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The Universe


The Cosmos - Galaxies - Space - Black Holes - Earth - Planets - Moon - Stars - Sun - Solar System

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Milky Way Galaxy Magnetics - Gravity
Extra Terrestrial - ET - Space Aliens - Probes
Space Station - Space Shuttle - Space Travel
Satellites - Asteroids - Telescopes
Time Measuring - Space - Dark Matter
Pyramid of Complexity
Science - Physics - Dimensions

The photo on the right is not a Selfie. It is just an Artist rendition of what our galaxy would look like from another galaxy. The photo above is not to make you feel insignificant, it is only for reference and scale. Think of it as a sliding scale in your mind. Depending on your field of view, you would have to be around 100,000 light years away to see this Galaxy using the naked human eye. And as you got closer, it would almost disappear because of the tremendous amount of space there is between everything, like with atoms.  

The Scale of the Universe from Big to Small (youtube)
The Scale of the Universe from Small to Big (youtube)
NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD)
The Scale of the Universe - Interactive (manual control scale)
Sizes (nano)


Timeline of our Universe


13.7 Billion years ago
It is believed that our Universe began. (Not sure if it was the first time or even the beginning of time?)
Time Line of the Universe - Chronology of the Universe (wiki) Shape of the Universe (wiki) - Photo (image)
Big Bang - Matter (conservation of mass) - Universe was denser and smoother in the beginning. Low Entropy.

After 250 or 400 Million years later
Stars and Galaxies started to form. Reionization marks the point at which the hydrogen in the Universe became ionized. Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes. Ion is an Atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge. Ions can be created, by either chemical or physical means, via ionization.

GN-z11 high-redshift galaxy found in the constellation Ursa Major, and is currently the oldest and most distant known galaxy in the observable universe - 13.4 billion years old. Galaxy z8 GND 5296 is 13.1 billion years old, only about 700 million years younger than the universe.

After 9 Billion years
Sun in our Solar System is formed around 4.7 Billion years ago. (Did life start a few billion years before us in another galaxy or in our own galaxy?)

4.5 Billion years ago
Earth is formed. Earth day then was only 6 hours long. Mostly Molten Rock. Theia collided with another planetary-mass object, Gaia (the early Earth) around 4.51 billion years ago. That was when the Moon Formed, the Moon was twice as close then it is now causing 10,000 ft. tides. Age of the Earth is approximately 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years (4.54 × 109 years ± 1%). This dating is based on evidence from radiometric age-dating of meteorite material and is consistent with the radiometric ages of the oldest-known terrestrial and lunar samples. The Earth has over 4 billion years left in its life, but humans only have around a billion years left before we have to find a new home. We might have even less time if we don't start making improvements.

4 Billion years ago
The lunar cataclysm when Asteroids bombarded the earth and moon. Late Heavy Bombardment.

3.5 Billion years ago
(One Billion Years since the Birth of Earth)
Single Cell Micro-Organisms start to form on earth. Stromatolite life from 3.7 billion years ago when Earth’s skies were orange and its oceans green. Pyramid of Complexity - Primordial Soup - Carbon Dating.
Timeline of Evolutionary History of Life (wiki)
Atmospheric Pressure was about half of what it is today.

3.2 Billion years ago
Great Oxygenation Event. Was this the first Extinction? Oxygen is what makes the sky blue, molecules in the air scatter blue light from the sun more than they scatter red light. New type of Green Algae produced O2, which created the Ozone Layer that protected life from damaging UV Rays and gave life a chance to progress. Free oxygen is oxygen that isn't combined with other elements such as carbon or nitrogen. Olivine (wiki) - Organisms Change - Atmosphere.

3 Billion years ago
(1.5 Billion Years since the Birth of Earth) - 2.4 billion years ago, oxygen in the atmosphere suddenly increased by about 10,000
times in just 200 million years. Photosynthesis is the process by which light energy synthesizes sugars from carbon dioxide, releasing oxygen as a waste product. 2.4 – 2.3 billion years ago First rock evidence of atmospheric oxygen. 2.7 billion years ago Cyanobacteria were the first oxygen producers. Ocean organisms and primitive animals start to evolve. Marine Biology.

Over 2 Billion Years go by....yada yada yada...and then....

700 - 550 million years ago, in the late Proterozoic, oxygen levels in the oceans and atmosphere increased dramatically. By 600 million years ago, the oxygen in the atmosphere reached about one-fifth of today’s level (21 percent). Ediacaran period spans 94 million years from the end of the Cryogenian Period 635 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Cambrian Period 541 Mya. It marks the end of the Proterozoic Eon, and the beginning of the Phanerozoic Eon.

600 Million years ago
(3.9 Billion Years since the Birth of Earth, and 2.9 Billion Years since Microorganisms Formed)
Multicellular Organisms appear that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms, which is an organism that consists of only one cell. Cell Division. Multicellularity has evolved independently at least 46 times. Algae.
Earth was completely covered in Ice. Snowball Earth.
Choanoflagellate are a group of free-living unicellular and colonial flagellate eukaryotes considered to be the closest living relatives of the animals.
Protein Domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and (tertiary) structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain.
Around 600 million years ago, a thin Ozone Layer Formed that was capable of protecting life from harmful wavelengths of UV radiation (wavelengths between 200-300 nm).

500 Million years ago
Cambrian Explosion. Prior to the Cambrian explosion, most organisms were simple, composed of individual cells occasionally organized into colonies. Over the following 70 to 80 million years, the rate of diversification accelerated by an order of magnitude and the diversity of life began to resemble that of today. Almost all the present phyla plants (Asterids - Verbena) appeared during this period, with the exception of Bryozoa, which are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals who made its earliest known appearance later, in the Lower Ordovician. First Plants colonize Earth around 500 million years ago. Intelligent Design.

450 Million years ago
Plants. First land plants occurs in the Ordovician, in the form of fossil spores. Land plants began to diversify in the Late Silurian, from around 430 million years ago, and the results of their diversification are displayed in remarkable detail in an early Devonian fossil assemblage from the Rhynie chert. This chert, formed in volcanic hot springs, preserved several species of early plants in cellular detail by petrification. Paleozoic is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon. It is the longest of the Phanerozoic eras, lasting from 541 to 251.902 million years ago, Phanerozoic covers 541 million years to the present. Timeline of Plant Evolution (wiki) - Photosynthesis.
Horseshoe Crab are marine arthropods invertebrates of the family Limulidae, suborder Xiphosurida, and order Xiphosura.
Living Fossil is an extant taxon that closely resembles organisms otherwise known only from the fossil record. As a rule, to be considered a living fossil, the fossil species must be old relative to the time of origin of the extant clade.
Carbon Dating (measuring how old things are).

400 Million years ago
Insects
Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period 358.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, 298.9 Mya. The name Carboniferous means "coal-bearing".
Hangenberg Event is a bioevent that occurred at the end of the Famennian epoch (late Devonian) associated with the Late Devonian extinction (roughly 358.9 ± 0.4 million years ago).
Bioevent is an event recognised in a sequence of sedimentary rocks, where there is a significant change in the biota as recorded by assemblages of fossils over a relatively short period of time. It has been defined as "short-term (hours or days to kyrs) locally, regionally, or interregionally pervasive changes in the ecological, biogeographical, and/or evolutionary character of biotas that are isochronous or nearly so throughout their range". Bioevents either relate to diversification of a particular fossil group or a reduction, these may equate to speciation events or extinction events, or may only represent migration. Records of the appearance and disappearance of particular taxa at a single locality are insufficient to define a bioevent.
Late Devonian Extinction was one of five major extinction events in the history of the Earth's biota. A major extinction, the Kellwasser event, occurred at the boundary that marks the beginning of the last phase of the Devonian period, the Famennian faunal stage (the Frasnian–Famennian boundary), about 375–360 million years ago. Overall, 19% of all families and 50% of all genera became extinct. A second, distinct mass extinction, the Hangenberg event, closed the Devonian period.

250 Million years ago
Permian Extinction, which caused Extinction of 95% of all living species? (Animals - Plants)
Peter Ward: Earth's Mass Extinctions (youtube)
(14 °F rise in temperature)
Earth took up to 10 million years to recover.
A footprint of a reptile-like creature called an Isochirotherium, an ancestor of dinosaurs and crocodiles that roamed the area 230 million years ago, was discovered in early April by a person out walking in Olesa de Montserrat, 40 kilometers (25 miles) north of Barcelona, Northeastern Catalonia in the Iberian Peninsula. Carnian Pluvial Event 230 million years ago it rained for 2 million years.

200 Million years ago
Mammals Evolve - Dinosaurs Evolved and lived for 180 Million years (over 700 types). Dinosaurs are a diverse group of Reptiles of the clade Dinosauria that first appeared during the Triassic period, which was a geologic period and system which spans 50.9 million years from the end of the Permian Period 252.17 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period 201.3 Mya. The Triassic is the first period of the Mesozoic Era. Both the start and end of the period are marked by major extinction events.
Earth had 1 Continent, mostly desert, no broad leaf trees, no flowers, Earth spun faster, moon was closer.
Pangaea started braking apart about 200 million years ago. Plate Tectonics.

125 Million years ago
Flowers Evolve 325 million years after plants evolved. Flowers may have bloomed more than 174 million years ago, 264 specimens of 198 individual flowers preserved on 34 rock slabs from the South Xiangshan Formation.

100 million years ago India broke away from the other fragments of Gondwana and began moving north. Gondwana is the name given to an ancient supercontinent. It is believed to have sutured between about 570 and 510 million years ago (Mya), joining East Gondwana to West Gondwana. Gondwana formed prior to Pangaea, and later became part of it. Continental Drift - Earths Surface.

65 Million years ago
Dinosaurs go extinct. 
Cretaceous–Paleogene Extinction Event is also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth that occurred over a geologically short period of time approximately 66 million years ago. With the exception of some ectothermic species like the leatherback sea turtle and crocodiles, no tetrapods weighing more than 25 kilograms (55 lb) survived. It marked the end of the Cretaceous period and with
it, the entire Mesozoic Era, opening the Cenozoic Era that continues today. Recovery Time after Extinction.
Iridium is found in meteorites in much higher abundance than in the Earth's crust.
Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about 252 to 66 million years ago. It is also called the Age of Reptiles.
Dinosaurs: Giants of Patagonia (2014) (Argentinosaur, Giganotosaur 11/25/2014 - 40 min. video)
Maniraptora is a clade of coelurosaurian dinosaurs that includes the birds and the non-avian dinosaurs that were more closely related to them than to Ornithomimus velox. Earths Early History.
Dreadnoughtus is a genus of giant titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur containing a single species.

55 million years ago
Grasses evolved.

50 million years ago the land mass known as India today, drifted into Asia, the collision created the Himalayas, and is still moving an inch every year. Table Mountain (30 - 50 million years) - Forbidden Archeology (Michael A. Cremo) - Laetoli Footprints (3.7 million years ago).

2.6 million years ago
Paleolithic primitive Stone Tools discovered. Oldowan is the earliest widespread stone tool archaeological industry in prehistory (it is pre-dated by Lomekwian tools at a single site dated to 3.3 million years ago]). Oldowan tools were used during the Lower Paleolithic period, 2.6 million years ago up until 1.7 million years ago, by ancient hominids across much of Africa, South Asia, the Middle East and Europe. This technological industry was followed by the more sophisticated Acheulean industry.
Bolas throwing weapon made of weights on the ends of interconnected cords, used to capture animals by entangling their legs.
Stone Age Begins. Advancement in Tools - Archaeology (culture) - Discovery of Human Antiquity.

2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago
Pleistocene - Documentary : Secrets Beneath The Ice In Antarctica HD full (youtube)

600,000 years ago
Homo Sapiens Evolved, or were Engineered or Created or arrived here from another planet 500 million years ago or 3 billion years ago? The Day We Learned to Think (youtube).

500,000 years ago
Humans - Population Bottleneck is believed to occurred among a group of Australopithecina as they transitioned into the species known as Homo erectus two million years ago. It is believed that additional bottlenecks must have occurred since Homo erectus started walking the Earth, but current archaeological, paleontological, and genetic data is inadequate to give much reliable information about such conjectured bottlenecks. That said, the possibility of a severe recent species-wide bottleneck cannot be ruled out. Recent research shows the extent of climate change was much smaller than believed by proponents of the theory. In addition, coalescence times for Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA have been revised to well above 100,000 years since 2011. Finally, such coalescence would not, in itself, indicate a population bottleneck, because mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome DNA are only a small part of the entire genome, and are atypical in that they are inherited exclusively through the mother or through the father, respectively. Genetic material inherited exclusively from either father or mother can be traced back in time via either matrilineal or patrilineal ancestry.

400,000 years ago
Schöningen Spears, four ancient wooden spears found in an opencast mine near the town (Bamford & Henderson 2003). The spears are about 400,000 years old.

250,000 years before the present
. Hueyatlaco is an archeological site in the Valsequillo Basin near the city of Puebla, Mexico. After excavations in the 1960s, the site became notorious due to geochronologists' analyses that indicated human habitation at Hueyatlaco.

100,000 years ago
Last Glacial Period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period c. 115,000 – c. 11,700 years ago. This most recent glacial period is part of a larger pattern of glacial and interglacial periods known as the Quaternary glaciation extending from c. 2,588,000 years ago to present. The definition of the Quaternary as beginning 2.58 Ma is based on the formation of the Arctic ice cap. The Antarctic ice sheet began to form earlier, at about 34 Ma, in the mid-Cenozoic (Eocene–Oligocene extinction event). The term Late Cenozoic Ice Age is used to include this early phase
Timeline of Glaciation (wiki) - Middle Pleistocene is a subdivision of the Pleistocene Epoch, from 781,000 to 126,000 years ago (781–126 ka). It is preceded by the Calabrian stage, beginning with the Brunhes–Matuyama reversal, and succeeded by the Tarantian stage (equivalent ot the Late or Upper Pleistocene), taken as beginning with the last interglacial (MIS 5). Climate Change.

75,000 years ago
Toba Catastrophe Theory was a supervolcanic eruption that occurred about 75,000 years ago at the site of present-day Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia. It is one of the Earth's largest known eruptions. The Toba catastrophe theory holds that this event caused a global volcanic winter of six to ten years and possibly a 1,000-year-long cooling episode.
San People are members of various Khoesān-speaking indigenous hunter-gatherer groups representing the first nation of Southern Africa, whose territories span Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and South Africa.
Recent African Origin of Modern Humans (wiki)
Multistep food plant processing at Grotta Paglicci (Southern Italy) around 32,600 cal B.P.

23,000 years ago
People came from Siberia and East Asia to America.

22,000 years ago
The Last Glacial Maximum, the maximum extent of glaciation within the last glacial period 100,000 years ago.
History of Agriculture (wiki). Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 20,000 BC.

14,000 years ago Humans' arrive in southern South America, first or second time?  Pumapunku - Tiwanaku (Bolivia).

13,000 years ago a prehistoric group of hunter-gathers known as the Clovis people lived in Northern America. Ancient stone carvings in Gobekli Tepe Temple in Turkey suggest that a comet struck Earth around 11,000 B.C..

11,000 years ago
Beringia. The last ice age ended about 11,000 years ago. Next one might be in 100,000 years. Global sea level rose as the vast ice sheets of the last Ice Age melted back, more than 120 meters or 393 feet. This melt-back lasted from about 19,000 to about 6,000 years ago, meaning that the average rate of sea-level rise was roughly 1 meter per century. Post-Glacial Rebound is the rise of land masses after the lifting of the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, which had caused isostatic depression. Domestication of Plants.

10,000 to 5,000 BC
Mesolithic pre-agricultural material in northwest Europe. Gobekli Tepe dates back to the 10th–8th millennium BCE. During the first phase, pre-pottery Neolithic A (PPNA). Circles of massive T-shaped stone pillars were erected, the world's oldest known megaliths. More than 200 pillars in about 20 circles are currently known through geophysical surveys. Each pillar has a height of up to 6 m (20 ft) and a weight of up to 20 tons. They are fitted into sockets that were hewn out of the bedrock. Archaeological site is atop a mountain ridge "Potbelly Hill" in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of modern-day Turkey.
The MacCready explosion states that 10,000 years ago humans and their pets and livestock made up 0.1% of terrestrial vertebrate biomass, today it's 98%.

6,000 and 10,000 years ago
The OCA2 Gene mutation for Blue Eyes occurred. Before then there were no blue eyes. So we went from having nobody on Earth with blue eyes 10,000 years ago, to now having 20 or 40 percent of Europeans having blue eyes. Blue-eyed humans have a single, common ancestor.

4,500 and 2,000 BC
Neolithic  Neolithic Revolution  More humans went from Hunting and Gathering to one of Agriculture and settlement, allowing the ability to support an increasingly large population.

Humans understood that there were patterns and cycles in life, so we created tools to help predict those patterns.
Calendars - BC,AD,CE,BCE

3000 BC
Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

Clocks Invented

Stonehenge is a ring of standing stones are set within earthworks in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds.

Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1300 BCE, regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.

Pyramids have been built by civilizations in many parts of the world. For thousands of years, the largest structures on Earth were pyramids, which is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense.

Maya Civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system. The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador. This region consists of the northern lowlands encompassing the Yucatán Peninsula, and the highlands of the Sierra Madre, running from the Mexican state of Chiapas, across southern Guatemala and onwards into El Salvador, and the southern lowlands of the Pacific littoral plain.

Sumer was the first urban civilization in the historical region of southern Mesopotamia, modern-day southern Iraq, during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze ages, and arguably the first civilization in the world with Ancient Egypt and the Indus Valley. Living along the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates, Sumerian farmers were able to grow an abundance of grain and other crops, the surplus of which enabled them to settle in one place. Proto-writing in the prehistory dates back to c. 3000 BC. The earliest texts come from the cities of Uruk and Jemdet Nasr and date back to 3300 BC; early cuneiform writing emerged in 3000 BC. Modern historians have suggested that Sumer was first permanently settled between c. 5500 and 4000 BC by a West Asian people who spoke the Sumerian language (pointing to the names of cities, rivers, basic occupations, etc., as evidence), an agglutinative language isolate.

From Stone Tools to Metal Tools

The Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Program (ETE)
Paleontological Research Institution

Sparta 900s BC 192 BC. - Agoge was the rigorous education and training program mandated for all male Spartan citizens, except for the firstborn son in the ruling houses, Eurypontid and Agiad. The training involved learning stealth, cultivating loyalty to the Spartan group, military training (e.g., pain tolerance), hunting, dancing, singing, and social (communicating) preparation. The word "agoge" meant rearing in ancient Greek, but in this context generally meant leading, guidance, or training.

Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia. 27 BC – 395 AD, 395–480 (Western), 395–1453 (Eastern). Rome (27 BC–330 AD).

Byzantine Empire also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire simply as the Roman Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, tr. Basileia Rhōmaiōn; Latin: Imperium Romanum), or Romania (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans".

Angkor Wat is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world, with the site measuring 162.6 hectares (1,626,000 m2; 402 acres). It was originally constructed as a Hindu temple of god Vishnu for the Khmer Empire, gradually transforming into a Buddhist temple toward the end of the 12th century. It was built by the Khmer King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century.

Dorset Culture was a Paleo-Eskimo culture (500 BCE–1500 CE) that preceded the Inuit culture in Arctic North America.

Norsemen refers to the group of people who spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between the 8th and 11th centuries. The language belongs to the North Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages, and is the earlier form of modern Scandinavian languages.

Stone Spheres of Costa Rica dating back to the Aguas Buenas Period (300–800 CE) and Chiriquí Period (800–1550 CE).
(Diquis Spheres or Stone Balls)


Today


(2019)

Since then, for thousands of years, humans have struggled to survive, with many civilizations failing. Even in the last 2000 years, humans are still struggling to survive. Humans have been suffering from wars, diseases, and all kinds of catastrophes. We have made many improvements, but we still have many problems that we have to solve. Luckily, the Earth during the last 5,000 years has been pretty good to us. Except for the regular outbursts from mother nature, we have had no major extinction events like the previous ones, except for the one we are currently in. It's estimated that 106 Billion Humans Have Lived since the beginning, and as of 2011, 94% are Dead. That means over 99 Billion people have lived and died before you were born, So everyone is standing on the Shoulders of Giants, and everyone is Passing the Baton, so please make it a good one.

99.9 Percent of all Species that have existed on Earth, are now Extinct. We are now in the 6th Extinction at an extremely fast rate. Holocene 6th Extinction.

Are Extinctions like a Computer Rebooting, Life hitting the Restart Button?

Inventions Timeline - Some of our Greatest Inventions and Innovations

Corporate Takeover of America Timeline

Corporate Takeover of America's Education System

"You have to have something to show for your life, something significant, something relevant, something positive. And don't worry about the time that was wasted, think about the time that you still have. You don't have to finish, you just have to start, someone else will pick up where you left off, pass your baton forward."

"It's amazing to know that everyone who has lived before 1901 is dead, and in 120 years everyone alive today will be dead. And that's not just 7 billion people dying, it's all the other deaths that happened in those 120 years. If 55 million people die every year, that's almost another 7 billion people gone. We need to get in touch with this reality. Though our lives are temporary, our actions could continue to do damage long after we have died. But if our actions are positive, then life will continually improve, long after we have gone."

Remember that the universe is still young and still evolving. Only eight percent of the potentially habitable planets that will ever form in the universe exist today. So the bulk of possible habitable planets - 92 percent - have yet to be born. We have a very long future ahead us.

And after all that, here you are today....

Big History Project

Historical Geology principles and techniques of geology to reconstruct and understand the geological history of Earth.

Paleontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present). Time Measuring.

Palaeogeography is the study of historical geography, generally physical landscapes.

Teaching History

There is no such thing as stationary, everything is in constant motion, we are in constant motion even when we sleep. Physical stillness is an illusion, but it's an illusion we sometimes need in order to relax and to find peace. But we have to make sure that we fully understand that nothing can be still, things are either getting better, or things are continually getting worse. And in order to continually improve things, we have take necessary actions, actions that are proven to help things get better, if not, then things will continually get worse. I prefer to have things continually improve and get better, it seems natural, so why not take the path of least resistance, it's life's natural path. And we know from History that if you go off the path, then adaptation is no longer available. And we are off the path on a lot of things in our world. We need to get back on the path, and stay connected to life's natural progression. We need to avoid decline and retrograde. We need to stop devolving, We need to stop making things worse, or bad, or unnatural, or abnormal, or unstable. Those directions are nothing but trouble. Don't be fooled into believing that you have fixed a problem, because you may still be headed towards failure. 

"We are either progressing or retrograding all the while. There is no such thing as remaining stationary in this life." - James Freeman Clarke.


My Earth Time Scale
Since I was Born in 1960. 55 Years and 5 Months as of April 2016.
If I were born on the planet Mars I would be 28 years old instead of 55.
My Heart has beat over 2 billion times so far.
I have traveled 37,094,025,717 miles through space so far.
I have traveled over 32,496,627,730 miles around the Sun so far.
I have traveled over 270,805,235,560 miles through the Milky Way so far.
The Earth has had 270 major eruptions so far in my life.
A Coast Redwood's Tree growth in my lifetime was 70' 10".
Over 2 billion people have died in my lifetime.
World Population has increased by 4,378,974,225 in my lifetime.
In my life there have been 122 solar eclipses so far.
Tectonic plate movement in my lifetime on the East Pacific Rise was 27' 1".
1.4 billion lost Acres of Forest were destroyed so far in my lifetime.

In 1960 the earths average temp was 57.2 in 2013, it is now 58.3

What We Know So Far

If you look at the human species as a whole, you can clearly see that we are in our teenage years. We're rebellious, we're trying new things, we're wasteful, we make many mistakes, we're irresponsible, and we are clearly not mature enough to move out on our own.

What is Time?



Time - Measuring Time


Time is a Measurement System, a Process for Learning and a very important Tool that helps us Plan and Predict. Though the timing of Cycles, Rhythms and Development are essential for Life, try not to spend to much time thinking about Time, this is just one of many tools that we have.

Time Scale is a duration or quantity of Time. Schedule - Time Management.

Timeline is a way of displaying a list of events in chronological order, sometimes described as a project artifact.

Timestamp is a sequence of characters or encoded information identifying when a certain event occurred, usually giving date and time of day, sometimes accurate to a small fraction of a second. The term derives from rubber stamps used in offices to stamp the current date, and sometimes time, in ink on paper documents, to record when the document was received. Computer files contain timestamps that tell when the file was last modified, and digital cameras add timestamps to the pictures they take, recording the date and time the picture was taken.

Chronology is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time. History - Stages.

Geologic Time Scale is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time, and is used by geologists, paleontologists, and other Earth scientists to describe the timing and relationships of events that have occurred during Earth's history. Universe Timeline.

Period in geology is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of divisions into which geologists have split the Earth's history. Eons and eras are larger subdivisions than periods while periods themselves may be divided into epochs and ages. The rocks formed during a period belong to a stratigraphic unit called a system.

Great Unconformity is the many unconformities or gaps in time that are observed in geological strata, which is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. Hutton's Unconformity is a geological phenomenon that marks the location where rock formations created at different times and by different forces adjoin. Unconformity is a buried erosional or non-depositional surface separating two rock masses or strata of different ages, indicating that sediment deposition was not continuous. In general, the older layer was exposed to erosion for an interval of time before deposition of the younger, but the term is used to describe any break in the sedimentary geologic record. An unconformity represents time during which no sediments were preserved in a region. The local record for that time interval is missing and geologists must use other clues to discover that part of the geologic history of that area. The interval of geologic time not represented is called a hiatus. Is the Mystery of Earth's 1.2 Billion Missing Years Solved? | SciShow News (youtube) - Asteroids.

Retrospective means to take a look back at events that already have taken place. Time Travel - Telescopes.

BCE as an abbreviation for "before the Common (or Current) Era". (Before Christ)

Common Era (CE) is a calendar era that is often used as an alternative naming of the Anno Domini era ("in the year of the Lord"), abbreviated AD. A.D., is used to refer to the years after the birth of Jesus.  A.D. used to be "After Death."

Before Present years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events in the past occurred.

Spacetime is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single interwoven continuum. Light.

Time of Flight describes a variety of methods that measure the time that it takes for an object, particle or acoustic, electromagnetic or other wave to travel a distance through a medium. Action Physics.

History of Timekeeping Devices - Clocks

We did not invent time, we learned how to understand time and use it to our advantage.
 

How Old is That?


Measuring Decay.

Radiocarbon Dating is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon (14C), a radioactive isotope of carbon. Carbon-14 dating is based on the fact that radiocarbon is constantly being created in the atmosphere by the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen. The resulting radiocarbon combines with atmospheric oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxide, which is incorporated into plants by photosynthesis; animals then acquire 14 C by eating the plants. When the animal or plant dies, it stops exchanging carbon with its environment, and from that point onwards the amount of 14 C it contains begins to decrease as the 14 C undergoes radioactive decay. Measuring the amount of 14 C in a sample from a dead plant or animal such as a piece of wood or a fragment of bone provides information that can be used to calculate when the animal or plant died. The older a sample is, the less 14 C there is to be detected, and because the half-life of 14 C (the period of time after which half of a given sample will have decayed) is about 5,730 years, the oldest dates that can be reliably measured by radiocarbon dating are around 50,000 years ago, although special preparation methods occasionally permit dating of older samples.

We can't date the Bones, only the place where they were found. Magnetic fingerprint or Paleomagnetism is the record of the Earth's magnetic field in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials.

Radiometric Dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed. The method compares the abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope within the material to the abundance of its decay products, which form at a known constant rate of decay.

Archaeomagnetic Dating is the study and interpretation of the signatures of the Earth's Magnetic Field at past times recorded in archaeological materials. These paleomagnetic signatures are fixed when ferromagnetic materials such as magnetite cool below the Curie point, freezing the magnetic moment of the material in the direction of the local magnetic field at that time. The direction and magnitude of the magnetic field of the Earth at a particular location varies with time, and can be used to constrain the age of materials. In conjunction with techniques such as radiometric dating, the technique can be used to construct and calibrate the geomagnetic polarity time scale. This is one of the dating methodologies used for sites within the last 10,000 years. The method has been conceived by E. Thellier in the 1930s and the increased sensitivity of SQUID magnetometers has greatly promoted its use.

Potassium–Argon Dating, abbreviated K–Ar dating, is a radiometric dating method used in geochronology and archaeology. It is based on measurement of the product of the radioactive decay of an isotope of potassium (K) into argon (Ar). Potassium is a common element found in many materials, such as micas, clay minerals, tephra, and evaporites. In these materials, the decay product 40Ar is able to escape the liquid (molten) rock, but starts to accumulate when the rock solidifies (recrystallizes). The amount of Argon sublimation that occurs is a function of the purity of the sample, the composition of the mother material, and a number of other factors. These factors introduce error limits on the upper and lower bounds of dating, so that final determination of age is reliant on the environmental factors during formation, melting, and exposure to decreased pressure and/or open-air. Time since recrystallization is calculated by measuring the ratio of the amount of 40Ar accumulated to the amount of 40K remaining. The long half-life of 40K allows the method to be used to calculate the absolute age of samples older than a few thousand years. The quickly cooled lavas that make nearly ideal samples for K–Ar dating also preserve a record of the direction and intensity of the local magnetic field as the sample cooled past the Curie temperature of iron. The geomagnetic polarity time scale was calibrated largely using K–Ar dating.

Uranium-Lead Dating is one of the oldest and most refined of the radiometric dating schemes. It can be used to date rocks that formed and crystallised from about 1 million years to over 4.5 billion years ago with routine precisions in the 0.1–1 percent range. The dating method is usually performed on the mineral zircon. The mineral incorporates uranium and thorium atoms into its crystal structure, but strongly rejects lead. Therefore, one can assume that the entire lead content of the zircon is radiogenic, i.e. it is produced solely by a process of radioactive decay after the formation of the mineral. Thus the current ratio of lead to uranium in the mineral can be used to determine its age. The method relies on two separate decay chains, the uranium series from 238U to 206Pb, with a half-life of 4.47 billion years and the actinium series from 235U to 207Pb, with a half-life of 710 million years. Radioactive Decay to Lead. Frequently, the quantity of uranium 238 and lead 206 are measured for radiometric determination of the age of rocks. The half-life with which uranium 238 decays to form lead 206 is 4.46 billion years.

