsets in a 24-hour
period. ISS is 250 miles high and traveling at 17,000 miles per
hour, More than 220 astronauts and cosmonauts from 18
different countries have been on the ISS since its "first
element launch" in 1998. As of May 16, 2016, at 06:10 at GMT, 18
years after its initial launch, the ISS will begin its 100,000th
orbit — 2.6 billion miles — around planet Earth as it crosses
Effect of gravity and microgravity on intracranial pressure
Microgravity raises pressure in the head and
, which could be problematic for long-term space travel.
‘Terminator’-style material heals itself
Extraterrestrial Life - ET - Space Aliens
is life that does not originate from Earth. Other life forms may range
from simple single-celled organisms to beings with civilizations far
What if there is
? How will it change human life or how
will it impact our world?
Maybe Extraterrestrial Life has already visited our earth? And
the reason we don't have evidence is because they followed the
Or maybe other life just sent their
DNA with Instructions
Could our world be the result
Even if we did find another
like ours how could we even assume that life
states unidentified flying
objects (UFOs) and related events involve visitations from other
"realities" or "dimensions" that coexist separately alongside our own.
only assumes the possibility of life, it does
not explain how life exists elsewhere. Do you think that finding
Extraterrestrial Life will somehow improve our world like some
can only do so much,
unless of course Extraterrestrial Life can show us how to
improve our dysfunctional inadequate education system. Then I
believe we will see improvements. Till then I have more
important things to think about, like how to improve education
without having to depend on Extraterrestrial Life.
1 in 10 stars have
planets. In order to have water a planet must be the right distance from
its star. To close water boils away, to far water freezes.
. Then it is just a matter of reaching a planet at the
right time in its life when it is stable enough.
is the apparent contradiction
between the lack of evidence and high probability estimates, e.g., those
given by the Drake equation, for the existence of extraterrestrial
civilizations. The basic points of the argument, made by physicists Enrico
Fermi (1901–1954) and Michael H. Hart (born 1932), are: There are billions
of stars in the galaxy that are similar to the Sun, many of which are
billions of years older than Earth. With high probability, some of these
stars will have Earth-like planets, and if the Earth is typical, some
might develop intelligent life. Some of these civilizations might develop
interstellar travel, a step the Earth is investigating now. Even at the
slow pace of currently envisioned interstellar travel, the Milky Way
galaxy could be completely traversed in a few million years. According to
this line of reasoning, the Earth should have already been visited by
extraterrestrial aliens. In an informal conversation, Fermi noted no
convincing evidence of this, leading him to ask, "Where is everybody?"
There have been many attempts to explain the Fermi paradox, primarily
either suggesting that intelligent extraterrestrial life is extremely rare
or proposing reasons that such civilizations have not contacted or visited
is an apparent contradiction in physical descriptions of the universe.
is the technology of controlling the phase of light
waves transmitting or reflecting from a two-dimensional surface by means
of adjustable surface elements. It is the optical analogue of phased array
radar. By dynamically controlling the optical properties of a surface on a
microscopic scale, it is possible to steer the direction of light beams,
or the view direction of sensors, without any moving parts. Hardware
associated with beam steering applications is commonly called an optical
phased array (OPA). Phased array beam steering is used for optical
switching and multiplexing in optoelectronic devices, and for aiming laser
beams on a macroscopic scale.
is a pattern created by flattening a
crop, usually a cereal.
is a 1974 interstellar
carrying basic information
about humanity and Earth sent to globular
star cluster M13 in the hope that extraterrestrial intelligence might
receive and decipher it. The message was broadcast into space a single
time via frequency modulated radio waves at a ceremony to mark the
remodeling of the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico on 16 November
1974. The message was aimed at the current location of M13 some 25,000
light years away because M13 was a large and close collection of stars
that was available in the sky at the time and place of the ceremony. The
message consisted of 1,679 binary digits, approximately 210 bytes,
transmitted at a frequency of 2,380 MHz and modulated by shifting the
frequency by 10 Hz
, with a power of 1,000 kW. The
"ones" and "zeros"
transmitted by frequency shifting at the rate of 10 bits per second. The
total broadcast was less than three minutes. The cardinality of 1,679 was
chosen because it is a semiprime (the product of two prime numbers), to be
arranged rectangularly as 73 rows by 23 columns. The alternative
arrangement, 23 rows by 73 columns, produces jumbled nonsense (as do all
other X/Y formats). The message forms the image shown on the right, or its
inverse, when translated into graphics, characters and spaces. Dr. Frank
Drake, then at Cornell University and creator of the Drake equation, wrote
the message with help from Carl Sagan, among others.
consists of seven parts that encode the following (from the top down):
The numbers one (1) to ten (10)
The atomic numbers of the elements
hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen,
oxygen, and phosphorus, which make up deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
(purple). The formulas for the sugars and bases in the nucleotides of
DNA (green). The number of nucleotides in DNA, and a graphic of the
double helix structure of DNA (white & blue).
graphic figure of a
, the dimension (physical height) of an average man, and the human population of Earth (red, blue/white, & white respectively).
graphic of the Solar System
indicating which of the planets the message is
coming from (yellow).
A graphic of the Arecibo radio telescope and the
dimension (the physical diameter) of the transmitting antenna dish
(purple, white, & blue).
Since it will take nearly 25,000 years for the
message to reach its intended destination (and an additional 25,000
years for any reply), the
message is viewed as a demonstration of
human technological achievement, versus a real attempt to enter into a
conversation with extraterrestrials. In fact, the core of M13, to
which the message was aimed, will no longer be in that location when the
message arrives. However, as the proper motion of M13 is small, the
message will still arrive near the center of the cluster. According to
the Cornell News press release of November 12, 1999, the real purpose of
the message was not to make contact but to demonstrate the
capabilities of newly installed equipment.
is the study of how people in the past
"have understood the phenomena in the sky, how they used these phenomena
and what role the sky played in their
is engineering at astronomical scale, i.e.
at planetary, stellar, stellar system, galactic or even larger scale. It
is a form of megascale engineering. An example is the hypothetical
, which is a hypothetical megastructure
that completely encompasses a star and captures most or all of its power
Dimitar Sasselov: How we found hundreds of Earth-like planets
There's a big difference between a Technologically Advanced Civilization and an
Intelligent Civilization. Humans are advanced but we are not so
intelligent as a whole. We are like
, except that we would not be that stupid as to send
Neanderthals out into space. But Hollywood has this strange idea
that Humans will still be stupid in the future, which is
idiotic in itself. I laughed when I saw the movie Prometheus.
When the crew woke up from their deep sleep they realized that one of the crew members
was an a**hole.
Who the hell sends an a**hole into space? Really..What idiot choose
those crew members? You see it doesn't make sense. And that is
just one of many examples there are in
Movies and TV shows
Pigs in Space
"The only Intelligent Life Form man will ever meet is himself, as soon as he wakes up,
that is when and if? Not to say that there are not other life forms in our
universe, it's just that we have not yet defined what ' intelligent ' is. Just
because someone is advanced does not mean that they are
intelligent. A perfect example is 21st century humans."
Aliens will not come to earth to
kill all the humans
. Aliens will only roundup all the scumbags in
power who are doing all the environmental destruction.
Intelligent life is not
born to kill
, only ignorant
has already identified more than 1,000
since the beginning of its journey. We are not
alone, or unique.
(A) Beware the bearers of
FALSE gifts and their BROKEN PROMISES.
(B) Much PAIN but still time. BELIEVE.
(C) There is GOOD out there. We Oppose DECEPTION.
Conduit CLOSING (Ding!)
for Life: The Drake Equation
2.23 UFOs and Extraterrestrial Life
Even if we did come
in contact with other life form, there is no way of knowing what
it would do to our lives?
There is no way of
, you can only guess.
And we all know what a
is? So how can a guess
Close Encounters of the Third Kind
Movie Clip with the 5 Tones
B flat, C, A flat, (octave
lower) A flat, E flat.Eighth Note
is a musical note played for half the value of a quarter note (crotchet)
and twice that of the sixteenth note (semiquaver), which amounts to one
quarter the duration of a half note (minim), one eighth the duration of
whole note (semibreve), one sixteenth the duration of a double whole note
(breve), and one thirty-second the duration of a longa, hence the name. It
is the equivalent of the fusa in mensural notation (Morehen and Rastell
G, A, F, (octave lower) F, C
is an approach to
developed in Hungary during the mid-twentieth century by
Lee Cronin: Making Matter come Alive
"I only believe in the possibility that there could be life on other planets, to take a
belief any farther then that is not really necessary, the same
Elaborating more on a
does not make it any more real. You have to have proof. I'm not
saying that you must see a space alien in order to prove that
space aliens exist. Example, we didn't have to see atoms to know
that atoms existed. We did a lot of testing and experiments, we
did a lot of research, and we built a lot of complex machines
that ultimately proved that atoms were there. We can see farther
into space and see smaller into molecules then any other time in
human history, But the one thing that we learned is that our
universe is far in all directions, we can't see what's inside
protons, and we can't see the edge of our universe. So I'm
guessing that space aliens are also going to be hard to see,
after all they have almost a
9 Billion year head start. But everything leaves a trail,
and everything has some form of evidence that proves that it
exists. We would have to make amazing complex machines that
would be able to measure things, things that we don't even know
exist. So we will always have work to do because there is no end
to science, there will never be an end to what we could know,
there is no end to knowledge, and there's is no end to
information. I wouldn't say that it goes on forever, I'm just
saying that no one can define what 'END' is, so we don't know
what 'END' means, so you see, There is No End.....well at least
not for now there isn't, but maybe some day?... I wonder if or
when we do find an end, that it will be like telling someone the
ending of a movie before they see it, hey don't ruin it for me!
I want it to be a surprise. So you see, there's not even an end
to this conversation, it keeps going and going..."
is a hypothetical piloted or
unpiloted travel between stars or planetary systems. Interstellar travel
will be much more difficult than interplanetary spaceflight; the distances
between the planets in the Solar System are less than 30 astronomical
units (AU)—whereas the distances between stars are typically hundreds of
thousands of AU, and usually expressed in light-years. Because of the
vastness of those distances, interstellar travel would require a high
percentage of the speed of light, huge travel time, lasting from decades
to millennia or longer, or a combination of both.
is the ongoing discovery and exploration of
celestial structures in outer space by means of continuously evolving and
growing space technology. While the study of space is carried out mainly
by astronomers with telescopes, the physical exploration of space is
conducted both by unmanned robotic space probes and human spaceflight.
- Space X
is a vehicle, or machine designed to fly in
outer space. Spacecraft are used for a variety of purposes, including
communications, earth observation, meteorology, navigation, space
colonization, planetary exploration, and transportation of humans and
Moon TravelLiving in Space
Plasma Propulsion Engine
is a type of electric propulsion that
generates thrust from a quasi-neutral plasma. This is in contrast to ion
thruster engines, which generates thrust through extracting an ion current
from plasma source, which is then accelerated to high velocities using
Electrically Powered Spacecraft Propulsion
system uses electrical
energy to change the velocity of a spacecraft. Most of these kinds of
spacecraft propulsion systems work by electrically expelling propellant
(reaction mass) at high speed, but electrodynamic tethers work by
interacting with a planet's magnetic field.
is a controversial proposed type of electromagnetic
thruster in which sustaining a resonant anisotropic electromagnetic field
inside the microwave cavity purportedly produces a consistent thrust.
is a form of electric propulsion used for
spacecraft propulsion. It creates thrust by accelerating ions with
electricity. The term refers strictly to gridded electrostatic ion
thrusters, but may more loosely be applied to all electric propulsion
systems that accelerate plasma, since plasma consists of ions.
is a proposed class of rockets that
use antimatter as their power source. There are several designs that
attempt to accomplish this goal. The advantage to this class of rocket is
that a large fraction of the rest mass of a matter/antimatter mixture may
be converted to energy, allowing antimatter rockets to have a far higher
energy density and specific impulse than any other proposed class of
is a device producing motion
without the exhaust of a propellant. A propellantless drive is not
necessarily reactionless when it constitutes an open system interacting
with external fields; but a reactionless drive is a particular case of a
propellantless drive as it is a closed system presumably in contradiction
with the law of conservation of momentum and often considered similar to a
perpetual motion machine. The name comes from
Newton's third law
is usually expressed as, "for every action, there is an equal and opposite
reaction." A large number of infeasible devices, such as the Dean drive,
are a staple of science fiction particularly for space propulsion. To
date, no reactionless device has ever been validated under properly
Photonic Laser Thruster
is a photonic propulsion system
where lasers can propel spacecraft with giant sails using a
giant Earth-based lasers. Electromagnetic acceleration is only
limited by the speed of light while chemical systems are limited
to the energy of chemical processes.
is equal to breaking the light barrier, while the
actual velocity corresponding to higher factors is determined using an
Ralph Ring - Blue Star Enterprise
Suppressed Anti-Gravity Tech
Wanderers - a short film by Erik Wernquist
Hohmann Transfer Orbit
is an elliptical orbit used to
transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane.
or low-energy trajectory, is a
route in space that allows spacecraft to change orbits using very little
fuel. These routes work in the Earth–Moon system and also in other
systems, such as between the moons of Jupiter. The drawback of such
trajectories is that they take longer to complete than higher-energy
(more-fuel) transfers, such as Hohmann transfer orbits.
"Einstein-Rosen bridge" is a hypothetical topological feature that would
fundamentally be a shortcut linking two separate points in spacetime. A
wormhole may connect extremely long distances such as a billion light
years or more; short distances such as a few meters; different universes;
and/or different points in time. A wormhole is much like a tunnel with two
ends, each at separate points in spacetime.
ER=EPR | Leonard Susskind
is 4.3 light-years away, or 25 trillion
miles. How long would that take? Apollo 10 traveled at 24,791
So lets say we can travel 50,000 mph. In 20 hours we would
travel 1 million miles. So almost 1 day to travel a million
It would take a million days, or 2,739 years, to travel a
trillion miles? So 68, 475 years for someone to reach Alpha
could reach Alpha Centauri in 20 years. With our current technology, it
would take a conventional spacecraft over 18,000 years to reach the
nearest star, Alpha Centauri.
—also known as the water bear—is the only animal
that can survive the cold, irradiated vacuum of outer space.
Sending Robots with Human DNA
Moxie Reverse Fuel Cell Pumps out Oxygen
"Funny how movies about space travel make us realize that we are
all on a spaceship called Earth
and everything we learn about surviving in space will help
us survive on planet earth."