Decay Chain refers to a series of radioactive decays of different radioactive decay products as a sequential series of transformations. It is also known as a "radioactive cascade". Most radioisotopes do not decay directly to a stable state, but rather undergo a series of decays until eventually a stable isotope is reached.

Surface Exposure Dating is a collection of geochronological techniques for estimating the length of time that a rock has been exposed at or near Earth's surface. Surface exposure dating is used to date glacial advances and retreats, erosion history, lava flows, meteorite impacts, rock slides, fault scarps, cave development, and other geological events. It is most useful for rocks which have been exposed for between 10 years and 30,000,000 years.

Beryllium-10 is a radioactive isotope of beryllium. It is formed in the Earth's atmosphere mainly by cosmic ray spallation of nitrogen and oxygen.  Beryllium-10 has a half-life of 1.39 × 106 years, and decays by beta decay to stable boron-10 with a maximum energy of 556.2 keV. It decays through the reaction 10Be→10B+e. Light elements in the atmosphere react with high energy galactic cosmic ray particles.


Pyramid of Complexity


Pyramid of Complexity Triangle Mammals
Animals
Insects
Plants
Organisms
Cells
Biomolecules
Molecules
Atoms
Nucleons
Quarks

Tree of Life
Connected
Associations
Time Line of the Universe


Solar System


Planet Spin Directions Solar System is the gravitationally bound system comprising the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly.[b] Of those objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest eight are the planets,[c] with the remainder being significantly smaller objects, such as dwarf planets and small Solar System bodies. Of the objects that orbit the Sun indirectly, the moons, two are larger than the smallest planet, Mercury.

Formation and Evolution of our Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud. Most of the collapsing mass collected in the center, forming the Sun, while the rest flattened into a protoplanetary disk out of which the planets, moons, asteroids, and other small Solar System bodies formed.

Protoplanetary Disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star. The protoplanetary disk may also be considered an accretion disk for the star itself, because gases or other material may be falling from the inner edge of the disk onto the surface of the star. This process should not be confused with the accretion process thought to build up the planets themselves. Externally illuminated photo-evaporating protoplanetary disks are called proplyds.

Pebble Accretion is the accretion of objects ranging from centimeters up to meters in diameter onto planetesimals in a protoplanetary disk is enhanced by aerodynamic drag. This drag reduces the relative velocity of pebbles as they pass by larger bodies, preventing some from escaping the body's gravity. These pebbles are then accreted by the body after spiraling or settling toward its surface. This process increases the cross section over which the large bodies can accrete material, accelerating their growth. The rapid growth of the planetesimals via pebble accretion allows for the formation of giant planet cores in the outer Solar System before the dispersal of the gas disk. A reduction in the size of pebbles as they lose water ice after crossing the ice line and a declining density of gas with distance from the sun slow the rates of pebble accretion in the inner Solar System resulting in smaller terrestrial planets, a small mass of Mars and a low mass asteroid belt.

Formation of the Planets. The various planets are thought to have formed from the solar nebula, the disc-shaped cloud of gas and dust left over from the Sun's formation. The currently accepted method by which the planets formed is accretion, in which the planets began as dust grains in orbit around the central protostar. Through direct contact, these grains formed into clumps up to 200 metres in diameter, which in turn collided to form larger bodies (planetesimals) of ~10 kilometres (km) in size. These gradually increased through further collisions, growing at the rate of centimetres per year over the course of the next few million years. The inner Solar System, the region of the Solar System inside 4 AU, was too warm for volatile molecules like water and methane to condense, so the planetesimals that formed there could only form from compounds with high melting points, such as metals (like iron, nickel, and aluminium) and rocky silicates. These rocky bodies would become the terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars). These compounds are quite rare in the Universe, comprising only 0.6% of the mass of the nebula, so the terrestrial planets could not grow very large. The terrestrial embryos grew to about 0.05 Earth masses (M⊕) and ceased accumulating matter about 100,000 years after the formation of the Sun; subsequent collisions and mergers between these planet-sized bodies allowed terrestrial planets to grow to their present sizes (see Terrestrial planets below). When the terrestrial planets were forming, they remained immersed in a disk of gas and dust. The gas was partially supported by pressure and so did not orbit the Sun as rapidly as the planets. The resulting drag and, more importantly, gravitational interactions with the surrounding material caused a transfer of angular momentum, and as a result the planets gradually migrated to new orbits. Models show that density and temperature variations in the disk governed this rate of migration, but the net trend was for the inner planets to migrate inward as the disk dissipated, leaving the planets in their current orbits. The giant planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) formed further out, beyond the frost line, which is the point between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter where the material is cool enough for volatile icy compounds to remain solid. The ices that formed the Jovian planets were more abundant than the metals and silicates that formed the terrestrial planets, allowing the giant planets to grow massive enough to capture hydrogen and helium, the lightest and most abundant elements. Planetesimals beyond the frost line accumulated up to 4 M⊕ within about 3 million years. Today, the four giant planets comprise just under 99% of all the mass orbiting the Sun. Theorists believe it is no accident that Jupiter lies just beyond the frost line. Because the frost line accumulated large amounts of water via evaporation from infalling icy material, it created a region of lower pressure that increased the speed of orbiting dust particles and halted their motion toward the Sun. In effect, the frost line acted as a barrier that caused material to accumulate rapidly at ~5 AU from the Sun. This excess material coalesced into a large embryo (or core) on the order of 10 M⊕, which began to accumulate an envelope via accretion of gas from the surrounding disc at an ever-increasing rate. Once the envelope mass became about equal to the solid core mass, growth proceeded very rapidly, reaching about 150 Earth masses ~105 years thereafter and finally topping out at 318 M⊕. Saturn may owe its substantially lower mass simply to having formed a few million years after Jupiter, when there was less gas available to consume.

Planetary System is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in or out of orbit around a star or star system. Generally speaking, systems with one or more planets constitute a planetary system, although such systems may also consist of bodies such as dwarf planets, asteroids, natural satellites, meteoroids, comets, planetesimals and circumstellar disks. The Sun together with its planetary system, which includes Earth, is known as the Solar System. The term exoplanetary system is sometimes used in reference to other planetary systems. As of 1 February 2019, there are 3,976 confirmed planets in 2,971 systems, with 653 systems having more than one planet. Debris disks are also known to be common, though other objects are more difficult to observe. Of particular interest to astrobiology is the habitable zone of planetary systems where planets could have surface liquid water, and thus the capacity to harbor Earth-like life.

Planetary Science s the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them. It studies objects ranging in size from micrometeoroids to gas giants, aiming to determine their composition, dynamics, formation, interrelations and history. It is a strongly interdisciplinary field, originally growing from astronomy and earth science, but which now incorporates many disciplines, including planetary geology (together with geochemistry and geophysics), cosmochemistry, atmospheric science, oceanography, hydrology, theoretical planetary science, glaciology, and exoplanetology. Allied disciplines include space physics, when concerned with the effects of the Sun on the bodies of the Solar System, and astrobiology.

Our Solar System Planets Tallest Mountains in the Solar System (wiki)
Eyes on the Solar System
Planetary

If the Sun were the size of a Basketball, the Earth would be the size of a Sesame Seed. If the Earth were shrunk down to the size of a Basketball (Radius: 4.69 inches), the Moon would be the size of a Tennis Ball (Radius: 1.2768 inches, to be exact) and 23.5 feet away (238,855.086 miles). The Sun would be a 42.6-foot sphere (source) and located 1.7 miles away (92 million miles). (figure out the math involved). Interesting Tidbits.

The Solar System to Scale on a dry lakebed in Nevada (youtube)
Latest view of Jupiter from NASA’s Juno spacecraft (youtube)
The Year of Pluto - NASA New Horizons (youtube)

Pluto Photos
Mars Map that's Perfect everyday Earthlings

Earth - Moon - Sun - Asteroids - Milky Way - Space

Star Date is the public education and outreach arm of the University of Texas McDonald Observatory. Our radio program airs daily on more than 300 stations, and our popular bimonthly astronomy magazine is the perfect sky watching companion for amateur astronomers or anyone interested in celestial events and space exploration. We also offer astronomy resources to teachers, the media, and the public.

Planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

Other Planets in other Solar Systems - Moon

Gas Giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium. Jupiter and Saturn are the gas giants of the Solar System.

Jovian Planet is also called a giant planet, large gaseous planet like Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, or Neptune.

Giant Planet is any massive planet. They are usually primarily composed of low-boiling-point materials (gases or ices), rather than rock or other solid matter, but massive solid planets can also exist. There are four known giant planets in the Solar System: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Many extrasolar giant planets have been identified orbiting other stars. Giant planets are also sometimes called jovian planets, after Jupiter. They are also sometimes known as gas giants. However, many astronomers apply the latter term only to Jupiter and Saturn, classifying Uranus and Neptune, which have different compositions, as ice giants. Both names are potentially misleading: all of the giant planets consist primarily of fluids above their critical points, where distinct gas and liquid phases do not exist. The principal components are hydrogen and helium in the case of Jupiter and Saturn, and water, ammonia and methane in the case of Uranus and Neptune. The defining differences between a very low-mass brown dwarf and a gas giant (~13 MJ) are debated. One school of thought is based on formation; the other, on the physics of the interior. Part of the debate concerns whether "brown dwarfs" must, by definition, have experienced nuclear fusion at some point in their history.

Solar System's Motion through Space: The Resonance Project / Nassim Haramein (youtube)

Interesting Theory's

The Helical Model - Our Solar System is a Vortex (youtube)
The Helical Model - our Galaxy is a Vortex (youtube)

The above videos are not totally accurate, but for all intensive purposes, it's good enough for now.

Torus - Torus Spacetime Manifold (youtube)

Helix is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space. It has the property that the tangent line at any point makes a constant angle with a fixed line called the axis. Vortex

Deferent and Epicycle meaning circle moving on another circle, was a geometric model used to explain the variations in speed and direction of the apparent motion of the Moon, Sun, and planets. In particular it explained the apparent retrograde motion of the five planets known at the time. Secondarily, it also explained changes in the apparent distances of the planets from Earth.

Orbit is the gravitationally curved path of an object about a point in space, for example the orbit of a planet about a star or a natural satellite around a planet. Orbits of planets are typically elliptical, and the central mass being orbited is at a focal point of the ellipse. Foucault Pendulum (wiki)

Orbiting Satellites - Orbiting Asteroids

Elliptic Orbit not centered, rounded like an egg.

Richard Feynman giving an elementary demonstration of why planets orbit in ellipses. Feynman's Lost Lecture

Circular Orbit is the orbit at a fixed distance around any point by an object rotating around a fixed axis.

Orbital Mechanics is the application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and other spacecraft.

Rotation (action physics)

Orbital Inclination is the acute (smaller) angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of an object in orbit around another object.

Centrifugal Force (action physics)

Orbital Resonance occurs when two orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of two small integers. The physics principle behind orbital resonance is similar in concept to pushing a child on a swing, where the orbit and the swing both have a natural frequency, and the other body doing the "pushing" will act in periodic repetition to have a cumulative effect on the motion. Orbital resonances greatly enhance the mutual gravitational influence of the bodies, i.e., their ability to alter or constrain each other's orbits.

Orbital Decay is a process that leads to gradual decrease of the distance between two orbiting bodies at their closest approach (the periapsis) over many orbital periods. These orbiting bodies can be a planet and its satellite, a star and any object orbiting it, or components of any binary system. Orbits do not decay without some friction-like mechanism which robs energy from the orbital motion. This can be any of a number of mechanical, gravitational, or electromagnetic effects. For bodies in a low Earth orbit, the most significant effect is the atmospheric drag. If left unchecked, the decay eventually results in termination of the orbit when the smaller object strikes the surface of the primary; or for objects where the primary has an atmosphere, the smaller object burns, explodes, or otherwise breaks up in the larger object's atmosphere; or for objects where the primary is a star, ends with incineration by the star's radiation (such as for comets), and so on. Collisions and mergers of two stellar-mass objects usually produce cataclysmic effects; see stellar collision and gamma-ray burst. Due to atmospheric drag, the lowest altitude above the Earth at which an object in a circular orbit can complete at least one full revolution without propulsion is approximately 150 km (90 mi).

Spin-Orbit Interaction is an interaction of a particle's spin with its motion. The first and best known example of this is that spin–orbit interaction causes shifts in an electron's atomic energy levels due to electromagnetic interaction between the electron's spin and the magnetic field generated by the electron's orbit around the nucleus. This is detectable as a splitting of spectral lines, which can be thought of as a Zeeman Effect due to the internal field. A similar effect, due to the relationship between angular momentum and the strong nuclear force, occurs for protons and neutrons moving inside the nucleus, leading to a shift in their energy levels in the nucleus shell model. In the field of spintronics, spin–orbit effects for electrons in semiconductors and other materials are explored for technological applications. The spin–orbit interaction is one cause of magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

Angle of our Solar System in the Milky Way Axial Tilt also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane. It differs from orbital inclination.

Axial Precession is a gravity-induced, slow, and continuous change in the orientation of an astronomical body's rotational axis. In particular, it can refer to the gradual shift in the orientation of Earth's axis of rotation, which, similar to a wobbling top, traces out a pair of cones joined at their apices in a cycle of approximately 26,000 years. Momentum

Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System. Copernican Heliocentrism (wiki)

Not only does every planet go around the sun in the same counter-clockwise direction, but upwards of 99% of Asteroids and other small features do too. The Earth also rotates on its axis in a counter-clockwise direction. And the Earth revolves around the Sun in an counter-clockwise direction. The Sun rotates counter-clockwise. All the other major planets, and most of the minor planets (asteroids) also orbit the Sun in an counter-clockwise direction. Note that this plane of rotation in our solar system does not match up with the overall plane of galactic rotation, which is clockwise. The direction of rotation within individual star systems is largely unaffected by the galaxy, but the systems themselves do all orbit the galactic core in one clockwise direction? Scientists believe that on large scales the Universe is isotropic (the same in all directions). Thus, from our perspective, half of all spiral galaxies should spin clockwise, and half counter-clockwise. A recent analysis of the spin of spiral galaxies confirms this. The public classified over 35,000 spiral galaxies with spins both clockwise and counter-clockwise in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as part of the Galaxy Zoo project. Scientists published the results in a recent paper and found that the Universe is indeed isotropic - we see the same number of clockwise as counter-clockwise spirals (within the uncertainties).

Action Physics

Why We See the Same Stars Every Night?

Pluto the Planet Proper Motion is the astronomical measure of the observed changes in apparent positions of stars in the sky as seen from the center of mass of the Solar System compared to the imaginary fixed background of the more distant stars.

Earth and Venus Orbit (image)

Axial Precession is a gravity-induced, slow, and continuous change in the orientation of an astronomical body's rotational axis.

Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body. In an appropriate reference frame it can be defined as a change in the first Euler angle, whereas the third Euler angle defines the rotation itself. Momentum

Age of Aquarius is an astrological term denoting either the current or forthcoming astrological age, depending on the method of calculation. Astrologers maintain that an astrological age is a product of the earth's slow precessional rotation and lasts for 2,160 years, on average (26,000-year period of precession / 12 zodiac signs = 2,160 years).

Planets of our solar system rotate around the sun at different speeds.

Plutos Largest Moon Charon Apparent Retrograde Motion is the apparent motion of a planet in a direction opposite to that of other bodies within its system, as observed from a particular vantage point. Direct motion or prograde motion is motion in the same direction as other bodies.

Retrograde and Prograde Motion is motion in the direction opposite to the movement of something else and the contrary of direct or prograde motion. This motion can be the orbit of one body about another body or about some other point, or the rotation of a single body about its axis, or other phenomena such as precession or nutation of the axis. In reference to celestial systems, retrograde motion usually means motion which is contrary to the rotation of the primary, that is, the object which forms the system's hub.

Planetary Migration occurs when a planet or other stellar satellite interacts with a disk of gas or planetesimals, resulting in the alteration of the satellite's orbital parameters, especially its semi-major axis. Planetary migration is the most likely explanation for hot Jupiters, extrasolar planets with jovian masses, but orbits of only a few days.

Thunderbolts of the Gods (youtube)
Episode 2 Symbols of an Alien Sky: The Lightning Scarred Planet, Mars(youtube)
Plasma Cosmology
Mars Scars
Jupiter was once close to Mars
Grand Tack
The Resonance Project

2014 QZ224 Dwarf Planet 2014 QZ224 Dwarf Planet on the right is about 330 miles across and some 8.5 billion miles from the sun. It takes 1,100 years to complete one orbit. Sedna, Eris and Makemake have all been discovered in the past decade or so. Add to that Pluto.

Occultation is an event that occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer. The term is often used in astronomy, but can also refer to any situation in which an object in the foreground blocks from view (occults) an object in the background. In this general sense, occultation applies to the visual scene observed from low-flying aircraft (or computer-generated imagery) when foreground objects obscure distant objects dynamically, as the scene changes over time.

Planets that have no stars are called Rogue Planets, there may be billions of rogue planets in the Milky Way.

Oort Cloud is an extended shell of icy objects that exist in the outermost reaches of the solar system. A theoretical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals proposed to surround the Sun at distances ranging from 50,000 to 200,000 AU (0.8 to 3.2 ly). It is divided into two regions: a disc-shaped inner Oort cloud (or Hills cloud) and a spherical outer Oort cloud. Both regions lie beyond the heliosphere and in interstellar space. The Kuiper Belt and the scattered disc, the other two reservoirs of trans-Neptunian objects, are less than one thousandth as far from the Sun as the Oort cloud. Voyager 1&2.



Galaxies


Movement in the Galaxy Galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter in the Universe. Satellites - Telescopes.

Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System. The Milky Way is a combination of smaller galaxies. Our galaxy contains 200–400 billion Stars, with at least 50 billion Planets, 500 million of which could be located in the Habitable Zone of their parent star. Is the Milky Way an ‘outlier’ galaxy? Studying its ‘siblings’ for clues.

The Milky Way is a Barred Spiral Galaxy, and is estimated to be about 13.2 billion years old.

The Milky Way's black hole is 26,000 light years away. Space - Dark Matter.

We have estimated the size of our galaxy to be around 125,000 Light Years in Diameter. But the latest evidence may bring that size to almost 150,000 light-years in size.

The Milky Way Churns Out Seven New Stars Per Year, Scientists Say with enough dust and gas to make billions more.
Newly discovered adolescent star Gaia 17bpi seen undergoing 'growth spurt'.

Massive Galaxies are Still Forming. NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer has spotted what appear to be massive “baby” galaxies in our corner of the universe. Previously, astronomers thought the universe’s birth rate had dramatically declined and only small galaxies were forming. If these galaxies are indeed newly formed, then this implies parts of the universe are still hotbeds of galaxy birth. There are three-dozen bright, compact galaxies that greatly resemble the youthful galaxies of more than 10 billions years ago. These new galaxies are relatively close to us, ranging from two to four billion light-years away. They may be as young as 100 million to one billion years old. The Milky Way is approximately 10 billion years old. NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer is an orbiting ultraviolet space telescope launched on April 28, 2003, and operated until early 2012.

Galaxy Formation and Evolution is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning, the formation of the first galaxies, the way galaxies change over time, and the processes that have generated the variety of structures observed in nearby galaxies. Galaxy formation is hypothesized to occur from structure formation theories, as a result of tiny quantum fluctuations in the aftermath of the Big Bang. The simplest model in general agreement with observed phenomena is the Lambda-CDM model—that is, that clustering and merging allows galaxies to accumulate mass, determining both their shape and structure.

A Star Explodes or Supernovas in the Milky Way Galaxy about once every 50 years.

But what Shuts Down Star Formation in Galaxies? Galaxies originally form when large clouds of hydrogen gas collapse and are converted into stars, if you remove that gas, the galaxy cannot grow further. Lifespan of Atoms.

Catching a GLIMPSE of the Milky Way (youtube) - Huelux (video)
The Milky Way as You’ve Never Seen It Before – AMNH SciCafe (youtube)

Is the Milky Way Galaxy the center of the Universe?

The Center of the Milky Way Tastes Like Raspberries. Astronomers reported that Sagittarius B2, a dust cloud at the center of the Milky Way, includes the molecule ethyl formate, which is one of the compounds behind the flavor of raspberries and the scent of rum.

The Milky Way is moving at a rate of 552 to 630 km per second, being pushed away from the Local Void at 600,000 mph with respect to this local co-moving frame of reference sideways stellar motion.

Monoceros Ring is a long, complex, ringlike filament of stars that wraps around the Milky Way three times.

Our Solar System travels at 447,000 MPH and takes 250 Million years to complete one Galactic Rotation. Galaxy Rotation Curve of a disc galaxy (also called a velocity curve) is a plot of the orbital speeds of visible stars or gas in that galaxy versus their radial distance from that galaxy's centre.

Galactic Year. is the duration of time required for the Sun to orbit once around the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Estimates of the length of one orbit range from 225 to 250 million terrestrial years. The Solar System is traveling at an average speed of 828,000 km/h (230 km/s) or 514,000 mph (143 mi/s) within its trajectory around the galactic center, a speed at which an object could circumnavigate the Earth's equator in 2 minutes and 54 seconds; that speed corresponds to approximately one 1300th of the speed of light. Shedding light on Galaxies’ Rotation Secrets.

The Earth takes one day to rotate, spins 1,050 MPH and travels 67,000 miles per hour. Earth orbits the Sun once every 366.26 times it rotates about its own axis, which is equal to 365.26 Solar Days. The Sun is moving 486,000 Mph.

Halo Stars or outer disk stars, are the stars bordering the outer reaches of Segmentum Obscurus. Galactic Halo extends beyond the main, visible component.

Time-Laps Video of Space at Night shows Rotation of Earth

Great Attractor is a gravitational anomaly in intergalactic space at the center of the Laniakea Supercluster that reveals the existence of a localised concentration of mass tens of thousands of times more massive than the Milky Way.

Higgs Boson (Hadron Collider)

Galactic Coordinate System - Celestial Navigation

Google Sky - Telescopes

Galaxy Rotation Curve is a plot of the orbital speeds of visible stars or gas in that galaxy versus their radial distance from that galaxy's centre. It is typically rendered graphically as a plot.

Dwarf Galaxy is a small galaxy composed of up to several billion stars, a small number compared to the Milky Way's 200–400 billion stars.

Oddball Galaxy NGC 1052-DF2, doesn't have a noticeable central region, or even spiral arms and a disk, typical features of a spiral galaxy.

Andromeda and Milky Way Collision The photo on the right, in about 4 Billion years from now, the Galaxy Andromeda and the Milky way will come in contact with each other to form one big Galaxy. But the chance of even two stars colliding is negligible because of the huge distances between the stars. The Andromeda Galaxy, 2.5 million light-years from Earth, contains about 1 trillion stars and the Milky Way contains about 300 billion. In order to see this image above would mean that Andromeda Galaxy is still around 100,000 light years away. Andromeda and Milky Way Collision (wiki).

There are about 50 Galaxies that we know of Circling the Milky way.

Laniakea Supercluster is the galaxy supercluster that is home to the Milky Way and approximately 100,000 other nearby galaxies.

Supercluster is a large group of smaller galaxy clusters or galaxy groups, which is among the largest-known structures of the cosmos. The Milky Way is part of the Local Group galaxy cluster (that contains more than 54 galaxies), which in turn is part of the Laniakea Supercluster. This supercluster spans over 500 million light-years, while the Local Group spans over 10 million light-years. The number of superclusters in the observable universe is estimated to be 10 million. Virgo Supercluster (wiki).

Coma Cluster is a large cluster of galaxies that contains over 1,000 identified galaxies.

Globular Cluster is a spherical collection of stars that orbits a galactic core as a satellite. Globular clusters are very tightly bound by gravity, which gives them their spherical shapes and relatively high stellar densities toward their centers. Globular clusters, which are found in the halo of a galaxy, contain considerably more stars and are much older than the less dense galactic, or open clusters, which are found in the disk. The galactic halo is an extended, roughly spherical component of a galaxy which extends beyond the main, visible component. Several distinct components of galaxies comprise the halo: the galactic spheroid (stars). the galactic corona (hot gas, i.e. a plasma). the dark matter halo. The distinction between the halo and the main body of the galaxy is clearest in spiral galaxies, where the spherical shape of the halo contrasts with the flat disc. In an elliptical galaxy, there is no sharp transition between the body of the galaxy and the halo.

Magellanic Clouds are two irregular dwarf galaxies visible from the southern hemisphere; they are members of the Local Group and are orbiting the Milky Way galaxy. Because they both show signs of a bar structure, they are often reclassified as Magellanic spiral galaxies. The two galaxies are: Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), approximately 160,000 light-years away. Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), approximately 200,000 light years away.

Close look at the ATLASGAL image of the plane of the Milky Way (youtube)

In around 1.2 million years from now a star will come close to ours.

There are 52 stellar systems beyond our own Solar system that currently lie within 5.0 parsecs (16.3 light-years) of the Sun. These systems contain a total of 63 stars, of which 50 are red dwarfs, by far the most common type of star in the Milky Way. Much more massive stars, such as our own, make up the remaining 13. In addition to these "true" stars, there are 11 brown dwarfs (objects not quite massive enough to fuse hydrogen), and 4 white dwarfs (extremely dense objects that remain after stars such as our Sun exhaust all fusable hydrogen in their core and slowly shed their outer layers while only the collapsed core remains). Despite the relative proximity of these objects to Earth, only nine (not including the Sun) are brighter than 6.5 apparent magnitude, the dimmest magnitude visible to the naked eye from Earth. All of these objects are located in the Local Bubble, a region within the Orion–Cygnus Arm of the Milky Way. Based on results from the Gaia telescope's second data release from April 2018, an estimated 694 stars will possibly approach the Solar system to less than 5.0 parsecs (16 light-years) over the next 15 million years. Of these, 26 have a good probability to come within 1.0 parsec (3.3 light-years) and another 7 within 0.5 parsecs (1.6 light-years). This number is likely much higher, due to the sheer number of stars needed to be surveyed; a star approaching the Solar System 10 million years ago, moving at a typical Sun-relative 20–200 kilometers per second, would be 600–6,000 light years from the Sun at present day, with millions of stars closer to the Sun. The closest encounter to the Sun so far predicted is the low-mass orange dwarf star Gliese 710 / HIP 89825 with roughly 60% the mass of the Sun. It is currently predicted to pass 19,300 ± 3,200 astronomical units (0.305 ± 0.051 light-years) from the Sun in 1.280+0.041−0.039 million years from the present, close enough to significantly disturb our Solar System's Oort cloud. The easiest way to determine stellar distance to the Sun for objects at these distances is parallax, which measures how much stars appear to move against background objects over the course of Earth's orbit around the Sun. As a parsec (parallax-second) is defined by the distance of an object that would appear to move exactly one second of arc against background objects, stars less than 5 parsecs away will have measured parallaxes of over 0.2 arcseconds, or 200 milliarcseconds. Determining past and future positions relies on accurate astrometric measurements of their parallax and total proper motions (how far they move across the sky due to their actual velocity relative to the Sun), along with spectroscopically determined radial velocities (their speed directly towards or away from us, which combined with proper motion defines their true movement through the sky relative to the Sun). Both of these measurements are subject to increasing and significant errors over very long time spans, especially over the several thousand-year time spans it takes for stars to noticeably move relative to each other.

Massive Galaxies are Still Forming. NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer has spotted what appear to be massive “baby” galaxies in our corner of the universe. Previously, astronomers thought the universe’s birth rate had dramatically declined and only small galaxies were forming. “We knew there were really massive young galaxies eons ago, but we thought they had all matured into older ones more like our Milky Way. If these galaxies are indeed newly formed, then this implies parts of the universe are still hotbeds of galaxy birth,” said Dr. Chris Martin. He is principal investigator for the Galaxy Evolution Explorer at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and co-author of the study.

Galaxy Formation and Evolution is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning, the formation of the first galaxies, the way galaxies change over time, and the processes that have generated the variety of structures observed in nearby galaxies.

Quantum Fluctuation is the temporary change in the amount of energy in a point in space. This allows the creation of particle-antiparticle pairs of virtual particles.

"I was given something wonderful, something that changed me forever. A vision of the universe." Quote from the 1997 Film "Contact"


Universe Studies


Astronomy is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics, physics, and chemistry, in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. The objects of interest include planets, moons, stars, galaxies, and comets; while the phenomena include supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation. More generally all astronomical phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere is within the preview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology, is concerned with the study of the Universe as a whole. Ask an Astronomer at Cornell University - Telescopes.

Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.

Astrophotography is a specialized type of photography for recording photos of astronomical objects, celestial events, and large areas of the night sky. Astrophotography.

Astronomical Symbols are symbols used to represent astronomical objects, theoretical constructs and observational events in astronomy. The earliest forms of these symbols appear in Greek papyri of late antiquity.

Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the heavenly bodies, rather than their positions or motions in space.

Plasma Physics is one of the four fundamental states of matter, the others being solid, liquid, and gas. A plasma has properties unlike those of the other states.

Constellation is formally defined as a region of the celestial sphere, with boundaries laid down by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The constellation areas mostly had their origins in Western-traditional patterns of stars from which the constellations take their names. Telescopes.

Age of Aquarius is an astrological term denoting either the current or forthcoming astrological age, depending on the method of calculation. Astrologers maintain that an astrological age is a product of the earth's slow precessional rotation and lasts for 2,160 years, on average (26,000-year period of precession / 12 zodiac signs = 2,160 years).

Physical Cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.

Cosmos is the universe regarded as a complex and orderly system; the opposite of chaos.

Cosmology is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe. Physical cosmology is the scholarly and scientific study of the origin, large-scale structures and dynamics, and ultimate fate of the universe, as well as the scientific laws that govern these realities.

Space Adventures - Science Websites - Science Education

Nikola Tesla - Wireless Energy


Universe


Universe is all of Time and Space and its contents. It includes Planets, Moons, minor planets, Stars, Galaxies, the contents of intergalactic space, and all matter and energy. The size of the entire Universe is unknown. Universe Basics (PDF).

250 million years after the Big Bang the Universe started to form. Astronomers have used observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) to determine that star formation in the very distant galaxy MACS1149-JD1 started at an unexpectedly early stage, only 250 million years after the Big Bang. This discovery also represents the most distant oxygen ever detected in the universe and the most distant galaxy ever observed by ALMA or the VLT.

Wendy Freedman: This new telescope might show us the beginning of the universe (video)

The most distant galaxy ever seen ' UDFj-39546284 is about 13.2 billion Light Years from Earth. The galaxy dated back to a time just 480 million years after the big bang. Giant Galaxies die from the inside out: Star formation shuts down in the centers of elliptical galaxies first. Older galaxies may only seem to be moving faster because in the past, time was faster?

Charting the Slow Death of the Universe is an international team of astronomers studying more than 200,000 galaxies has measured the energy generated within a large portion of space more precisely than ever before. They confirm that the energy produced in a section of the Universe today is only about half what it was two billion years ago and find that this fading is occurring across all wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. Is the Universe slowly dying?

Entropy - Black Holes


Big Bang


If the Universe was created about 13.7 Billion years ago, was it the First time or Second Time? When the Universe began was Dark Matter Present then? Was Dark Energy Present then? What is Space?

Big Bang is a theory of the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The model describes how the universe expanded from a very high density and high temperature state, and offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background, large scale structure and Hubble's Law.

Fire Investigation is the analysis of fire-related incidents. After firefighters extinguish a fire, an investigation is launched to determine the origin and cause of the fire or explosion. Investigations of such incidents require a systematic approach and knowledge of basic fire science. (Or the knowledge of life before life even existed. All you heard was a noise before you even knew what sound was, or before you even knew what time was, or anything else for that matter. Not to say that measurements of background radiation is not important, because it is. The question is Do you Know enough?).

Background Radiation is a measure of the ionizing Radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources. Background radiation originates from a variety of sources, both natural and artificial. These include cosmic radiation and environmental radioactivity from such as naturally occurring radioactive materials including radon and radium, and man-made fallout from nuclear weapons testing and nuclear accidents.

The Big Bang Never Happened (youtube) - Big Bang never Happened

Inflation in Cosmology is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10−36 seconds after the conjectured Big Bang singularity to sometime between 10−33 and 10−32 seconds after the singularity. Following the inflationary period, the Universe continues to expand, but at a less rapid rate.

Big Bounce is a hypothetical scientific model of the formation of the known universe. It was originally suggested as a property of the cyclic model or oscillatory universe interpretation of the Big Bang where the first cosmological event was the result of the collapse of a previous universe; however, it is also a consequence of applying loop quantum gravity techniques to Big Bang cosmology and this need not be cyclic.

Conformal Cyclic Cosmology the universe iterates through infinite cycle.

Recombination in cosmology refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms. Recombination occurred about 378,000 years after the Big Bang (at a redshift of z = 1100). The word "recombination" is misleading, since the big bang theory doesn't posit that protons and electrons had been combined before, but the name exists for historical reasons since it was named before the Big Bang hypothesis became the primary theory of the creation of the universe.

Primordial Fluctuations are density variations in the early universe which are considered the seeds of all structure in the universe. Currently, the most widely accepted explanation for their origin is in the context of cosmic inflation. According to the inflationary paradigm, the exponential growth of the scale factor during inflation caused quantum fluctuations of the inflaton field to be stretched to macroscopic scales, and, upon leaving the horizon, to "freeze in". At the later stages of radiation- and matter-domination, these fluctuations re-entered the horizon, and thus set the initial conditions for structure formation. The statistical properties of the primordial fluctuations can be inferred from observations of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background and from measurements of the distribution of matter, e.g., galaxy redshift surveys. Since the fluctuations are believed to arise from inflation, such measurements can also set constraints on parameters within inflationary theory.

Baryon Acoustic Oscillations are fluctuations in the density of the visible baryonic matter (normal matter) of the universe, caused by acoustic density waves in the primordial plasma of the early universe. In the same way that supernovae provide a "standard candle" for astronomical observations, BAO matter clustering provides a "standard ruler" for length scale in cosmology. The length of this standard ruler is given by the maximum distance the acoustic waves could travel in the primordial plasma before the plasma cooled to the point where it became neutral atoms (the epoch of recombination), which stopped the expansion of the plasma density waves, "freezing" them into place. The length of this standard ruler (~490 million light years in today's universe) can be measured by looking at the large scale structure of matter using astronomical surveys. BAO measurements help cosmologists understand more about the nature of dark energy (which causes the acceleration of the expansion of the universe) by constraining cosmological parameters.

Universe The Cosmology Quest (youtube)
Conspiracy Local (youtube)
The Electric Universe - HD Documentary 2015 (youtube)
Everything and Nothing with Jim Al-Khalili BBC

Universe Theory's - What we know so far

If a Galaxy is 13.2 billion light years away how do we know if it's moving away from us, towards us, or if it's even still there?

The Light from the sun takes 8 minutes to reach us, if it went out 7 minutes ago we wouldn't know it for another minute.

Spatial Intelligence - Digital Physics

Nebular Hypothesis is the most widely accepted model in the field of cosmogony to explain the formation and evolution of the Solar System. It suggests that the Solar System formed from nebulous material.

Morphs Collaboration was a coordinated study to determine the morphologies of galaxies in distant clusters and to investigate the evolution of galaxies as a function of environment and epoch. Eleven clusters were examined and a detailed ground-based and space-based study was carried out.

Is Space In Motion just like the planets and the stars?

Maybe the Big Bang is the reason why we're Flying through the universe?  Formation and evolution of the Solar System
Maybe the Big Bang was needed to create motion, which is needed to create Energy and Gravity?

Interstellar Medium is the matter that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy. This matter includes gas in ionic, atomic, and molecular form, as well as dust and cosmic rays. It fills interstellar space and blends smoothly into the surrounding intergalactic space. The energy that occupies the same volume, in the form of electromagnetic radiation, is the interstellar radiation field.

Vacuum Energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space throughout the entire Universe. One contribution to the vacuum energy may be from virtual particles which are thought to be particle pairs that blink into existence and then annihilate in a timespan too short to observe. Their behavior is codified in Heisenberg's energy–time uncertainty principle. Still, the exact effect of such fleeting bits of energy is difficult to quantify. The vacuum energy is a special case of zero-point energy that relates to the quantum vacuum.

Superconductor - Electromagnetism - Light - Atoms


Space Observation Tools


The National Radio Astronomy Observatory
Tiny1: The World's Smallest Astronomy Camera
Worlds Most Powerful 3.2-Gigapixel Digital Camera
Cosmic Journeys - Hubble: Universe in Motion (youtube)

Open Source Virtual Telescope and Interactive Universe Images for Students and the General Public

Galaxy Zoo Help Classify Galaxies - The Zooniverse is a collection of web-based Citizen Science projects that use the efforts and abilities of volunteers to help researchers deal with the flood of data that confronts them. Locating Planets.

Satellites

Telescopes


Big Dipper Changing Over Time Hubble Telescope
James Webb Telescope
Spitzer Telescope
X-Ray Telescoped
Radio Telescopes
Infrared Astronomy
Laser Guided Telescope (image)
Synoptic Survey Telescope
European Southern Observatory
Faulkes Telescope
Stratospheric Observatory Infrared Astronomy (wiki)
Fermi Gamma-Ray (wiki)
Meade LX 800
Celestron
Sloan Digital Sky Survey (wiki)
S.D.S.S.
Millimeter Telescope

Photo on the Right is the Big Dipper changing over time, from 100,000 BCE to present-day to 50,000 CE to 100,000 CE.

A telescope is like a time machine, you see distant stars and galaxies as there once were and not as we see them now.

Why do we see the same stars every night?

Planet Hunting

Globe at Night
Dark Sky
Worldwide Telescope

Telescopes to Buy (amazon)

Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL),was a 963 military reconnaissance space plane.

National Reconnaissance Operations Center

Almaz program was a highly secretive Soviet military space station program where 3 crewed military reconnaissance stations were launched between 1973 and 1976.

Telescope Optics Diagram Optical Telescope is a telescope that gathers and focuses light, mainly from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, to create a magnified image for direct view, or to make a photograph, or to collect data through electronic image sensors. There are three primary types of optical telescope: Refractors, which use lenses (dioptrics). Reflectors, which use mirrors (catoptrics). Catadioptric Telescopes, which combine lenses and mirrors.

Galileo Galilei (February 5th, 1564 – January 8th, 1642).

Refracting Telescope is a type of optical telescope that uses a lens as its objective to form an image (also referred to a dioptric telescope). The refracting telescope design was originally used in spy glasses and astronomical telescopes but is also used for long focus camera lenses. Although large refracting telescopes were very popular in the second half of the 19th century, for most research purposes the refracting telescope has been superseded by the Reflecting Telescope which allows larger apertures. A refractor's magnification is calculated by dividing the focal length of the objective lens by that of the eyepiece.

Lens in optics is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction. A simple lens consists of a single piece of transparent material, while a compound lens consists of several simple lenses (elements), usually arranged along a common axis. Lenses are made from materials such as glass or plastic, and are ground and polished or moulded to a desired shape. A lens can focus light to form an image, unlike a prism, which refracts light without focusing. Devices that similarly focus or disperse waves and radiation other than visible light are also called lenses, such as microwave lenses, electron lenses, acoustic lenses, or explosive lenses. Optical Engineering.

Bending Light

Eyepiece is a type of lens that is attached to a variety of optical devices such as telescopes and microscopes. The objective lens or mirror collects light and brings it to focus creating an image. The eyepiece is placed near the focal point of the objective to magnify this image. The amount of magnification depends on the focal length of the eyepiece. An eyepiece consists of several "lens elements" in a housing, with a "barrel" on one end.

Adaptive Optics is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of wavefront distortions: it aims at correcting the deformations of an incoming wavefront by deforming a mirror in order to compensate for the distortion. It is used in astronomical telescopes and laser communication systems to remove the effects of atmospheric distortion, in microscopy, optical fabrication and in retinal imaging systems to reduce optical aberrations. Adaptive optics works by measuring the distortions in a wavefront and compensating for them with a device that corrects those errors such as a deformable mirror or a liquid crystal array. Satellites.

Active Optics is a technology used with reflecting telescopes developed in the 1980s, which actively shapes a telescope's mirrors to prevent deformation due to external influences such as wind, temperature, mechanical stress. Without active optics, the construction of 8 metre class Telescopes is not possible, nor would telescopes with segmented mirrors be feasible.

Geometrical Optics describes light propagation in terms of rays. The ray in geometric optics is an abstraction useful for approximating the paths along which light propagates under certain circumstances. The simplifying assumptions of geometrical optics include that light rays: propagate in straight-line paths as they travel in a homogeneous medium. Bend, and in particular circumstances may split in two, at the interface between two dissimilar media. Follow curved paths in a medium in which the refractive index changes. May be absorbed or reflected. Geometrical optics does not account for certain optical effects such as diffraction and interference. This simplification is useful in practice; it is an excellent approximation when the wavelength is small compared to the size of structures with which the light interacts. The techniques are particularly useful in describing geometrical aspects of imaging, including optical aberrations.

Alhazen's Problem is a problem in geometrical optics first formulated by Ptolemy in 150 AD. It is named for the 11th-century Arab mathematician Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham) who presented a geometric solution in his Book of Optics. The algebraic solution involves quartic equations and was found only as late as 1965, by Jack M. Elkin. The problem comprises drawing lines from two points in a circle meeting at a third point on its circumference and making equal angles with the normal at that point. Thus, its main application in optics is to solve the problem, "Given a light source and a spherical mirror, find the point on the mirror where the light will be reflected to the eye of an observer." This leads to an equation of the fourth degree.

Image Sensors

Eyes in the Skies (looking inward)

Microscopes (looking inward)

MEMS Chips get Metalenses. Combining metasurface lenses with MEMS technology could add high-speed scanning and enhance focusing capability of optical systems. Lens technologies have advanced across all scales, from digital cameras and high bandwidth in fiber optics to the LIGO instruments. Now, a new lens technology that could be produced using standard computer-chip technology is emerging and could replace the bulky layers and complex geometries of traditional curved lenses. Researchers have developed a device that integrates mid-infrared spectrum metalenses onto MEMS. Scanning Electron Micrograph.

The Universe looks like one large experiment, trying all kind of things. Not every planet has life, not every star gives life, but you can still learn something from all these different outcomes. Space.

Space Travel 1 of 5 HQ - The Universe (youtube)

Universe Photos

M60-UCD1 Dwarf Galaxy with Black hole 5 times bigger then the Milky Way
Elephant-4214115
Butterfly Nebula
Colliding Galaxies Leave a Trail of Stars (NGC 4676)
Whirlpool Galaxy (M51)
Spiral Galaxy NGC 7714
Cats Eye Nebula Dying Star
Galaxy Pair Arp 87
Antennae Galaxies NGC 4038 NGC 4039
MyCn18
Sombrero Galaxy (M104)

There are more stars in space than there are grains of sand on every beach on Earth. Telescopes.

It seems that we see the same Stars every Night, well almost. If you only look at the stars at the same time at night and at the same time of year and in the same direction, it will seem that you see the same stars all the time. You need to see time-lapse photos of the night sky to better understand our planet, our solar system and our galaxy. The night sky in winter looks different than the summer. We see constellations at different times of the year - spring, summer, fall, & winter. This occurs because the Earth is orbiting the Sun. In winter, we see the constellation Orion in the south at night and during the day the Sun is in the sky with the constellation Scorpius. In summer, we see the opposite (we see Scorpius at night and Orion is in the sky during the day). This is why you cannot see Orion or any one constellation all year long, except for constellations in the northern circumpolar sky, which include Auriga, Camelopardalis, Cassiopeia, Cepheus, Draco, Lynx, Perseus, Ursa Major, and Ursa Minor. These constellations are always visible in the night sky of the Northern Hemisphere. Peripheral vision.

Celestial Sphere is an imaginary sphere of arbitrarily large radius, concentric with Earth. All objects in the observer's sky can be thought of as projected upon the inside surface of the celestial sphere, as if it were the underside of a dome or a hemispherical screen. The celestial sphere is a practical tool for spherical astronomy, allowing observers to plot positions of objects in the sky when their distances are unknown or unimportant. Relative?

Celestial Equator is a great circle on the imaginary celestial sphere, in the same plane as the Earth's equator. In other words, it is a projection of the terrestrial equator out into space. As a result of the Earth's axial tilt, the celestial equator is inclined by 23.4° with respect to the ecliptic plane.

Circumpolar Star is a star that, as viewed from a given latitude on Earth, never sets (that is, never disappears below the horizon), due to its proximity to one of the celestial poles. Circumpolar stars are therefore visible from said location toward nearest pole for the entire night on every night of the year (and would be continuously visible throughout the day too, were they not overwhelmed by the Sun's glare).

Copernican Principle is a working assumption that arises from a modified cosmological extension of Copernicus's heliocentric universe. Under the modified Copernican principle, neither the Sun nor the Earth are in a central, specially favored position in the universe. In some sense, it is equivalent to the mediocrity principle. More recently, the principle has been generalized to the relativistic concept that humans are not privileged observers of the universe.

Principle of Locality states that an object is only directly influenced by its immediate surroundings. A theory which includes the principle of locality is said to be a "local theory". This is an alternative to the older concept of instantaneous "action at a distance". Locality evolved out of the field theories of classical physics. The concept is that for an action at one point to have an influence at another point, something in the space between those points (such as a field, wave, or particle) must carry (i.e. "mediate") the action. To exert an influence, something must travel through the space between the two points, carrying the influence.

Image of the Angle our Solar System as it Travels through the Milky Way
Triangulation

Planisphere is a star chart analog computing instrument in the form of two adjustable disks that rotate on a common pivot. It can be adjusted to display the visible stars for any time and date. It is an instrument to assist in learning how to recognize stars and constellations. The astrolabe, an instrument that has its origins in Hellenistic astronomy, is a predecessor of the modern planisphere. The term planisphere contrasts with armillary sphere, where the celestial sphere is represented by a three-dimensional framework of rings.
Planisphere
How to read a Celestial Planisphere Chart

Using Stars to Navigate (sextant)

Uncle Milton Star Theatre Pro (amazon)
Portable Planetariums
Digital Education
Spitz Inc
DIY Star Projector

The number of Stars are estimated to be around is 300,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. That is 300 Sextillion.

Star Chart is a map of the night sky. Astronomers divide these into grids to use them more easily. They are used to identify and locate astronomical objects such as stars, constellations and galaxies. They have been used for human navigation since time immemorial. Note that a star chart differs from an astronomical catalog, which is a listing or tabulation of astronomical objects for a particular purpose. Tools utilizing a star chart include the astrolabe and the planisphere. Spatial Intelligence.

Apps for Star Names and Locations
Starwalk Cell Phone App
Space Junk App
Sky Guide App: View Stars Night or Day
Apps (store)

The Sun Moves too, everything moves together. Asteroids

The star is known as WISE J072003.20-084651.2, or Scholz's star. Today, it's 20 light-years away from us in the constellation Monoceros. But in a study published by Astrophysical Journal Letters, researchers say it passed right by us at a distance of 5 trillion miles (8 trillion kilometers, or 52,000 astronomical units, or 0.8 light-years). No other star has been known to come that close. A different star called HIP 85605 might make a dangerous pass through the Oort Cloud 240,000 to 470,000 years from now.

Coronagraph is a telescopic attachment designed to block out the direct light from a star so that nearby objects – which otherwise would be hidden in the star's bright glare – can be resolved. Most coronagraphs are intended to view the corona of the Sun, but a new class of conceptually similar instruments (called stellar coronagraphs to distinguish them from solar coronagraphs) are being used to find extrasolar planets and circumstellar disks around nearby stars.

Star Location Resources
In The Sky
Google Sky
Earth Sky
Planetarium
Sky and Telescope
Clear Dark Sky
The European Space Agency (ESA)
Eyes in Space
Hayden Planetarium
Night Sky Network
Star Count
Galaxy Zoo
Starry Night Software Store
Exploration NASA
Stellarium

NASA YouTube Channel (videos)
Galactic Center of Milky Way Rises over Texas Star Party (youtube)

Cosmic Distance Ladder is the succession of methods by which astronomers determine the distances to celestial objects. A real direct distance measurement of an astronomical object is possible only for those objects that are "close enough" (within about a thousand parsecs) to Earth. The techniques for determining distances to more distant objects are all based on various measured correlations between methods that work at close distances and methods that work at larger distances. Several methods rely on a standard candle, which is an astronomical object that has a known luminosity. The ladder analogy arises because no single technique can measure distances at all ranges encountered in astronomy. Instead, one method can be used to measure nearby distances, a second can be used to measure nearby to intermediate distances, and so on. Each rung of the ladder provides information that can be used to determine the distances at the next higher rung.

Standard Ruler is an astronomical object for which the actual physical size is known. By measuring its angular size in the sky, one can use simple trigonometry to determine its distance from Earth. In simple terms, this is because objects of a fixed size appear smaller the further away they are. Measuring distances is of great importance in cosmology, as the relationship between the distance and redshift of an object can be used to measure the expansion rate and geometry of the Universe. Distances can also be measured using standard candles; many different types of standard candles and rulers are needed to construct the cosmic distance ladder.

Redshift is a phenomenon where electromagnetic radiation (such as light) from an object undergoes an increase in wavelength. Whether or not the radiation is visible, "redshift" means an increase in wavelength, equivalent to a decrease in wave frequency and photon energy, in accordance with, respectively, the wave and quantum theories of light. Neither the emitted nor perceived light is necessarily red; instead, the term refers to the human perception of longer wavelengths as red, which is at the section of the visible spectrum with the longest wavelengths. Examples of redshifting are a gamma ray perceived as an X-ray, or initially visible light perceived as radio waves. The opposite of a redshift is a blueshift, where wavelengths shorten and energy increases. However, redshift is a more common term and sometimes blueshift is referred to as negative redshift. There are three main causes of red (and blue shifts) in astronomy and cosmology: Objects move apart (or closer together) in space. This is an example of the Doppler effect. Space itself expands, causing objects to become separated without changing their positions in space. This is known as cosmological redshift. All sufficiently distant light sources (generally more than a few million light years away) show redshift corresponding to the rate of increase in their distance from Earth, known as Hubble's Law. Gravitational redshift is a relativistic effect observed due to strong gravitational fields, which distort spacetime and exert a force on light and other particles. Knowledge of redshifts and blueshifts has been used to develop several terrestrial technologies such as Doppler radar and radar guns. Redshifts are also seen in the spectroscopic observations of astronomical objects. Its value is represented by the letter z.



Earth


Earth as seen from Space Earth was formed about 4.54 billion years ago. The third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life. During one orbit around the Sun, Earth rotates about its own axis 366.26 times, creating 365.26 solar days or one sidereal year. The Earth has 5 Directions of Motion, Wobble, Spin, Orbit around the Sun, Orbit around the Galaxy, and Moving through space in the same direction as our Galaxy. Earth's Circumference: 24,901.46 miles or 40,075.017 km. Radius: 3,959 mi. Area: 196.9 million mi². Mass: 5.972 × 10^24 kg. Distance from Sun: 92.96 million mi., Earth is Biosphere 1. Subterranean Biosphere.

The length of an Earth day has grown by 1.8 milliseconds per century.

Future of the Earth can be extrapolated based upon the estimated effects of several long-term influences. These include the chemistry at Earth's Surface, the rate of cooling of the planet's interior, the gravitational interactions with other objects in the Solar System, and a steady increase in the Sun's luminosity. An uncertain factor in this extrapolation is the ongoing influence of technology introduced by humans, such as climate engineering, which could cause significant changes to the planet. The current Holocene extinction is being caused by ignorance and the effects may last for up to five million years. In turn, ignorance may result in the extinction of humanity, leaving the planet to gradually return to a slower evolutionary pace resulting solely from long-term natural processes.

Planet Sizes (youtube) - Video 2
Google Earth - Countries by Land Size (image)
Weather - Magnetic Core
Giga Pan - Planet Earth's Northern Hemisphere (youtube)
Solar System
Age of the Earth (timeline)
Eclipse

Interesting information about the Earth


Did you know that if the earth were the size of a Billiard Ball, it would be as smooth as a billiard ball. High and Low Areas of Earth Chart (image). If the Sun was the same size as a Basketball.

If you took all the water on earth and put it into a ball, the ball would be half the size of the Moon, around 860 miles in diameter. About 71 percent of the Earth's surface is water-covered, and the oceans hold about 96.5 percent of all Earth's water. Water also exists in the air as water vapor, in rivers and lakes, in icecaps and glaciers, in the ground as soil moisture and in aquifers, and even in you and your dog.

A day on Earth is actually 23 Hrs, 56 Mins and 4.1 Seconds long. 

Sidereal Time is a time-keeping system that astronomers use to locate celestial objects. Using sidereal time it is possible to easily point a telescope to the proper coordinates in the night sky. Briefly, sidereal time is a "time scale that is based on Earth's rate of rotation measured relative to the fixed stars" rather than the Sun.

23.5 Degrees North Latitude (Axial Tilt)

Leap Second is a one-second adjustment that is occasionally applied to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) in order to keep its time of day close to the mean solar time, or UT1. Without such a correction, time reckoned by Earth's rotation drifts away from atomic time because of irregularities in the Earth's rate of rotation. Since this system of correction was implemented in 1972, 27 leap seconds have been inserted, the most recent on December 31, 2016 at 23:59:60 UTC.

On Mercury, a day is two years long. Time Management.

The Earth is slowing at a rate of 4.7×10−4 miles per second every 100 years due to tidal forces of the moon. Earth's Rotation (wiki)

The Moon is currently moving away from the Earth at about 3.8 centimeters per year.

Earths Inner Core is about the same temperature as the surface of the Sun, approximately 5700 K (5430 °C).

Navigation (how to find your way around planet earth)

The earth is not perfectly Round. Ellipsoid is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere by deforming it by means of directional scaling's.

Geodesy is the measurement and representation of the Earth (or any planet), including its gravitational field, in a three-dimensional time-varying space. Geodesists also study geodynamical phenomena such as crustal motion, tides, and polar motion. For this they design global and national control networks, using space and terrestrial techniques while relying on datums and coordinate systems.

Geography

Historia Da Terra  (Earth Story with Aubrey Manning, History of our Planet) 

Earth Story: Video 1.The age of the Earth (1 of 6 ) (youtube)
Earth Rotation & Revolution around a moving Sun (youtube)

Earth Tilt Orbit Solstice is an astronomical event that occurs twice each year (in June and December) as the Sun reaches its highest or lowest excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere. The seasons of the year are directly connected to both the solstices and the equinoxes. After the winter solstice the sun shines a little longer each day about 2 minutes and 7 seconds. Orbit.

Tropic of Cancer, also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is currently 23°26′13.2″ (or 23.437°) north of the Equator. It is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead. This occurs on the June solstice, when the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun to its maximum extent.

Tropic of Capricorn is the circle of latitude that contains the subsolar point on the December (or southern) solstice. It is thus the southernmost latitude where the Sun can be directly overhead. Its northern equivalent is the Tropic of Cancer. The Tropic of Capricorn is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of Earth. As of 6 August 2017, its latitude is 23°26′13.2″ (or 23.437°) south of the Equator, but it is very gradually moving northward, currently at the rate of 0.47 arcseconds, or 15 metres, per year. Arcsecond is a unit of angular measurement equal to 1/60 of one degree. The angular measure of an object is usually expressed in degrees, arcminutes or arcseconds. Just as an hour is divided into 60 minutes and a minute into 60 seconds, a degree is divided into 60 arcminutes and an arcminute is divided into 60 arcseconds.

Tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at 23°26′13.0″ (or 23.43696°) N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at 23°26′13.0″ (or 23.43696°) S; these latitudes correspond to the axial tilt of the Earth. The tropics are also referred to as the tropical zone and the torrid zone (see geographical zone). The tropics include all the areas on the Earth where the Sun contacts the zenith, a point directly overhead, at least once during the solar year (which is a subsolar point). The tropics are distinguished from the other climatic and biomatic regions of Earth, which are the middle latitudes and the polar regions on either side of the equatorial zone. The tropics comprise 40% of the Earth's surface area and contain 36% of the Earth's landmass.As of 2014, the region is home to 40% of the world population, and this figure is projected to reach 50% by the late 2030s.

Each zone is 10 degrees F warmer (or colder) than an adjacent zone during an average winter.

Earth's Motion around the Sun, not as simple as I thought (youtube)

Climate is the statistics of weather, usually over a 30-year interval. It is measured by assessing the patterns of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time. Climate differs from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region. A region's climate is generated by the climate system, which has five components: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere.

Climatology is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as Weather conditions averaged over a period of time.

Temperate Climate is when the temperatures in certain regions are generally relatively moderate, rather than extremely hot or cold, and the changes between summer and winter are also usually moderate.

Highest Temperature Recorded on Earth. According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the highest registered
air temperature on Earth was 56.7 °C (134.1 °F) in Furnace Creek Ranch, California, located in the Death Valley desert in the United States, on July 10, 1913. The lowest natural temperature ever directly recorded at ground level on Earth is -89.2 °C (-128.6 °F; 184.0 K) at the Soviet Vostok Station in Antarctica on July 21, 1983 by ground measurements.

Air - Weather - Wind - Clouds - Rain - Storms - Fires - Volcanoes - Earthquakes

Season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology and hours of daylight. Seasons result from the yearly orbit of the Earth around the Sun and the tilt of the Earth's rotational axis relative to the plane of the orbit. In temperate and polar regions, the seasons are marked by changes in the intensity of sunlight that reaches the Earth's surface, variations of which may cause animals to go into hibernation or to migrate, and plants to be dormant. During May, June, and July, the northern hemisphere is exposed to more direct sunlight because the hemisphere faces the sun. The same is true of the southern hemisphere in November, December, and January. It is the tilt of the Earth that causes the Sun to be higher in the sky during the summer months which increases the solar flux. However, due to seasonal lag, June, July, and August are the hottest months in the northern hemisphere and December, January, and February are the hottest months in the southern hemisphere.

Seasonality consists of periodic, repetitive, and generally regular and predictable patterns in the levels of a time series. Seasonality can repeat on a weekly, monthly or quarterly basis, these periods of time are structured and occur in a length of time less than a year. Cycle.

Atmosphere


Atmosphere is a layer of Gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body. An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if its gravity is high and the atmosphere's temperature is low. Magnetosphere.

Biosphere - Ecosphere - Overview Effect - Our Living Planet From Space (youtube) - NASA.

Exosphere: 700 to 10,000 km (440 to 6,200 miles).
Thermosphere: 80 to 700 km (50 to 440 miles). (2,500 °C or 4,530 °F).
Mesosphere: 50 to 80 km (31 to 50 miles). (−143 °C or −225 °F; 130 K).
Stratosphere: 12 to 50 km (7 to 31 miles). UV
Troposphere: 0 to 12 km (0 to 7 miles). Weather - Lightning

Atmospheric Chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied. It is a multidisciplinary approach of research and draws on environmental chemistry, physics, meteorology, computer modeling, oceanography, geology and volcanology and other disciplines. Research is increasingly connected with other arenas of study such as climatology.

Atmospheric Physics is the application of physics to the study of the atmosphere. Atmospheric physicists attempt to model Earth's atmosphere and the atmospheres of the other planets using fluid flow equations, chemical models, radiation budget, and energy transfer processes in the atmosphere (as well as how these tie into other systems such as the oceans).