In physics, the twin paradox is a thought experiment in
special relativity involving identical twins, one of whom makes a
journey into space in a high-speed rocket and returns home to find that
the twin who remained on Earth has aged more. This result appears to be
puzzling because each twin sees the other twin as moving, and so,
according to an incorrect naive application of time dilation and the
principle of relativity, each should paradoxically find the other to have
aged more slowly. However, this scenario can be resolved within the
standard framework of special relativity: the travelling twin's trajectory
involves two different inertial frames, one for the outbound journey and
one for the inbound journey, and so there is no symmetry between the
paths of the two twins. Therefore, the twin
paradox is not a paradox in the sense of a logical contradiction.
The thing about people wanting to go to mars, or to mine
, or to
I believe that these things will eventually happen in the
future, but we should focus more on humanities future first,
because you can dream all you want about future endeavors, but
if there is no future, then what's the point? Secure humanities
future first, then you will have a future where you will be able
to explore space. These dreams of space travel will bring us
full circle anyway. The technologies and the knowledge that we
trying to live in space
, will actually be used on earth to
secure our own planets future and ours. After all, we have the greatest
spaceship in the universe, it's called Earth. Lets take care of this one
before we start thinking about building another one. Besides, the longer
we wait, the more advanced will be in the future, and then we can set out
and explore the universe in full fashion.
National Aeronautics and Space Act
of human knowledge of phenomena in the atmosphere and space; The
improvement of the usefulness, performance, speed, safety, and efficiency
of aeronautical and space vehicles; The development and operation of
vehicles capable of carrying instruments, equipment, supplies and living
organisms through space; The establishment of long-range studies of the
potential benefits to be gained from, the opportunities for, and the
problems involved in the utilization of aeronautical and space activities
for peaceful and scientific purposes. The preservation of the role of the
United States as a leader in aeronautical and space science and technology
and in the application thereof to the conduct of peaceful activities
within and outside the atmosphere. The making available to agencies
directly concerned with national defenses of discoveries that have
military value or significance, and the furnishing by such agencies, to
the civilian agency established to direct and control nonmilitary
aeronautical and space activities, of information as to discoveries which
have value or significance to that agency; Cooperation by the United
States with other nations and groups of nations in work done pursuant to
this Act and in the peaceful application of the results, thereof; and The
most effective utilization of the scientific and engineering resources of
the United States, with close cooperation among all interested agencies of
the United States in order to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort,
facilities, and equipment.
encompasses national and international law
governing activities in outer space. International lawyers have been
unable to agree on a uniform definition of the term "outer space",
although most lawyers agree that outer space generally begins at the
lowest altitude above sea level at which objects can orbit the Earth,
approximately 100 km (62 mi) (the Kármán line).
is the political decision-making process
for, and application of, public policy of a state (or association of
states) regarding spaceflight and uses of outer space, both for civilian
(scientific and commercial) and military purposes. International treaties,
such as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, attempt to maximize the peaceful uses
of space and restrict the militarization of space. Space policy intersects
with science policy, since national space programs often perform or fund
research in space science, and also with defense policy, for applications
such as spy satellites and anti-satellite weapons. It also encompasses
government regulation of third-party activities such as commercial
communications satellites and private spaceflight. Space policy also
encompasses the creation and application of space law, and space advocacy
organizations exist to support the cause of space exploration.
Outer Space Treaty
is a treaty that forms the basis of
international space law that represents the basic legal framework of
international space law. Among its principles, it bars states party to the
treaty from placing weapons of mass destruction in orbit of Earth,
installing them on the Moon or any other celestial body, or otherwise
stationing them in outer space. It exclusively limits the use of the Moon
and other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes and expressly prohibits
their use for testing weapons of any kind, conducting military maneuvers,
or establishing military bases, installations, and fortifications (Article
IV). However, the Treaty does not prohibit the placement of conventional
weapons in orbit and thus some highly destructive attack strategies such
as kinetic bombardment are still potentially allowable. The treaty also
states that the exploration of outer space shall be done to benefit all
countries and that space shall be free for exploration and use by all the
States. The treaty explicitly forbids any government from claiming a
celestial resource such as the Moon or a planet. Article II of the Treaty
states that "outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies,
is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means
of use or occupation, or by any other means". However, the State that
launches a space object retains jurisdiction and control over that object.
The State is also liable for damages caused by their space object.
NASA needed 14 new astronauts
. A record-breaking 18,300 folks applied.
In order for humans to travel to another
habitable planet like earth, we first have to learn how. And we
also have to make sure that humans live long enough in order to
learn how to travel to another habitable planet, and save
quadrillions of lives at the same time.
"The journey inward is as important as the journey outward, sometimes looking in is looking out."
People need to understand that space travel and
finding another planet like ours is mostly just fantasy for now.
We should be more focused on survival and sustainability. And
just maybe in a few thousand years, we just might be able to
find another home some where in the Universe, but we have to be
able to live that long first. First things first.
By looking at the history
of our earth
, you can say that it takes over 4 billion years
for a planet to stabilize enough to support life,
animal life that is, the type of life most important to us. So
the first half of the lifespan of a planet is used for
stabilization, around 4.5 billion years, and the other half of
the lifespan of a planet is used to support life, around 4.5
billion years. So if we find another planet like ours, we will
have to determine how old it is, is it still a reckless teenage
planet, or a stable adult planet. That could make all the
difference on choosing the right one. But of course there is no
guarantee, after all, we have only one experience with planets
like ours, which is very little experience.
"There are a lot of things
that are alien to us, especially things that are on our own
planet, new things that we discover everyday.
But there is no value in fantasizing about what kinds of alien
life may exist, no matter how real you make your fantasy to be.
I don't deny the possibilities of alien life, I just don't waste
time fantasizing about alien life. There are a lot of things
that are alien to us, like our own brain. So people should spend
more time understanding their own brain and stop trying to
understand a brain they never met, which is likely their own
brain. Balance your priorities and responsibilities and choose
your creative fantasy's well. You only have so much time to be
productive, so try not to waste too much time. It's OK to Dream,
just don't let you dream become an obsession or distract you
from dreaming about things that are more important."
How do we know they're aliens?
They might be just like us, except in a different body, which
proves just how dangerous and illogical that racism is, or any
for that matter. To prejudge someone is like
hating yourself for living, or worse, it's hating someone you
don't even know, someone that could be a friend, someone who can
"The more I learn about the Universe,
the more I see an amazing design, an incredible machine. Whether
this machine was created by God, or created by a life form that
resembles a God, matters little to me, what matters most to me
is learning about how this machine was dreamed up and created in
the first place. I applaud whom ever the
is, for thou has created something that is truly
amazing. Thank you, and, where can I get one of these universe
"Even if just some of the life here on earth were created by a
highly intelligent life form from another planet, I assume they
too believe in a God, and if so, then the existence of highly
intelligent life form does not disprove God, it will only makes
the belief in God more interesting."
"I know that we can create a Heaven right
here on Earth. And the best part is that we don't have to leave
our Heaven on Earth, because everyone is welcome in Heaven. So
I'm staying right here with Mother Earth. And I'm not leaving
until she gets consumed by the Sun and gets recycled back into
the Universe. But of course someone will have to venture out
into space and find us a new home in the Universe, but until
then, our Mother Earth is the Greatest and the Most Beautiful
Planet in the Universe, I can't even imagine another planet
being more amazing then Earth. But if people from another planet
would like to debate who's got the best planet in the universe,
then I would have to correct my original statement to say that
"Earth is one of the Two Best Planets in the Universe."
"Every time I find my self thinking about what life would be
like outside the universe, like if life existed in some other way that was
unknown to us, I have to immediately stop thinking about it, because it's
impossible to even guess, the scenarios can go on forever like infinity,
and I have only so much time to think about things, so I don't even
bother, though it blows my mind just to think about it for only a few
"You're an interesting species, an interesting mix.
You're capable of such beautiful dreams and such horrible nightmares. You
feel so lost, so cut off, so alone, only you're not. See, in all our
searching, the only thing we've found that makes the emptiness bearable is
Quote from the 1997 Film "Contact"
Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer
infrared-wavelength astronomical space telescope launched in December
2009, and placed in hibernation in February 2011 when its transmitter
turned off. It was re-activated in 2013. WISE discovered thousands of
minor planets and numerous star clusters. Its observations also supported
the discovery of the first Y Dwarf and Earth trojan asteroid.
The photo on right
are creatures found
deep in our ocean. They have a scientific name but to me they
look like Intelligent life. Is there a limit to how small a
human like Brain
can be? We haven't fully explored what
really means. The
second to the last final frontier. The photo reminds me of the 1989 movie
is defined as the amount of brain mass
related to an animal's total body mass. Quantifying an animal's
encephalization has been argued to be directly related to that animal's
level of intelligence?
The point is that intelligent life from another planet may
already be here. We just can't see them because we don't know
all the different ways that life could exist just yet, and we
also haven't fully explored our own planet just yet. To say that
ET life does exist or does not exist, you would first have to
say what exactly is ET life
? And that's like trying to say
know what God looks like.
People who are looking for
intelligent life are looking in the wrong direction. Don't just look out
into outer space, look within your own body, intelligent life is in our
, which is a
, is about 92 million miles from
(Earth gets to 147 million km close
and 152 million km max distance).
Elliptical Orbit. Eclipse
A Ray of
from our Sun takes about 8.3 minutes to reach us.
is the star at the
center of the Solar System
. It is a nearly perfect
of hot plasma
with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field
dynamo process. It is by far the most important source of
on Earth. Its diameter is about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is
about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99.86% of the
total mass of the Solar System. About three quarters of the Sun's mass
consists of hydrogen (~73%); the rest is mostly helium (~25%), with much
smaller quantities of heavier elements
, including oxygen, carbon, neon,
a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity. The nearest
star to Earth is the Sun. Many other stars are visible to the naked eye
from Earth during the night, appearing as a multitude of fixed
points in the sky due to their immense distance from Earth. A star shines
due to thermonuclear fusion
into helium in its core, releasing
energy that traverses the star's interior and then radiates into outer
space. Almost all naturally occurring elements heavier than helium are
created by stellar nucleosynthesis
during the star's lifetime, and for
some stars by supernova nucleosynthesis when it explodes. Near the end of
its life, a star can also contain degenerate matter. Astronomers can
determine the mass, age, metallicity (chemical composition), and many
other properties of a star by observing its motion through space, its
luminosity, and spectrum respectively. The total mass of a star is the
main factor that determines its evolution and eventual fate. Other
characteristics of a star, including diameter and temperature, change over
its life, while the star's environment affects its rotation and movement.
A plot of the temperature of many stars against their luminosities
produces a plot known as a
Plotting a particular star on that diagram allows the age and evolutionary
state of that star to be determined. A star's life begins with the
gravitational collapse of a gaseous nebula of material
of hydrogen, along with helium and trace amounts of heavier elements. When
the stellar core is sufficiently dense, hydrogen
converted into helium
, releasing energy in the
process. The remainder of the star's interior carries energy away from the
core through a combination of radiative and convective heat transfer
processes. The star's internal pressure prevents it from collapsing
further under its own gravity. A star with mass greater than 0.4 times the
Sun's will expand to become a red giant when the hydrogen fuel in its core
is exhausted. In some cases, it will fuse heavier elements at the core or
in shells around the core. As the star expands it throws a part of its
mass, enriched with those heavier elements, into the interstellar
environment, to be recycled later as new stars. Meanwhile, the core
becomes a stellar remnant: a white dwarf, a neutron star, or if it is
sufficiently massive, a black hole
stars born as wide binaries
with weak and
wildly disorganized magnetic field
very near a
newly emerging protostar
. The Sun at a very early
stage in their formation have traces of methyl isocyanate -- a chemical
is an organic compound with the molecular formula
CH3NCO. Synonyms are isocyanatomethane, methyl carbylamine, and MIC.
Methyl isocyanate is an intermediate chemical in the production of
carbamate pesticides (such as carbaryl, carbofuran, methomyl, and aldicarb).
It has also been used in the production of rubbers and adhesives. As a
highly toxic and irritating material, it is extremely hazardous to human
health. It was the principal toxicant involved in the Bhopal disaster,
which killed nearly 2,259 people initially and officially 3,787 people in
total. This family of organic molecules is involved in the synthesis of
peptides and amino acids
, which, in
the form of proteins
, are the biological
basis for life as we know it."
is a portion
given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and
. On Earth, sunlight is filtered through Earth's
, and is obvious as daylight when the
Sun is above the horizon. When the direct solar radiation is not blocked
by clouds, it is experienced as sunshine, a combination of bright light
and radiant heat
When it is blocked by clouds or reflects off other objects, it is
experienced as diffused light. A photon
the center of the Sun and changing direction every time it encounters a
charged particle would take between 10,000 and
to get to the surface.
149 xenon short-arc lamps spotlights equivalent of 10,000 times the amount
of solar radiation
Films - Videos
Journeys - Solar Super Storms
(youtube - 7/28/15 - 44:37)
Video of Milky Way (youtube)
Sun Video (youtube)
NASA | 5
Year Time-lapse of the Sun (youtube)
Years of Sun in Three Minutes (youtube)
Solar Dynamics Observatory SDO: Year 5 (youtube)
Our Sun is a Yellow Dwarf
, or G Dwarf
Star known as a
(luminosity class V) of spectral type G. Such a
has about 0.8 to 1.2 solar masses and surface temperature of between
5,300 and 6,000 K. Each second, our Sun fuses approximately 600 million
tons of hydrogen to helium, converting about 4 million tons of
Our Sun is small when compared to other Stars
Planet transiting a nearby Low-Mass Star
The Sun is about 4.7 Billion years old and has about 5 Billion
years left in its life.
Sun consists of
(about 74% of its
or 92% of its
(about 24% of mass, 7% of volume), and trace quantities
of other elements, including
The sun takes one month to rotate, It rotates counterclockwise.
6 Ultra-HD (youtube)
Simulation of the Sun's Magnetic Field (youtube)
Each second, more than 4 million tonnes of matter are converted
into energy within the Sun's core.
The Suns surface temperature is 6,000 C or 10,832 F
Diameter 1,392,000 km just over 109 times the diameter of the
Earth, that means that 1,300,000 Earths could fit in the Sun.
The Sun orbits the
Galaxy at a distance
24,000–26,000 light years
The Sun is moving 486,000 miles per hour and takes 240 million
years to complete one orbit around our Galaxy.
The Sun rotates one complete turn every 34 days.
The Sun's magnetic field reverses polarity, "flips" every 11
Earth takes one day to rotate and travels
67,000 miles per hour.
The sun is 99.8 percent of all the
in the solar system.
Core is considered to extend from the center to about 0.2 to 0.25 of
solar radius. It is the hottest part of the Sun and of the Solar System.