Atmospheric and Space Scientists investigate atmospheric phenomena and interpret meteorological data, gathered by surface and air stations, satellites, and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other uses.

Atmospheric Escape is the loss of planetary atmospheric gases or Air to outer space. A number of different mechanisms can be responsible for atmospheric escape, operating at different time scales; the most prominent is Jeans Escape, named after British astronomer Sir James Jeans, who described the process of atmospheric loss to the molecular kinetic energy. Hydrogen and Helium are very light gases, so light that Earth's gravity is too weak to hold them. Most of the hydrogen and helium of the early atmosphere escaped into space.

Root-Mean-Square Speed is the measure of the speed of particles in a gas which is most convenient for problem solving within the kinetic theory of gases. It is defined as the square root of the average velocity-squared of the molecules in a gas. Atmosphere of Earth at sea level, by contrast, is packed with about 100 billion billion molecules per cubic centimetre.

Plasmasphere or inner magnetosphere, is a region of the Earth's Magnetosphere consisting of low energy (cool) plasma. It is located above the ionosphere. The outer boundary of the plasmasphere is known as the plasmapause, which is defined by an order of magnitude drop in plasma density.

Earth Air Composition Troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where all weather takes place. It contains approximately 75% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of the total mass of water vapor and aerosols. The average depths of the troposphere are 20 km (12 mi) in the tropics, 17 km (11 mi) in the mid latitudes, and 7 km (4.3 mi) in the polar regions in winter. The lowest part of the troposphere, where friction with the Earth's surface influences air flow, is the planetary boundary layer. This layer is typically a few hundred meters to 2 km (1.2 mi) deep depending on the landform and time of day. Atop the troposphere is the tropopause, which is the border between the troposphere and stratosphere. The tropopause is an inversion layer, where the air temperature ceases to decrease with height and remains constant through its thickness.

Tropospheric Ozone is a constituent of the troposphere (it is also an important constituent of some regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the ozone layer). The troposphere extends from the Earth's surface to between 12 and 20 kilometers above sea level and consists of many layers. Ozone is more concentrated above the mixing layer, or ground layer. Ground-level ozone, though less concentrated than ozone aloft, is more of a problem because of its health effects.

Oxygen Atom Oxygen is a highly reactive nonmetal and oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O2. This is an important part of the atmosphere and diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere. Additionally, as oxides the element makes up almost half of the Earth's crust. In one atom of oxygen is 8 protons. In one molecule of oxygen gas, which is O2, 2 times 8 = 16 protons.

Every Breath you Take - Antioxidants (free radicals) - Exercise

Oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula. Oxidation.

The ground state of dioxygen is known as triplet oxygen because it has two unpaired electrons. The first excited state, singlet oxygen, has no unpaired electrons and is metastable, which means it is continuing in its present state of equilibrium unless sufficiently disturbed to pass to a more stable state of equilibrium.

Triplet Oxygen the electron configuration of the oxygen molecule has two electrons occupying two molecular orbitals (MOs) of equal energy (that is, degenerate MOs), therefore remaining unpaired. These orbitals are classified as antibonding and are of higher energy, so the resulting bonding structure between the oxygen atoms is weakened (i.e., is higher in energy)—for instance, it is higher in energy than the bonding in dinitrogen, where the corresponding antibonding orbitals are empty.

Singlet Oxygen is a high-energy form of oxygen. A gas with the formula O2, its physical properties differ only subtly from those of the more prevalent triplet ground state of O2. In terms of its chemical reactivity, however, singlet oxygen is far more reactive toward organic compounds.

Air (that stuff you breathe)

Geological History of Oxygen (wiki)

O2 Gas Molecule Great Oxygenation Event is when oceanic cyanobacteria are believed to have become the first microbes to produce oxygen by photosynthesis. Before the GOE, any free oxygen they produced was chemically captured by dissolved iron or organic matter. The GOE was the point in time when these oxygen sinks became saturated, at which point oxygen, produced by the cyanobacteria, was free to escape into the atmosphere. Oxygen is the byproduct of life intervening in our planet’s geochemical cycles: harvesting solar energy to split water molecules, keeping the Hydrogen Atoms and reacting them with CO2 to make organic food and body parts, but spitting the oxygen back out. In Earth’s upper atmosphere some of this oxygen, under the influence of ultraviolet light, is transformed into ozone, O3, which shields Earth’s surface from deadly ultraviolet, making the land surface habitable. When it appeared, this shield allowed life to leave the ocean and the continents to become green with forests. O2 rendered the once deadly continents habitable for life.

Oxygen Depletion - Global Warming

Dissolved Oxygen - Joseph Priestley (wiki)

Earth Air Composition There is more oxygen in forests and in green areas then there is in deserts and in cities. Air would also be cleaner and more humidified in forests and in other green areas like near waterfalls. Cities have less oxygen because there are less trees and more pollution. There is also more oxygen at lower altitudes and less oxygen at higher altitudes. The arctic and Antarctic regions have the highest oxygen ratios. Oxygen saturation is inversely proportional to the temperature of the water and phytoplankton life is abundant in cold waters. The amount of oxygen produced by single cell organisms is way more than that produced by multicellular plants

Global Oxygen Levels are Dropping
CO2 Increasing

Carbon Dioxide in Earth's Atmosphere. Earth's atmosphere currently constituting about 0.04% of CO2.

Keeling Curve is a graph which plots the ongoing change in concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere since 1958.

Nitrogen Atom Percent Oxygen in Air (youtube)

Breathing - Air

Climate Change - Seasons

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and Atomic Number 7. The lightest member of group 15 of the periodic table, often called the pnictogens. The name comes from the Greek πνίγειν "to choke", directly referencing nitrogen's asphyxiating properties.

Cosmic Cinema: astronomers make real-time, 3D movies of plasma tubes drifting overhead (youtube)



Weather Monitoring


Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. Most weather phenomena occur in the lowest level of the atmosphere, the troposphere, just below the stratosphere. Weather refers to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the averaging of atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. When used without qualification, "weather" is generally understood to mean the weather of Earth. Seasons.

Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting, which is made by collecting quantitative data about the current state of the atmosphere at a given place and using meteorology to predict how the atmosphere will change. Emergencies.

Weather Reports - Intellicast Detailed Local Weather Reports in several formats

BloomSky World's Smartest Weather Camera Station Smartest weather camera station with real-time images, time-lapse & precise weather data.

Portable Weather Stations

Ventusky animated wind, rain and temperature maps, detailed forecast for your place, data from the best weather forecast models such as GFS, ICON, GEM.

Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Water vapor is the gaseous state of water and is invisible. Humidity indicates the likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog. Higher humidity reduces the effectiveness of sweating in cooling the body by reducing the rate of evaporation of moisture from the skin. This effect is calculated in a heat index table or humidex.

Dew Point is the temperature at which dew forms and is a measure of atmospheric moisture. It is the temperature to which air must be cooled at constant pressure and water content to reach saturation. A higher dew point indicates more moisture in the air; a dew point greater than 20 °C (68 °F) is considered uncomfortable and greater than 22 °C (72 °F) is considered to be extremely humid. Frost point is the dew point when temperatures are below freezing. The dew point is the temperature at which the moisture (water vapor) in the air begins to condense. The warmer the air is, the more moisture it can hold. Condense is to change or cause to change from a gas or vapor to a liquid. Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of Evaporation, which is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous phase that is not saturated with the evaporating substance. Once the air temperature reaches the dew point, fog will form. It also determines whether it will rain or snow. The dew point determines how high the danger is for a grass or brush fire during a dry spell. It affects whether you will have to clean the frost off your windshield in the morning. The dew point determines how uncomfortable you will feel on a warm summer day. When you perspire, the water on your skin evaporates and cools your body, this is your temperature regulating system at work. When the dew point is high, the evaporation rate is very slow because there is so much water vapor in the air, and you don't get the cooling effect from your wet skin. The dew point also affects how you feel when you get out of a pool, lake or the ocean. On those days when the dew point is very low, you will feel cooler than when the dew point is high. This is because when the dew point is low, the water on your skin evaporates faster thus cooling you off.

Atmospheric Pressure sometimes also called Barometric Pressure, is the pressure exerted by the weight of air in the atmosphere of Earth. The Earth's atmosphere exerts a pressure on the surface. Areas of high and low pressure are caused by ascending and descending air. As air warms, it ascends leading to low pressure at the surface. As air cools, it descends leading to high pressure at the surface. In most circumstances atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by the hydrostatic pressure caused by the weight of air above the measurement point. Low-pressure areas have less atmospheric mass above their location, whereas high-pressure areas have more atmospheric mass above their location. Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing elevation. Standard sea-level pressure, by definition, equals 760 mm (29.92 inches) of mercury, 14.70 pounds per square inch, 1,013.25 × 103 dynes per square centimetre, 1,013.25 millibars, one standard atmosphere, or 101.325 kilopascals. When the air pressure drops, so does the mercury level. Atmospheric pressure can also be measured in millibars (mb), with a "bar" being roughly equivalent to one atmosphere of pressure (one atmosphere equals 1.01325 bars). One bar is equivalent to 29.6 in. Hg.A barometer reading of 30 inches (Hg) is considered normal.

Visibility is a measure of the distance at which an object or light can be clearly discerned. The transparency of air. Smoke.

Amazing Mirror & Air Experiment! (youtube) - This is a demonstration of the Schlieren effect. This setup allows you to see changes in air density. The point light source is aimed at the concave mirror. The concave mirror reflects to a focal point. There you use a sharp edged object to partially block the light which helps create a shadow effect that allows you to see air movement. Flying (action physics).

Ultraviolet Index or UV Index, is an international standard measurement of the strength of Sunburn-producing ultraviolet (UV) radiation at a particular place and time. The calculation starts with measurements of current total ozone amounts over the entire globe, obtained via two satellites operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. These data are used to produce a forecast of stratospheric ozone levels for the next day at many points across the country. A computer model uses the ozone forecast and the incident angle of sunlight at each point to calculate the strength of UV radiation at ground level. Sunlight angle is determined by latitude, day of year, and time of day (solar noon). The strength of UV radiation is calculated for several wavelengths between 280 and 400 nm, the full spectrum of UVB (280-314 nm) and UVA (315-400 nm) radiation.
Factors that determine the UV Index
The thickness of the ozone layer over your city (detected using satellites) - UV Index (weather.com).
The cloud cover over your city (clouds block UV radiation to varying degrees).
Air pollution: Similar to the way clouds shield the Earth's surface from the suns UV, urban smog can reduce the amount of UV energy reaching the Earth by reflecting UV back towards space or absorbing UV.
The time of year (in winter, UV radiation is lower than in the summer because of the sun's angle).
Time of day: On any day the greatest amount of UV reaches the Earth around midday when the sun is at its highest point. Up to 50% of daily UV radiation levels is received between 11am and 2pm.
The elevation of your city (higher elevations get more UV radiation).
Latitude: Since the sun's UV energy impacts the Earth's surface at the most direct angle over the equator it is the most intense at this latitude. Sun Burn - Degrees of Burns.

Testing UV Absorption Eyewear and Sunscreen with a Deuterium Light Source (youtube)
CIE Erythema Action Spectrum and Standard Erythema Dose - International Commission on Illumination.

Erythema is redness of the skin or mucous membranes, caused by hyperemia (increased blood flow) in superficial capillaries. It occurs with any skin injury, infection, or inflammation. Examples of erythema not associated with pathology include nervous blushes.

Absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral absorbance or spectral decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material. Absorbance is dimensionless, and in particular is not a length, though it is a monotonically increasing function of path length, and approaches zero as the path length approaches zero. The use of the term "optical density" for absorbance is discouraged. In physics, a closely related quantity called "optical depth" is used instead of absorbance: the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material. The optical depth equals the absorbance times ln(10). The term absorption refers to the physical process of Absorbing Light, while absorbance does not always measure absorption: it measures attenuation (of transmitted radiant power). Attenuation can be caused by absorption, but also reflection, scattering, and other physical processes.

Ozone Layer is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It contains high concentrations of ozone (O3) in relation to other parts of the atmosphere, although still small in relation to other gases in the stratosphere. The ozone layer contains less than 10 parts per million of ozone, while the average ozone concentration in Earth's atmosphere as a whole is about 0.3 parts per million. The ozone layer is mainly found in the lower portion of the stratosphere, from approximately 20 to 30 kilometres (12 to 19 mi) above Earth, although its thickness varies seasonally and geographically. The ozone layer continues to thin. The ozone layer protects life on earth from high-energy radiation. Ozone is formed in the stratosphere, mainly at altitudes above 30 km in the tropics. From there it is distributed around the globe by atmospheric circulation. When excessive quantities of ozone-depleting chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbons (e.g. CFCs) were released into the atmosphere, the ozone layer in the stratosphere - i.e. at altitudes of 15 to 50 km thinned out globally. The Montreal Protocol introduced a ban on these long-lasting substances in 1989. Despite the ban on CFCs, the concentra-tion of ozone in the lower part of the stratosphere (15 to 24 km) - where the ozone layer is at its den-sest - has contined to decline at latitudes between 60° S and 60° N. The scientists were able to de-monstrate this using satellite measurements spanning the last three decades together with advanced statistical methods. very short-lived substances (VSLSs) containing chlorine and bromine are on the rise, and could increasingly enter the lower stratosphere.

Indoor Air Monitoring - Weather Effects on the Body and Mind

Surface Weather Observation are the fundamental data used for safety as well as climatological reasons to forecast weather and issue warnings worldwide. They can be taken manually, by a weather observer, by computer through the use of automated weather stations, or in a hybrid scheme using weather observers to augment the otherwise automated weather station.

Eyes in the Sky (drones) - Satellites

Earthquakes - Volcanoes - Fires


Wind


Polar Vortex Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of Air. Ocean Currents.

Wind Direction is reported by the direction from which it originates. For example, a northerly wind blows from the north to the south. Wind direction is usually reported in cardinal directions or in azimuth degrees. Wind direction is measured in degrees clockwise from due north and so a wind coming from the south has a wind direction of 180 degrees; one from the east is 90 degrees. Winds are described after the direction from which they come, followed by '-erly'. For example, winds from the north are called ‘northerly winds’(north +-erly). Upward Drafts (hot air).

Microburst or air bombs, is a small downdraft that moves in a way opposite to a tornado. Microbursts are found in strong thunderstorms.

Wind Shear is a difference in wind speed and/or direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric wind shear is normally described as either vertical or horizontal wind shear. Vertical wind shear is a change in wind speed or direction with change in altitude. Horizontal wind shear is a change in wind speed with change in lateral position for a given altitude.

Thermals (a column of rising air)

Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid). Convection takes place through advection, diffusion or both. Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and is a means by which thermal energy is distributed on the surface of the Earth, together with the much slower (lagged) ocean circulation system. The large-scale structure of the atmospheric circulation varies from year to year, but the basic climatological structure remains fairly constant. Latitudinal circulation occurs because incident solar radiation per unit area is highest at the heat equator, and decreases as the latitude increases, reaching minima at the poles. It consists of two primary convection cells, the Hadley cell and the polar vortex, with the Hadley cell experiencing stronger convection due to the release of latent heat energy by condensation of water vapor at higher altitudes during cloud formation. Longitudinal circulation, on the other hand, comes about because the ocean has a higher specific heat capacity than land (and also thermal conductivity, allowing the heat to penetrate further beneath the surface) and thereby absorbs and releases more heat, but the temperature changes less than land. This brings the sea breeze, air cooled by the water, ashore in the day, and carries the land breeze, air cooled by contact with the ground, out to sea during the night. Longitudinal circulation consists of two cells, the Walker circulation and El Niño / Southern Oscillation.

Hadley Cell is a tropical atmospheric circulation that features air rising near the equator, flowing poleward at 10–15 kilometers above the surface, descending in the subtropics, and then flowing equatorward near the surface. This circulation creates the trade winds, tropical rain-belts and hurricanes, subtropical deserts and the jet streams.

Atmospheric River Atmospheric River is a narrow corridor or filament of concentrated moisture in the atmosphere. Atmospheric rivers consist of narrow bands of enhanced water vapor transport, typically along the boundaries between large areas of divergent surface air flow, including some frontal zones in association with extratropical cyclones that form over the oceans. Pineapple Express storms are the most commonly represented and recognized type of atmospheric rivers; they are given the name due to the warm water vapor plumes originating over the Hawaiian tropics that follow a path towards California.

Jet Stream are fast flowing, narrow, meandering air currents in the atmospheres of some planets, including Earth. On Earth, the main jet streams are located near the altitude of the tropopause and are westerly winds (flowing west to east). Their paths typically have a meandering shape. Jet streams may start, stop, split into two or more parts, combine into one stream, or flow in various directions including opposite to the direction of the remainder of the jet. The strongest jet streams are the Polar Jets, at 9–12 km (30,000–39,000 ft) above sea level, and the higher altitude and somewhat weaker subtropical jets at 10–16 km (33,000–52,000 ft). The Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere each have a polar jet and a subtropical jet. The northern hemisphere polar jet flows over the middle to northern latitudes of North America, Europe, and Asia and their intervening oceans, while the southern hemisphere polar jet mostly circles Antarctica all year round. Jet streams are the product of two factors: the atmospheric heating by solar radiation that produces the large scale Polar, Ferrel, and Hadley circulation cells, and the action of the Coriolis force acting on thoseJet Stream Diagram moving masses. The Coriolis Force is caused by the planet's rotation on its axis. On other planets, internal heat rather than solar heating drives their jet streams. The Polar jet stream forms near the interface of the Polar and Ferrel circulation cells; the subtropical jet forms near the boundary of the Ferrel and Hadley circulation cells. Other jet streams also exist. During the Northern Hemisphere summer, easterly jets can form in tropical regions, typically where dry air encounters more humid air at high altitudes. Low-level jets also are typical of various regions such as the central United States. There are also jetstreams in the thermosphere. Meteorologists use the location of some of the jet streams as an aid in weather forecasting. The main commercial relevance of the jet streams is in air travel, as flight time can be dramatically affected by either flying with the flow or against, which results in significant fuel and time cost savings for airlines. Often, the airlines work to fly 'with' the jet stream for this reason. Dynamic North Atlantic Tracks are one example of how airlines and air traffic control work together to accommodate the jet stream and winds aloft that results in the maximum benefit for airlines and other users. Clear-air turbulence, a potential hazard to aircraft passenger safety, is often found in a jet stream's vicinity, but it does not create a substantial alteration on flight times. These are a narrow belt.

Outflow Boundary is a boundary separating thunderstorm-cooled air (outflow) from the surrounding air; similar in effect to a cold front, with passage marked by a wind shift and usually a drop in temperature and a related pressure jump.

Mesoscale Meteorology horizontal dimensions generally range from around 5 kilometers to several hundred kilometers. Vertical velocity often equals or exceeds horizontal velocities in mesoscale meteorological systems due to nonhydrostatic processes such as buoyant acceleration of a rising thermal or acceleration through a narrow mountain pass.

North Atlantic Oscillation is a weather phenomenon in the North Atlantic Ocean of fluctuations in the difference of atmospheric pressure at sea level (SLP) between the Icelandic low and the Azores high. Through fluctuations in the strength of the Icelandic low and the Azores high, it controls the strength and direction of westerly winds and location of storm tracks across the North Atlantic. It is part of the Arctic oscillation, and varies over time with no particular periodicity.

Entrainment in meteorology is a phenomenon of the atmosphere which occurs when a turbulent flow captures a non-turbulent flow. It is typically used to refer to the capture of a wind flow of high moisture content, or in the case of tropical cyclones, the capture of drier air. Detrainment is the opposite effect when the air from a convective cloud, usually at its top, is injected in the environment.

Wind Chill is the perceived decrease in air temperature felt by the body on exposed skin due to the flow of air. The temperature of the Air does not change, the wind helps remove the warm air immediately next to the skin and this causes a feeling of it being colder. The wind chill was developed because of the feeling that it gets colder when the wind is stronger due to a more rapid heat loss from the body. Wind chill numbers are always lower than the air temperature for values where the formula is valid. When the apparent temperature is higher than the air temperature, the heat index is used instead.


Clouds


Cloud Types Clouds is an aerosol comprising a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or particles suspended in the atmosphere above the surface of a planetary body. The droplets and crystals may be made of water or various chemicals. On Earth, clouds are formed as a result of saturation of the air when it is cooled to its dew point, or when it gains sufficient moisture (usually in the form of water vapor) from an adjacent source to raise the dew point to the ambient temperature. They are seen in the Earth's Homosphere, which includes the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere. Nephology is the science of clouds which is undertaken in the cloud physics branch of meteorology. Storms.

All About Clouds for Kids: Types and Names of Clouds - FreeSchool (youtube)
The Three Main Clouds - Cirrus, Stratus, Cumulus (youtube)

Cloud Types List (wiki) - Cumulus (white fluffy) and Stratus (blanket) are low clouds below 6,500 feet. Cirrus Clouds are above 20,000 feet. Arcus Cloud - Roll cloud - Mustache Cloud.

Noctilucent Cloud or Electric Blue Polar Cloud, are tenuous cloud-like phenomena that are the "ragged edge" of a much brighter and pervasive polar cloud layer called polar mesospheric clouds in the upper atmosphere, visible in a deep twilight. They are made of ice crystals and are only visible in a deep twilight. These clouds can be observed only when the Sun is below the horizon for the observer, but while the clouds are still in sunlight. Noctilucent roughly means night shining in Latin. They are most commonly observed in the summer months at latitudes between 50° and 70° north and south of the equator. These clouds can be observed only during local summer months and when the Sun is below the horizon for the observer, but while the clouds are still in sunlight.

ScienceCasts: Electric-Blue Clouds Appear Over Antarctica (youtube)

Polar Mesospheric Clouds are a phenomenon known as noctilucent clouds. From satellites, PMCs are most frequently observed above 70°-75° in latitude and have a season of 60 to 80 days duration centered about a peak which occurs about 20 days after the summer solstice. This holds true for both hemispheres. Great variability in scattering is observed from day-to-day and year-to- year, but averaging over large time and space scales reveals a basic underlying symmetry and pattern. The long- term behaviour of polar mesospheric cloud frequency has been found to vary inversely with solar activity.

Polar Stratospheric Cloud also known as nacreous clouds, are clouds in the winter polar stratosphere at altitudes of 15,000–25,000 meters (49,000–82,000 ft). They are best observed during civil twilight when the sun is between 1 and 6 degrees below the horizon as well as in winter and in more northerly latitudes. They are implicated in the formation of ozone holes. The effects on ozone depletion arise because they support chemical reactions that produce active chlorine which catalyzes ozone destruction, and also because they remove gaseous nitric acid, perturbing nitrogen and chlorine cycles in a way which increases ozone destruction. (from nacre, or mother of pearl, due to its iridescence).

Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of tiny water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface. Fog can be considered a type of low-lying cloud, usually resembling stratus, and is heavily influenced by nearby bodies of water, topography, and wind conditions. In turn, fog has affected many human activities, such as shipping, travel, and warfare.

Dust are fine particles of solid matter. It generally consists of particles in the atmosphere that come from various sources such as soil, dust lifted by wind (an aeolian process), volcanic eruptions, and pollution. Dust in homes, offices, and other human environments contains small amounts of plant pollen, human and animal hairs, textile fibers, paper fibers, minerals from outdoor soil, human skin cells, burnt meteorite particles, and many other materials which may be found in the local environment.

Mineral Dust is atmospheric aerosols originated from the suspension of minerals constituting the soil. It is composed of various oxides and carbonates. Human activities lead to 30% of the dust load in the atmosphere. The Sahara Desert is the major source of mineral dust, which subsequently spreads across the Mediterranean (where it is the origin of rain dust) and Caribbean seas into northern South America, Central America, North America, and Europe. Additionally, it plays a significant role in the nutrient inflow to the Amazon rainforest. The Gobi Desert is another source of dust in the atmosphere, which affects eastern Asia and western North America. Smoke.



Rain


Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then precipitated—that is, become heavy enough to fall under gravity. Rain is a major component of the water cycle and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the Earth. It provides suitable conditions for many types of ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation. Erosion - Rain Water Management.

Even knowing that the earth has 100 lightning strikes every second, and has earthquakes every minute, and has 1,000's of fires burning everyday, with 1,000 Meteorites hitting the earth every day, I have had a mostly a calm life in Danbury Ct. from 1960 till 2015. Being born in 1960 was extremely lucky, Turning 40 in 2000.

Evaporation (water knowledge) - Droughts - Oceans

Floods is an overflow of water that submerges land which is usually dry. Flooding may occur as an overflow of water from water bodies, such as a river, lake, or ocean, in which the water overtops or breaks levees, resulting in some of that water escaping its usual boundaries, or it may occur due to an accumulation of rainwater on saturated ground in an areal flood. While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt, these changes in size are unlikely to be considered significant unless they flood property or drown domestic animals.

The Who - Love Reign Over Me (youtube) - Only Love Can make it Rain.
Singing In The Rain (Gene Kelly) (youtube)

Explosive Cyclogenesis (Weather Bomb)


Lightning


Earth has 8.6 Million Lightning Strikes a day. 3.6 trillion lightning strikes each year. Lightning hits the earth an estimated 100 times per second on average. When Moisture Condenses the movement of air produces Wireless ElectricityGlobal Atmospheric Electrical Circuit is the continuous movement of electric current between the ionosphere and the earth's surface. This flow is powered by thunderstorms, which cause a build-up of positive charge in the ionosphere. In fair weather this positive charge slowly flows back to the surface. - Super Bolt - The Brain - Electricity in Nature - Electric Universe.

Lightning Strike is an electric discharge between the atmosphere and an earth-bound object. They mostly originate in a cumulonimbus cloud and terminate on the ground, called cloud to ground (CG) lightning. A less common type of strike, called ground to cloud (GC), is upward propagating lightning initiated from a tall grounded object and reaches into the clouds. About 25% of all lightning events worldwide are strikes between the atmosphere and earth-bound objects. The bulk of lightning events are intra-cloud (IC) or cloud to cloud (CC), where discharges only occur high in the atmosphere. A single lightning event is a "flash", which is a complex, multi-stage process, some parts of which are not fully understood. Most cloud to ground flashes only "strike" one physical location, referred to as a "termination". The primary conducting channel, the bright coursing light that may be seen and is called a "strike", is only about one inch in diameter, but because of its extreme brilliance, it often looks much larger to the human eye and in photographs. Lightning Discharges are typically miles long, but certain types of horizontal discharges can be upwards of tens of miles in length. The entire flash lasts only a fraction of a second. Most of the early formative and propagation stages are much dimmer and not visible to the human eye.
Step Voltage
Step Potential is the Step Voltage between the feet of a person standing near an energized grounded object. It is equal to the difference in voltage, given by the voltage distribution curve, between two points at different distances from the electrode.
Earth Potential Rise occurs when a large current flows to earth through an earth grid impedance. The potential relative to a distant point on the Earth is highest at the point where current enters the ground, and declines with distance from the source. Ground potential rise is a concern in the design of electrical substations because the high potential may be a hazard to people or equipment. The change of voltage over distance (potential gradient) may be so high that a person could be injured due to the voltage developed between two feet, or between the ground on which the person is standing and a metal object. Any conducting object connected to the substation earth ground, such as telephone wires, rails, fences, or metallic piping, may also be energized at the ground potential in the substation. This transferred potential is a hazard to people and equipment outside the substation.

Positive Lightning strikes tend to be much more intense than their negative counterparts. An average bolt of negative lightning carries an electric current of 30,000 amperes (30 kA), and transfers 15 coulombs of electric charge and 500 megajoules of energy. Large bolts of negative lightning can carry up to 120 kA and 350 coulombs. The average positive ground flash has roughly double the peak current of a typical negative flash, and can produce peak currents up to 400,000 amperes (400 kA) and charges of several hundreds coulombs. Furthermore, positive ground flashes with high peak currents are commonly followed by long continuing currents, a correlation not seen in negative ground flashes.

Sprite Lightning are large-scale electrical discharges that occur high above thunderstorm clouds, or cumulonimbus, giving rise to a quite varied range of visual shapes flickering in the night sky. They are triggered by the discharges of positive lightning between an underlying thundercloud and the ground. Sprites appear as luminous reddish-orange flashes. They often occur in clusters above the troposphere at an altitude range of 50–90 km (31–56 mi). Sporadic visual reports of sprites go back at least to 1886, but they were first photographed on July 6, 1989 by scientists from the University of Minnesota and have subsequently been captured in video recordings many thousands of times. Sprites are sometimes inaccurately called upper-atmospheric lightning. However, sprites are cold plasma phenomena that lack the hot channel temperatures of tropospheric lightning, so they are more akin to fluorescent tube discharges than to lightning discharges.

Upper-Atmospheric Lightning are short-lived electrical-breakdown phenomena that occur well above the altitudes of normal lightning and storm clouds. Upper-atmospheric lightning is believed to be electrically induced forms of luminous plasma. The preferred usage is transient luminous event (TLE), because the various types of electrical-discharge phenomena in the upper atmosphere lack several characteristics of the more familiar tropospheric lightning.

Ball Lightning is an unexplained atmospheric electrical phenomenon. The term refers to reports of luminous, spherical objects that vary from pea-sized to several meters in diameter. Though usually associated with thunderstorms, the phenomenon lasts considerably longer than the split-second flash of a lightning bolt. Many early reports claim that the ball eventually explodes, sometimes with fatal consequences, leaving behind the odor of sulfur.


Storms


Storms is any disturbed state of an environment or astronomical body's atmosphere especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather. It may be marked by significant disruptions to normal conditions such as strong wind, hail, thunder and lightning (a thunderstorm), heavy precipitation (snowstorm, rainstorm), heavy freezing rain (ice storm), strong winds (tropical cyclone, windstorm), or wind transporting some substance through the atmosphere as in a dust storm, blizzard, sandstorm, etc. Storms have the potential to harm lives and property via storm surge, heavy rain or snow causing flooding or road impassibility, lightning, wildfires, and vertical wind shear; however, systems with significant rainfall and duration help alleviate drought in places they move through. Heavy snowfall can allow special recreational activities to take place which would not be possible otherwise, such as skiing and snowmobiling. Earthquake Tsunamis.