It has a density of 150 g/cm³ (150 times the density of liquid water) at
the center, and a temperature of 15 million degrees Celsius. The core is
made of hot, dense gas in the plasmic state (ions and
electrons), at a
pressure estimated at 265 billion bar (3.84 trillion psi or 26.5 petapascals (PPa)) at the center. Due to fusion, the composition of the
solar plasma drops from 68-70% hydrogen by mass at the outer core, to 33%
hydrogen at the core/Sun center. The core inside 0.20 of the solar radius,
contains 34% of the Sun's mass, but only 0.8% of the Sun's volume. Inside
0.24 solar radius, the core generates 99% of the fusion power of the Sun.
There are two distinct reactions in which four hydrogen nuclei may
eventually result in one helium nucleus: the proton-proton chain reaction
– which is responsible for most of the Sun's released energy – and the CNO
Proton-proton chain reaction is one of the two (known) sets of fusion
reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium.
Radius is a unit of distance used to express the size of stars in
astronomy. The solar radius is usually defined as the radius to the layer
in the Sun's photosphere where the optical depth equals 2/3:
The solar radius is approximately 695,700 kilometres (432,288 miles),
which is about 10 times the average radius of Jupiter, 110 times the
radius of the Earth, and 1/215th of an astronomical unit, the distance of
the Earth from the Sun. It varies slightly from pole to equator due to its
rotation, which induces an oblateness in the order of 10 parts per
million. (See 1 gigametre for similar distances.)
The Sun has
become 30% brighter in the last four and a half billion years and will
continue to increase in brightness by 1% every 100
- Let there be Light
The high-energy photons (gamma rays) released in fusion reactions take
indirect paths to the Sun's surface. According to current models, random
scattering from free electrons in the solar radiative zone (the zone
within 75% of the solar radius, where heat transfer is by radiation) sets
the photon diffusion time scale (or "photon travel time") from the core to
the outer edge of the radiative zone at about 170,000 years. From there
they cross into the convective zone (the remaining 25% of distance
from the Sun's center), where the dominant transfer process changes to
convection, and the speed at which heat moves outward becomes considerably
faster. In the process of heat transfer from core to photosphere, each
gamma ray in the Sun's core is converted during scattering into several
million visible light photons before escaping into space. Neutrinos are
also released by the fusion reactions in the core, but unlike photons they
very rarely interact with matter, so almost all are able to escape the Sun
immediately. For many years measurements of the number of neutrinos
produced in the Sun were much lower than theories predicted, a problem
which was recently resolved through a better understanding of neutrino
is an elementary particle, the quantum of all forms of
electromagnetic radiation including
light. It is the force carrier for electromagnetic
force, even when static via virtual photons. The photon has
zero rest mass
and as a result, the interactions of this force with matter at long
distance are observable at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. Like
all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by
mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality,
exhibiting properties of both waves and particles. A photon is
has no electric charge, and is a stable particle. A photon has two
possible polarization states. Light does not carry any charge itself, so
it does not attract or repel charged particles like electrons. Instead
light is an oscillating electric and magnetic field. All electromagnetic
radiation is transmitted as photons and photons occur on all of the
Stars are Red Dwarfs which are small and relatively cool
either K or M spectral type. Red dwarfs range in mass from a low of 0.075
solar masses (M☉) to about 0.50 M☉ and have a surface temperature of less
than 4,000 K. Red dwarfs are by far the most common type of star in the
Milky Way, at least in the neighborhood of the Sun, but because of their
low luminosity, individual red dwarfs cannot be easily observed. From
Earth, not one is visible to the naked eye.
Proxima Centauri, the nearest star to the Sun, is a red dwarf (Type M5,
apparent magnitude 11.05), as are twenty of the next thirty nearest stars.
According to some estimates, red dwarfs make up three-quarters of the
stars in the Milky Way.
Habitability of Red Dwarf Systems
O-type Star is a
hot, blue-white star of spectral type O in the Yerkes classification
system employed by astronomers. They have temperatures in excess of 30,000
Dwarf are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the
heaviest gas giants and the lightest stars.
Compact Star is used to refer collectively to
neutron stars, and black holes. It would grow
to include exotic stars if such hypothetical dense bodies are confirmed.
Most compact stars are the endpoints of stellar evolution and are thus
often referred to as stellar remnants, the
form of the remnant depending primarily on the mass of the star when it
formed. These objects are all small in volume for their mass, giving them
a very high density. The term compact star is often used when the exact
nature of the star is not known, but evidence suggests that it is very
massive and has a small radius, thus implying one of the above-mentioned
categories. A compact star that is not a black hole may be called a
Star s a hypothetical compact star composed of something other than
electrons, protons, neutrons, and muons; and balanced against
gravitational collapse by degeneracy pressure or other quantum properties.
These include quark stars (composed of quarks) and perhaps strange stars
(based upon strange quark matter, a condensate of up, down and strange
quarks), as well as speculative preon stars (composed of preons, a
hypothetical particle and "building block" of quarks, if quarks prove to
be decomposable into component sub-particles). Of the various types of
exotic star proposed, the most well evidenced and understood is the quark
Object sometimes called a substar, is an astronomical object whose
mass is smaller than the smallest mass at which hydrogen fusion can be
Classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral
The light from our nearest star,
Proxima Centauri, is 4 years old. Time passes slower the
faster you move. If you flew to the
Star Sirius at 99% of the speed of light, then flew back
again, the people you left behind on Earth would have aged more
years. But you would have aged less than two and a half years.
is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons,
primarily protons and neutrons.
Stellar Nucleosynthesis is the process by which the natural
abundances of the chemical elements within stars change due to nuclear
fusion reactions in the cores and their overlying mantles. Stars are said
to evolve (age) with changes in the abundances of the elements within.
Core fusion increases the atomic weight of elements and reduces the number
of particles, which would lead to a pressure loss except that gravitation
leads to contraction, an increase of temperature, and a balance of forces.
A star loses most of its mass when it is ejected late in the star's
stellar lifetimes, thereby increasing the abundance of elements heavier
than helium in the interstellar medium.
Synthesis of the Elements in Stars
Celestial Body is a naturally occurring physical entity,
association, or structure that current science has demonstrated to exist
in the observable universe.
Solar Maximum is a normal period of greatest solar activity
in the 11 year solar cycle of the Sun. During solar maximum, large numbers
of sunspots appear and the sun's irradiance output grows by about 0.07%.
The increased energy output of solar maxima can impact Earth's global
climate and recent studies have shown some correlation with regional
and Sunset Times
The Suns Magnetic Field is about to Flip. Approximately
every eleven years the polarity of the Sun's magnetic field is reversed,
with solar activity peaking with the same frequency. This manifests itself
in an increase in sunspots -- dark patches on the Sun's surface which
originate from strongly concentrated magnetic fields.
ScienceCasts: The Sun's Magnetic Field is About to Flip (youtube)
Magnetic Field of the Sun
Stellar Magnetic Field
Dynamo Theory proposes a mechanism by which a celestial body such as
Earth or a star generates a magnetic field. The dynamo theory describes
the process through which a rotating, convecting, and electrically
conducting fluid can maintain a magnetic field over astronomical time
scales. A dynamo is thought to be the source of the Earth's magnetic
field, as well as the magnetic fields of other planets.
Magnetic Field Laboratory - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf
NASA’s Cassini, Voyager Missions Suggest New Picture of Sun’s Interaction
Heliosphere is the bubble-like region of space dominated by
the Sun, which extends far beyond the orbit of Pluto. Plasma "blown" out
from the Sun, known as the solar wind, creates and maintains this bubble
against the outside pressure of the interstellar medium, the hydrogen and
helium gas that permeates the Milky Way Galaxy. The solar wind flows
outward from the Sun until encountering the termination shock, where
motion slows abruptly. The Voyager spacecraft have actively explored the
outer reaches of the heliosphere, passing through the shock and entering
the heliosheath, a transitional region which is in turn bounded by the
outermost edge of the heliosphere, called the heliopause. The overall
shape of the heliosphere is controlled by the interstellar medium through
which it is traveling, as well as the Sun, and is not perfectly spherical.
The limited data available and unexplored nature of these structures have
resulted in many theories.
Current Sheet is the surface within the Solar System where
the polarity of the Sun's magnetic field changes from north to south.
the ability of waves to
oscillate in more than one direction; in particular polarization of
light, responsible for example for the glare-reducing effect of polarized
Analemma is a diagram showing the deviation of the Sun from
its mean motion in the sky, as viewed from a fixed location on the Earth.
Due to the Earth's axial tilt and orbital eccentricity, the Sun will not
be in the same position in the sky at the same time every day. The
north–south component of the analemma is the Sun's declination, and the
east–west component is the equation of time. This diagram has the form of
a slender figure-eight, and can often be found on globes of the Earth.
Dyson Sphere is a hypothetical megastructure that completely
encompasses a star and captures most or all of its power output.
Sneeze Reflex is why the Sun makes you sneeze.
is a stream of charged particles released from
the upper atmosphere of the Sun. This plasma consists of mostly
protons and alpha particles with energies usually between 1.5 and 10 keV;
embedded in the solar-wind plasma is the interplanetary magnetic field.
The solar wind varies in density, temperature and speed over time and over
solar longitude. Its particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of
their high energy resulting from the high temperature of the corona and
magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic phenomena within it.
or solar magnetic activity cycle is the nearly periodic 11-year
change in the Sun's activity (including changes in the levels of solar
radiation and ejection of solar material) and appearance (changes in the
number and size of sunspots, flares, and other manifestations).
is a device that records the
sunshine at a given location
. The results provide information about the
weather and climate as well as the temperature of a geographical area.
This information is useful in meteorology, science, agriculture, tourism,
and other fields. It has also been called a heliograph.
is a type of actinometer used for measuring
solar irradiance on a planar surface and it is designed to measure the
solar radiation flux density (W/m2) from the hemisphere above within a
wavelength range 0.3 μm to 3 μm.
is an instrument for measurement of direct beam solar
irradiance. Sunlight enters the instrument through a window and is
directed onto a thermopile which converts heat to an electrical signal
that can be recorded. The signal voltage is converted via a formula to
measure watts per square metre. It is used with a solar tracking system to
keep the instrument aimed at the sun. A pyrheliometer is often used in the
same setup with a pyranometer.
are high-energy radiation
, mainly originating
outside the Solar System. Upon impact with the Earth's atmosphere, cosmic
rays can produce showers of secondary particles that sometimes reach the
surface. Composed primarily of high-energy protons and atomic nuclei, they
are of mysterious origin. Data from the Fermi space telescope (2013) have
been interpreted as evidence that a significant fraction of primary cosmic
rays originate from the supernovae explosions of stars. Active galactic
nuclei probably also produce cosmic rays.
is a device that measures exposure to ionizing radiation. It has
two main uses: for human radiation protection and for measurement of dose
in both medical and industrial processes.
A particular cloud produced by a
supernova explosion 10,000 years ago
contains enough dust to
make 7,000 Earths.
Eyes in the Sky
Coronal Mass Ejection
, by the
Solar Dynamics Observatory's
AIA instrument. SDO collected
one frame every 12 seconds, and the movie plays at 30 frames per
second, so each second in this video corresponds to 6 minutes of
real time. The video covers 12:30 a.m. EDT to 10:00 p.m. EDT on
July 19, 2012.
Can there be stars without a universe?
Is there stars in the middle of no where without a
universe near by?
are vast spaces between filaments (the
largest-scale structures in the Universe), which contain very few or no
galaxies. Voids typically have a diameter of 10 to 100 megaparsecs;
particularly large voids, defined by the absence of rich superclusters,
are sometimes called supervoids.
is the argument that the darkness of the night sky conflicts
with the assumption of an infinite and eternal static universe.
The Photo on right
is a massive star forming 4,200 light years
away. The star, W75N(B)-VLA 2, is eight times larger than our
sun and is believed to be just a few thousand years old.
is a very young star that is still gathering mass
from its parent molecular cloud.
is a star system consisting of two stars
orbiting around their common barycenter. Systems of two or more stars are
called multiple star systems.
Proto-Suns teeming with Prebiotic Molecules
is the process by which dense regions within
molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar
nurseries" or "star-forming regions", fuse to form stars.
National Radio Astronomy Observatory
Infant stars are born in large groups – never in
isolation. Star’s chemical composition bears the signature of the
evolution of its predecessors.
How many Milky way Stars are formed?
stopped making stars only a few billion years after the big bang
artist's concept shows what the young, dead, disk galaxy MACS2129-1,
right, would look like when compared with the Milky Way galaxy, left.
Although three times as massive as the Milky Way, it is only half the
size. MACS2129-1 is also spinning more than twice as fast as the Milky
Way. Note that regions of Milky Way are blue from bursts of star
formation, while the young, dead galaxy is yellow, signifying an older
star population and no new star birth. Why this galaxy stopped forming
stars is still unknown. It may be the result of an active galactic
nucleus, where energy is gushing from a supermassive black hole. This
energy inhibits star formation by heating the gas or expelling it from the
galaxy. Or it may be the result of the cold gas streaming onto the galaxy
being rapidly compressed and heated up, preventing it from cooling down
into star-forming clouds in the galaxy's center.
Looking at the Stars in the night sky is
seeing the Past, the Future and the Present all at once
If you look at galaxies that are 5 billion light years
away, then you're looking at the Universe as it was 5 billion
Seeing a supernova 150,000 light years away is seeing what
happened 150,000 years ago, so the star was dead long before we
saw it explode into a
. So stars could be gone long before we see it.
is a cataclysmic nuclear explosion on a white
dwarf, which causes a sudden brightening of the star. Novae are not to be
confused with other brightening phenomena such as supernovae or luminous
is an astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary
stages of a massive star's life, whose dramatic and catastrophic
destruction is marked by one final titanic explosion. This causes the
sudden appearance of a "new" bright star, before slowly fading from sight
over several weeks or months.
Type Ia Supernova
is a type of supernova that occurs in
binary systems (two stars orbiting one another) in which one of the stars
is a white dwarf. The other star can be anything from a giant star to an
even smaller white dwarf.
Seeing the light from our own Sun is 8 minutes old.
List of Nearest Stars
Are the stars in the night
sky just the History of the Universe Frozen in Time? Is what we
see just an image of us, what we were like millions of years ago
at different times? We can travel within our own galaxy, but if
we try to
reach another galaxy
, we would never make it, because it's
"So when you look out at the stars you're not seeing now, you're
seeing the past
, something that may be already gone. So what is now?
We have no idea what now is. Yes we have our own
measurement of time
, but that's just for humans on planet earth.
We see the universe but does somebody out there see us? Maybe
not because they're already gone. Or maybe we were not seen yet
because we have not yet been born yet. So even if they are
looking in our direction they don't even see us because our sun
has not yet been born."