Cyclones is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including Hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; while in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as “tropical cyclones” or “severe cyclonic storms”. Flooding.

Hurricanes originating in the northern hemisphere rotate counterclockwise. And those developing in the southern hemisphere spin in a clockwise direction. Earth Magnetics.

Dropwindsondes are deployed from the aircraft and drift down on a parachute measuring vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, humidity and wind as they fall.

Tornados is a rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. They are often referred to as twisters, whirlwinds or cyclones, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology to name a weather system with a low-pressure area in the center around which winds blow counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, and they are often visible in the form of a condensation funnel originating from the base of a cumulonimbus cloud, with a cloud of rotating debris and dust beneath it. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour (180 km/h), are about 250 feet (80 m) across, and travel a few miles (several kilometers) before dissipating. The most extreme tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 300 miles per hour (480 km/h), are more than two miles (3 km) in diameter, and stay on the ground for dozens of miles (more than 100 km).

Explosive Cyclogenesis or weather bomb, meteorological bomb, explosive development, or bombogenesis, refers in a strict sense to a rapidly deepening extratropical cyclonic low-pressure area. To enter this category, the central pressure of a depression at 60° latitude is required to decrease by 24 mb (hPa) or more in 24 hours. This is a predominantly maritime, winter event, but also occurs in continental settings. This process is the extratropical equivalent of the tropical rapid deepening.

Steam Devil is a small, weak whirlwind over water (or sometimes wet land) that has drawn fog into the vortex, thus rendering it visible. Vortex

Weather Prediction Services

Rain (floods) - Volcanoes - Fires

Scientific Modeling Atmosphere Composition Diagram (image)

"Red Sky at Night, Sailors' Delight. Red Sky at Morning, Sailors take Warning" is a rhyme that was used as an unreliable type of weather forecasting during the past two millennia. It's based on the reddish glow of the morning or evening sky, caused by haze or clouds related to storms in the region. If the morning skies are red, it is because clear skies over the horizon to the east permit the sun to light the undersides of moisture-bearing clouds. The saying assumes that more such clouds are coming in from the west. Conversely, in order to see red clouds in the evening, sunlight must have a clear path from the west, so therefore the prevailing westerly wind must be bringing clear skies. There are occasions where a storm system might rain itself out before reaching the observer (who had seen the morning red sky). For ships at sea however, the wind and rough seas from an approaching storm system could still be a problem, even without rainfall. Because of different prevailing wind patterns around the globe, the traditional rhyme is generally not correct at lower latitudes of both hemispheres, where prevailing winds are from east to west. The rhyme is generally correct at mid-latitudes where, due to the rotation of the Earth, prevailing winds travel west to east.

Earth also has other natural occurring events that sometimes causes major problems, and death. 
Causes of Death - Extinctions - Plant Diseases - Invasive Species

There are also other events that threaten us that can be avoided. 
Pollution - Climate Change - Viruses - Disease - War - Crimes


Earth Quakes


Earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy whole cities. The seismicity or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. Meteoroids.

Seismometer or seismograph is an instrument that measures motion of the ground, caused by, for example, an earthquake, a volcanic eruption, or the use of explosives. Records of Seismic Waves allow seismologists to map the interior of the Earth and to locate and measure the size of events like these.

Seismology is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies. The field also includes studies of earthquake environmental effects such as tsunamis as well as diverse seismic sources such as volcanic, tectonic, oceanic, atmospheric, and artificial processes such as explosions. A related field that uses geology to infer information regarding past earthquakes is paleoseismology. A recording of earth motion as a function of time is called a seismogram. A seismologist is a scientist who does research in seismology.

Zhang Heng Zhang's Seismoscope was made around 91 BC that in 780 BC.

Earthquake Resistant Building Techniques

Earth may be the only planet in our solar system with Plate Tectonics, which move 2 CM's a year.

Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle. Regions where this process occurs are known as subduction zones. Rates of subduction are typically in centimeters per year, with the average rate of convergence being approximately two to eight centimeters per year along most plate boundaries.

Fault in geology is a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other.

There are several million Earthquakes occurring in the world each year, mostly low in Magnitude. There are 14,000 earthquakes of magnitude 4 or greater every year, approximately 40 per day. The total Number of Earthquakes per year with 8 or Higher Magnitude is only 1. Between 7-7.9 is 18,  6-6.9 is 120, 5-5.9 is 800, 4-4.9 6 is 200, 3-3.9 is 49,000. The Largest Recorded Earthquake in the World is 9.5 on the Richter Scale.

P-wave are a type of elastic wave, and are one of the two main types of elastic body waves, called seismic waves in seismology, that travel through a continuum and are the first waves from an earthquake to arrive at a seismograph. The continuum is made up of gases (as sound waves), liquids, or solids, including the Earth. P-waves can be produced by earthquakes and recorded by seismographs. The name P-wave can stand for either pressure wave as it is formed from alternating compressions and rarefactions or primary wave, as it has the highest velocity and is therefore the first wave to be recorded. Waves - S-wave (wiki).

Plate Tectonics is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago. The model builds on the concept of continental drift, an idea developed during the first decades of the 20th century. The geoscientific community accepted plate-tectonic theory after seafloor spreading was validated in the late 1950s and early 1960s. List of 15 Tectonic Plates (wiki).

G Plates interactive plate-tectonic reconstructions.

Earth Byte geodata synthesis through space and time, assimilating the wealth of disparate geological and geophysical data into a four-dimensional Earth model including tectonics, geodynamics and surface processes.

Episodic Tremor and Slip is a seismological phenomenon observed in some subduction zones that is characterized by non-earthquake seismic rumbling, or tremor, and slow slip along the plate interface. Slow slip events are distinguished from earthquakes by their propagation speed and focus. In slow slip events, there is an apparent reversal of crustal motion, although the fault motion remains consistent with the direction of subduction. ETS events themselves are imperceptible to human beings and do not cause damage.

Slow Earthquake is a discontinuous, earthquake-like event that releases energy over a period of hours to months, rather than the seconds to minutes characteristic of a typical earthquake. First detected using long term strain measurements, most slow earthquakes now appear to be accompanied by fluid flow and related tremor, which can be detected and approximately located using seismometer data filtered appropriately (typically in the 1–5 Hz band). That is, they are quiet compared to a regular earthquake, but not "silent" as described in the past. Slow earthquakes should not be confused with tsunami earthquakes, in which relatively slow rupture velocity produces tsunami out of proportion to the triggering earthquake. In a tsunami earthquake, the rupture propagates along the fault more slowly than usual, but the energy release occurs on a similar timescale to other earthquakes.

Tsunami Earthquake triggers a tsunami of a magnitude that is very much larger than the magnitude of the earthquake as measured by shorter-period seismic waves. The term was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori in 1972. Such events are a result of relatively slow rupture velocities. They are particularly dangerous as a large tsunami may arrive at a coastline with little or no warning. A tsunami is a sea wave of local or distant origin that results from large-scale seafloor displacements associated with large earthquakes, major submarine slides, or exploding volcanic islands. Floods.

Tide Gauges Capture Tremor Episodes in Cascadian Subduction Zone. Cascadia Subduction Zone is a convergent plate boundary that stretches from northern Vancouver Island in Canada to Northern California in the United States.

Disaster Monitoring - Emergencies

Where to Live? (the right location)


Volcanoes


Volcano erupting seen from space 70 to 90% of all Volcanic Activity occurs under the ocean.

About 70% of the Volcanism on Earth occurs Underwater.

There are around 20 known Super-Volcanoes on Earth, with major eruptions occurring on average once every 100,000 years. One of the greatest threats an eruption may pose is thought to be starvation, with a prolonged volcanic winter potentially prohibiting civilisation from having enough food for the current population. In 2012, the United Nations estimated that food reserves worldwide would last 74 days. But if more of the heat could be extracted, then the supervolcano would never erupt. Nasa estimates that if a 35% increase in heat transfer could be achieved from its magma chamber, Yellowstone would no longer pose a threat. Geothermal Energy.

1815 Eruption of Mount Tambora was one of the most powerful eruptions in recorded history, with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 7. Causing the Year Without a Summer, which is a volcanic winter event caused by the massive 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora. Little Ice Age are cold intervals: one beginning about 1650, another about 1770, and the last in 1850. Medieval Warm Period 950 to c.1250

Ring of Fire has 90% of all Earthquakes, and the ring is dotted with 75% of all active Volcanoes on Earth. The Ring of Fire isn’t quite a circular ring. It is shaped more like a 40,000-kilometer (25,000-mile) horseshoe. A string of 452 volcanoes stretches from the southern tip of South America, up along the coast of North America, across the Bering Strait, down through Japan, and into New Zealand. Several active and dormant volcanoes in Antarctica, however, “close” the ring. A convergent plate boundary is formed by tectonic plates crashing into each other. Convergent boundaries are often subduction zones, where the heavier plate slips under the lighter plate, creating a deep trench. This subduction changes the dense mantle material into buoyant magma, which rises through the crust to the Earth’s surface. Over millions of years, the rising Magma creates a series of active volcanoes known as a volcanic arc. The Aleutian Trench reaches a maximum depth of 7,679 meters (25,194 feet). The Aleutian Islands have 27 of the United States’ 65 historically active volcanoes. A divergent boundary is formed by tectonic plates pulling apart from each other. Divergent boundaries are the site of seafloor spreading and rift valleys. Seafloor spreading is the process of Magma welling up in the rift as the old crust pulls itself in opposite directions. Cold seawater cools the magma, creating new crust. The upward movement and eventual cooling of this magma has created high ridges on the ocean floor over millions of years. The San Andreas Fault, stretching along the central west coast of North America, is one of the most active faults on the Ring of Fire.

Alaska contains over 130 volcanoes and volcanic fields which have been active within the last two million years.

Seafloor Volcano Pulses may Alter Climate.

Efficient removal of recalcitrant deep-ocean dissolved organic matter during hydrothermal circulation.

New Lava Flows at Axial Seamount are Confirmed Axial Seamount eruption of April 2015 confirmed.


Oceans


Earths Deepest Part of the Ocean is the Mariana Trench7 Miles Deep in the western Pacific Ocean, to the east of the Mariana Islands. The trench is about 2,550 kilometres (1,580 mi) long with an average width of 69 kilometres (43 mi). It reaches a maximum-known depth of 10,994 metres (36,070 ft) (± 40 metres [130 ft]) at a small slot-shaped valley in its floor known as the Challenger Deep, at its southern end, although some unrepeated measurements place the deepest portion at 11,034 metres (36,201 ft). It is a Subduction Zone where one tectonic plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle. Producing mostly Mud Volcano's that produce no lava with very little earth quakes.

Lakes and Oceans Depth Chart (image)
Earths Highest Lowest Points (image)

What Is Sea Level, Anyway? (youtube)

An estimated 50-80% of all Life on Earth is found under the ocean surface with 2/3's not even identified. 

Hydrothermal Vent is a fissure on the seafloor from which geothermally heated water issues. Hydrothermal vents are commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving apart at spreading centers, ocean basins, and hotspots. Hydrothermal deposits are rocks and mineral ore deposits formed by the action of hydrothermal vents. Hydrothermal vents exist because the earth is both geologically active and has large amounts of water on its surface and within its crust. Under the sea, hydrothermal vents may form features called black smokers or white smokers. Relative to the majority of the deep sea, the areas around submarine hydrothermal vents are biologically more productive, often hosting complex communities fueled by the chemicals dissolved in the vent fluids. Chemosynthetic bacteria and archaea form the base of the food chain, supporting diverse organisms, including giant tube worms, clams, limpets and shrimp. Active hydrothermal vents are believed to exist on Jupiter's moon Europa, and Saturn's moon Enceladus, and it is speculated that ancient hydrothermal vents once existed on Mars.

Fissure Vent is a linear volcanic vent through which lava erupts, usually without any explosive activity. The vent is often a few metres wide and may be many kilometres long. Fissure vents can cause large flood basalts which run first in lava channels and later in lava tubes. After some time the eruption builds up spatter cones and may concentrate on one or some of them.

Artificial Intelligence can identify Microscopic Marine Organisms. Researchers have developed an artificial intelligence (AI) program that can automatically provide species-level identification of Microscopic Marine Organisms. The next step is to incorporate the AI into a robotic system that will help advance our understanding of the world's oceans, both now and in our
prehistoric past. Marine Habitats (wiki).

Chemotroph are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donors in their environments.

Ocean Protection - Discovering the Deep

Subterranean Biosphere exploring microbial life that populates the lower boundary of the deep sedimentary biosphere. Deep Ocean. - Organisms.

Some of the Sounds that you will Hear on Earth

Ocean Current is a continuous, directed movement of sea water generated by a number of forces acting upon the water, including wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbeling, and temperature and salinity differences. Depth contours, shoreline configurations, and interactions with other currents influence a current's direction and strength. Ocean currents are primarily horizontal water movements. Ocean currents flow for great distances, and together, create the global conveyor belt which plays a dominant role in determining the climate of many of the Earth’s regions. More specifically, ocean currents influence the temperature of the regions through which they travel. For example, warm currents traveling along more temperate coasts increase the temperature of the area by warming the sea breezes that blow over them. Perhaps the most striking example is the Gulf Stream, which makes northwest Europe much more temperate than any other region at the same latitude. Another example is Lima, Peru, where the climate is cooler, being sub-tropical, than the tropical latitudes in which the area is located, due to the effect of the Humboldt Current.

Ocean Surface Current is when water at the ocean surface is moved primarily by winds that blow in certain patterns because of the Earth's spin and the Coriolis Effect. Winds are able to move the top 400 meters of the ocean creating surface ocean currents. Surface ocean currents form large circular patterns called gyres.

Deep Ocean Currents are driven by density and temperature gradients. Thermohaline circulation is also known as the ocean's conveyor belt (which refers to deep ocean density-driven ocean basin currents). These currents, called submarine rivers, flow under the surface of the ocean and are hidden from immediate detection.

Coriolis Force is an inertial or fictitious force that seems to act on objects that are in motion within a frame of reference that rotates with respect to an inertial frame. In a reference frame with clockwise rotation, the force acts to the left of the motion of the object. In one with anticlockwise (or counterclockwise) rotation, the force acts to the right. Deflection of an object due to the Coriolis force is called the Coriolis effect.

Ocean Gyre is any large system of circulating ocean currents, particularly those involved with large wind movements. Gyres are caused by the Coriolis effect; planetary vorticity along with horizontal and vertical friction, determine the circulation patterns from the wind stress curl (torque). The term gyre can be used to refer to any type of vortex in the air or the sea, even one that is man-made, but it is most commonly used in oceanography to refer to the major ocean systems.

Thermohaline Circulation is a part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes. The adjective thermohaline derives from thermo- referring to temperature and -haline referring to salt content, factors which together determine the density of sea water. Wind-driven surface currents (such as the Gulf Stream) travel polewards from the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, cooling en route, and eventually sinking at high latitudes (forming North Atlantic Deep Water). This dense water then flows into the ocean basins. While the bulk of it upwells in the Southern Ocean, the oldest waters (with a transit time of around 1000 years) upwell in the North Pacific. Extensive mixing therefore takes place between the ocean basins, reducing differences between them and making the Earth's oceans a global system. On their journey, the water masses transport both energy (in the form of heat) and mass of substances (solids, dissolved substances and gases) around the globe. As such, the state of the circulation has a large impact on the climate of the Earth. The thermohaline circulation is sometimes called the Ocean Conveyor Belt, the great ocean conveyor, or the global conveyor belt. On occasion, it is used to refer to the meridional overturning circulation (often abbreviated as MOC). The term MOC is more accurate and well defined, as it is difficult to separate the part of the circulation which is driven by temperature and salinity alone as opposed to other factors such as the wind and tidal forces. Moreover, temperature and salinity gradients can also lead to circulation effects that are not included in the MOC itself.


Fire


Fires Burning on Earth as seen from space at night The photo on right is the number of Fires burning on earth, as seen at night. Earth Observatory

What Is Fire? (youtube)
Catalyst - 'Earth on Fire' 2014 (youtube)

Fire Ecology is a scientific discipline concerned with natural processes involving fire in an ecosystem and the ecological effects, the interactions between fire and the abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem, and the role of fire as an ecosystem process.

Fire Protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires. It involves the study of the behaviour, compartmentalisation, suppression and investigation of fire and its related emergencies, as well as the research and development, production, testing and application of mitigating systems. In structures, be they land-based, offshore or even ships, the owners and operators are responsible to maintain their facilities in accordance with a design-basis that is rooted in laws, including the local building code and fire code, which are enforced by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

Fire Fighting - Fire Investigations - Forests - Climate Change - Wood Stoves

Forest Fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area. Depending on the type of vegetation where it occurs, a wildfire can also be classified more specifically as a brush fire, bush fire, desert fire, forest fire, grass fire, hill fire, peat fire, vegetation fire, or veld fire. Wind.

Conflagration is a large and destructive fire that threatens human life, animal life, health, and/or property. It may also be described as a blaze or simply a (large) fire. A conflagration can begin accidentally, be naturally caused (wildfire), or intentionally created (arson). Arson can be for fraud, murder, sabotage or diversion, or due to a person's pyromania. A very large fire can produce a firestorm, in which the central column of rising heated air induces strong inward winds, which supply oxygen to the fire. Conflagrations can cause casualties including deaths or injuries from burns, trauma due to collapse of structures and attempts to escape, and smoke inhalation. Firefighting is the practice of attempting to extinguish a conflagration, protect life and property, and minimize damage and injury. One of the goals of fire prevention is to avoid conflagrations. When a conflagration is extinguished, there is often a fire investigation to determine the cause of the fire.

Smoke Inhalation is the primary cause of death for victims of fires. The inhalation or exposure to hot gaseous products of combustion can cause serious respiratory complications. Some 50–80% of fire deaths are the result of smoke inhalation injuries, including burns to the respiratory system. The hot smoke injures or kills by a combination of thermal damage, poisoning and pulmonary irritation and swelling, caused by carbon monoxide, cyanide and other combustion products.

Smoke is a collection of airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass. It is commonly an unwanted by-product of fires (including stoves, candles, oil lamps, and fireplaces), but may also be used for pest control (fumigation), communication (smoke signals), defensive and offensive capabilities in the military (smoke screen), cooking, or smoking (tobacco, cannabis, etc.). It is used in rituals where incense, sage, or resin is burned to produce a smell for spiritual purposes. Smoke is sometimes used as a flavoring agent, and preservative for various foodstuffs. Smoke is also a component of internal combustion engine exhaust gas, particularly diesel exhaust. Smoke inhalation is the primary cause of death in victims of indoor fires. The smoke kills by a combination of thermal damage, poisoning and pulmonary irritation caused by carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide and other combustion products. Smoke is an aerosol (or mist) of solid particles and liquid droplets that are close to the ideal range of sizes for Mie scattering of visible light. This effect has been likened to three-dimensional textured privacy glass — a smoke cloud does not obstruct an image, but thoroughly scrambles it.

Haze is traditionally an atmospheric phenomenon in which dust, smoke, and other dry particulates obscure the clarity of the sky. The World Meteorological Organization manual of codes includes a classification of horizontal obscuration into categories of fog, ice fog, steam fog, mist, haze, smoke, volcanic ash, dust, sand, and snow. Sources for haze particles include farming (ploughing in dry weather), traffic, industry, and wildfires. Seen from afar (e.g. an approaching airplane) and depending on the direction of view with respect to the Sun, haze may appear brownish or bluish, while mist tends to be bluish grey. Whereas haze often is thought of as a phenomenon of dry air, mist formation is a phenomenon of humid air. However, haze particles may act as condensation nuclei for the subsequent formation of mist droplets; such forms of haze are known as "wet haze." Haze also occurs when there is too much pollution in the air while there is also dust. In meteorological literature, the word haze is generally used to denote visibility-reducing aerosols of the wet type. Such aerosols commonly arise from complex chemical reactions that occur as sulfur dioxide gases emitted during combustion are converted into small droplets of sulfuric acid. The reactions are enhanced in the presence of sunlight, high relative humidity, and stagnant air flow. A small component of wet-haze aerosols
appear to be derived from compounds released by trees, such as terpenes. For all these reasons, wet haze tends to be primarily a warm-season phenomenon. Large areas of haze covering many thousands of kilometers may be produced under favorable conditions each summer.

Wildfire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area. Depending on the type of vegetation where it occurs, a wildfire can also be classified more specifically as a brush fire, bush fire, desert fire, forest fire, grass fire, hill fire, peat fire, vegetation fire, or veld fire. Fossil charcoal indicates that wildfires began soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants 420 million years ago. Wildfire’s occurrence throughout the history of terrestrial life invites conjecture that fire must have had pronounced evolutionary effects on most ecosystems' flora and fauna. Earth is an intrinsically flammable planet owing to its cover of carbon-rich vegetation, seasonally dry climates, atmospheric oxygen, and widespread lightning and volcano ignition.

Fuel Reduction Programme
Smoke from 2015 Indonesian Fires may have Caused 100,000 Premature Deaths

California Wild Fires Map (google)

Salvaging Fire-Killed Trees
Reclaiming Timber after the Flames
Fire Burned Trees 
Letting Nature Heal itself doesn't always happen

Burned area Emergency Response is an emergency risk management reaction to post wildfire conditions that pose risks to
human life and property or could further destabilize or degrade the burned lands. Even though wildfires are natural events, the presence of people and man-made structures in and adjacent to the burned area frequently requires continued emergency risk management actions. High severity wildfires pose a continuing flood, debris flow and mudflow risk to people living within and downstream from a burned watershed as well as a potential loss of desirable watershed values.

Skyline System to Harvest Timber eliminates the need for kid trails because the logs are moved to the lending by an aerial
cable (skyline). Consider the potential for erosion and possible alternative yarding systems before planning tractor skidding on steep or unstable slopes.
Skyline Logging harvested logs are transported on a suspended steel cable, a cableway or "highline", from various locations where the trees are felled to a central location, typically next to a road for logistical reasons.

American Forests
Emerald Ash Borer (tree deaths)

Forest Preservation (land trusts)

Dendrochronology Tree Ring Analysis
Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research at the University of Arizona

Spontaneous Human Combustion is a term encompassing reported cases of the combustion of a living (or very recently deceased) human body without an apparent external source of ignition. In addition to reported cases, examples of SHC appear in literature, and both types have been observed to share common characteristics regarding circumstances and remains of the victim. Forensic investigations have attempted to analyze reported instances of SHC and have resulted in hypotheses regarding potential causes and mechanisms, including victim behavior and habits, alcohol consumption and proximity to potential sources of ignition, as well as the behavior of fires that consume melted fats. Natural explanations, as well as unverified natural phenomena, have been proposed to explain reports of SHC. Current scientific consensus is that most, and conjectures perhaps all, cases of SHC involve overlooked external sources of ignition.

Wick Effect is the name given to the partial destruction of a human body by fire, when the clothing of the victim soaks up melted human fat and acts like the wick of a candle. The wick effect is a phenomenon that is found to occur under certain conditions, and has been thoroughly observed.

Pure Nature Features Deserts: Living in Extremes (2015) 1 hr. 26 min.

Amazing Experiment Actually Makes Black Fire! The Shadow Fire Experiment (youtube) - low pressure sodium vapor lamp - monochromatic light source.



Magnetosphere


Magnetosphere Earth's Magnetic Field extends 370,000 miles (600,000 kilometers) above the planet's surface. The Earth's Magnetic Field originates in the earths core. Earth has a giant ball of iron at its core surrounded by an outer layer of molten metal. The motion of the liquid in the outer core is driven by heat flow from the inner core, which creates a Rotating Magnetic Field or Dynamo. Earth's Magnetic Field protects earth from Solar Radiation

Van Allen Radiation Belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind that is captured by and held around a planet by that planet's magnetic field. The Earth has two such belts and sometimes others may be temporarily created.

Probes found that Mars and Venus do not have a significant magnetic field. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune all have magnetic fields much stronger than that of the Earth. Jupiter is the champion- having the largest magnetic field.

So why doesn't the Moon get pulled into the earth by its gravitational Pull? Because the Earth is moving, so the Moon is chasing the Earth, just like the Earth gets pulled by gravity from the Sun. And also Earths gravity gets weaker as you go further out. The moon does not fall to Earth because it is in an Orbit, which is the gravitationally curved path of an object about a point in space. Laws of Motion

Impenetrable Barrier in Space
Human Body Magnetic Field (EMF)

Geomagnetic Reversal happens once every few hundred thousand years. The magnetic poles flip so that a compass would point south instead of north. The flip takes around a hundred to a few thousand years to complete. During past polarity flips there were no mass extinctions or evidence of radiation damage. Most reversals are estimated to take between 1,000 and 10,000 years. The latest one, the Brunhes–Matuyama reversal, occurred 780,000 years ago, and may have happened very quickly, within a human lifetime. Local Geomagnetic Fields.

Paleomagnetism is the study of the record of the Earth's magnetic field in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials. Certain minerals in rocks lock-in a record of the direction and intensity of the magnetic field when they form.

Earth's Magnetic North Pole has been moving away from the Canadian Arctic towards Siberia at a rate of 55 km per Year or 34 miles per year The World Magnetic Model.

Earth's Magnetic Field Is Weakening 10 Times Faster Now.

Earth's Magnetic Field Almost Collapsed 565 Million Years Ago. Young inner core inferred from Ediacaran ultra-low geomagnetic field intensity. Our planet’s molten core probably began to solidify during the late Ediacaran period, according to the new paper. This recharged Earth’s magnetic field right when it was at its weakest point. Now, a half-billion years later, Earth’s magnetic field is ten times stronger than it was in was during this early era.

Magnetic Anomaly is a local variation in the Earth's magnetic field resulting from variations in the chemistry or magnetism of the rocks. South Atlantic Anomaly  "I don't think you fully understand the gravity of this situation".

Ancient Jars Found in Judea Reveal Earth's Magnetic Field is Fluctuating, Not Diminishing

New Data helps explain recent Fluctuations in Earth’s Magnetic Field

UNH Scientists Capture Space Energy Explosion. Magnetic reconnection is the process by which sparse particles and energy around Earth collide producing a quick but mighty explosion -- in the Earth's magnetotail, the magnetic environment that trails behind the planet.

Earth's Magnetic Field measured using artificial stars at 90 kilometers altitude. In 2011, researchers proposed that artificial guide stars could be used to measure the Earth's magnetic field in the mesosphere. An international group of scientists has recently managed to do this with a high degree of precision. The technique may also help to identify magnetic structures in the solid Earth's lithosphere, to monitor space weather, and to measure electrical currents in the part of the atmosphere called ionosphere.

Auroral-like Birkeland currents Birkeland Current is a set of currents that flow along geomagnetic field lines connecting the Earth’s magnetosphere to the Earth's high latitude ionosphere. In the Earth’s magnetosphere, the currents are driven by the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field and by bulk motions of plasma through the magnetosphere (convection indirectly driven by the interplanetary environment). The strength of the Birkeland currents changes with activity in the magnetosphere (e.g. during substorms). Small scale variations in the upward current sheets (downward flowing electrons) accelerate magnetospheric electrons which, when they reach the upper atmosphere, create the Auroras Borealis and Australis. In the high latitude ionosphere (or auroral zones), the Birkeland currents close through the region of the auroral electrojet, which flows perpendicular to the local magnetic field in the ionosphere. The Birkeland currents occur in two pairs of field-aligned current sheets. One pair extends from noon through the dusk sector to the midnight sector. The other pair extends from noon through the dawn sector to the midnight sector. The sheet on the high latitude side of the auroral zone is referred to as the Region 1 current sheet and the sheet on the low latitude side is referred to as the Region 2 current sheet. Kristian Birkeland was a Norwegian scientist(December 13, 1867 – June 15, 1917). Lightning.

Wave-Particle Interactions allow collision-free Energy Transfer in space plasma. The Earth's magnetosphere contains plasma, an ionized gas composed of positive ions and negative electrons. The motion of these charged plasma particles is controlled by electromagnetic fields. The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer.

Measuring Tools

Aurora is a natural light display in the sky, predominantly seen in the high latitude (Arctic and Antarctic) regions. Auroras are produced when the magnetosphere is sufficiently disturbed by the solar wind that the trajectories of charged particles in both solar wind and magnetospheric plasma, mainly in the form of electrons and protons, precipitate them into the upper atmosphere (thermosphere/exosphere), where their energy is lost. The resulting ionization and excitation of atmospheric constituents emits light of varying colour and complexity. The form of the aurora, occurring within bands around both polar regions, is also dependent on the amount of acceleration imparted to the precipitating particles. Precipitating protons generally produce optical emissions as incident hydrogen atoms after gaining electrons from the atmosphere. Proton auroras are usually observed at lower latitudes. Halos - Vapor Tracers - Rainbows.

Stunning Aurora Borealis from Space in Ultra-High Definition (4K) (youtube)

Aurora Borealis is most often seen in a striking green color, but it also occasionally shows off its many colors ranging from red to pink, blue to purple, dark to light. The reason that the aurora is seen in so many colors is that our atmosphere is made up of many different compounds like Oxygen and Nitrogen. When the charged particles that come from the sun hit the atoms and molecules of the Earth's atmosphere, they excite those atoms, giving off light. Different atoms give off different colors of the spectrum when they are excited. A familiar example is the Neon lights that we see on many business signs in our modern world. The Neon lights contain the gas Neon. These lights have electricity run through them to excite the Neon gas. When the Neon is excited, it gives off a brilliant red-orange color. The Neon lights are the same idea as the aurora, only on a lot smaller scale. Different gases give off different colors when they are excited. Oxygen at about 60 miles up gives off the familiar yellow-green color, Oxygen at higher altitudes (about 200 miles above us) gives the all red auroras. Ionic Nitrogen produces the blue light and neutral Nitrogen gives off the red-purple and the rippled edges. Imagine if the atmosphere were made of Neon gas and Sodium gas. We would see red-orange and yellow auroras.