This is What
We Know, so far
Back to the Top
within a certain portion of the
that can produce a
. Any device serving as a source of
Visible light is carried by photons
, and so are all the other kinds of
microwaves and radio waves
. Is light a
? Does light only travel
Light is invisible, darkness is
invisible, but when you add darkness and light together, along with
, then we see
. You can only see a beam of
light when there is darkness, and you can only
a beam of darkness
when there is light, and you can only see light when it comes in contact with
matter. The Sun
does not illuminate outer space
only see light when it comes in contact with
, like when we see the moon at night, or when light comes in
contact with your eye, which is also matter.
How light is detected affects the atom that emits it
atom or molecule in the
tube that is in an excited
state spontaneously decays to a lower energy state, releasing a
particle called a photon. When the photon enters your eye,
something similar happens but in reverse. The photon is absorbed
by a molecule in the retina and its energy kicks that molecule
into an excited state. Light is both a particle and a wave, and
this duality is fundamental to the physics that rule the
Lilliputian world of atoms
look at light can affect the atom that emits it
is the process of projecting a known pattern (often
grids or horizontal bars) on to a scene. The way that these deform when
striking surfaces allows vision systems to
calculate the depth and surface
information of the objects in the scene, as used in structured light 3D
scanners. Invisible (or imperceptible) structured light uses structured
light without interfering with other computer vision tasks for which the
projected pattern will be confusing. Example methods include the use of
infrared light or of extremely high
alternating between two exact opposite patterns. Structured light is used
by a number of police forces for the purpose of photographing fingerprints
in a 3D scene
previously they would use tape to extract the fingerprint and flatten it
out, they can now use cameras and flatten the fingerprint digitally, which
allows the process of identification to begin before the officer has even
left the scene.
is the process by which a
such as an atom, molecule,
or nucleus in
an excited state undergoes a transition to a state with a lower
energy (e.g., the ground state) and emits quanta of energy.
of a system (such as an atom, molecule or
nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than
the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).
Excitation is an elevation in energy level above an arbitrary baseline
of a quantum mechanical system is its
lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the
zero-point energy of the system. An excited state is any state with energy
greater than the ground state. In the quantum field theory, the ground
state is usually called the vacuum state or the vacuum.
Interference wave propagation
is a phenomenon in which two
waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same
amplitude. Interference usually refers to the interaction of waves that
are correlated or coherent with each other, either because they come from
the same source or because they have the same or nearly the same
frequency. Interference effects can be observed with all types of waves,
for example, light, radio, acoustic, surface water waves or matter waves.
If you could fly nonstop to the Sun
at 60 mph, it would take you
180 years to get there.
If a Space Ship
could travel 35,000 mph, it would take 81,000 years to travel
4.3 light years.
is about 5.9 trillion miles
. A light-year is the distance that light travels in a vacuum in
one Julian year (365.25 days).
Speed of Light
is 299,792,458 metres per second. 300,000 km/s, or 983,571,056.4304 feet per second
(9.836e+8), approximately 3.00×108 m/s. (186,000 miles
). Light travels at a speed of
the Speed of Light One Trillion Frames Per Second
Finding The Speed Of Light With Peeps
is the propagation of an optical pulse or other
modulation of an optical carrier at a very low group velocity. Slow light
occurs when a propagating pulse is substantially slowed down by the
interaction with the medium in which the propagation takes place. When
light propagates through a material, it travels slower than the vacuum
speed. Liquid properties
emerge under special circumstances, when the photons that form the light
wave are able to interact with each other.
: Humans tame light, stop it from moving for a
is a Danish physicist who in 1999 succeeded in slowing a
beam of light to about 17 metres per second.
transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract
light. At least two of the flat surfaces must have an angle between them.
The exact angles between the surfaces depend on the application. The
traditional geometrical shape is that of a triangular prism with a
triangular base and rectangular sides, and in colloquial use "prism"
usually refers to this type. Some types of optical prism are not in fact
in the shape of geometric prisms. Prisms can be made from any material
that is transparent to the wavelengths
for which they are designed.
Typical materials include glass, plastic and fluorite.
a ray of light enters the transparent material, the ray's
direction is deflected, based on both the entrance angle (typically
measured relative to the perpendicular to the surface) and the material's
refractive index, and according to Snell's Law. A beam passing through an
object like a prism or water drop is deflected twice: once entering, and
again when exiting. The sum of these two deflections is called the
deviation angle. The deviation angle in a prism depends upon:
Refractive index of the prism:
refractive index depends on the material and the wavelength of the light.
The larger the refractive index, the larger the deviation angle.
Angle of the prism:
The larger the prism angle, the larger the
deviation angle. Angle of incidence:
deviation angle depends on the angle that the beam enters the object,
called angle of incidence. The deviation angle first decreases with
increasing incidence angle, and then it increases. There is an angle
of incidence at which the sum of the two deflections is a minimum. The
deviation angle at this point is called the "minimum deviation" angle, or
"angle of minimum deviation". At the minimum deviation angle, the
incidence and exit angles of the ray are identical. One of the factors
that causes a rainbow is the bunching of light rays at the minimum
deviation angle that is close to the rainbow angle
information is in the Light
"If I can see the light, does that mean that I'm connected to
is communication at a distance using
light to carry information. It can be performed visually or by using
electronic devices. The earliest basic forms of optical communication date
back several millennia, while the earliest electrical device created to do
so was the photophone, invented in 1880.
is the branch of optics that
describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in
which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric
field E of the light.
is a process used in
microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a
substrate. It uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photomask
to a light-sensitive chemical "photoresist", or simply "resist," on the
substrate. A series of chemical treatments then either engraves the
exposure pattern into, or enables deposition of a new material in the
desired pattern upon, the material underneath the photo resist. For
example, in complex integrated circuits, a modern CMOS wafer will go
through the photolithographic cycle up to 50 times.
The Optical Society
are scientific instruments that use a
highly focused laser beam to provide an attractive or repulsive force
(typically on the order of piconewtons), depending on the refractive index
mismatch to physically hold and move microscopic dielectric objects
similar to tweezers. Optical tweezers have been particularly successful in
studying a variety of biological systems in recent years.
is a biological technique which involves the
use of light to control cells in living tissue, typically neurons, that
have been genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels. It
is a neuromodulation method employed in neuroscience that uses a
combination of techniques from optics and genetics to control and monitor
the activities of individual neurons in living tissue—even within
freely-moving animals—and to precisely measure these manipulation effects
is a book by English natural philosopher Isaac Newton that was published
in English in 1704. (A scholarly Latin translation appeared in 1706.) The
book analyzes the fundamental nature of light by means of the refraction
of light with prisms and lenses, the diffraction of light by closely
spaced sheets of glass, and the behaviour of color mixtures with spectral
lights or pigment powders. It is considered one of the great works of
science in history. Opticks was Newton's second major book on physical
science. Newton's name did not appear on the title page of the first
edition of Opticks.
is the branch of physics which involves the
behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter
and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics usually
describes the behaviour of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light.
Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic
radiation such as X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar
Optical focusing deep inside dynamic scattering media with
near-infrared time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) light
Diffuse Interstellar Band
are absorption features seen
in the spectra of astronomical objects in the Milky Way and other
galaxies. They are caused by the absorption of light by the interstellar
medium. Circa 500 bands have now been seen, in ultraviolet, visible and
is a spherical fullerene molecule
with the formula C60. It has a cage-like fused-ring structure (truncated
icosahedron) which resembles a soccer ball (football), made of twenty
hexagons and twelve pentagons, with a carbon atom at each vertex of each
polygon and a bond along each polygon edge.
is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object
viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or
semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.
is the succession of methods by which
astronomers determine the distances to celestial objects. A real direct
distance measurement of an astronomical object is possible only for those
objects that are "close enough" (within about a thousand parsecs) to
Earth. The techniques for determining distances to more distant objects
are all based on various measured correlations between methods that work
at close distances and methods that work at larger distances. Several
methods rely on a standard candle, which is an astronomical object that
has a known
, which is the total amount of energy emitted by a star,
galaxy, or other astronomical object per unit time. It is related to the
brightness, which is the luminosity of an object in a given spectral
refers to the transmitter power output
as received by a reference antenna at a distance from the transmitting
antenna. High-powered transmissions, such as those used in broadcasting,
are expressed in dB-millivolts per metre (dBmV/m). For very low-power
systems, such as mobile phones, signal strength is usually expressed in
dB-microvolts per metre (dBµV/m) or in decibels above a reference level of
one milliwatt (dBm). In broadcasting terminology, 1 mV/m is 1000 µV/m or
60 dBµ (often written dBu).
is a calibrated laboratory-grade
radio receiver designed to measure the characteristics of radio signals.
The parameters of such receivers (tuning frequency, receiving bandwidth,
gain) can usually be adjusted over a much wider range of values than is
the case with other radio receivers. Their circuitry is optimized for
stability and to enable calibration and reproducible results. Some
measurement receivers also have especially robust input circuits that can
survive brief impulses of more than 1000 V, as they can occur during
measurements of radio signals on power lines and other conductors.
is a distribution of matter (such as a cluster of galaxies) between a
distant light source and an observer, that is capable of bending the light
from the source as the light travels towards the observer. This effect is
known as gravitational lensing, and the amount of bending is one of the
predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. Classical
physics also predicts the bending of light, but only half that predicted
by general relativity.
DNA Phantom Effect
is light whose rays are parallel, and therefore will
spread minimally as it propagates. A perfectly collimated beam, with no
divergence, would not disperse with distance. Such a beam cannot be
created, due to
, which refers to various phenomena which occur when a wave
encounters an obstacle or a slit. It is defined as the bending of light
around the corners of an obstacle or aperture into the region of
geometrical shadow of the obstacle. In classical physics, the diffraction
phenomenon is described as the interference of waves according to the
, which is a method of analysis applied to
problems of wave propagation both in the far-field limit and in near-field
is any of the ways in which
respect to the direction of the oscillation relative to the propagation
direction, we can distinguish between longitudinal wave and transverse
waves. For electromagnetic waves, propagation may occur in a vacuum as
well as in a material medium. Other wave types cannot propagate through a
vacuum and need a transmission medium to exist.
is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its
are any observable events
that result from the interaction of light and matter. See also list of
optical topics and optics. A mirage is an example of an
Fata Morgana Mirage
is an unusual and complex
form of superior mirage that is seen in a narrow band right above the
refers to the difference in image location of an object seen by the left
and right eyes, resulting from the eyes’ horizontal separation (parallax).
The brain uses binocular disparity to extract depth information from the
two-dimensional retinal images in stereopsis. In computer vision,
binocular disparity refers to the difference in coordinates of similar
features within two stereo images.
Quotes about Light
“Darkness cannot drive out darkness: only
can do that.
cannot drive out hate: only love can do that.”
“We can easily forgive a child who
is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when men are
afraid of the light
thinks it travels faster than anything but it is wrong. No
matter how fast light travels, it finds the darkness has always
got there first, and is waiting for it.” Terry Pratchett,
“Look at how a single candle can
both defy and define the darkness.”
"I'm like the light, you will always have
me, but you can never keep me."
a candle, you
also cast a shadow.”
Ursula K. Le Guin
“I will love the
for it shows me
the way, yet I will endure the darkness for it shows me the
The second to the last final frontier.
void that exists between celestial bodies, including the Earth. It is not
completely empty, but consists of a hard Vacuum
containing a low density
, predominantly a plasma of
and helium as well as
electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields
, neutrinos, dust and
is an empty area
(usually bounded in some way between things). An area reserved for some
particular purpose. The interval between two times
is an empty area or space.
is holding or containing
. Not any thing, nothing at all.
are vast spaces between filaments (the largest-scale
structures in the Universe), which contain very few or no galaxies. Voids
typically have a diameter of 10 to 100 megaparsecs; particularly large
voids, defined by the absence of rich superclusters, are sometimes called
supervoids. They have less than one-tenth of the average density of matter
abundance that is considered typical for the observable Universe. Voids
are believed to have been formed by baryon acoustic oscillations in the
Big Bang, collapses of mass followed by implosions of the compressed
baryonic matter. Starting from initially small anisotropies from quantum
fluctuations in the early Universe, the anisotropies grew larger in scale
over time. Regions of higher density collapsed more rapidly under gravity,
eventually resulting in the large-scale, foam-like structure or “cosmic
web” of voids and galaxy filaments seen today. Voids located in
high-density environments are smaller than voids situated in low-density
spaces of the universe. Voids appear to correlate with the observed
temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) because of the
Sachs–Wolfe effect. Colder regions correlate with voids and hotter regions
correlate with filaments because of gravitational
redshifting. As the
Sachs–Wolfe effect is only significant if the Universe is dominated by
radiation or dark energy, the existence of voids is significant in
providing physical evidence for dark energy. Dark Matter
is the boundless three-dimensional
extent in which objects and events have relative
position and direction.
is a space that is contained within another space.
is a set (sometimes called a universe) with some
in physics propose the existence of a
medium, meaning "upper air" or "pure, fresh air", a space-filling
substance or field, thought to be necessary as a transmission medium for
the propagation of electromagnetic or gravitational forces.
void of matter
is an underlying background energy that exists in space
throughout the entire Universe.
is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of
is the quantum state with the lowest possible
is a metastable sector of space that appears to
be a perturbative vacuum, but is unstable due to instanton effects that
may tunnel to a lower energy state.
is the solution to the Einstein field
equations that describes the gravitational field outside a spherical mass,
on the assumption that the electric charge of the mass, angular momentum
of the mass, and universal cosmological constant are all zero.
Deriving the Schwarzschild solution
in the vicinity of a non-rotating
massive spherically-symmetric object.
is the radius of a sphere such that, if all the
mass of an object were to be compressed within that sphere, the escape
velocity from the surface of the sphere would equal the speed of light.
Hammer Drop on Moon and hit the ground at the same time
. Footage of
the Apollo 15 astronaut that dropped a hammer & feather on the moon to
prove Galileo's theory that in the absence of atmosphere, objects will
fall at the same rate regardless of mass.
visits the world's biggest vacuum chamber - Human Universe:
Episode 4 Preview - BBC Two
Why Do Drops of Liquid Form Spheres in Space?
are attracted to each other, so they naturally form the shape
which minimizes the number of them that are not surrounded by
Every molecule pulls on every
that's its immediate neighbor, until it gets close enough, and
then it stops pulling. The system looses potential energy and
transforms it into
. The sphere is the minimal
potential energy configuration of the molecules.
is defined by the relative position of molecules to
each other, and the forces between them (electromagnetic + gravitation).
are special functions defined on the
surface of a sphere. They are often employed in solving partial
differential equations that commonly occur in science. The spherical
harmonics are a complete set of orthogonal functions on the sphere, and
thus may be used to represent functions defined on the surface of a
sphere, just as circular functions (sines and cosines) are used to
represent functions on a circle via Fourier series. Like the sines and
cosines in Fourier series, the spherical harmonics may be organized by
(spatial) angular frequency, as seen in the rows of functions in the
illustration on the right. Further, spherical harmonics are basis
functions for SO(3), the group of rotations in three dimensions, and thus
play a central role in the group theoretic discussion of SO(3).