Aurora Colors
Red Aurora Australis Southern Lights (video)
Northern Lights Centre

Thin ribbons of purple and white light called STEVE is produced by a different atmospheric process than the Aurora.

Globe is a three-dimensional, spherical, scale model of Earth (terrestrial globe or geographical globe) or other celestial body such as a planet or moon.

Lunar and Planetary Institute

Constellation Program was a human spaceflight program developed by NASA, the space agency of the United States, from 2005 to 2009. The major goals of the program were "completion of the International Space Station" and a "return to the Moon no later than 2020" with a crewed flight to the planet Mars as the ultimate goal.

Thin Layer of Atmosphere Overview Effect refers to the experience of seeing firsthand the Reality of the Earth in space, which is immediately understood to be a tiny, fragile ball of life, "hanging in the void", shielded and nourished by a paper-thin atmosphere. From space, national boundaries vanish, the conflicts that divide people become less important, and the need to create a planetary society with the united will to protect this "pale blue dot" becomes both obvious and imperative. Third-hand observers of these individuals may also report a noticeable difference in attitude. This is a cognitive shift in awareness reported by some astronauts and cosmonauts during spaceflight, often while viewing the Earth from Orbit or from the lunar surface.

Overview Effect (youtube)

Gaia in mythology - Mother Earth - Awareness - Emergence

Savikalpa is meditation with support of an object.


Solar Eclipse Shadow on the Earth taken from Space

solar eclipse shadow on earth Why does a Solar Eclipse move Eastward even though the Earth Rotates from West to East? The Earth Rotates counter clockwise or west to east. The moon travels in the same direction. The Moon takes 27.3 days to travel once around the earth, that is why the moon travels east to west in the sky during earths 24 hour to spin cycle. So the earth is spinning faster then the moon even though the moon is moving faster at 3,400 km/hour (2,112 mph) when compared to earths spinning speed of 1,670 km/hr (1,037 mph) at the equator. To keep up with the shadow of the eclipse you would have to be traveling at Mach 1.5 or 1,150.9 mph. (eclipse paths image).

Solar Eclipse Photos - Lunar Eclipse (wiki) - Path of Totality (2024)

Circumference of Earths Spin on its Axis vs. One complete Orbit of the Moon. Earth spins at around 1,000 mph on the equator and takes close to 24 hours to travel 24,901 miles or 40,075 kilometers. The Moon travels 2,288 mph making of full orbit distance of 1,423,000 miles or 2,290,000 kilometers. (27.3 days x 24 hours = 655.2 hours x 2,288 mph = 1,499,097 miles) ?


Beneath the Surface of Planet Earth


Earth Core Layers Planetary Core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet; which may be composed of solid and liquid layers. Cores of specific planets may be entirely solid or entirely liquid. In the Solar System, core size can range from about 20% (Moon) to 85% of a planet's radius (Mercury). Gas Giants also have cores, though the composition of these are still a matter of debate and range in possible composition from traditional stony/iron, to ice or to fluid metallic hydrogen. Gas giant cores are proportionally much smaller than those of terrestrial planets, though theirs can be considerably larger than the Earth's nevertheless; Jupiter has one 10–30 times heavier than Earth, and exoplanet HD149026 b has a core 67 times the mass of the Earth.

How Microwaving Grapes Makes Plasma (youtube) - The Sun is the brightest source of radio waves in the sky. The depth to which the radio waves and microwaves can penetrate depends on their exact wavelength.

Nickel is Crucial for the Earth’s Magnetic Field. Earth's hot core, consisting mainly of iron, is responsible for the 'dynamo effect,' which creates a magnetic field. But with iron alone, this effect cannot be explained. A team of researchers has shown that the theory of the geodynamo has to be revised. It is crucial for the dynamo effect that the earth's core contains up to 20 percent nickel -- a metal, which under extreme conditions behaves quite differently from iron.

Earths Layers and Core Structure of the Earth is layered in spherical shells, like an onion. These layers can be defined by their chemical and their rheological properties. Earth has an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core. Scientific understanding of the internal structure of the Earth is based on observations of topography and bathymetry, observations of rock in outcrop, samples brought to the surface from greater depths by volcanoes or volcanic activity, analysis of the seismic waves that pass through the Earth, measurements of the gravitational and magnetic fields of the Earth, and experiments with crystalline solids at pressures and temperatures characteristic of the Earth's deep interior.

Tectonic Plates (Earthquakes)

As the continents mash against each other, their collision gradually slows, but mountain growth has apparently stayed relatively constant from the past to the present. People thought because the Earth is cooling that plate movements would slow down. Continental drift is caused by heat deep in the planet, driving the convection of material in the Earth's Mantle. The eight major and numerous minor tectonic plates on the planet's surface are moved by these convection currents.

Satellites help discover a Jet Stream in the Earth’s Core

Orogeny refers to forces and events leading to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between tectonic plates.

Lithosphere "rocky",or "sphere" is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.

Soil (dirt) - Rocks
Earth Land Composition
Pedosphere is the outermost layer of the Earth that is composed of Soil and subject to soil formation processes. It exists at the interface of the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. The sum total of all the organisms, soils, water and air is termed as the "pedosphere". The pedosphere is the skin of the Earth and only develops when there is a dynamic interaction between the atmosphere (air in and above the soil), biosphere (living organisms), lithosphere (unconsolidated regolith and consolidated bedrock) and the hydrosphere (water in, on and below the soil). The pedosphere is the foundation of terrestrial life on this planet. There is a realization that the pedosphere needs to be distinctly recognized as a dynamic interface of all terrestrial ecosystems and be integrated into the Earth system science knowledge base.

Solid Earth refers to "the Earth beneath our feet" or terra firma, the planet's solid surface and its interior.

Geography (environment) - Botany

Topography World Map (image) - World Map (image)

How Land is used in America - Land Use - Agriculture

Trees (plants)

Elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface (see Geodetic system, vertical datum). Elevation, or geometric height, is mainly used when referring to points on the Earth's surface, while altitude or geopotential height is used for points above the surface, such as an aircraft in flight or a spacecraft in orbit, and depth is used for points below the surface.



Navigation


Sextant is a doubly reflecting navigation instrument used to measure the Angle between any two visible objects. The primary use of a sextant is to determine the angle between an astronomical object and the horizon for the purposes of celestial navigation. The determination of this angle, the Altitude, is known as sighting (or shooting) the object, or taking a sight. The Angle, and the time when it was measured, can be used to calculate a position line on a nautical or aeronautical chart. Common uses of the sextant include sighting the sun at solar noon or Polaris at night (in the Northern Hemisphere) to determine latitude. Sighting the height of a landmark can give a measure of distance off and, held horizontally, a sextant can measure angles between objects for a position on a chart. A sextant can also be used to measure the lunar distance between the moon and another celestial object (such as a star or planet) in order to determine Greenwich Mean Time and hence longitude.

Navigation Knowledge (orienteering - finding your way around) - Mapping Tools

Triangulation - Seeing the Same Stars every night

Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: time, place and person.

Celestial Coordinate System is a system for specifying positions of celestial objects: satellites, planets, stars, galaxies, and so on. Coordinate systems can specify a position in 3-dimensional space, or merely the direction of the object on the celestial sphere, if its distance is not known or not important.

Geographic Coordinate System is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection.

Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids. The topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, or a description (especially their depiction in Maps).

Transit Map is a topological map in the form of a schematic diagram used to illustrate the routes and stations within a public transport system—whether this be bus lines, tramways, rapid transit, commuter rail or ferry routes. The main components are color coded lines to indicate each line or service, with named icons to indicate stations or stops.

Cartesian Coordinate System (dimensions)

World Geodetic System is a standard for use in cartography, geodesy, and navigation including GPS (Global Positioning System). It comprises a standard coordinate system for the Earth, a standard spheroidal reference surface (the datum or reference ellipsoid) for raw altitude data, and a gravitational equipotential surface (the geoid) that defines the nominal sea level.

Longitude and Latitude Earth Graph Latitude are lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the Equator. Specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface, which ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° (North or South) at the poles.
Horizontal is parallel to or in the plane of the horizon or a base line. Dimensions

Longitude are meridians (lines running from the North Pole to the South Pole) is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface. Vertical is straight up and down at right angles (90°) to the plane of the horizon or a base line. (My Home in Danbury, Ct. is 41.3948° North Latitude, 73.4540° West Longitude).

Cartography is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively. The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to: Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This is the concern of map editing. Traits may be physical, such as roads or land masses, or may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries. Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media. This is the concern of map projections. Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose. This is the concern of generalization. Reduce the complexity of the characteristics that will be mapped. This is also the concern of generalization. Orchestrate the elements of the map to best convey its message to its audience. This is the concern of map design. Modern cartography constitutes many theoretical and practical foundations of geographic information systems.

Mercator Projection is a cylindrical standard map projection for nautical purposes because of its ability to represent lines of constant course, known as rhumb lines or loxodromes, as straight segments that conserve the angles with the meridians. Although the linear scale is equal in all directions around any point, thus preserving the angles and the shapes of small objects (which makes the projection conformal), the Mercator projection distorts the size of objects as the latitude increases from the Equator to the poles, where the scale becomes infinite. So, for example, landmasses such as Greenland and Antarctica appear much larger than they actually are relative to land masses near the equator, such as Central Africa.

Map Projection is a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations on the surface of a sphere or an ellipsoid into locations on a plane. Map projections are necessary for creating maps. All map projections distort the surface in some fashion. Depending on the purpose of the map, some distortions are acceptable and others are not; therefore, different map projections exist in order to preserve some properties of the sphere-like body at the expense of other properties. There is no limit to the number of possible map projections.

Geodetic Datum is a coordinate system, and a set of reference points, used to locate places on the Earth (or similar objects). An approximate definition of sea level is the datum WGS 84, an ellipsoid, whereas a more accurate definition is Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008), using at least 2,159 spherical harmonics.

Spherical Harmonics are special functions defined on the surface of a sphere. They are often employed in solving partial differential equations that commonly occur in science. The spherical harmonics are a complete set of orthogonal functions on the sphere, and thus may be used to represent functions defined on the surface of a sphere, just as circular functions (sines and cosines) are used to represent functions on a circle via Fourier series. Like the sines and cosines in Fourier series, the spherical harmonics may be organized by (spatial) angular frequency, as seen in the rows of functions in the illustration on the right. Further, spherical harmonics are basis functions for SO(3), the group of rotations in three dimensions, and thus play a central role in the group theoretic discussion of SO(3).



Satellites - Orbiting Mechanical Machines 


Satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon. Satellites are used to make star maps and maps of planetary surfaces, and also take pictures of planets they are launched into. Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and space telescopes. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites. Satellite orbits vary greatly, depending on the purpose of the satellite, and are classified in a number of ways. Well-known (overlapping) classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, and geostationary orbit.

There are approximately 1,300 nonfunctional Satellites in the Graveyard Orbit 22,000 mile above earth. 

Space Debris: 1957 - 2015 Almost 20,000 pieces of Space Debris are currently orbiting the Earth. Space Track.

Summer Science Exhibition 2016: Cleaning up space junk (youtube)
Trashopolis S02 E07: Moscow (youtube)

Active Debris Removal (ADR) capture and deorbit two space debris DebriSATs
Darpa Satellite Scavenging Phoenix Project
Space Junk Tether
Soft Capture
Space Debris Clean-up
Let's clean up the space junk orbiting Earth: Natalie Panek (video and interactive text)

Gaia spacecraft is a space observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA) designed for astrometry: measuring the positions and distances of stars with unprecedented precision. The mission aims to construct the largest and most precise 3D space catalog ever made, totaling approximately 1 billion astronomical objects, mainly stars, but also planets, comets, asteroids and quasars among others. Gaia satellite has mapped 1.7 billion stars in the milky way galaxy.

Hipparcos was a scientific satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), launched in 1989 and operated until 1993.

Satellite Images - Telescopes - Environmental Monitoring

Union of Concerned Scientists says there are 1,419 active satellites currently orbiting Earth. There are estimates of roughly 2,600 satellites that no longer work floating in space. Some of the biggest telecommunications satellites can weigh several tons, be the size of a bus, and orbit from a fixed point about 22,000 miles (35,000 km) above Earth. On November 15 2016, SpaceX filed a lengthy application with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to launch 4,425 new satellites. Each satellite in SpaceX's planned constellation will weigh about 850 lbs (386 kg) and be roughly the size of a MINI Cooper car. They will orbit at altitudes ranging from 715 miles (1,150 km) to 790 miles (1,275 km). Each satellite could cover an ellipse about 1,300 miles (2,120 km) wide. That's about the distance from Maine to the Florida panhandle. With deployment of the first 800 satellites, SpaceX will be able to provide widespread U.S. and international coverage for broadband services," A speed of 1 Gbps. The global average for internet speed in late 2015, according Akamai's "State of the Internet" report, was 5.1 Mbps per user — about 200 times slower than SpaceX's target — with most of the higher speeds tied up in cable and fiberoptic connections. Downlink capacity to users ranging from 17 to 23 Gbps.

ISRO Launches 104 Satellites in a Single Rocket Launch - a world record as of 15/02/2017 (youtube)

Low Earth Orbiting Satellite is an orbit around Earth with an altitude between 160 kilometers (99 mi) (orbital period of about 88 minutes), and 2,000 kilometers (1,200 mi) (about 127 minutes). Objects below approximately 160 kilometers (99 mi) will experience very rapid orbital decay and altitude loss. The orbital velocity needed to maintain a stable low Earth orbit is about 7.8 km/s, but reduces with increased orbital altitude. Atmospheric Entry.

High Earth Orbit is a geocentric orbit with an altitude entirely above that of a geosynchronous orbit (35,786 kilometres (22,236 mi). Orbital Decay.

Geostationary Orbit is a circular orbit 35,786 kilometres (22,236 mi) above the Earth's equator and following the direction of the Earth's rotation.

Geosynchronous Orbit is an orbit around the Earth that matches Earth's rotation on its axis with an orbital period of one sidereal day. (23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds).

Medium Earth Orbit is the region of space around the Earth above low Earth orbit (altitude of 2,000 kilometres (1,243 mi)) and below geostationary orbit (altitude of 35,786 kilometres (22,236 mi)).

Graveyard Orbit is an orbit that lies away from common operational orbits. One significant graveyard orbit is a supersynchronous orbit well above geosynchronous orbit. Satellites are typically moved into such orbits at the end of their operational life to reduce the probability of colliding with operational spacecraft and generating space debris.

Synchronous Orbit is an orbit in which an orbiting body (usually a satellite) has a period equal to the average rotational period of the body being orbited (usually a planet), and in the same direction of rotation as that body.

Orbital Mechanics is the application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and other spacecraft. The motion of these objects is usually calculated from Newton's laws of motion and Newton's
law of universal gravitation. It is a core discipline within space mission design and control. Celestial mechanics treats more broadly the orbital dynamics of systems under the influence of gravity, including both spacecraft and natural astronomical bodies such as star systems, planets, moons and comets. Orbital mechanics focuses on spacecraft trajectories, including orbital maneuvers, orbit plane changes, and interplanetary transfers, and is used by mission planners to predict the results of propulsive maneuvers. General relativity is a more exact theory than Newton's laws for calculating orbits, and is sometimes necessary for greater accuracy or in high-gravity situations (such as orbits close to the Sun).

Specific Mechanical Energy, rather than simply energy, is often used in astrodynamics, because gravity changes the kinetic and potential specific energies of a vehicle in ways that are independent of the mass of the vehicle, consistent with the conservation of energy in a Newtonian gravitational system. The specific energy of an object such as a meteoroid falling on the earth from outside the earth's gravitational well is at least one half the square of the escape velocity of 11.2 km/s. This comes to 63
MJ/kg (15 kcal/g, or 15 tonnes TNT equivalent per tonne). Comets have even more energy, typically moving with respect to the sun, when in our vicinity, at about the square root of two times the speed of the earth. This comes to 42 km/s, or a specific energy of 882 MJ/kg. The speed relative to the earth may be more or less, depending on direction. Since the speed of the earth
around the sun is about 30 km/s, a comet's speed relative to the earth can range from 12 to 72 km/s, the latter corresponding to 2592 MJ/kg. If a comet with this speed fell to the earth it would gain another 63 MJ/kg, yielding a total of 2655 MJ/kg with a speed of 72.9 km/s. Since the equator is moving at about 0.5 km/s, the impact speed has an upper limit of 73.4 km/s, giving an
upper limit for the specific energy of a comet hitting the earth of about 2690 MJ/kg. If the Hale-Bopp comet (50 km in diameter) had hit the earth, it would have vaporized the oceans and sterilized the surface of the earth.

List of Orbits (wiki)

Satellite Building Kits

New Nanosatellite System captures better Imagery at Lower Cost.

Over a span of 12 years, the CORONA satellites captured more than 800,000 images. That's 2.1 million feet of film.

GPS - Global Positioning System.



Meteorites


Meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body travelling through outer space. Meteoroids are significantly smaller than asteroids, and range in size from small grains to one-meter-wide objects. International Meteor.

Shooting Star is a common name for the visible path of a meteoroid as it enters the atmosphere, becoming a meteor.

Did you know that 100 tons of Meteorites and dust enter our atmosphere everyday? Even space rocks up to 25 metres across (80 feet) will likely explode and disintegrate in the upper layers of our atmosphere, causing little or no damage, according to NASA. The Moon is bombarded by so much space rock that its surface gets a complete facelift every 81,000 years. Varieties of space dust, barely the width of a human hair. These photomicrographs were made with a special camera setup that magnifies the dust grains nearly 3,000 times. (Credit Jan Braly Kihle/Jon Larsen)

An urban collection of modern-day large micrometeorites: Evidence for variations in the extraterrestrial dust flux through the Quaternary

Micrometeorite is an extraterrestrial particle, ranging in size from 50 µm to 2 mm, collected on the Earth's surface. Micrometeorites are micrometeoroids which have survived entry through the Earth's atmosphere. They differ from meteorites in being smaller, more plentiful and different in composition and are a subset of cosmic dust, which also includes the smaller interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Micrometeorites enter the Earth's atmosphere with high velocities (at least 11 km/s) and undergo heating through atmospheric friction and compression. Individual micrometeorites weigh between 10-9 and 10-4 g and collectively contribute most of the extraterrestrial material that has come to the present day Earth. Fred Lawrence Whipple first coined the term "micro-meteorite" to describe dust-sized objects that fall to the Earth. Sometimes meteoroids and micrometeoroids entering the Earth's atmosphere are visible as meteors or "shooting stars", whether or not they reach the ground and survive as meteorites and micrometorites.

Space Dust Photo - Image 2

Micrometeoroid is a tiny meteoroid; a small particle of rock in space, usually weighing less than a gram. A micrometeorite is such a particle that survives passage through the Earth's atmosphere and reaches the Earth's surface.

Perseids are prolific meteor showers associated with the comet Swift–Tuttle. The Perseids are so called because the point from which they appear to hail (called the radiant) lies in the constellation Perseus.
 
Kuiper Belt is a circumstellar disc in the Solar System beyond the (known) planets, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun. It is similar to the asteroid belt, but is far larger—20 times as wide and 20 to 200 times as massive. Like the asteroid belt, it consists mainly of small bodies or remnants from when the Solar System formed. While many asteroids are composed primarily of rock and metal, most Kuiper belt objects are composed largely of frozen volatiles (termed "ices"), such as methane, ammonia and water. The Kuiper belt is home to three officially recognized dwarf planets: Pluto, Haumea and Makemake. Some of the Solar System's moons, such as Neptune's Triton and Saturn's Phoebe, are thought to have originated in the region. Heliosphere - Oort Cloud.

Circumstellar Disc is a torus, pancake or ring-shaped accumulation of matter composed of gas, dust, planetesimals, asteroids or collision fragments in orbit around a star. Around the youngest stars, they are the reservoirs of material out of which planets may form. Around mature stars, they indicate that planetesimal formation has taken place and around white dwarfs, they indicate that planetary material survived the whole of stellar evolution. Such a disc can manifest itself in various ways.

Minor Planet Center takes positional measurements of minor planets, comets and outer irregular natural satellites of the major planets. The MPC is responsible for the identification, designation and orbit computation for all of these objects. This involves maintaining the master files of observations and orbits, keeping track of the discoverer of each object, and announcing discoveries to the rest of the world via electronic circulars and an extensive website. The MPC operates at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, under the auspices of Division F of the International Astronomical Union (IAU).

Space Weather - Space Weather

Telescopes

Figure 3: Oxygen and chromium isotopic composition of Meteorites


Asteroids


Asteroid are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.

Near-Earth Object is any small Solar System body whose orbit brings it into proximity with Earth.

Asteroid Watch

Asteroid Impact Avoidance comprises a number of methods by which near-Earth objects (NEO) could be diverted, preventing destructive impact events.

Asteroid Belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter. It is occupied by numerous irregularly shaped bodies called asteroids or minor planets.

Asteroids Videos (youtube)
Day of the Asteroid (youtube)
If You Could See All The Asteroids, What Would The Sky Look Like? (youtube)

The number of asteroid impacts on the Moon and Earth increased by two to three times starting around 290 million years ago. The relative rarity of large craters on Earth older than 290 million years and younger than 650 million years is not because we lost the craters, but because the impact rate during that time was lower than it is now. Geological Time.

Astronomical Object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe. In astronomy, the terms object and body are often used interchangeably. However, an astronomical body or celestial body is a
single, tightly bound, contiguous entity, while an astronomical or celestial object is a complex, less cohesively bound structure, which may consist of multiple bodies or even other objects with substructures. Examples of astronomical objects include planetary systems, star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies, while asteroids, moons, planets, and stars are astronomical bodies. A
comet may be identified as both body and object: It is a body when referring to the frozen nucleus of ice and dust, and an object when describing the entire comet with its diffuse coma and tail.

Asteroid Mining - Space Law


Comets


Comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, heats up and begins to outgas, displaying a visible atmosphere or coma, and sometimes also a tail.

Hypatia is a small stone, thought to be the first known specimen of a comet nucleus.

Episode 3 Symbols of an Alien Sky: The Electric Comet (Full Documentary on youtube)

List of Earth-Crossing Minor Planets is a near-Earth asteroid whose orbit crosses that of Earth as observed from the ecliptic pole of Earth's orbit. Theia (wiki)

Cross orbits of smaller moons that collided and merge, slowly building the bigger moon.

Our Solar System



Moon


The Moon seen From Earth The Moon, Earths natural satellite, orbits the Earth every 27.3 days. The Moon keeps nearly the same face turned towards the Earth at all times. The moon is 238,857 miles from the Earth and has a diameter of 2,160 miles. The Moon is currently moving away from the Earth at about 3.8 centimeters per year. The moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth, being Earth's only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary). Following Jupiter's satellite Io, the Moon is second-densest satellite among those whose densities are known. The average distance of the Moon from the Earth is 384,400 km, or 1.28 light-seconds. The Moon is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth. There are several hypotheses for its origin; the most widely accepted explanation is that the Moon formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth and a Mars-sized body called Theia. Eclipse.

Far Side of the Moon is the hemisphere of the Moon that always faces away from Earth. The far side's terrain is rugged, with a multitude of impact craters and relatively few flat lunar maria. It has one of the largest craters in the Solar System, the South Pole–Aitken basin. Although both sides of the moon experience two weeks of sunlight followed by two weeks of night, the far side is sometimes incorrectly referred to as the "Dark Side of the Moon".

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter captured the sharpest images ever of the Moon taken from space that you can see where Apollo missions landed.

Horseshoe Orbit is a type of co-orbital motion of a small orbiting body relative to a larger orbiting body (such as Earth). The orbital period of the smaller body is very nearly the same as for the larger body, and its path appears to have a horseshoe shape as viewed from the larger object in a rotating reference frame.

Moon Orbiting Earth from a million miles away in space Lunar Phase is the shape of the illuminated (sunlit) portion of the Moon as seen by an observer on Earth. The lunar phases change cyclically as the Moon orbits the Earth, according to the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth. The Moon's rotation is tidally locked by the Earth's gravity, therefore the same lunar surface always faces Earth. This face is variously sunlit depending on the position of the Moon in its orbit. Therefore, the portion of this hemisphere that is visible to an observer on Earth can vary from about 100% (full moon) to 0% (new moon). The lunar terminator is the boundary between the illuminated and darkened hemispheres. Each of the four "intermediate" lunar phases (see below) is roughly seven days (~7.4 days) but this varies slightly due to the elliptical shape of the Moon's orbit. Aside from some craters near the lunar poles such as Shoemaker, all parts of the Moon see around 14.77 days of sunlight, followed by 14.77 days of "night". (The side of the Moon facing away from the Earth is sometimes called the "dark side", which is a misnomer). 

Moon Phases - Solar Eclipse

New Moon is the first phase of the Moon, when it orbits not seen from the Earth, the moment when the Moon and the Sun have the same ecliptical longitude. The Moon is not visible at this time except when it is seen in silhouette during a solar eclipse when it is illuminated by earthshine. See the article on phases of the Moon for further details. A new moon is when the moon is in between the earth and the sun, which causes more gravitational pull on the earth. There is also more gravitational pull on the earth from the moon when the moon is the closet to the earth during it's elliptical orbit. During these moments when the gravitational pull is at it's peak, the earth has higher ocean tides and sometimes experiences earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

Apsis is an extreme point in an object's orbit.

Moon Rise Times

Lunar Theory attempts to account for the motions of the Moon.

Moon illusion is an optical illusion which causes the Moon to appear larger near the horizon than it does higher up in the sky.

What the Earth looks like from the Moon Lunar Eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind Earth and into its shadow. This can occur only when the Sun, Earth, and the Moon are aligned (in syzygy) exactly or very closely so, with the planet in between. Hence, a lunar eclipse can occur only on the night of a full moon. The type and length of an eclipse depend on the Moon's proximity to either node of its orbit. (a totally eclipsed Moon is sometimes called a blood moon.)

Natural Satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body). In the Solar System there are six planetary satellite systems containing 185 known natural satellites. Four IAU-listed dwarf planets are also known to have natural satellites: Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, and Eris. As of September 2018, there are 334 other minor planets known to have moons. The Earth–Moon system is unique in that the ratio of the mass of the Moon to the mass of Earth is much greater than that of any other natural-satellite–planet ratio in the Solar System (although there are minor-planet systems with even greater ratios, notably the Pluto–Charon system). At 3,474 km (2,158 miles) across, the Moon is 0.27 times the diameter of Earth.

Subsatellite is a natural satellite (or an artificial satellite) that orbits a natural satellite, i.e. a "moon of a moon", also known as a moonmoon, submoon, or grandmoon. It is inferred from the empirical study of natural satellites in the Solar System that subsatellites may be elements of planetary systems. In the Solar System, the giant planets have large collections of natural satellites. The majority of detected exoplanets are giant planets; at least one, Kepler-1625b, may have a very large exomoon, named Kepler-1625b I. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that subsatellites may exist in the Solar System, and in planetary systems beyond the Solar System. Nonetheless, no "moon of a moon" or subsatellite is known as of 2018 in the Solar System or beyond the Solar System. In most cases, the tidal effects of the planet would make such a system unstable.

Supermoon Lunar Eclipse | NASA (youtube) - Lunar Eclipse Viewing Path - 2018 (image)

Apollo Program - Neil Armstrong

Apollo 11 was the first Human on the Moon on July 20,1969.

"One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind"   Video

EARTHRISE: The First Lunar Voyage Apollo 8 Mission (youtube)

Elton John - Rocket Man (youtube)

Ground Control to Major Tom by David Bowie (youtube) - I wouldn't say that planet earth is blue and there's nothing I can do, I would say there is always something to do, especially on planet earth, but if you had to express a particular feeling based on a particular time period in human history, then the lyrics are perfect.

Space Travel - Living in Space

Other Moons of Earth (wiki)
3753 Cruithne (wiki) 
Near-Earth Asteroid 3753 Cruithne (youtube)

"What can we gain by sailing to the moon if we are not able to cross the abyss that separates us from ourselves?"

Moon102704b.jpg (32570 bytes) Moon102704e.jpg (17139 bytes)

Solar System

Distance Between the Moon and Earth You Can Fit Every Planet In The Solar System Between Earth And The Moon
Planet Average Diameter (km)
Mercury 4,879
Venus 12,104
Mars 6,771
Jupiter 139,822
Saturn 116,464
Uranus 50,724
Neptune 49,244
Total = 380,008
The average distance from the Earth to the Moon is 384,400 km. And check it out, that leaves us with 4,392 km to spare.
So even Pluto could fit.  2,302 km

1 AU = 150 million kilometers (93 million miles).

Moon Base
The moon doesn’t have an atmosphere or a magnetic field to protect us from the Sun, meteors or cosmic rays, so we can’t live on its surface. But a team of Japanese scientists looking at some deep lunar pits think they’ve found more than just a hole—they think they’ve found tunnels that cut through our satellite’s volcanic rock for miles. They might be our first home beyond Earth.



Voyager 1 and 2 Space Probes


Voyager One Space ProbeVoyager 2 was launched first, on August 20, 1977; has been operating for 40 years and 17 days as of September 6, 2017. It remains in contact through the Deep Space Network. NASA’s Voyager 2 Enters Interstellar Space Forty-one years after it launched into space (youtube).

Voyager 1 was launched on a faster, shorter trajectory on September 5, 1977. Both spacecraft were delivered to space aboard Titan-Centaur expendable rockets. Voyager is traveling around 40,000 mph or a million miles a day. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator will run out of energy around 2026. V'ger (youtube) - Voyager

Voyager 1 and 2 Flight Paths (image)

Voyager 1 Gold Record Messages are already out of date, oh well. It's like the difference between what you would say when you are 5 years old compared to what you would say when you are 50 years old. I just hope that intelligent life has a good sense of humor, otherwise they will be in for a big surprise. (kidding). Voyager 1 was a Symbol of Life. This was our attempt  to explain what we thought life was in 1977. Knowledge Preservation.