Video of Colorful Liquid in Space
is a round particle of one substance in another,
usually gas in a liquid. Due to the Marangoni effect, bubbles may remain
intact when they reach the surface of the immersive substance.
Bubble Reflections in 4K | Shanks FX | PBS Digital Studios
is an extremely thin film of soapy water enclosing air
that forms a hollow sphere with an iridescent surface.
is the mass transfer along an interface between two
fluids due to surface tension gradient. In the case of temperature
dependence, this phenomenon may be called thermo-capillary convection (or
Toroidal Bubble Ring
is an underwater vortex
where an air bubble occupies the core of the vortex, forming a ring shape.
The ring of air as well as the nearby water spins poloidally as it travels
through the water, much like a flexible bracelet might spin when it is
rolled on to a person's arm. The faster the bubble ring spins, the more
stable it becomes. Bubble rings and smoke rings are both examples of
vortex rings—the physics of which is still under active study in fluid
dynamics. Devices have been invented which generate bubble vortex rings.
What does a
snowflake look like in zero gravity
Sound in Space
you hear that?
travels in waves like light or heat does. But in order for
Humans to hear sounds, the sound needs to make molecules vibrate. In deep
space, the large empty areas between stars and planets, there are no
molecules to vibrate, so humans hear no sounds. But this does not mean
that sounds are not present in space, or not traveling through space.
Sound does exist in the form of electromagnetic vibrations
that pulsate in
Space is not a perfect
Mysterious Sounds Recorded in Space
created by Sound
is a method for suspending matter in a medium by using
acoustic radiation pressure from intense sound waves in the medium.
Acoustic Radiation Pressure
is the apparent pressure difference
between the average pressure at a surface moving with the displacement of
the wave propagation (the Lagrangian pressure) and the pressure that would
have existed in the fluid of the same mean density when at rest. Numerous
authors make a distinction between the phenomena of Rayleigh radiation
pressure and Langevin radiation pressure.
is the emission of short bursts of
from imploding bubbles in a liquid
excited by sound
Spheres of Water in Space
Is space a
for the Universe?
The photo above
is a composite false-color image of
Fire in Space
that looks like someone praying?
The Big Dipper below changing over time, from 100,000 BCE to
present-day to 50,000 CE to 100,000 CE. Gif: Martin Vargic
is a region of
exhibiting such strong gravitational effects
nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation
escape from inside it.
Supermassive Black Hole
is the largest type of black hole,
in the order of hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses (M☉),
and is found in the centre of almost all currently known massive galaxies.
In the case of the Milky Way
, the SMBH
corresponds with the location of Sagittarius A*.
is a system consisting of two black holes in
close orbit around each other. Like black holes themselves, binary black
holes are often divided into stellar binary black holes, formed either as
remnants of high-mass binary star systems or by dynamic processes and
mutual capture, and binary supermassive black holes believed to be a
result of galactic mergers.
is a hypothetical region of spacetime which cannot be entered from the
outside, although matter and light can escape from it. In this sense, it
is the reverse of a black hole, which can only be entered from the outside
and from which matter and light cannot escape. White holes appear in the
theory of eternal black holes. In addition to a black hole region in the
future, such a solution of the Einstein field equations has a white hole
region in its past.
The big star that couldn’t become a supernova
. Ohio State University
watched a star
disappear and possibly become a black
hole. Instead of becoming a black hole through the expected process of a
supernova, the black hole candidate formed through a "failed supernova."
is a force that makes a body follow a curved path. Its direction
is always orthogonal to the motion of the body and towards the fixed point
of the instantaneous center of curvature of the path.
Are black holes a type of
super-magnet made up of magnetite
, with one side sucking in matter, and the other side
expanding the universe?
Milky Way Galaxy
has a Black hole about 4 million to 5 million
times the mass of the sun.
is a bright and very compact
astronomical radio source at the center of the Milky Way, near the border
of the constellations Sagittarius and Scorpius. It is part of a larger
astronomical feature known as Sagittarius A. Sagittarius A* is thought to
be the location of a supermassive black hole.
Supermassive Black Hole at the Center of our Galaxy | Cosmic
It takes only a day for the
black hole to shred the star (in a process known as
), and only about a year for the resulting fragments
to pull themselves back together. This is in contrast to the millions of
years required to create a planet like Jupiter from scratch. Once launched
at 20 million miles per hour, it would take about a million years for one
of these objects to reach Earth's neighborhood. The challenge will be to
tell it apart from free-floating planets that are created during the more
mundane process of star and planet formation.
Center or Astrophysics
is 200 light years away from the
central molecular zone
, about 25,000 to 28,000
A black hole 12 billion times as massive as the sun has been
found in a glowing quasar that existed when the universe was
just a fraction of its current age using data from the
Sloan Digital Sky Survey
Micron All-Sky Survey
, and the
Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer
. This black hole-quasar
combo is estimated to exist 12.8 billion light years away.
is a pair of supermassive black holes located
, some 3.5 billion light-years away.
These two supermassive black holes are in the process of
merging, and are 180 billion miles (2.9×1011 km) apart. They are
anticipated to merge within about a million years. I can't wait!
Supermassive Black Hole Devours Star In Event Called ASASSN-14li
is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy
(in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an
alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case
of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of Internal
conversion. A material containing such unstable nuclei is considered
radioactive. Certain highly excited short-lived nuclear states can decay
through neutron emission, or more rarely, proton emission. Radioactive
decay is a stochastic (i.e. random) process at the level of single atoms,
in that, according to quantum theory, it is impossible to predict when a
particular atom will decay, regardless of how long the atom has existed.
However, for a collection of atoms, the collection's expected decay rate
is characterized in terms of their measured decay constants or half-lives.
This is the basis of radiometric dating. The half-lives of radioactive
atoms have no known upper limit, spanning a time range of over 55 orders
of magnitude, from nearly instantaneous to far longer than the age of the
universe. Radioactive decay is the spontaneous breakdown of an atomic
nucleus resulting in the release of energy and matter from the nucleus.
Remember that a radioisotope has unstable nuclei that does not have enough
binding energy to hold the nucleus together.
emission or transmission of energy
in the form of
through space or through a material medium. This includes:
, such as heat
, radio waves,
, and gamma
radiation (?). Particle radiation, such as alpha radiation (a), beta
radiation (ß), and neutron radiation (particles of non-zero rest energy).
Acoustic radiation, such as ultrasound, sound
, and seismic waves
(dependent on a physical transmission medium). Gravitational radiation,
radiation that takes the form of gravitational waves, or ripples in the
curvature of spacetime. Radiation is often categorized as either
or non-ionizing depending on the energy of the radiated particles.
Ionizing radiation carries more than 10 eV, which is enough to ionize
atoms and molecules, and break chemical bonds. This is an important
distinction due to the large difference in harmfulness to living
organisms. A common source of ionizing radiation is radioactive materials
that emit a, ß, or ? radiation, consisting of helium nuclei, electrons or
positrons, and photons, respectively. Other sources include X-rays from
medical radiography examinations and muons, mesons, positrons, neutrons
and other particles that constitute the secondary cosmic rays that are
produced after primary cosmic rays interact with Earth's atmosphere. Gamma
rays, X-rays and the higher energy range of ultraviolet light constitute
the ionizing part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The lower-energy,
longer-wavelength part of the spectrum including visible light
is non-ionizing; its main effect when
interacting with tissue is heating. This type of radiation only damages
cells if the intensity is high enough to cause excessive heating.
has some features of both ionizing and non-ionizing
radiation. While the part of the ultraviolet spectrum that penetrates the
Earth's atmosphere is non-ionizing, this radiation does far more damage to
many molecules in biological systems than can be accounted for by heating
effects, sunburn being a well-known example. These properties derive from ultraviolet's power to alter chemical bonds, even without having quite
enough energy to ionize atoms. The word radiation arises from the
phenomenon of waves radiating (i.e., traveling outward in all directions)
from a source. This aspect leads to a system of measurements and physical
units that are applicable to all types of radiation. Because such
radiation expands as it passes through space
, and as its
conserved (in vacuum), the intensity of all types of radiation from a
point source follows an inverse-square law in relation to the distance
from its source. This law does not apply close to an extended source of
radiation or for focused beams.
is radiation that carries enough energy to
from atoms or
molecules, thereby ionizing them. Ionizing radiation is made up of
energetic subatomic particles, ions or atoms moving at high speeds
(usually greater than 1% of the speed of light), and electromagnetic waves
on the high-energy end of the
are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar
Harvesting renewable energy from Earth’s mid-infrared emissions
Everything is moving at high speeds in space, even black holes are moving,
and everything around the black hole moves together, it moves,
it spins, it sucks in, and it spits out. If a
Black hole sucks in
, where does it Go? Another Dimension?
is any of a variety of mathematical
inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which
certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary
variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.
is a boundary in spacetime
beyond which events
cannot affect an outside observer.
is a structure (often a circumstellar disk)
formed by diffused material in orbital motion around a massive central
studies spaces that are almost manifolds, but
not quite. A string can serve as an example of a one-dimensional manifold,
if one neglects its thickness. A singularity can be made by balling it up,
dropping it on the floor, and flattening it. In some places the flat
string will cross itself in an approximate "X" shape. The points on the
floor where it does this are one kind of singularity, the double point:
one bit of the floor corresponds to more than one bit of string. Perhaps
the string will also touch itself without crossing, like an underlined
'U'. This is another kind of singularity. Unlike the double point, it is
not stable, in the sense that a small push will lift the bottom of the 'U'
away from the 'underline'.
Black Hole Information Paradox
suggests that physical information could permanently disappear in a black
hole, allowing many physical states to devolve into the same state. This
is controversial because it violates a commonly assumed tenet of
science—that in principle complete information about a physical system at
one point in time should determine its state at any other time. A
fundamental postulate of quantum mechanics is that complete information
about a system is encoded in its wave function up to when the wave
function collapses. The evolution of the wave function is determined by a
unitary operator, and unitarity implies that information is conserved in
the quantum sense.
is the residual representation of digital data
that remains even after attempts have been made to remove or erase the
data. This residue may result from data being left intact by a nominal
file deletion operation, by reformatting of storage media that does not
remove data previously written to the media, or through physical
properties of the storage media that allow previously written data to be
recovered. Data remanence may make inadvertent disclosure of sensitive
information possible should the storage media be released into an
uncontrolled environment (e.g., thrown in the trash or lost).
is a hypothetical phenomenon where
an observer that falls into an old black hole encounters high-energy
quanta at (or near) the event horizon.
is a hypothetical scientific model of the
formation of the known universe. It was originally suggested as a property
of the cyclic model or oscillatory universe interpretation of the Big Bang
where the first cosmological event was the result of the collapse of a
previous universe; however, it is also a consequence of applying loop
quantum gravity techniques to Big Bang cosmology and this need not be
is a transient fluctuation that exhibits many of the characteristics of an
ordinary particle, but that exists for a limited time.
Conservation of Mass
states that for any system closed
to all transfers of matter
, the mass of the system must remain
constant over time, as system mass cannot change quantity if it is not
added or removed. Hence, the quantity of mass is "conserved" over time.
The law implies that mass can neither be created nor destroyed
it may be rearranged
in space, or the entities associated with it may be
changed in form, as for example when light or physical work is transformed
into particles that contribute the same mass to the system as the light or
work had contributed. Thus, during any chemical reaction, nuclear
reaction, or radioactive decay in an isolated system, the total mass of
the reactants or starting materials must be equal to the mass of the
Conservation of Energy
states that the total
of an isolated system
is said to be conserved over time. Energy can neither be created nor
; rather, it transforms from one form to another
. For instance,
chemical energy can be converted to kinetic energy
in the explosion of a
stick of dynamite. Action
is the process of changing energy from one of
its forms into another. In physics, energy
quantity that provides the capacity to perform many actions—some as simple
as lifting or warming an
. In addition to being convertible, energy is transferable to a
different location or object, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
- can stars create matter?
is the process by which the nucleus of an unstable
atom loses energy by emitting radiation, including alpha particles, beta
particles, gamma rays, and conversion electrons. A material that
spontaneously emits such radiation is considered radioactive.
is the emission (release, sending) or transmission of energy
in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material
medium. Matter can be recreated and also be diminished?
is the measure of mass lost by a human when the soul departed
the body at Death
is a process by which quantum information (e.g. the exact state of an atom
or photon) can be transmitted (exactly, in principle) from one location to
another, with the help of classical communication and previously shared
quantum entanglement between the sending and receiving location. Because
it depends on classical communication, which can proceed no faster than
the speed of light, it cannot be used for faster-than-light transport or
communication of classical bits. While it has proven possible to teleport
one or more qubits of information between two (entangled) atoms, this has
not yet been achieved between molecules or anything larger.
is a "no-go theorem" that draws an
important distinction between quantum mechanics (QM) and the world as
described by classical mechanics. No physical theory of local hidden
variables can ever reproduce all of the predictions of quantum mechanics.
refers generally to the information that is contained in a physical
system. Its usage in quantum mechanics (i.e. quantum information) is
important, for example in the concept of quantum entanglement to describe
effectively direct or causal relationships between apparently distinct or
spatially separated particles.
A Brief History of Time
is a 1988
popular-science book by British physicist Stephen Hawking.
What we Know so far
is blackbody radiation that is
predicted to be released by black holes, due to quantum effects near the
is the path that a flash of light,
emanating from a single event (localized to a single point in space and a
single moment in time) and traveling in all directions, would take through
"Einstein-Rosen Bridge" is a hypothetical topological feature that would
fundamentally be a shortcut connecting two separate points in spacetime. A
wormhole may connect extremely long distances such as a billion light
years or more, short distances such as a few feet, different universes,
and different points in time. A wormhole is much like a tunnel with two
ends, each at separate points in spacetime.
disruption event ASASSN-14li - black hole shreds a star
come in various sizes, then is Space
just a huge
is an astrophysical term describing a
possible non-random component of the peculiar velocity of galaxy clusters.
The actual measured velocity is the sum of the velocity predicted by
Hubble's Law plus a possible small and unexplained (or dark) velocity
flowing in a common direction.
that observations of the Universe
must be compatible with the conscious and sapient life that observes it.
Some proponents of the anthropic principle reason that it explains why
this universe has the age and the fundamental physical constants necessary
to accommodate conscious life. As a result, they believe it is
unremarkable that this universe has fundamental constants that happen to
fall within the narrow range thought to be compatible with life
It's been estimated that it would
take our solar system 10^30 years (1
) to end up at the center of our galaxy, which is
way beyond the expected life span of earth and our sun, so we're
Maybe Black Holes are Recyclers
of Matter, and during that
recycling process it compresses information. Black holes also
gives our galaxy enough gravity, or magnetic field
, to hold it
together, just like when stars and planets form. If you don't
have the glue, or the gravitational force to hold it together
and take shape, then you end up with an asteroid belt.