Space Probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space. A space probe may approach the Moon; travel through interplanetary space; flyby, orbit, or land on other planetary bodies; or enter interstellar space. Space Probes for Data Storage.

Deep Space 1 was launched on 24 October 1998 and carried out a flyby of asteroid 9969 Braille, which is a small Mars-crossing asteroid that orbits the Sun once every 3.58 years.

The Strangest Sights Cassini Saw: Postcards From Saturn | NPR's SKUNK BEAR (youtube)
Cassini Burns into Saturn After Grand Finale | Out There (youtube)
NASA at Saturn: Cassini's Grand Finale (youtube)

Space Travel - Light Speed


Space Shuttle


Space Shuttle Atlantis Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system. The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982. Five complete Shuttle systems were built and used on a total of 135 missions from 1981 to 2011, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. Operational missions launched numerous satellites, interplanetary probes, and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST); conducted science experiments in orbit; and participated in construction and servicing of the International Space Station. The Shuttle fleet's total mission time was 1322 days, 19 hours, 21 minutes and 23 seconds. The Space Shuttle was retired from service upon the conclusion of Atlantis's final flight on July 21, 2011.

Space Shuttle Program
Shuttle Missions
Space Shuttle Launch (youtube)
Space Shuttle (video)
Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System is the barrier that protected the Space Shuttle Orbiter during the searing 1,650 °C (3,000 °F) heat of atmospheric reentry. A secondary goal was to protect from the heat and cold of space while in orbit.
Moon

12 Miles High is the limit for a human without a Space Suit, you can actually survive in Space for 2 minutes without a Space Suit, so what would you do in those last 2 minutes? 

Suit Up - 50 Years of Spacewalks (youtube)

Smoke and fire RS 25 Rocket Engine Test (youtube) NASA conducted a developmental test firing of the RS-25 rocket engine, on August 13 at the agency’s Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. The 535 second test was the sixth in the current series of seven-tests of the former space shuttle main engine. Four RS-25 engines will power the core stage of the new Space Launch System (SLS) rocket , which will carry humans deeper into space than ever before, including to an asteroid and Mars.

XS-1 spacecraft is a planned experimental spaceplane/booster designed to deliver small satellites into orbit for the U.S. Military. It is intended to be reusable as frequently as 10 times in 10 days. The XS-1 is to directly replace the "first stage" of a multistage rocket that will be capable of flying at hypersonic speed at suborbital altitude, enabling one or more expendable upper stages to separate and deploy a payload into low Earth orbit. The XS-1 would then return to Earth, where it could be serviced fast enough to repeat the process at least once every 24 hours.

Aerojet Rocketdyne is an American rocket and missile propulsion manufacturer. Headquartered in Sacramento, California, the company is owned by Aerojet Rocketdyne Holdings. Aerojet Rocketdyne was formed in 2013 when Aerojet (then owned by GenCorp) and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne were merged, following the latter's acquisition by GenCorp from Pratt & Whitney. On April 27, 2015, the name of the holding company, GenCorp, was changed from GenCorp, Inc. to Aerojet Rocketdyne Holdings, Inc.

Space Adventures (zero gravity flights)

Space Travel - The Moon - Action Physics

Space Station


Space Station International Space Station is a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit. Its first component launched into orbit in 1998, and the ISS is now the largest artificial body in orbit and can often be seen with the naked eye from Earth. The ISS consists of pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays, and other components. ISS components have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets, and American Space Shuttles. The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology, and other fields. The station is suited for the testing of spacecraft systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars. The ISS maintains an orbit with an altitude of between 330 and 435 km (205 and 270 mi) by means of reboost manoeuvres using the engines of the Zvezda module or visiting spacecraft. It completes 15.54 orbits per day. Overview Effect.

International Space Station (nasa)

Space Station also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a Space craft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock. A space station is distinguished from other spacecraft used for human spaceflight by lack of major propulsion or landing systems. Instead, other vehicles transport people and cargo to and from the station. As of 2018, two space stations are in Earth orbit: the International Space Station (operational and permanently inhabited) and China's Tiangong-2 spacelab (operational but not permanently inhabited). Various other components of future space stations, such as Japan's space elevator and U.S. inflatable modules, are also being tested in orbit. Previous stations include the Almaz and Salyut series, Skylab, Mir, and Tiangong-1. China, Russia, the U.S., as well as a few private companies are all planning other stations for the coming decades. Today's space stations are research platforms, used to study the effects of long-term space flight on the human body as well as to provide platforms for greater number and length of scientific studies than available on other space vehicles. Each crew member stays aboard the station for weeks or months, but rarely more than a year. Since the ill-fated flight of Soyuz 11 to Salyut 1, all human spaceflight duration records have been set aboard space stations. The duration record for a single spaceflight is 437.7 days, set by Valeriy Polyakov aboard Mir from 1994 to 1995. As of 2016, four cosmonauts have completed single missions of over a year, all aboard Mir. Space stations have also been used for both military and civilian purposes. The last military-use space station was Salyut 5, which was used by the Almaz program of the Soviet Union in 1976 and 1977. (150 billion Dollars).

Experiments in Space - Human Tissue Experiments on the ISS Could Advance 3D Printed Organs (youtube).

Departing Space Station Commander Provides Tour of Orbital Laboratory (youtube) Best Space Station Tour Ever
The ISS takes about 90 minutes to complete one orbit. Astronauts living on-board experience 16 sunrises and sunsets in a 24-hour period. ISS is 250 miles high and traveling at 17,000 miles per hour, More than 220 astronauts and cosmonauts from 18 different countries have been on the ISS since its "first element launch" in 1998. As of May 16, 2016, at 06:10 at GMT, 18 years after its initial launch, the ISS will begin its 100,000th orbit — 2.6 billion miles — around planet Earth as it crosses the equator.
Effect of gravity and microgravity on intracranial pressure. Microgravity raises pressure in the head and reshapes the eyeballs, which could be problematic for long-term space travel.

‘Terminator’-style material heals itself (youtube)

Nano Technology



Extraterrestrial Life - ET - Space Aliens


Extraterrestrial Life - ET - Space AliensExtraterrestrial Life is life that does not originate from Earth. Other life forms may range from simple single-celled organisms to beings with civilizations far more advanced than humanity.

It's not so unusual to believe that there is
Advanced Aircraft Technology that the public does not know about. Military secrets is nothing new. Besides that, all those people who have seen advanced aircraft can't be wrong. We have eye witness accounts from pilots, astronauts, military personal and also civilians who were in several different locations at the same time seeing the same thing. And on top of that, advancements in technology in the last 50 years has shown us that almost anything is possible. Don't assume that incredible space crafts are Extraterrestrial.

What if there is Extraterrestrial Life? How will it change human life or how will it impact our world? Maybe Extraterrestrial Life has already visited our earth? And the reason we don't have evidence is because they followed the Prime Directive. Or maybe other life just sent their DNA with Instructions?

Could our world be the result Biogenesis, Intelligent Design or Creationism?

Even if we did find another Exo-Planet like ours how could we even assume that life exists there? 

Interdimensional Hypothesis states unidentified flying objects (UFOs) and related events involve visitations from other "realities" or "dimensions" that coexist separately alongside our own.

The Drake Equation only assumes the possibility of life, it does not explain how life exists elsewhere. Do you think that finding Extraterrestrial Life will somehow improve our world like some Magic Potion? Technology can only do so much, unless of course Extraterrestrial Life can show us how to improve our dysfunctional inadequate education system. Then I believe we will see improvements. Till then I have more important things to think about, like how to improve education without having to depend on Extraterrestrial Life to do it for me. Bias Errors.

Habitable Zone - Stars Like Ours

Fermi Paradox is the apparent contradiction between the lack of evidence and high probability estimates, e.g., those given by the Drake equation, for the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations. The basic points of the argument, made by physicists Enrico Fermi (1901–1954) and Michael H. Hart (born 1932), are: There are billions of stars in the galaxy that are similar to the Sun, many of which are billions of years older than Earth. With high probability, some of these stars will have Earth-like planets, and if the Earth is typical, some might develop intelligent life. Some of these civilizations might develop interstellar travel, a step the Earth is investigating now. Even at the slow pace of currently envisioned interstellar travel, the Milky Way galaxy could be completely traversed in a few million years. According to this line of reasoning, the Earth should have already been visited by extraterrestrial aliens. In an informal conversation, Fermi noted no convincing evidence of this, leading him to ask, "Where is everybody?" There have been many attempts to explain the Fermi paradox, primarily either suggesting that intelligent extraterrestrial life is extremely rare or proposing reasons that such civilizations have not contacted or visited Earth.

Physical Paradox is an apparent contradiction in physical descriptions of the universe.

Holography - VR
Awareness - Reality

Phased-Array Optics is the technology of controlling the phase of light waves transmitting or reflecting from a two-dimensional surface by means of adjustable surface elements. It is the optical analogue of phased array radar. By dynamically controlling the optical properties of a surface on a microscopic scale, it is possible to steer the direction of light beams, or the view direction of sensors, without any moving parts. Hardware associated with beam steering applications is commonly called an optical phased array (OPA). Phased array beam steering is used for optical switching and multiplexing in optoelectronic devices, and for aiming laser beams on a macroscopic scale.

Crop Circles is a pattern created by flattening a crop, usually a cereal. - Snow Art.

Arecibo Message is a 1974 interstellar radio message carrying basic information about humanity and Earth sent to globular star cluster M13 in the hope that extraterrestrial intelligence might receive and decipher it. The message was broadcast into space a single time via frequency modulated radio waves at a ceremony to mark the remodeling of the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico on 16 November 1974. The message was aimed at the current location of M13 some 25,000 light years away because M13 was a large and close collection of stars that was available in the sky at the time and place of the ceremony. The message consisted of 1,679 binary digits, approximately 210 bytes, transmitted at a frequency of 2,380 MHz and modulated by shifting the frequency by 10 Hz, with a power of 1,000 kW. The "ones" and "zeros" were transmitted by frequency shifting at the rate of 10 bits per second. The total broadcast was less than three minutes. The cardinality of 1,679 was chosen because it is a semiprime (the product of two prime numbers), to be arranged rectangularly as 73 rows by 23 columns. The alternative arrangement, 23 rows by 73 columns, produces jumbled nonsense (as do all other X/Y formats). The message forms the image shown on the right, or its inverse, when translated into graphics, characters and spaces. Dr. Frank Drake, then at Cornell University and creator of the Drake equation, wrote the message with help from Carl Sagan, among others.
The message consists of seven parts that encode the following (from the top down):
The numbers one (1) to ten (10) (white).
The atomic numbers of the elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus, which make up deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (purple). The formulas for the sugars and bases in the nucleotides of DNA (green). The number of nucleotides in DNA, and a graphic of the double helix structure of DNA (white & blue).
A graphic figure of a human, the dimension (physical height) of an average man, and the human population of Earth (red, blue/white, & white respectively).
A graphic of the Solar System indicating which of the planets the message is coming from (yellow).
A graphic of the Arecibo radio telescope and the dimension (the physical diameter) of the transmitting antenna dish (purple, white, & blue).
Since it will take nearly 25,000 years for the message to reach its intended destination (and an additional 25,000 years for any reply), the Arecibo message is viewed as a demonstration of human technological achievement, versus a real attempt to enter into a conversation with extraterrestrials. In fact, the core of M13, to which the message was aimed, will no longer be in that location when the message arrives. However, as the proper motion of M13 is small, the message will still arrive near the center of the cluster. According to the Cornell News press release of November 12, 1999, the real purpose of the message was not to make contact but to demonstrate the capabilities of newly installed equipment.

Knowledge Preservation

Archaeoastronomy is the study of how people in the past "have understood the phenomena in the sky, how they used these phenomena and what role the sky played in their cultures.

Astro-Engineering is engineering at astronomical scale, i.e. at planetary, stellar, stellar system, galactic or even larger scale. It is a form of megascale engineering. An example is the hypothetical Dyson Sphere, which is a hypothetical megastructure that completely encompasses a star and captures most or all of its power output.

Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence
Dimitar Sasselov: How we found hundreds of Earth-like planets (youtube)

There's a big difference between a Technologically Advanced Civilization and an Intelligent Civilization. Humans are advanced but we are not so intelligent as a whole. We are like Klingons, except that we would not be that stupid as to send Neanderthals out into space. But Hollywood has this strange idea that Humans will still be stupid in the future, which is idiotic in itself. I laughed when I saw the movie Prometheus. When the crew woke up from their deep sleep they realized that one of the crew members was an a**hole. Who the hell sends an a**hole into space? Really..What idiot choose those crew members? You see it doesn't make sense. And that is just one of many examples there are in Movies and TV shows about space travel. Pigs in Space (youtube).

"The only Intelligent Life Form man will ever meet is himself, as soon as he wakes up, that is when and if? Not to say that there are not other life forms in our universe, it's just that we have not yet defined what ' intelligent ' is. Just because someone is advanced does not mean that they are intelligent. A perfect example is 21st century humans."

Aliens will not come to earth to kill all the humans. Aliens will only roundup all the scumbags in power who are doing all the environmental destruction. Intelligent life is not born to kill, only ignorant people kill.

Kepler has already identified more than 1,000 Exoplanets since the beginning of its journey. We are not alone, or unique.

(A) Beware the bearers of FALSE gifts and their BROKEN PROMISES.
(B) Much PAIN but still time. BELIEVE.
(C) There is GOOD out there. We Oppose DECEPTION.
Conduit CLOSING (Ding!)

The Search for Life: The Drake Equation (video)
TROM - 2.23 UFOs and Extraterrestrial Life (youtube)

Foo Fighter (wiki)

Even if we did come in contact with other life form, there is no way of knowing what it would do to our lives? There is no way of Calculating this Probability, you can only guess. And we all know what a Guess is?  So how can a guess Prepare you?

ri mi do do so tones Close Encounters of the Third Kind (wiki)
 
Movie Clip with the 5 Tones (youtube) - B flat, C, A flat, (octave lower) A flat, E flat.

Eighth Note is a musical note played for half the value of a quarter note (crotchet) and twice that of the sixteenth note (semiquaver), which amounts to one quarter the duration of a half note (minim), one eighth the duration of whole note (semibreve), one sixteenth the duration of a double whole note (breve), and one thirty-second the duration of a longa, hence the name. It is the equivalent of the fusa in mensural notation (Morehen and Rastell 2001). G, A, F, (octave lower) F, C.

Kodaly Method is an approach to Music Education developed in Hungary during the mid-twentieth century by Zoltán Kodály.
 
Lee Cronin: Making Matter come Alive (youtube)

"I only believe in the possibility that there could be life on other planets, to take a belief any farther then that is not really necessary, the same goes for Multiverses. Elaborating more on a belief does not make it any more real. You have to have proof. I'm not saying that you must see a space alien in order to prove that space aliens exist. Example, we didn't have to see atoms to know that atoms existed. We did a lot of testing and experiments, we did a lot of research, and we built a lot of complex machines that ultimately proved that atoms were there. We can see farther into space and see smaller into molecules then any other time in human history, But the one thing that we learned is that our universe is far in all directions, we can't see what's inside protons, and we can't see the edge of our universe. So I'm guessing that space aliens are also going to be hard to see, after all they have almost a 9 Billion year head start. But everything leaves a trail, and everything has some form of evidence that proves that it exists. We would have to make amazing complex machines that would be able to measure things, things that we don't even know exist. So we will always have work to do because there is no end to science, there will never be an end to what we could know, there is no end to knowledge, and there's is no end to information. I wouldn't say that it goes on forever, I'm just saying that no one can define what 'END' is, so we don't know what 'END' means, so you see, There is No End.....well at least not for now there isn't, but maybe some day?... I wonder if or when we do find an end, that it will be like telling someone the ending of a movie before they see it, hey don't ruin it for me! I want it to be a surprise. So you see, there's not even an end to this conversation, it keeps going and going..."



Space Travel


Interstellar Space Ship Interstellar Travel is a hypothetical piloted or unpiloted travel between stars or planetary systems. Interstellar travel will be much more difficult than interplanetary spaceflight; the distances between the planets in the Solar System are less than 30 astronomical units (AU)—whereas the distances between stars are typically hundreds of thousands of AU, and usually expressed in light-years. Because of the vastness of those distances, interstellar travel would require a high percentage of the speed of light, huge travel time, lasting from decades to millennia or longer, or a combination of both.

Navigation - Dimensions - Communications

Space Exploration is the ongoing discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of continuously evolving and growing space technology. While the study of space is carried out mainly by astronomers with telescopes, the physical exploration of space is conducted both by unmanned robotic space probes and human spaceflight.

How Humans DNA will Adapt to Space Travel

Laika was a Soviet space dog who became one of the first animals in space, and the first animal to orbit the Earth. Laika, a stray dog from the streets of Moscow, was selected to be the occupant of the Soviet spacecraft Sputnik 2 that was launched into outer space on 3 November 1957.

NASA Space Flight - Space X

Aeronautics is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.

Aerospace Engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft. It has two major and overlapping branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering. Avionics engineering is similar, but
deals with the electronics side of aerospace engineering. Orbital Mechanics.

Spacecraft is a vehicle, or machine designed to Fly in outer space. Spacecraft are used for a variety of purposes, including communications, earth observation, meteorology, navigation, space colonization, planetary exploration, and transportation of humans and cargo. Light Year.

Space Shuttle - Voyager
Space Station - Living in Space
Space Adventures - Moon Travel

Food in Space (vertical farming)

A Mission to Mars could make its own Oxygen, thanks to plasma technology. Mars, with its 96 per cent carbon dioxide atmosphere, has nearly ideal conditions for creating oxygen from CO2 through a process known as decomposition.

Rocket is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine. Rocket engine exhaust is formed entirely from propellant carried within the rocket before use. Rocket engines work by action and reaction and push rockets forward simply by expelling their exhaust in the opposite direction at high speed, and can therefore work in the vacuum of space. In fact, rockets work more efficiently in space than in an atmosphere. To obtain Escape Velocity a rocket needs to travel 11 kilometers (7 miles) per second, or over 40,000 kilometers per hour (25,000 miles per hour), to enter Low Earth Orbit. (Thrust - Efficiency - Weight).

Multistage Rockets are capable of attaining Escape Velocity from Earth and therefore can achieve unlimited maximum altitude. Compared with airbreathing engines, rockets are lightweight and powerful and capable of generating large accelerations. To control their flight, rockets rely on momentum, airfoils, auxiliary reaction engines, gimballed thrust, momentum wheels, deflection of the exhaust stream, propellant flow, spin, and/or gravity. Multistage Rocket is a rocket that uses two or more stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant. A tandem or serial stage is mounted on top of another stage; a parallel stage is attached alongside another stage. The result is effectively two or more rockets stacked on top of or attached next to each other. Taken together these are sometimes called a launch vehicle. Two-stage rockets are quite common, but rockets with as many as five separate stages have been successfully launched. By jettisoning stages when they run out of propellant, the mass of the remaining rocket is decreased. This staging allows the thrust of the remaining stages to more easily accelerate the rocket to its final speed and height. In serial or tandem staging schemes, the first stage is at the bottom and is usually the largest, the second stage and subsequent upper stages are above it, usually decreasing in size. In parallel staging schemes solid or liquid rocket boosters are used to assist with lift-off. These are sometimes referred to as "stage 0". In the typical case, the first-stage and booster engines fire to propel the entire rocket upwards. When the boosters run out of fuel, they are detached from the rest of the rocket (usually with some kind of small explosive charge) and fall away. The first stage then burns to completion and falls off. This leaves a smaller rocket, with the second stage on the bottom, which then fires. Known in rocketry circles as staging, this process is repeated until the final stage's motor burns to completion. In some cases with serial staging, the upper stage ignites before the separation- the interstage ring is designed with this in mind, and the thrust is used to help positively separate the two vehicles. Why SpaceX Built A Stainless Steel Starship (youtube).

Spacecraft Propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites. There are many different methods. Each method has drawbacks and advantages, and spacecraft propulsion is an active area of research. However, most spacecraft today are propelled by forcing a gas from the back/rear of the vehicle at very high speed through a supersonic de Laval nozzle. This sort of engine is called a rocket engine.

Thruster is a propulsive device used by spacecraft and watercraft for station keeping, attitude control, in the reaction control system, or long-duration, low-thrust acceleration.

Rocket Propellant is a material used either directly by a rocket as the reaction mass (propulsive mass), or indirectly to produce the reaction mass in a chemical reaction. The reaction mass is that which is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust.

Rocket Engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet. Rocket engines are reaction engines, obtaining thrust in accordance with Newton's third law. Most rocket engines use combustion, although non-combusting forms (such as cold gas thrusters) also exist. Vehicles propelled by rocket engines are commonly called rockets. Since they need no external material to form their jet, rocket engines can perform in a vacuum and thus can be used to propel spacecraft and ballistic missiles.

Avangard Hypersonic Glide Vehicle is a hypersonic glider, developed by Russia. The glider reached a speed of 11,200 kilometres per hour (7,000 mph; 3,100 m/s).

Boost-Glide are a class of spacecraft guidance and reentry trajectories that extend the range of suborbital spaceplanes and reentry vehicles by employing aerodynamic lift in the high upper atmosphere. In most examples, boost-glide roughly doubles the
range over the purely ballistic trajectory. In others, a series of skips allows range to be further extended, and leads to the alternate terms skip-glide and skip reentry.

Hypersonic Speed is one that greatly exceeds the speed of sound, particularly Mach 5 and above.
Subsonic <0.8 (Mach number) <614 (mph) <988 (km/h)  <274 (m/s).
Supersonic  1.2–5.0 (Mach number) 921–3,836 (mph)  1,482–6,174 (km/h)   412–1,715 (m/s).
Hypersonic  5.0–10.0 (Mach number)  3,836–7,673 (mph)   6,174–12,348 (km/h)   1,715–3,430 (m/s).
High-hypersonic  10.0–25.0 (Mach number)  7,673–19,182 (mph)   12,348–30,870 (km/h)   3,430–8,575 (m/s).

Scramjet is a variant of a ramjet airbreathing jet engine in which combustion takes place in supersonic airflow. As in ramjets, a scramjet relies on high vehicle speed to compress the incoming air forcefully before combustion (hence ramjet), but whereas a ramjet decelerates the air to subsonic velocities before combustion, the airflow in a scramjet is supersonic throughout the entire engine. That allows the scramjet to operate efficiently at extremely high speeds. (supersonic combustion ramjet).

Hypersonic Aircraft would be great for emergency services, rescue missions and emergency aid, especially when time is so extremely important. Ambulances in the Sky.

Shock Wave is a type of propagating disturbance that moves faster than the local speed of sound in the medium. Like an ordinary wave, a shock wave carries energy and can propagate through a medium but is characterized by an abrupt, nearly discontinuous, change in pressure, temperature, and density of the medium. For the purpose of comparison, in supersonic flows, additional increased expansion may be achieved through an expansion fan, also known as a Prandtl–Meyer expansion fan. The accompanying expansion wave may approach and eventually collide and recombine with the shock wave, creating a process of destructive interference. The sonic boom associated with the passage of a supersonic aircraft is a type of sound wave produced by constructive interference. Unlike solitons (another kind of nonlinear wave), the energy and speed of a shock wave alone dissipates relatively quickly with distance. When a shock wave passes through matter, energy is preserved but entropy increases. This change in the matter's properties manifests itself as a decrease in the energy which can be extracted as work, and as a drag force on supersonic objects; shock waves are strongly irreversible processes. Cavitation - Torus.

Rocket Man - Elton John - Space Oddity - David Bowie - Rocket - Def Leppard (youtube)

Space Launch (wiki) - Falcon 1 - Falcon 9 - Falcon-Heavy

Max Q is the point at which aerodynamic stress on a vehicle in atmospheric flight is maximized. It is an important factor in the structural and mission design of rockets, missiles, and other aerospace vehicles which travel through an atmosphere; the flight envelope may be limited to reduce the total structural load on a vehicle near max Q. Gravity.

Transonic refers to the condition of flight in which a range of velocities of airflow exist surrounding and flowing past an air vehicle or an airfoil that are concurrently below, at, and above the speed of sound in the range of Mach 0.8 to 1.0, i.e. 965–1,236 km/h (600–768 mph) at sea level. This condition depends not only on the travel speed of the craft, but also on the temperature of the airflow in the vehicle's local environment. It is formally defined as the range of speeds between the critical Mach number, when some parts of the airflow over an air vehicle or airfoil are supersonic, and a higher speed, typically near Mach 1.2, when most of the airflow is supersonic. Between these speeds some of the airflow is supersonic, but a significant fraction is not. Most modern jet powered aircraft are engineered to operate at transonic air speeds. Transonic airspeeds see a rapid increase in drag from about Mach 0.8, and it is the fuel costs of the drag that typically limits the airspeed. Attempts to reduce wave drag can be seen on all high-speed aircraft. Most notable is the use of swept wings, but another common form is a wasp-waist fuselage as a side effect of the Whitcomb area rule. Severe instability can occur at transonic speeds. Shock waves move through the air at the speed of sound. When an object such as an aircraft also moves at the speed of sound, these shock waves build up in front of it to form a single, very large shock wave. During transonic flight, the plane must pass through this large shock wave, as well as contend with the instability caused by air moving faster than sound over parts of the wing and slower in other parts. Transonic speeds can also occur at the tips of rotor blades of helicopters and aircraft. This puts severe, unequal stresses on the rotor blade and may lead to accidents if it occurs. It is one of the limiting factors of the size of rotors and the forward speeds of helicopters (as this speed is added to the forward-sweeping [leading] side of the rotor, possibly causing localized transonics).

Aerospike Engine is a type of rocket engine that maintains its aerodynamic efficiency across a wide range of altitudes. It belongs to the class of altitude compensating nozzle engines. A vehicle with an aerospike engine uses 25–30% less fuel at low
altitudes, where most missions have the greatest need for thrust. Aerospike engines have been studied for a number of years and are the baseline engines for many single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) designs and were also a strong contender for the Space Shuttle Main Engine. However, no such engine is in commercial production, although some large-scale aerospikes are in testing phases. Aerospike Engines Instead of Bell-Shaped Rocket Engines (youtube).

Rocket Engine Nozzle is a propelling nozzle (usually of the de Laval type) used in a rocket engine to expand and accelerate the combustion gases produced by burning propellants so that the exhaust gases exit the nozzle at hypersonic velocities. Simply: the rocket (pumps and a combustion chamber) generates high pressure, a few hundred atmospheres (Bar). The nozzle turns the static high pressure high temperature gas into rapidly moving gas at near-ambient pressure.

Slingshot Effect or Gravity Assist is the use of the relative movement and gravity of a planet or other astronomical object to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft, typically to save propellant and reduce expense (e.g. orbit around the Sun). Gravity assistance can be used to accelerate a spacecraft, that is, to increase or decrease its speed or redirect its path. The "assist" is provided by the motion of the gravitating body as it pulls on the spacecraft. The gravity assist maneuver was first used in 1959 when the Soviet probe Luna 3 photographed the far side of Earth's Moon, and it was used by interplanetary probes from Mariner 10 onwards, including the two Voyager Probes' notable flybys of Jupiter and Saturn.

Space Shuttle weighs more than 2.04 million kilograms (4.5 million pounds) and it takes eight seconds for the engines and boosters to accelerate the ship to 161 kilometers per hour (100 mph.) But by the time the first minute has passed, the shuttle is traveling more than 1,609 kilometers per hour (1,000 mph) and it has already consumed more than one and a half million pounds of fuel. After about two minutes, when the shuttle is about 45 kilometers (28 miles) high and traveling more than 4,828 kilometers per hour (3,000 mph), the propellant in the two boosters is exhausted and the booster casings are jettisoned. They parachute into the Atlantic Ocean, splashing down about 225 kilometers (140 miles) off the Florida coast.

Anti-Gravity Field Propulsion

Pulse Detonation Engine is a type of propulsion system that uses detonation waves to combust the fuel and oxidizer mixture. The engine is pulsed because the mixture must be renewed in the combustion chamber between each detonation wave and the next. Theoretically, a PDE can operate from subsonic up to a hypersonic flight speed of roughly Mach 5. An ideal PDE design can have a thermodynamic efficiency higher than other designs like turbojets and turbofans because a detonation wave rapidly compresses the mixture and adds heat at constant volume. Consequently, moving parts like compressor spools are not necessarily required in the engine, which could significantly reduce overall weight and cost. PDEs have been considered for propulsion since 1940. Key issues for further development include fast and efficient mixing of the fuel and oxidizer, the prevention of autoignition, and integration with an inlet and nozzle. To date, no practical PDE has been put into production, but several testbed engines have been built and one was successfully integrated into a low-speed demonstration aircraft that flew in sustained PDE powered flight in 2008. In June 2008, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) unveiled Blackswift, which was intended to use this technology to reach speeds of up to Mach 6. However the project was reported cancelled soon afterward, in October 2008.

Rotating Detonation Engine is a proposed engine using a form of pressure gain combustion, where one or more detonations continuously travel around an annular channel. Although none are in production, computational simulations and experimental results have shown that the RDE has potential, and a there is wide interest and research into the concept. Theoretically, detonative combustion, (i.e. that which happens at speeds above the speeds of sound), is more efficient than the conventional deflagrative combustion. If this theoretical gain in efficiency can be realized, there would be a major fuel savings benefit. Because the combustion is supersonic, it can also more efficiently provide thrust at speeds above the speed of sound. The disadvantages of the RDE include stability and noise.

Plasma Propulsion Engine is a type of electric propulsion that generates thrust from a quasi-neutral plasma. This is in contrast to ion thruster engines, which generates thrust through extracting an ion current from plasma source, which is then accelerated to high velocities using grids/anodes.

Plasma Reforming of CO2. Plasma technology could hold the key to creating a sustainable oxygen supply on Mars. Creating oxygen from CO2 through a process known as decomposition.