Matter loves to be
circular in shape
, because the circle shape is the shape
that requires the least amount of energy to form. Planets and
stars are round. Planets start out more molten then rock, so
planets naturally become round. Stars are born from gas, so
stars naturally become round. So it kind of makes sense that
black holes are used in some way to form planets and stars, and
not just used to hold galaxies together. You have to have some
continuity. The universe can't be totally chaotic, even though
it looks that way at times.
Do Black-Holes recycle the energy of space to supply energy to
dark matter and dark energy?
in set-theoretic geometry, which
states the following: Given a solid ball in 3‑dimensional space, there
exists a decomposition of the ball into a finite number of disjoint
subsets, which can then be put back together in a different way to yield
two identical copies of the original ball.
, and is space a
Conductor also means Director, as controls resources and
expenditures, so is space a type of controlling mechanism?
Is space a form of
, which is energy that exists in the absence of matter?
is the energy of electromagnetic
Space is not matter or energy as we know it.
is unidentified. Comprising approximately 27% of the
in the observable
that is not accounted for by dark
energy, baryonic matter (ordinary matter), and neutrinos. The name refers
to the fact that it does not emit or interact with electromagnetic
radiation, such as light, and is thus invisible to the entire
is an unknown form of energy which is
hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion
of the universe. Dark energy is the most accepted hypothesis to explain
the observations since the 1990s indicating that the universe is expanding
at an accelerating rate.
is a set for which distances between all
members of the set are defined. Those distances, taken together, are
called a metric on the set. A metric on a space induces topological
properties like open and closed sets, which lead to the study of more
abstract topological spaces.
- Un-Manifest Inertia
Inertia: Explaining the Field Geometry that defines the entire Universe
Dark Energy Survey
Millenium Simulation of Universe [720p]
Scalar Field Dark Matter
Baryonic Dark Matter
2 Components of unknown origin (if it's unknown then why is
there 2?) Finding something that is there, but it's gone already
by the time you look at it.
Maybe the instruments should be in
motion, like warp speed.
Dark Matter 26.8%
Total Energy Matter Density 4.9%
UCI Physicists confirm possible discovery of Fifth Force of
. Light particle could be key to understanding dark
matter in universe. Physics
dark matter research project operated at the Italian
Gran Sasso laboratory is a deep underground research facility featuring
increasingly ambitious experiments aiming to finally detect long sought
after dark matter particles. These particles in the form of Weakly
interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are believed to be found by looking
for rare interactions via nuclear recoils in a liquid xenon target
chamber. The current detector consists of a dual phase Time projection
investigated the presence of dark
matter particles in the galactic halo by exploiting the model-independent
annual modulation signature. As a consequence of its orbit, the Earth
should be exposed to a higher flux of dark matter particles around June 2,
when its orbital speed is added to the one of the solar system with
respect to the galaxy and to a smaller one around December 2, when the two
velocities are subtracted. The annual modulation signature is distinctive
since the effect induced by dark matter particles must simultaneously
satisfy many requirements.
Weakly Interacting Massive Particles
is a hypothetical
particle physics candidate for dark matter. The term “WIMP” is given to a
dark matter particle that was produced by falling out of thermal
equilibrium with the hot dense plasma of the early universe, although it
is often used to refer to any dark matter candidate that interacts with
standard particles via a force similar in strength to the weak nuclear
is an interferometer which uses the wave
character of atoms. Similar to optical interferometers, atom
interferometers measure the difference in phase between atomic matter
waves along different paths. Atom interferometers have many uses in
fundamental physics including measurements of the gravitational constant,
the fine-structure constant, the universality of free fall, and have been
proposed as a method to detect gravitational waves. They also have applied
uses as accelerometers, rotation sensors, and gravity gradiometers.
associates a scalar value to every point in a
space. The scalar may either be a mathematical number or a physical
quantity. Scalar fields are required to be coordinate-independent, meaning
that any two observers using the same units will agree on the value of the
scalar field at the same absolute point in space (or
) regardless of their respective
points of origin. Examples used in physics include the temperature
distribution throughout space, the pressure distribution in a fluid, and
spin-zero quantum fields, such as the Higgs field. These fields are the
subject of scalar field theory.
is a hypothetical scalar particle that
couples to matter more weakly than gravity, postulated as a dark energy
candidate. Due to a non-linear self-interaction, it has a variable
effective mass which is an increasing function of the ambient energy
density—as a result, the range of the force mediated by the particle is
predicted to be very small in regions of high density (for example on
Earth, where it is less than 1mm) but much larger in low-density
is a postulated force accompanying the
known fundamental forces
, in terms of which modern physics describes
physical reality. Since physics has no accepted universal framework,
occasionally physicists have postulated the existence of an additional
fundamental fifth force. Most postulate a force of roughly the strength of
gravity (i.e. it is much weaker than electromagnetism or the nuclear
forces) and to have a range of anywhere from less than a millimeter to
is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a
circle in three-dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle.
If the axis of revolution does not touch the circle, the surface has a
ring shape and is called a torus of revolution.
Universal Pattern Torus
Torus Flow Process
is a special kind of torus sitting inside the
unit 3-sphere S3 in R4, the Euclidean space of four dimensions. Or
equivalently, it can be seen as a torus sitting inside C2 since C2 is
topologically equivalent to R4. It is specifically the torus in S3 that is
geometrically the cartesian product of two circles, each of radius sqrt(1/2).
The Clifford torus is an example of a square torus, because it is
isometric to a square with opposite sides identified. It is further known
as a Euclidean 2-torus (the "2" is its topological dimension); figures
drawn on it obey Euclidean geometry as if it were flat, whereas the
surface of a common "doughnut"-shaped torus is positively curved on the
outer rim and negatively curved on the inner. Although having a different
geometry than the standard embedding of a torus in three-dimensional
Euclidean space, the square torus can also be embedded into
three-dimensional space, by the Nash embedding theorem; one possible
embedding modifies the standard torus by a fractal set of ripples running
in two perpendicular directions along the surface.
is a device that uses a powerful
to confine plasma in the shape of
is the shape of
something rotating rapidly. Vortices form in stirred fluids, and may be
observed in phenomena such as smoke rings, whirlpools in the wake of boat,
or the winds surrounding a tornado or dust devil.
Life and Math
The temperature of the Universe today is about 2.73 degrees above
absolute zero in every part of the sky.
if no heat flows between them when they are connected by a path permeable
to heat. Thermal equilibrium obeys the zeroth law of thermodynamics. A
system is said to be in thermal equilibrium with itself if the temperature
within the system is spatially and temporally uniform.
The Universe has no center and no edge?
is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived
from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way"). Precise
definitions depend on the subject area. Exceptions, or inequalities, are
frequently indicated by the prefix an, hence anisotropy. Anisotropy is
also used to describe situations where properties vary systematically,
dependent on direction. Isotropic radiation has the same intensity
regardless of the direction of measurement, and an isotropic field exerts
the same action regardless of how the test particle is oriented.
is the property of being directionally dependent,
which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to
isotropy. It can be defined as a difference, when measured along different
axes, in a material's physical or mechanical properties (absorbance,
refractive index, conductivity, tensile strength, etc.) An example of
anisotropy is the light coming through a polarizer. Another is wood, which
is easier to split along its grain than against it.
Cosmic Microwave Background
is the thermal radiation left
over from the time of recombination in Big Bang cosmology. In older
literature, the CMB is also variously known as cosmic microwave background
radiation (CMBR) or "relic radiation". The CMB is a cosmic background
radiation that is fundamental to observational cosmology because it is the
oldest light in the universe, dating to the epoch of recombination. With a
traditional optical telescope, the space between stars and galaxies (the
background) is completely dark. However, a sufficiently sensitive radio
telescope shows a faint background glow, almost isotropic, that is not
associated with any star, galaxy, or other object. This glow is strongest
in the microwave region of the radio spectrum.
is the statistical uncertainty inherent in
observations of the universe at extreme distances.
refers to the epoch at which charged electrons
and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen
atoms.[nb 1] Recombination occurred about 378,000 years after the Big Bang
(at a redshift of z = 1100).
Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe
originally known as the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), was a
spacecraft operating from 2001 to 2010 which measured temperature
differences across the sky in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) – the
radiant heat remaining from the Big Bang.
The universe is infinitely
large and infinitely small, there's even
infinity within a
. There's black holes in various sizes, there's
atoms, there's dark matter, dark energy,
incredible machine...time does not stop, and it's not a constant,
time can go extremely fast and go extremely slow....The mind is
the interface, but not all of the connections and controls have been defined,
at least not yet anyway.
is a program that allows a user to interact with
a system. Linking one device with another.
How can atoms have so
much space and be in constant motion and yet some how become a
Is it because there are 5
single drop of water
, so this 0.1 % of mass actually adds up to
create something more solid? We have physical limitations but seem to have no mental
limitations. We are an energy wave in constant motion and in
constant renewal, but we can retain our memories. Is it
just our current speed and frequency that is dictating our
current limitations? Can the human mind adjust the speed and
frequency in which we currently operate in?
"The Wave of Life
of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Finite Subdivision Rules
describes the ability of an imaging system to resolve
detail in the object that is being imaged.
Conservation of Mass -
Conservation of Energy
(Open to what? Closed to What?)
is the ratio between two related quantities. Often it
is a rate of change. If the unit or quantity in respect of which something
is changing is not specified, usually the rate is per unit of measurement.
However, a rate of change can be specified per unit of time, or per unit
of length or mass or another quantity. The most common type of rate is
"per unit of time", such as speed, heart rate and flux. Ratios that have a
non-time denominator include exchange rates, literacy rates and electric
field (in volts/meter).
is a function used to quantify the
probabilities of rare events. It is required to have several properties
which assist in the formulation of the large deviation principle. In some
sense, the large deviation principle is an analogue of weak convergence of
probability measures, but one which takes account of how well the rare
Volumetric Flow Rate
is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time; usually represented by
the symbol Q (sometimes V̇). The SI unit is m3/s (cubic metres per
second). Another unit used is sccm (standard cubic centimeters per
is an automated communications process by which
measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points
and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.
of a mathematical space
(or object) is informally defined as the minimum
number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it. Thus a line
has a dimension of one because only one coordinate is needed to specify a
point on it – for example, the point at 5 on a number line. A surface such
as a plane or the surface of a cylinder or sphere has a dimension of two
because two coordinates are needed to specify a point on it – for example,
both a latitude and longitude are required to locate a point on the
surface of a sphere. The inside of a cube, a cylinder or a sphere is
three-dimensional because three coordinates are needed to locate a point
within these spaces.
is the analysis of the relationships between different physical quantities
by identifying their fundamental dimensions (such as length, mass, time,
and electric charge) and units of measure (such as miles vs. kilometers,
or pounds vs. kilograms vs. grams) and tracking these dimensions as
calculations or comparisons are performed.Dr
Quantum - Flatland
Number of Dimensions
Toys: a box of four-dimensional toys, and how objects bounce and roll in
is where the position of each point on it can be
described by a single number.
is a geometric model of the planar projection of the
physical universe. The two dimensions are commonly called length and
width. Both directions lie in the same plane.
3 Dimensional Space
is a geometric setting in which three
values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an
element (i.e., point). This is the informal meaning of the term dimension.
4 Dimensional Space
is a geometric space with four
dimensions. It typically is more specifically four-dimensional Euclidean
space, generalizing the rules of three-dimensional Euclidean space. It has
been studied by mathematicians and philosophers for over two centuries,
both for its own interest and for the insights it offered into
and related fields.
5 Dimensional Space
is one more than the usual three spatial
dimensions and the fourth dimension of time used in relativitistic
6 Dimensional Space
is any space that has six dimensions, six
degrees of freedom, and that needs six pieces of data, or coordinates, to
specify a location in this space.
7 Dimensional Space
refers to a seven-dimensional vector space
over any field, such as a seven-dimensional complex vector space, which
has 14 real dimensions. It may also refer to a seven-dimensional manifold
such as a 7-sphere, or a variety of other geometric constructions.
8 Dimensional Space
refers to an eight-dimensional vector space over
any field, such as an eight-dimensional complex vector space, which has 16
real dimensions. It may also refer to an eight-dimensional manifold such
as an 8-sphere, or a variety of other geometric constructions.
is a belief that there are
other series of planes of
where the laws of nature differ. Almost all of the
is invisible to us. And we didn't even know that it existed until
recently. And the fact that we have no idea what 90% of
outer space is made out of
, is also an indicator
of how little we know.
is a system which uses one or more numbers, or
uniquely determine the position of a point or other geometric element on a
manifold such as Euclidean space. The order of the coordinates is
significant, and they are sometimes identified by their position in an
ordered tuple and sometimes by a letter, as in "the x-coordinate". The
coordinates are taken to be real numbers in elementary mathematics, but
may be complex numbers or elements of a more abstract system such as a
commutative ring. The use of a coordinate system allows problems in
geometry to be translated into problems about numbers and vice versa; this
is the basis of analytic
Cartesian Coordinate System
is a coordinate system that specifies each
point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are
the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed
lines, measured in the same unit of length. Each reference line is called
a coordinate axis or just axis of the system, and the point where they
meet is its origin, usually at ordered pair (0, 0). The coordinates can
also be defined as the positions of the perpendicular projections of the
point onto the two axis, expressed as signed distances from the origin.
opposite directions of an axis represent different quantities, unlike in a
Cartesian graph where they represent positive or negative signs of the
same quantity. The Jones diagram therefore represents four variables. Each
quadrant shares the vertical axis with its horizontal neighbor, and the
horizontal axis with the vertical neighbor. For example, the top left
quadrant shares its vertical axis with the top right quadrant, and the
horizontal axis with the bottom left quadrant. The overall system response
is in quadrant I; the variables that contribute to it are in quadrants II
The axes of a two-dimensional Cartesian
system divide the plane into four infinite regions, called quadrants, each
bounded by two half-axes.
is a tessellation of n-dimensional Euclidean
space by congruent parallelotopes (e.g. bricks). Grids of this type
appear on graph paper and may be used in finite element analysis as well
as finite volume methods and finite difference methods. Since the
derivatives of field variables can be conveniently expressed as finite
differences, structured grids mainly appear in finite difference
methods. Unstructured grids offer more flexibility than structured grids
and hence are very useful in finite element and finite volume methods.
define locations on maps using Cartesian
Coordinates. Grid lines on maps define the coordinate system, and are
numbered to provide a unique reference to features.
is any kind of grid that deceives a person's
vision. The two most common types of grid illusions are the Hermann grid
illusion and the scintillating grid illusion.
is a property of surfaces in Euclidean space that measures whether it is
possible to make a consistent choice of surface normal
at every point. A choice of surface
normal allows one to use the right-hand rule to define a "clockwise"
direction of loops in the surface, as needed by Stokes' theorem for
instance. More generally, orientability of an abstract surface, or
manifold, measures whether one can consistently choose a "clockwise"
orientation for all loops in the manifold. Equivalently, a surface is
orientable if a two-dimensional figure such as Small in the space
cannot be moved (continuously) around the space and back to where it
started so that it looks like its own mirror image.
Flower of Life
is a space which parameterizes all linear
subspaces of a vector space V of given dimension r. For example, the
Grassmannian Gr(1, V) is the space of lines through the origin in V, so it
is the same as the projective space of one dimension lower than V.
enables simplified calculation of particle
interactions in some quantum field theories. In planar N = 4
supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory, also equivalent to the perturbative
topological B model string theory in twistor space, an amplituhedron is
defined as a mathematical space known as the positive Grassmannian.
is the branch of differential geometry
that studies Riemannian manifolds, smooth manifolds with a Riemannian
metric, i.e. with an inner product on the tangent space at each point that
varies smoothly from point to point. This gives, in particular, local
notions of angle, length of curves, surface area, and volume. From those
some other global quantities can be derived by integrating local
encompasses the two-dimensional
Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and
certain other spaces. It is named after the Ancient Greek mathematician
Euclid of Alexandria. The term "Euclidean" distinguishes these spaces
from other types of spaces considered in modern geometry. Euclidean spaces
also generalize to higher dimensions.
is a branch of physics
which involves the
study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that
occurs between electrically charged particles
. The electromagnetic force
usually exhibits electromagnetic fields, such as electric fields, magnetic
fields, and light. The electromagnetic force is
one of the four
(commonly called forces) in nature. The other
three fundamental interactions are the strong interaction, the weak
interaction, and gravitation
What are Magnets
is the region of space
in which charged particles are controlled by that
object's magnetic field.Earth's Magnetic Field
- Sun Magnetic Field
is a device with the ability to attract one object to
another from a distance.
is the radiant energy
released by certain electromagnetic processes.
is electromagnetic radiation
, as is
, such as
radio, infrared, and X-rays. MRI
is the magnetic effect of electric currents
and magnetic materials. The magnetic field at any given point is specified
by both a direction and a magnitude (or strength); as such it is a vector
Interplanetary Magnetic Field
is the solar magnetic field carried by
the solar wind among the planets of the Solar System.
is a physical field produced by
charged objects. It affects the behavior of charged objects
in the vicinity of the field. The electromagnetic field extends
indefinitely throughout space and describes the electromagnetic
interaction. It is one of the four fundamental forces of nature (the
others are gravitation, weak interaction and strong interaction).
is a vector field that associates to each point in
that would be experienced per unit of electric
charge, by an infinitesimal test charge at that point. Electric fields
converge and diverge at electric charges
and can be induced by
time-varying magnetic fields. The electric field combines with the
magnetic field to form the electromagnetic field.
Electric Displacement Field
is denoted by D, is a vector field that
appears in Maxwell's equations. It accounts for the effects of free and
bound charge within materials while its sources are the free charges only.
"D" stands for "displacement", as in the related concept of displacement
current in dielectrics. In free space, the electric displacement field is
equivalent to flux density, a concept that lends understanding to Gauss's
law. In SI, it is expressed in units of coulomb per metre squared (C m−2).
an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of
. A vector field in the plane (for instance), can be visualised
as: a collection of arrows with a given magnitude and direction, each
attached to a point in the plane. Vector fields are often used to model,
for example, the speed and direction of a moving fluid throughout space,
or the strength and direction of some force, such as the magnetic or
as it changes from point to point.
vector quantity, describing the magnitude and direction of the flow of a
substance or property. In electromagnetism, flux is a scalar quantity,
defined as the surface integral of the component of a vector field
perpendicular to the surface at each point. As will be made clear, the
easiest way to relate the two concepts is that the surface integral of a
flux according to the first definition is a flux according to the second
through a surface is the surface integral of the normal
component of the magnetic field B passing through that surface.
Compressed Magnetic Flux Generator
device of compressed
that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
When a dielectric is placed in an electric field, electric charges do not
flow through the material as they do in a
, but only slightly
shift from their average equilibrium positions causing dielectric
polarization. Because of dielectric polarization, positive charges are
displaced toward the field and negative charges shift in the opposite
direction. This creates an internal electric field that reduces the
overall field within the dielectric itself. If a dielectric is composed of
weakly bonded molecules, those molecules not only become polarized, but
also reorient so that their symmetry axes align to the field.
is the production of an electromotive
(i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor due to its dynamic
interaction with a magnetic field.
Faraday's Law of Induction
is a basic law of electromagnetism
predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to
produce an electromotive
(EMF)—a phenomenon called electromagnetic induction. It is the
fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types
of electrical motors
, generators and
is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix
. A coil
whose length is substantially greater than its diameter, often wrapped
around a metallic core, which produces a uniform magnetic field in a
volume of space (where some experiment might be carried out) when an
electric current is passed through it. A solenoid is a type of
electromagnet when the purpose is to generate a controlled magnetic field.
If the purpose of the solenoid is instead to impede changes in the
electric current, a solenoid can be more specifically classified as an
inductor rather than an electromagnet. Not all electromagnets and
inductors are solenoids; for example, the first electromagnet,
invented in 1824, had a horseshoe rather than a cylindrical solenoid
is a common way to understand how electromagnetic circuits
obey Newton's third law
and the conservation of energy
induced electromotive force (emf) always gives rise to a current whose
magnetic field opposes the original change in magnetic flux. Lenz's law is
shown with the negative sign in Faraday's law of induction:
which indicates that the induced emf (ℰ) and the change in magnetic flux
(∂ΦB) have opposite signs.
8.02x - Lect 16 -
Electromagnetic Induction, Faraday's Law, Lenz Law, SUPER DEMO
is the measure of resistance that is encountered when
forming an electric field in a medium. In other words, permittivity is a
measure of how an electric field affects, and is affected by, a dielectric
is the measure of the ability of a
material to support the formation of a magnetic field within itself.
Hence, it is the degree of magnetization that a material obtains in
response to an applied magnetic field.
is a parameter applying to
the geometrical orientation of the oscillation. Electromagnetic waves such
as light exhibit multiple polarizations, as do many other types of waves
such as gravitational waves and sound waves
in solids. On the other hand,
sound waves in a gas or liquid only oscillate in the wave's direction of
propagation, and the oscillation of ocean waves is always in the vertical
direction. In these cases one doesn't normally speak of "polarization"
since the oscillation's direction is not in question.
is when two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have
a constant phase difference and the same frequency. It is an ideal
property of waves that enables stationary (i.e. temporally and spatially
Interference (wave propagation)
is a phenomenon in which two waves
superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same
s the ability to form instantaneous dipoles. It is a
property of matter. Polarizabilities determine the dynamical response of a
bound system to external fields, and provide insight into a molecule's
internal structure. In a solid, polarizability is defined as the dipole
moment per unit volume of the crystal cell. LCR meters give the
measurements needed to calculate polarizability.
is an electric dipole is a separation of positive and negative charges.
The simplest example of this is a pair of electric charges of equal
magnitude but opposite sign, separated by some (usually small) distance. A
permanent electric dipole is called an electret. A magnetic dipole is a
closed circulation of electric current. A simple example of this is a
single loop of wire with some constant current through it.
is a material or object that produces a magnetic field. This magnetic
field is invisible but is responsible for the most notable property of a
magnet: a force that pulls on other ferromagnetic materials, such as iron,
and attracts or repels other magnets. A permanent
is an object made from a material that is magnetized and
creates its own persistent magnetic field.
- Aec Magnetics
Nodymium Rare Earth Block Magnet
is a naturally magnetized piece of the mineral magnetite.
They are naturally-occurring magnets, which can attract iron.
chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26.
It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most
common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core
is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust
Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth is due to its abundant
production by fusion in high-mass stars, where it is the last element
to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a
supernova, which scatters the iron into space.
are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen. All
together, there are sixteen known iron oxides and oxyhydroxides.
is a mineral and one of the main iron ores. With the
chemical formula is Fe3O4, it is one of the oxides of iron. Magnetite is
ferrimagnetic; it is attracted to a magnet and can be magnetized to become
a permanent magnet itself.
is a native metal found in meteorites with the
composition FeNi. It is one of the mineral phases found in meteoric iron.
is the study of the magnetic properties of rocks, sediments
Making Ferro-Magnets Stronger by adding Non-Magnetic Element
material is one that has populations of atoms with
opposing magnetic moments, as in antiferromagnetism; however, in
ferrimagnetic materials, the opposing moments are unequal and a
remains. This happens when the populations
consist of different materials or ions (such as Fe2+ and Fe3+).
is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such
as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets. Only a few
substances are ferromagnetic. The common ones are iron, nickel, cobalt and
most of their alloys, some compounds of rare earth metals, and a few
naturally occurring minerals, including some varieties of lodestone
(magnetite is considered ferrimagnetic, rather than ferromagnetic).
the magnetic moments of atoms or molecules, usually
related to the spins of electrons, align in a regular pattern with
neighboring spins (on different sublattices) pointing in opposite
is a region within a magnetic material in which the
magnetization is in a uniform direction. This means that the individual
magnetic moments of the atoms are aligned with one another and they point
in the same direction.
of a magnet is a quantity that determines the torque
it will experience in an external magnetic field. A loop of electric
current, a bar magnet, an electron, a molecule, and a planet all have
magnetic moments. The magnetic moment may be considered to be a vector
having a magnitude and direction. The direction of the magnetic moment
points from the south to north pole of the magnet. The magnetic field
produced by the magnet is proportional to its magnetic moment. More
precisely, the term magnetic moment normally refers to a system's magnetic
dipole moment, which produces the first term in the multipole expansion of
a general magnetic field. The dipole component of an object's magnetic
field is symmetric about the direction of its magnetic dipole moment, and
decreases as the inverse cube of the distance from the object.
is a class of physical phenomena that are
mediated by magnetic fields. Electric currents and the magnetic moments of
elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other
currents and magnetic moments. Every material is influenced to some extent
by a magnetic field. The most familiar effect is on permanent magnets,
which have persistent magnetic moments caused by
, which is the basic mechanism by which certain
materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to
Gauss's Law for Magnetism
states that the magnetic field B has
divergence equal to zero, that it is a solenoidal vector field. It is
equivalent to the statement that magnetic monopoles do not exist. Rather
than "magnetic charges", the basic entity for magnetism is the
, which is the limit of either a closed loop of
electric current or a pair of poles as the dimensions of the source are
reduced to zero while keeping the magnetic moment constant.
Electric Dipole Moment
is a measure of the separation of positive and
negative electrical charges within a system, that is, a measure of the
system's overall polarity. The electric field strength of the dipole is
proportional to the magnitude of dipole moment. The SI units for electric
dipole moment are Coulomb-meter (C m), however the most commonly used unit
is the Debye (D).
is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are
attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal,
induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.
materials create an induced magnetic field in a direction opposite to an
externally applied magnetic field, and are repelled by the applied
magnetic field. In contrast, the opposite behavior is exhibited by
is the study of the interaction between
electromagnetic fields and biological entities.
The DEEPEST Secrets
of Magnetism, first time explained & CENTER OF LIGHT at the Inertia Plane
is a liquid that becomes strongly magnetized in the presence of a magnetic
field.(portmanteau of ferromagnetic and fluid).
Ferrocell Complete Systems
meets magnetic fluid..neodymium magnet and ferrofluid
- Black Holes
is a branch of mathematics that uses
tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces. The basic goal is
to find algebraic invariants that classify topological spaces up to
homeomorphism, though usually most classify up to homotopy equivalence.
is defined as a set of points, along with
a set of neighbourhoods for each point, satisfying a set of axioms
relating points and neighbourhoods. The definition of a topological space
relies only upon set theory and is the most general notion of a
mathematical space that allows for the definition of concepts such as
continuity, connectedness, and convergence. Other spaces, such as
manifolds and metric spaces, are specializations of topological spaces
with extra structures or constraints.
is a property of a topological space
which is invariant under homeomorphisms.
Synthetic Magnetic State in Solids
JILA’s record-setting atomic clock,
in which strontium atoms are trapped in a laser grid known as an
is a type of smart fluid in a carrier fluid,
usually a type of oil. When subjected to a magnetic field, the fluid
greatly increases its apparent viscosity, to the point of becoming a
viscoelastic solid. Importantly, the yield stress of the fluid when in its
active ("on") state can be controlled very accurately by varying the
magnetic field intensity. The upshot is that the fluid's ability to
transmit force can be controlled with an
, which gives rise to its many possible control-based
Spins Counter Clock Wise causing Matter to Contract
is Counter Clock Wise.
Energy Spins Clock Wise and causes matter to Expand
The Truth About
Toilet Swirl - Northern Hemisphere
MAGNETISM, PART 1
(positive and negative) is the term used to describe the
direction of current flow in an electrical circuit. Current flows from the
positive pole to the negative pole. (electrons flows from negative to
Polarity (mutual inductance)
for a device with mutual inductance
designates the relative instantaneous current directions of such
device's winding leads.
is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or
its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
Video 1 Uncovering the Missing Secrets of Magnetism
"Quartz" crystals at the Earth's core power its magnetic field
is a phenomenon of exactly zero
expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials when
cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
Research reveals novel quantum state in strange insulating materials
Experiments show how electrons in Mott insulators with strong spin-orbit
coupling arrange themselves to make the materials magnetic at low
temperatures. The work could help zero in on a more complete quantum
theory of magnetism.
Extremely Low Frequency
is the ITU designation for
electromagnetic radiation (radio waves) with frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz,
and corresponding wavelengths of 100,000 to 10,000 kilometers,
respectively. In atmospheric science, an alternative definition is usually
given, from 3 Hz to 3 kHz. In the related
science, the lower frequency electromagnetic
oscillations (pulsations occurring below ~3 Hz) are considered to lie in
the ULF range, which is thus also defined differently from the ITU
is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or
particles through space or through a material medium. This includes:
electromagnetic radiation, such as heat, radio waves, visible light,
x-rays, and gamma radiation (γ), particle radiation, such as alpha
radiation (α), beta radiation (β), and neutron radiation (particles of
non-zero rest energy), acoustic radiation, such as ultrasound, sound,
and seismic waves (dependent on a physical transmission medium),
gravitational radiation, radiation that takes the form of gravitational
waves, or ripples in the curvature of spacetime.
is the type of electromagnetic
radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with
its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective
body), assumed for the sake of calculations and theory to be held at
constant, uniform temperature. The radiation has a specific spectrum and
intensity that depends only on the temperature of the body.
Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
- Effects of Nuclear Explosions
Edward Leedskalnin Magnetic Current
Tuned Mass Damper
is rhythmic or repetitive neural activity
in the central nervous system
is a control system that generates an
output signal whose phase is related to the phase of an input signal.
Lux Detector Xenon Det
Measuring Electromagnetic Radiation
two wave sources are perfectly coherent if
they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency. It is an
ideal property of waves that enables stationary (i.e. temporally and
spatially constant) interference. It contains several distinct concepts,
which are limiting cases that never quite occur in reality but allow an
understanding of the physics of waves, and has become a very important
concept in quantum physics. More generally, coherence describes all
properties of the correlation between physical quantities of a single
wave, or between several waves or wave packets.
is the position of a point in time (an
instant) on a waveform cycle. A complete cycle is defined as the interval
required for the waveform to return to its arbitrary initial value.
is a mechanical phenomenon whereby
oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.
is any signal that can be represented as an amplitude
that varies in time has a corresponding frequency spectrum. This includes
familiar entities such as visible light (perceived as color), musical
notes (perceived as pitch), radio/TV (specified by their frequency, or
sometimes wavelength) and even the regular rotation of the earth.
in its strictest sense describes any member
of the harmonic series. The term is employed in various disciplines,
including music and acoustics, electronic power transmission, radio
technology, etc. It is typically applied to repeating signals, such as
sinusoidal waves. A harmonic of such a wave is a wave with a frequency
that is a positive integer multiple of the frequency of the original wave,
known as the fundamental frequency. The original wave is also called 1st
harmonic, the following harmonics are known as higher harmonics. As all
harmonics are periodic at the fundamental frequency, the sum of harmonics
is also periodic at that frequency. For example, if the fundamental
frequency is 50 Hz, a common AC power supply frequency, the frequencies of
the first three higher harmonics are 100 Hz (2nd harmonic), 150 Hz (3rd
harmonic), 200 Hz (4th harmonic) and any addition of waves with these
frequencies is periodic at 50 Hz.
is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system
or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater
amplitude at a specific preferential frequency.
is any frequency greater than the fundamental frequency of a sound.
Impedance of Free Space
is a physical constant relating the
magnitudes of the electric and magnetic fields of electromagnetic
radiation travelling through free space.
Resonance Experiment over 1000hz
Metal plate using a
can play four different waveforms: Sine,
Sawtooth and Triangle.
la magia de los imanes
Electric Universe - HD Documentary 2015
Magnetic Field Emitter
Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission
Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission
What is Space made of
a term used in bio-electro-magnetism, can
be defined as the transmission of electric or magnetic fields from an
electric primary current source through biological
tissue towards measurement sensors.
is the study of the interaction between
electromagnetic fields and
. Areas of study include
electrical or electromagnetic fields produced by living cells, tissues or
organisms, including bioluminescent bacteria; for example, the cell
membrane potential and the electric currents that flow in nerves and
muscles, as a result of action potentials. Others include animal
navigation utilizing the geomagnetic field; potential effects of man-made
sources of electromagnetic fields like mobile phones; and developing new
therapies to treat various conditions. The term can also refer to the
ability of living cells, tissues, and organisms to produce electrical
fields and the response of cells to electromagnetic fields.
is the phenomenon of magnetic fields produced by living organisms; it is a
subset of bioelectromagnetism. In contrast, organisms' use of magnetism in
navigation is magnetoception and the study of the magnetic fields' effects
on organisms is magnetobiology.
Passive Electrolocation in Fish
is a process where certain species of
fish or aquatic amphibians can detect electric fields using specialized
electroreceptors to detect and to locate the source of an external
electric field in its environment creating the electric field. These
external electric fields can be produced from animate sources such as: DC
fields produced by any bioelectrical process in a living organism. DC
fields produced from wounded or damaged organism. Electric fields produced
by actions of the nerves or muscles of fish. Electric fields emitted by
specially developed electric organs from fish or to inanimate sources such
as the electric fields induced by movement of a conducting organism
through the earth's magnetic field, or from atmospheric electricity. These
external fields the fish identifies are low or high frequency, weak
electric signals that the fish uses to detect prey, locate other fish,
avoid predators, and navigate in the Earth’s magnetic field.
is the ability to detect magnetic fields,
which is principally useful in providing a
sense of direction
when detecting the Earth’s magnetic
field. Unlike most birds, humans do not have a strong
magentoception, however, experiments have demonstrated that we
do tend to have some sense of magnetic fields. The mechanism for
this is not completely understood; it is theorized that this has
something to do with deposits of
in our noses. This would make sense if that is
correct as humans who are given magnetic implants have been
shown to have a much stronger magnetoception than humans
Electromagnetic Fields and the Human Heart
Human Body Magnetic Field
is a natural phenomenon by which all things with
mass are brought toward (or gravitate toward or Magnetism
one another, including planets, stars and galaxies. Since energy and mass
are equivalent, all forms of energy, including light, also cause
gravitation and are under the influence of it.
object at a rate of 32 feet per second per second. (fps 2 ).
Equations for a falling body
describes the resultant
when objects move owing to a constant gravitational force under normal
Earth-bound conditions. For example, Newton's law of universal gravitation
simplifies to F = mg, where m is the mass of the body. This assumption is
reasonable for objects falling to earth over the relatively short vertical
distances of our everyday experience, but is untrue over larger distances,
such as spacecraft trajectories. Please note that in this article any
resistance from air (drag) is neglected.
You need to be traveling
over 25,000 mph
to escape earths gravity.
is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the
gravitational influence of a massive body. The escape
Earth is about 11.186 km/s (6.951 mi/s; 40,270 km/h; 25,020 mph) at the
surface. More generally, escape velocity is the speed at which the sum of
an object's kinetic energy
gravitational potential energy is equal to zero; an object which has
achieved escape velocity is neither on the surface, nor in a closed
(of any radius). With escape velocity in a
direction pointing away from the ground of a massive body, the object will
move away from the body, slowing forever and approaching, but never
reaching, zero speed. Once escape velocity is achieved, no further impulse
need be applied for it to continue in its escape. In other words, if given
escape velocity, the object will move away from the other body,
continually slowing, and will asymptotically approach zero speed as the
object's distance approaches infinity, never to return. Note that the
minimum escape velocity
assumes that there is no friction
drag), which would increase the required instantaneous velocity to escape
the gravititational influence, and that there will be no future sources of
additional velocity (e.g., thrust), which would reduce the required
is the nominal gravitational
of an object in a vacuum
near the surface of the
Earth. It is defined by standard as 9.80665 m/s2, which is exactly
35.30394 km/(h·s) (about 32.174 ft/s2, or 21.937 mph/s).
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
states that a particle attracts
every other particle in the universe using a
that is directly
proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to
the square of the distance between them.
a synonym of weightlessness and zero-g,
but indicates that g-forces are not quite zero, just very small.
Zero Gravity does not exist
(very low gravity)
is an idea of creating a place or object that is free from the force of
Superconducting Quantum Levitation on a 3 Möbius Strip
Levitating a Superconductor: Boaz Almog
(video and interactive text)
How can a super-thin 3-inch disk levitate something 70,000 times its own
is the expulsion of a magnetic field from a
superconductor during its transition to the superconducting state.
samples in the presence of an applied magnetic field, were cooled below
their superconducting transition temperature. Below the transition
temperature the samples cancelled nearly all interior magnetic fields.
Quantum Levitation Kits
is a location in space-time where the
gravitational field of a celestial body becomes infinite in a way that
does not depend on the coordinate system.
is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes
on Earth: The Bremen Drop Tower
The Bremen Drop Tower
Gravity is 0.1% stronger in the northern United States than in
the southern United States.
of a point is the distance H along a
plumb line from the point to the
which is the shape that the surface of the oceans would take under the
influence of Earth's gravity and rotation alone, in the absence of other
influences such as winds and tides.
is a field of theoretical physics
that seeks to describe the force of
gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where
cannot be ignored.
is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of
generated or interact in ways such that the quantum state of each particle
cannot be described independently of the others, even when the particles
are separated by a large distance – instead, a quantum state must be
described for the system as a whole.
Loop Quantum Gravity
is a theory that attempts to describe
the quantum properties of the universe and gravity. It is also a
theory of quantum spacetime
because, according to general relativity, gravity is a
manifestation of the geometry of spacetime. LQG is an attempt to
merge quantum mechanics and general relativity.
Speed of Gravity
refers to the speed of a gravitational
wave, which is the same speed as the speed of light
generalizes special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation,
providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of
space and time, or spacetime.
is any of several related
concepts dealing with the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass,
and to Albert Einstein's observation that the gravitational "force" as
experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth)
is actually the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a
non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.
uses a beam of antiprotons from the Antiproton
Decelerator to measure the value of Earth's gravitational acceleration.
- Gravitational Behaviour of Antihydrogen at Rest.
are ripples in the curvature of spacetime
that propagate as waves at the
speed of light
, generated in certain gravitational interactions that
propagate outward from their source.
s the gravitational potential energy a body with mass has in
relation to another massive object. It is potential energy associated with
the gravitational field. Gravitational energy is dependent on the
of two bodies, their distance apart
and the gravitational constant (G).
is a distribution of matter (such as a
cluster of galaxies) between a distant light source and an observer, that
is capable of bending the light
from the source as the light travels
towards the observer.
refers to a set of formal analogies
between the equations for electromagnetism
and relativistic gravitation;
specifically: between Maxwell's field equations and an approximation,
valid under certain conditions, to the Einstein field equations for
Einstein Field Equations
is the set of 10 equations in Albert
Einstein's general theory of relativity that describes the fundamental
interaction of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by mass
is a partial differential equation which determines the
dynamics of a physical field, specifically the time evolution and spatial
distribution of the field. The solutions to the equation are mathematical
functions which correspond directly to the field, as a functions of
and space. Since the field equation is a
partial differential equation, there are families of solutions which
represent a variety of physical possibilities. Usually, there is not just
a single equation, but a set of coupled equations which must be solved
simultaneously. Field equations are not ordinary differential equations
since a field depends on space and time, which requires at least two
is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or
intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the
source of that physical quantity.
Gravitation Physics Book
Contraction - Expansion
is the contraction of an astronomical
object due to the influence of its own gravity, which tends to draw matter
inward toward the center of mass.
Contraction of a Dark Matter
is one that occurs without transfer of
heat or matter between a thermodynamic
and its surroundings. In an adiabatic process, energy is
transferred only as work. The adiabatic process provides a rigorous
conceptual basis for the theory used to expound the first law of
thermodynamics, and as such it is a key concept in thermodynamics.
Black Holes Contracting
is the process or result of becoming
smaller or pressed together. The act of decreasing.
is the phenomenon of a decrease in length of an object as
measured by an observer who is traveling at any non-zero velocity relative
to the object.
is the application of balanced inward
("pushing") forces to different points on a material or structure, that
is, forces with no net sum or torque directed so as to reduce its size in
one or more directions. It is contrasted with tension or traction, the
application of balanced outward ("pulling") forces; and with shearing
forces, directed so as to displace layers of the material parallel to each
other. The compressive strength of materials and structures is an
important engineering consideration.
is a measure of the relative volume
change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress)
Expansion and Contraction
Contraction of Dark Matter
theory that space will eventually stop expanding and then reverse and
collapse.The Contraction and Expansion of
Contraction Operator Theory
is a polytope operation where facets are separated
and moved radially apart, and new facets are formed at separated elements
(vertices, edges, etc.). Equivalently this operation can be imagined by
keeping facets in the same position but reducing their size.
Metric Expansion of Space
is the increase of the distance
between two distant parts of the universe with time. It is an intrinsic
expansion whereby the scale of space itself changes. This is different
from other examples of expansions and explosions in that, as far as
observations can ascertain, it is a property of the entirety of the
universe rather than a phenomenon that can be contained and observed from
the outside. Torus
is a theory of exponential expansion of
space in the early universe.
is to extend or spread outward from a
center or focus or inward towards a center. Send out rays or
waves. Experience a feeling of well-being or happiness, as from
good health or an intense emotion.
is a hypothetical cosmological model of the
formation of the known universe. It was originally suggested as
a property of the cyclic model or oscillatory universe
interpretation of the Big Bang where the first cosmological
event was the result of the collapse of a previous universe;
however, it is also a consequence of applying loop quantum
gravity techniques to Big Bang cosmology and thus need not be
Our universe is
continually contracting and expanding, and humans are somewhere
in between the contraction and the radiating.
Space is just weird,
everything seems to be in a constant state of
here? What is there? Where does it go?
Conservation of Energy
are also turning themselves upside down and inside out. Embryo folds inwards into a cup-like shape.
is a phase early in the embryonic development
of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized
into a trilaminar ("three-layered") structure known as the gastrula. These
three germ layers are known as the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
is a chromosome rearrangement in which
a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end. An inversion occurs when
a single chromosome undergoes breakage and rearrangement within itself.
Inversions are of two types: paracentric and pericentric.
embryo turning itself inside out
Turn a Sphere Inside Out
is the biological process that causes an
organism to develop its shape. It is one of three fundamental aspects of
developmental biology along with the control of cell growth and cellular
differentiation, unified in evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo).
( "beginning of the shape").
doctrine asserts that all of conditioned
existence, without exception, is "transient, evanescent, inconstant". All
temporal things, whether material or mental, are compounded objects in a
continuous change of condition, subject to decline and destruction. The
concept of impermanence is also found in various schools of Hinduism and
Jainism and is one of the essential doctrines and a part of three marks of
existence in Buddhism.
Macrocosm and Microcosm
refers to a vision of cosmos where
the part (microcosm) reflects the whole (macrocosm) and vice versa.
Is space made up of
Extremely Tiny Micro Black Holes
? And when these tiny holes
need to group together, they form
A Black Hole
which helps stars, planets and galaxies form?
Is Space a type of Superconductor?
The Electric Universe - HD Documentary 2015
Is Gravity just a
and not related to Space?
Space moves too, but in what direction?
"Everything is moving relative to everything else."
"Things appear to be the same to every observer frame of
looks like one large experiment, trying all kind of things.
Not every planet has life, not every star gives life, but you
can still learn something from all these different outcomes. We
are literally standing on one of these successful experiments.
Space is Alive
Is Space a living entity?
With out space there would be no life, no universe.
dark energy, maybe space is not dark at all. Space is the giver
of life. Without darkness there is no light? Since space is everywhere, maybe space is
? If space is a living organism, then maybe praying does
help. Maybe someone hears our prayers because space is
to everything in the Universe. But we must speak
our prayers, and not just think them.