Electrically Powered Spacecraft Propulsion system uses electrical energy to change the velocity of a spacecraft. Most of these kinds of spacecraft propulsion systems work by electrically expelling propellant (reaction mass) at high speed, but electrodynamic tethers work by interacting with a planet's magnetic field.

Electron Rocket is a two-stage orbital launch vehicle (with an optional third stage) developed by the New Zealand aerospace company Rocket Lab to cover the commercial small satellite launch segment (CubeSats). Its Rutherford engines are the first electric pump-fed engine to power an orbital rocket. In December 2016, Electron completed flight qualification. The first rocket was launched on 25 May 2017, reaching space but not achieving orbit. During its second flight on 21 January 2018, Electron reached orbit and deployed three CubeSats.

EmDrive is a controversial proposed type of electromagnetic thruster in which sustaining a resonant anisotropic electromagnetic field inside the microwave cavity purportedly produces a consistent thrust.

Ion Thruster is a form of electric propulsion used for spacecraft propulsion. It creates thrust by accelerating ions with electricity. The term refers strictly to gridded electrostatic ion thrusters, but may more loosely be applied to all electric propulsion systems that accelerate plasma, since plasma consists of ions. Tesla / Slayer Ionic Propulsion (youtube).

Anti-Matter Rocket is a proposed class of rockets that use antimatter as their power source. There are several designs that attempt to accomplish this goal. The advantage to this class of rocket is that a large fraction of the rest mass of a matter/antimatter mixture may be converted to energy, allowing antimatter rockets to have a far higher energy density and specific impulse than any other proposed class of rocket.

Reactionless Drive is a device producing motion without the exhaust of a propellant. A propellantless drive is not necessarily reactionless when it constitutes an open system interacting with external fields; but a reactionless drive is a particular case of a propellantless drive as it is a closed system presumably in contradiction with the law of conservation of momentum and often considered similar to a perpetual motion machine. The name comes from Newton's third law, which is usually expressed as, "for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction." A large number of infeasible devices, such as the Dean drive, are a staple of science fiction particularly for space propulsion. To date, no reactionless device has ever been validated under properly controlled conditions. Boing.

Direct Fusion Drive is a conceptual low radioactivity, nuclear-fusion engine designed to produce both thrust and electric power for interplanetary spacecraft. The concept is based on the Princeton field-reversed configuration reactor invented in 2002 by Samuel A. Cohen, and is being modeled and experimentally tested at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, a US Department of Energy facility, and modeled and evaluated by Princeton Satellite Systems. As of 2018, the concept has moved on to Phase II to further advance the design.

Photonic Laser Thruster is a photonic propulsion system where lasers can propel spacecraft with giant sails using a giant Earth-based lasers. Electromagnetic acceleration is only limited by the speed of light while chemical systems are limited to the energy of chemical processes.

Warp Speed is equal to breaking the light barrier, while the actual velocity corresponding to higher factors is determined using an ambiguous formula.

Ralph Ring - Blue Star Enterprise
Suppressed Anti-Gravity Tech (youtube)
Action Physics
Wanderers - a short film by Erik Wernquist (video)

Unidentified Flying Object or UFO is an object observed in the sky that is not readily identified. Most UFOs are later identified as conventional objects or phenomena. The term is widely used for claimed observations of extraterrestrial spacecraft.

Hohmann Transfer Orbit is an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane.

Low-Energy Transfer or low-energy trajectory, is a route in space that allows spacecraft to change orbits using very little fuel. These routes work in the Earth–Moon system and also in other systems, such as between the moons of Jupiter. The drawback of such trajectories is that they take longer to complete than higher-energy (more-fuel) transfers, such as Hohmann transfer orbits.

Trapping Atoms, not space ships, with Tractor Beams. A powerful Tractor Beam, or light-driven energy trap, for atoms.

Worm Hole Wormhole or "Einstein-Rosen bridge" is a hypothetical topological feature that would fundamentally be a shortcut linking two separate points in spacetime. A wormhole may connect extremely long distances such as a billion light years or more; short distances such as a few meters; different universes; and/or different points in time. A wormhole is much like a tunnel with two ends, each at separate points in spacetime.

ER=EPR | Leonard Susskind (youtube)

Space Portal--an extraordinary opening in space or time that connects travelers to distant realms. A good portal is a shortcut, a guide, a door into the unknown. If only they actually existed....

Magnetic Reconnection s a physical process in highly conducting plasmas in which the magnetic topology is rearranged and magnetic energy is converted to kinetic energy, thermal energy, and particle acceleration. Magnetic reconnection occurs on timescales intermediate between slow resistive diffusion of the magnetic field and fast Alfvénic timescales.

Boom Tube is a slang expression for a fictional extra-dimensional point-to-point Einstein-Rosen bridge (a form of teleportation) opened by a Mother Box used primarily by residents of New Genesis and Apokolips in DC Comics.

Flux Transfer Event occurs when a magnetic portal opens in the Earth's magnetosphere through which high-energy particles flow from the Sun. This connection, while previously thought to be permanent, has been found to be brief and very dynamic.

Flux Tube is a generally tube-like (cylindrical) region of space containing a magnetic field, B, such that the field is perpendicular to the normal vector, n ^ {\displaystyle {\hat {n}}} {\hat {n}}. Both the cross-sectional area of the tube and the field contained may vary along the length of the tube, but the magnetic flux is always constant.

Teleportation is the theoretical transfer of matter or energy from one point to another without traversing the physical space between them. Sixth Sense.

Diffusion Current is a current in a semiconductor caused by the diffusion of charge carriers (holes and/or electrons). This is the current which is due to the transport of charges occurring because of nonuniform concentration of charged particles in a semiconductor. The drift current, by contrast, is due to the motion of charge carriers due to the force exerted on them by an electric field. Diffusion current can be in the same or opposite direction of a drift current. The diffusion current and drift current together are described by the drift–diffusion equation.

Alpha Centauri is 4.3 light-years away, or 25 trillion miles. How long would that take? Apollo 10 traveled at 24,791 mph. So lets say we can travel 50,000 mph. In 20 hours we would travel 1 million miles. So almost 1 day to travel a million miles.

It would take a million days, or 2,739 years, to travel a trillion miles? So 68, 475 years for someone to reach Alpha Centauri.

Self-Healing Nano-Spacecraft could reach Alpha Centauri in 20 years. With our current technology, it would take a conventional spacecraft over 18,000 years to reach the nearest star, Alpha Centauri.

Engineers create Miniature Self-Sealing Wound.
Self-Healing Metal Oxides could protect against Corrosion.
Light-controlled polymers can switch between sturdy and soft.

Turning human waste into plastic, nutrients could aid long-distance space travel. Imagine you're on your way to Mars, and you lose a crucial tool during a spacewalk. Not to worry, you'll simply re-enter your spacecraft and use some microorganisms to convert your urine and exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) into chemicals to make a new one.

The microscopic Tardigrade—also known as the water bear—is the only animal that can survive the cold, irradiated vacuum of outer space.

Sending Robots with Human DNA

Moxie Reverse Fuel Cell Pumps out Oxygen

"Funny how movies about space travel make us realize that we are all on a spaceship called Earth, and everything we learn about surviving in space will help us survive on planet earth."

Twin Paradox In physics, the twin paradox is a thought experiment in special relativity involving identical twins, one of whom makes a journey into space in a high-speed rocket and returns home to find that the twin who remained on Earth has aged more. This result appears to be puzzling because each twin sees the other twin as moving, and so, according to an incorrect naive application of time dilation and the principle of relativity, each should paradoxically find the other to have aged more slowly. However, this scenario can be resolved within the standard framework of special relativity: the travelling twin's trajectory involves two different inertial frames, one for the outbound journey and one for the inbound journey, and so there is no symmetry between the spacetime paths of the two twins. Therefore, the twin paradox is not a paradox in the sense of a logical contradiction.

Isolation Tank - Solitude Skills - Information Backup

Dream Big, but always have a backup plan.

The thing about people wanting to go to mars, or to mine asteroids, or to colonize space. I believe that these things will eventually happen in the future, but we should focus more on humanities future first, because you can dream all you want about future endeavors, but if there is no future, then what's the point? Secure humanities future first, then you will have a future where you will be able to explore space. These dreams of space travel will bring us full circle anyway. The technologies and the knowledge that we learn from trying to live in space, will actually be used on earth to secure our own planets future and ours. After all, we have the greatest spaceship in the universe, it's called Earth. Lets take care of this one before we start thinking about building another one. Besides, the longer we wait, the more advanced will be in the future, and then we can set out and explore the universe in full fashion.

Technology Spinoffs that came from Space Exploration highlights NASA technologies that are benefiting life on Earth in the form of commercial products. We've profiled nearly 2,000 spinoffs since the publication began in 1976 — there's more space in your life than you think! NASA Spinoff Technologies are commercial products and services which have been developed with the help of NASA, through research and development contracts, such as Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) or STTR awards, licensing of NASA patents, use of NASA facilities, technical assistance from NASA personnel, or data from NASA research. Information on new NASA technology that may be useful to industry is available in periodical and website form in "NASA Tech Briefs", while successful examples of commercialization are reported annually in the NASA publication "Spinoffs". Repurpose.

6 Space Technologies we can use to Improve Life on Earth: Danielle Wood (video and text)

Laws in Space


Space Law encompasses national and international law governing activities in outer space. International lawyers have been unable to agree on a uniform definition of the term "outer space", although most lawyers agree that outer space generally begins at the lowest altitude above sea level at which objects can orbit the Earth, approximately 100 km (62 mi) (the Kármán line).

Space Policy is the political decision-making process for, and application of, public policy of a state (or association of states) regarding spaceflight and uses of outer space, both for civilian (scientific and commercial) and military purposes. International treaties, such as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, attempt to maximize the peaceful uses of space and restrict the militarization of space. Space policy intersects with science policy, since national space programs often perform or fund research in space science, and also with defense policy, for applications such as spy satellites and anti-satellite weapons. It also encompasses government regulation of third-party activities such as commercial communications satellites and private spaceflight. Space policy also encompasses the creation and application of space law, and space advocacy organizations exist to support the cause of space exploration.

National Aeronautics and Space Act in 1958 charged a new Agency with conducting the aeronautical and space activities of the United States "so as to contribute materially to one or more of the following objectives:" The expansion of human knowledge of phenomena in the atmosphere and space; The improvement of the usefulness, performance, speed, safety, and efficiency of aeronautical and space vehicles; The development and operation of vehicles capable of carrying instruments, equipment, supplies and living organisms through space; The establishment of long-range studies of the potential benefits to be gained from, the opportunities for, and the problems involved in the utilization of aeronautical and space activities for peaceful and scientific purposes. The preservation of the role of the United States as a leader in aeronautical and space science and technology and in the application thereof to the conduct of peaceful activities within and outside the atmosphere. The making available to agencies directly concerned with national defenses of discoveries that have military value or significance, and the furnishing by such agencies, to the civilian agency established to direct and control nonmilitary aeronautical and space activities, of information as to discoveries which have value or significance to that agency; Cooperation by the United States with other nations and groups of nations in work done pursuant to this Act and in the peaceful application of the results, thereof; and The most effective utilization of the scientific and engineering resources of the United States, with close cooperation among all interested agencies of the United States in order to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort, facilities, and equipment.

Office of Planetary Protection promotes the responsible exploration of the solar system by implementing and developing efforts that protect the science, explored environments, and Earth. The objectives of planetary protection are several-fold and include: Preserving our ability to study other worlds as they exist in their natural states; Avoiding the biological contamination of explored environments that may obscure our ability to find life elsewhere – if it exists; and To ensure that we take prudent precautions to protect Earth’s biosphere in case life does exist elsewhere.

Outer Space Treaty is a treaty that forms the basis of international space law that represents the basic legal framework of international space law. Among its principles, it bars states party to the treaty from placing weapons of mass destruction in orbit of Earth, installing them on the Moon or any other celestial body, or otherwise stationing them in outer space. It exclusively limits the use of the Moon and other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes and expressly prohibits their use for testing weapons of any kind, conducting military maneuvers, or establishing military bases, installations, and fortifications (Article IV). However, the Treaty does not prohibit the placement of conventional weapons in orbit and thus some highly destructive attack strategies such as kinetic bombardment are still potentially allowable. The treaty also states that the exploration of outer space shall be done to benefit all countries and that space shall be free for exploration and use by all the States. The treaty explicitly forbids any government from claiming a celestial resource such as the Moon or a planet. Article II of the Treaty states that "outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means". However, the State that launches a space object retains jurisdiction and control over that object. The State is also liable for damages caused by their space object.

NASA needed 14 new astronauts. A record-breaking 18,300 folks applied.

In order for humans to travel to another habitable planet like earth, we first have to learn how. And we also have to make sure that humans live long enough in order to learn how to travel to another habitable planet, and save quadrillions of lives at the same time.

"The journey inward is as important as the journey outward, sometimes looking in is looking out."

Could there be Another Planet like Earth?


Not likely. At least not the same kind of planet.

People need to understand that finding another planet like Earth is mostly just fantasy for now. We should be more focused on survival and sustainability. And just maybe in a few thousand years, we just might be able to find another home some where in the Universe, but we have to be able to live that long first. First things first. Knowledge Preservation.

There is Not One Planet like Earth that is Close Enough to us that we could Reach in One Lifetime. But the fact is, no human alive is just one lifetime. Everyone alive today is a combination of millions of lifetimes that were passed on to us from our past generations. So our future is also made up of millions of lifetimes, if not trillions of lifetimes. So could we ever reach another planet like earth? Yes. We just have to understand that "we" is not "us" who are alive today. We means the humans that will live millions of years from now. And if you want to be on that spaceship, you have to pass on knowledge that future humans will consider worth taking to another world. We have come full-circle, except this time around we will know a lot more than we ever did before, but will we not know as much as future generations will, we hope. A Star like Ours - Solar System like Ours.

Exoplanet is a planet outside our Solar System. About 1 in 5 Sun-Like Stars have an "Earth-sized" planet in the habitable zone.

Circumstellar Habitable Zone is the range of orbits around a star within which a planetary surface can support liquid water given sufficient atmospheric pressure. Goldilock Zone refers to the habitable zone around a star that is not to far from the Sun or not too close to the Sun, which depends on the Star Size and Star Type. In order to have water a planet must be the right distance from its star. To close water boils away, to far water freezes. Then it is just a matter of reaching a planet at the right time in its life when it is stable enough to support Animal Life. Does a galaxy have a habitable zone too?

Planetary Habitability is the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to develop and maintain environments hospitable to life.

Drake Equation Drake Equation is a probabilistic argument used to estimate the number of active, communicative extraterrestrial civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy. The equation was written in 1961 by Frank Drake, not for purposes of quantifying the number of civilizations, but as a way to stimulate scientific dialogue at the first scientific meeting on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). The equation summarizes the main concepts which scientists must contemplate when considering the question of other radio-communicative life. It is more properly thought of as a Fermi problem rather than as a serious attempt to nail down a precise number. Criticism related to the Drake equation focuses not on the equation itself, but on the fact that the estimated values for several of its factors are highly conjectural, the combined effect being that the uncertainty associated with any derived value is so large that the equation cannot be used to draw firm conclusions. N = the number of civilizations in our galaxy with which communication might be possible (i.e. which are on our current past light cone); and R = the average rate of star formation in our galaxy. fp = the fraction of those stars that have planets. ne = the average number of planets that can potentially support life per star that has planets. fl = the fraction of planets that could support life that actually develop life at some point. fi = the fraction of planets with life that actually go on to develop intelligent life (civilizations). fc = the fraction of civilizations that develop a technology that releases detectable signs of their existence into space. L = the length of time for which such civilizations release detectable signals into space. 80 billion possible planets just in our galaxy?

Biosignature is any substance – such as an element, isotope, or molecule – or phenomenon that provides scientific evidence of past or present life. (If there are pollutants in the atmosphere, then we could say, "we just found life on another planet, and they're stupid just like us").

Just looking at Earth we can see that a planet like earth is extremely rare and extremely lucky. No other planet in our solar system has life. Many things have to happen in order for an earth like planet to have life. Even then, a planet goes through extreme changes, with some changes killing almost every living thing, like during extinction events. Even if you find another planet, you will not know what state it's in. It could be frozen in ice like our planet was for over a million years, it could be hit by asteroids like our planet was, it could be going through a mass extinction like our planet has several times, the planets atmosphere could be changing as our planet did, microbes and viruses could kill us just like here on earth, and this is just name a few of the dangers. Looking at the history of our earth, you can say that it takes over 4 billion years for a planet to stabilize enough to support life, animal life that is, the type of life most important to us. So the first half of the lifespan of a planet is used for stabilization, around 4.5 billion years, and the other half of the lifespan of a planet is used to support life, around 4.5 billion years. So if we find another planet like ours, we will have to determine how old it is, is it still a reckless teenage planet, or a stable adult planet. That could make all the difference on choosing the right one. But of course there is no guarantee, after all, we have only one experience with planets like ours, which is very little experience. Even when we find a planet in the Goldilock Zone or Habitable Zone. there are still has many deadly dangers. Our planet is not stable even now. And most of the stability in life comes from humans learning about their environment and adapting to those changes. But if we don't increase public awareness to the dangers humans face now, the human race will not live long enough to find a new home. So first we need to stay alive long enough in order to have the time to solve this problem of finding a new home. Our earth will reach its end someday, so we need to face the facts. And the only way to face the facts is making sure that every human alive knows the facts. The only way for people to be aware of reality is when they have the knowledge that's needed in order to understand the reality that everyone lives in. Your life may differ from other peoples lives, but every person alive is a human living on planet earth. Humans coexist with life. Without coexistence their is no life. Working together and feeling connected is what humans do, but this only comes from learning, and we have a lot of learning to do.

"The memory of planet Earth will be remembered forever. Even though Earth was not the planet of human birth, Earth was still the most monumental turning point in Human evolution."

Planet Hunters - Kepler Planet Seeking - Backyard-Worlds - Telescopes

"Maybe the reason why solar systems are far apart is to avoid having other planets infected or invaded by beings from other planets, who for some reason, are not intelligent enough to avoid ignorantly killing things they don't yet understand, kind of like what humans are on planet earth right now."

Exoplanet List. There are 3,903 known exoplanets, or planets outside our solar system that orbit a star, as of December 1, 2018; only a small fraction of these are located in the vicinity of the Solar System. Within 10 parsecs (32.6 light-years), there are 56 exoplanets listed as confirmed by the NASA Exoplanet Archive. Among the over 400 known stars within 10 parsecs, 29 have been confirmed to have planetary systems; 51 stars in this range are visible to the naked eye, nine of which have planetary systems. Light Speed.

The closest exoplanet found is Proxima Centauri b, which was confirmed in 2016 to orbit Proxima Centauri, the closest star to our Solar System (4.25 ly). Voyager.

James Webb Space Telescope is a space telescope that will be the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope with a planned Launch date on March 30, 2021. The JWST will provide greatly improved resolution and sensitivity over the Hubble, and will enable a broad range of investigations across the fields of astronomy and cosmology. One of its major goals is observing some of the most distant events and objects in the universe, such as the formation of the first galaxies. These types of targets are beyond the reach of current ground- and space-based instruments. Other goals include understanding the formation of stars and planets, and direct imaging of exoplanets and novas.

Fast Radio Burst is a transient radio pulse or electromagnetic radiation of a time length ranging from a fraction of a millisecond to a few milliseconds, caused by some high-energy astrophysical process not yet identified. While extremely energetic at their source, the strength of the signal reaching Earth has been described as 1,000 times less than from a mobile phone on the Moon. Although the exact origin and cause is uncertain, they are almost definitely extragalactic or originating outside the Milky Way galaxy. When the FRBs are polarized, it indicates that they are emitted from a source contained within an extremely powerful magnetic field. The origin of the FRBs has yet to be identified; proposals for their origin range from a rapidly rotating neutron star and a black hole, to extraterrestrial intelligence.

Space Travel

"There are a lot of things that are Alien to us, especially things that are on our own planet, new things that we discover everyday. But there is no value in fantasizing about what kinds of alien life may exist, no matter how real you make your fantasy to be. I don't deny the possibilities of alien life, I just don't waste time fantasizing about alien life. There are a lot of things that are alien to us, like our own brain. So people should spend more time understanding their own brain and stop trying to understand a brain they never met, which is likely their own brain. Balance your priorities and responsibilities and choose your creative fantasy's well. You only have so much time to be productive, so try not to waste too much time. It's OK to Dream, just don't let you dream become an obsession or distract you from dreaming about things that are more important."

How do we know they're aliens? They might be just like us, except in a different body, which proves just how dangerous and illogical that racism is, or any kind of prejudice for that matter. To prejudge someone is like hating yourself for living, or worse, it's hating someone you don't even know, someone that could be a friend, someone who can benefit society."

"The more I learn about the Universe, the more I see an amazing design, an incredible machine. Whether this machine was created by God, or created by a life form that resembles a God, matters little to me, what matters most to me is learning about how this machine was dreamed up and created in the first place. I applaud whom ever the Creator is, for thou has created something that is truly amazing. Thank you, and, where can I get one of these universe makers?"

"Even if just some of the life here on earth were created by a highly intelligent life form from another planet, I assume they too believe in a God, and if so, then the existence of highly intelligent life form does not disprove God, it will only makes the belief in God more interesting."

"I know that we can create a Heaven right here on Earth. And the best part is that we don't have to leave our Heaven on Earth, because everyone is welcome in Heaven. So I'm staying right here with Mother Earth. And I'm not leaving until she gets consumed by the Sun and gets recycled back into the Universe. But of course someone will have to venture out into space and find us a new home in the Universe, but until then, our Mother Earth is the Greatest and the Most Beautiful Planet in the Universe, I can't even imagine another planet being more amazing then Earth. But if people from another planet would like to debate who's got the best planet in the universe, then I would have to correct my original statement to say that "Earth is one of the Two Best Planets in the Universe."

"Every time I find my self thinking about what life would be like outside the universe, like if life existed in some other way that was unknown to us, I have to immediately stop thinking about it, because it's impossible to even guess, the scenarios can go on forever like infinity, and I have only so much time to think about things, so I don't even bother, though it blows my mind just to think about it for only a few seconds, wow!"

"You're an interesting species, an interesting mix. You're capable of such beautiful dreams and such horrible nightmares. You feel so lost, so cut off, so alone, only you're not. See, in all our searching, the only thing we've found that makes the emptiness bearable is each other." Quote from the 1997 Film "Contact"

Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer is a NASA infrared-wavelength astronomical space telescope launched in December 2009, and placed in hibernation in February 2011 when its transmitter turned off. It was re-activated in 2013. WISE discovered thousands of minor planets and numerous star clusters. Its observations also supported the discovery of the first Y Dwarf and Earth trojan asteroid. Telescopes

Deep Ocean Creatures The photo on right are creatures found deep in our ocean. They have a scientific name but to me they look like Intelligent life. Is there a limit to how small a human like Brain can be? We haven't fully explored what Intelligence really means. The second to the last final frontier. The photo reminds me of the 1989 movie THE ABYSS (youtube)

Encephalization is defined as the amount of brain mass related to an animal's total body mass. Quantifying an animal's encephalization has been argued to be directly related to that animal's level of intelligence? Of course that is just a guess from a pea brain.

Don't assume that incredible space crafts could only be operated by aliens from another planet, because the fact is that 99% of the people on the planet are not aware of all the technological advances that are known to humans. And don't ever assume that alien life needs to look a particular way, because the fact is that 99% of people on the planet don't know all the different ways that life can exist, or how intelligent a life form should be or can be. It's best to keep an open mind and not jump to any conclusions. In order to be properly prepared and less vulnerable, you should believe nothing and expect anything. Meaning, don't limit yourself to only a few possible scenarios, because that may not prepare you for something new or something totally unexplainable. Remember, learning has got us this far, so we can't stop learning now. Think before you jump, it could very well save your life.

The point is that intelligent life from another planet may already be here. We just can't see them because we don't know all the different ways that life could exist just yet, and we also haven't fully explored our own planet just yet. To say that ET life does exist or does not exist, you would first have to say what exactly is ET life? And that's like trying to say that you know what God looks like.

People who are looking for intelligent life are looking in the wrong direction. Don't just look out into outer space, look within your own body, intelligent life is in our DNA.



Sun (star)


Sun Our Sun, which is a Star, is about 92 million miles from Earth (Earth gets to 147 million km close and 152 million km max distance). Elliptical Orbit. Eclipse.

A Ray of Light from our Sun takes about 8.3 minutes to reach us on Earth and 5.3 hours to reach Pluto. Our sun is only 4.5 billion years old, so its light can only extend 4.5 billion light years away from us right now. But there's nothing to stop that light from expanding outwards forever, as time goes on. Telescopes.

Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process. It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. About three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of Hydrogen (~73%); the rest is mostly Helium (~25%), with much smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon, and iron. Sun's core rotates four times faster than its surface. The core has a temperature of approximately 29 million degrees Fahrenheit, which is 15.7 million Kelvin. The sun's surface is "only" about 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit, or 5,800 Kelvin. The Sun emits x-rays, UV, light, IR and radio waves.

Dark Mater ammounts Star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many other stars are visible to the naked eye from Earth during the night, appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous points in the sky due to their immense distance from Earth. A star shines due to thermonuclear Fusion of Hydrogen into Helium in its core, releasing energy that traverses the star's interior and then radiates into outer space. Almost all naturally occurring elements heavier than helium are created by stellar nucleosynthesis during the star's lifetime, and for some stars by supernova nucleosynthesis when it explodes. Near the end of its life, a star can also contain degenerate matter. Astronomers can determine the mass, age, metallicity (chemical composition), and many other properties of a star by observing its motion through space, its luminosity, and spectrum respectively. The total mass of a star is the main factor that determines its evolution and eventual fate. Other characteristics of a star, including diameter and temperature, change over its life, while the star's environment affects its rotation and movement. A plot of the temperature of many stars against their luminosities produces a plot known as a Hertzsprung–Russell diagram (H–R diagram). Plotting a particular star on that diagram allows the age and evolutionary state of that star to be determined. A star's life begins with the gravitational collapse of a gaseous nebula of material composed primarily of hydrogen, along with helium and trace amounts of heavier elements. When the stellar core is sufficiently dense, hydrogen becomes steadily converted into helium through nuclear fusion, releasing energy in the process. The remainder of the star's interior carries energy away from the core through a combination of radiative and convective heat transfer processes. The star's internal pressure prevents it from collapsing further under its own gravity. A star with mass greater than 0.4 times the Sun's will expand to become a red giant when the hydrogen fuel in its core is exhausted. In some cases, it will fuse heavier elements at the core or in shells around the core. As the star expands it throws a part of its mass, enriched with those heavier elements, into the interstellar environment, to be recycled later as new stars. Meanwhile, the core becomes a stellar remnant: a white dwarf, a neutron star, or if it is sufficiently massive, a black hole.

Stellar is relating to a star or stars or resembling or emanating from stars.

Most stars born as wide binaries with weak and wildly disorganized magnetic field very near a newly emerging protostar. The Sun at a very early stage in their formation have traces of methyl isocyanate -- a chemical building block of life.

Methyl Isocyanate is an organic compound with the molecular formula CH3NCO. Synonyms are isocyanatomethane, methyl carbylamine, and MIC. Methyl isocyanate is an intermediate chemical in the production of carbamate pesticides (such as carbaryl, carbofuran, methomyl, and aldicarb). It has also been used in the production of rubbers and adhesives. As a highly toxic and irritating material, it is extremely hazardous to human health. It was the principal toxicant involved in the Bhopal disaster, which killed nearly 2,259 people initially and officially 3,787 people in total. This family of organic molecules is involved in the synthesis of peptides and amino acids, which, in the form of proteins, are the biological basis for life as we know it."

Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light. On Earth, sunlight is filtered through Earth's atmosphere, and is obvious as daylight when the Sun is above the horizon. When the direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds, it is experienced as sunshine, a combination of bright light and radiant heat. When it is blocked by clouds or reflects off other objects, it is experienced as diffused light. A photon starting at the center of the Sun and changing direction every time it encounters a charged particle would take between 10,000 and 170,000 years to get to the surface. 149 xenon short-arc lamps spotlights equivalent of 10,000 times the amount of solar radiation (Synlight, Juelich).

Films and Videos about Stars
Cosmic Journeys - Solar Super Storms (youtube - 7/28/15 - 44:37)
Time-Lapse Video of Milky Way (youtube)
Sun Video (youtube)
NASA | 5 Year Time-lapse of the Sun (youtube)
Three Years of Sun in Three Minutes (youtube)
NASA | Solar Dynamics Observatory SDO: Year 5 (youtube) 


Our Sun is a Yellow Dwarf, or G Dwarf Star known as a G-Type Main-Sequence Star (luminosity class V) of spectral type G. Such a star has about 0.8 to 1.2 solar masses and surface temperature of between 5,300 and 6,000 K. Each second, our Sun fuses approximately 600 million tons of hydrogen to helium, converting about 4 million tons of matter to energy.

Solar Analog are stars that are particularly similar to the Sun. Planets like Ours.

Most Stars in the Universe are M-Stars, Small Red Dwarfs. Red Dwarf Stars have masses from about 0.08 to 0.6 times that of the Sun. Objects smaller than red dwarf stars are called Brown Dwarfs and do not shine through the thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen. Lighter stars are much more plentiful than heavier stars, and red dwarfs are thus the most numerous type of star, about 70%. 1 in 10 stars have planets.?

Our Sun is small when compared to other Stars.
Star Size Comparisons (youtube)
Planet transiting a nearby Low-Mass Star

Pulsar is a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star or white dwarf, that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation.

Cepheid Variable is a type of star that pulsates radially, varying in both diameter and temperature and producing changes in brightness with a well-defined stable period and amplitude.

Binary Pulsar is a pulsar with a binary companion, often a white dwarf or neutron star.

Binary Star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter. Systems of two or more stars are called multiple star systems.

Neutron Star is the collapsed core of a large (10–29 solar masses) star. Neutron stars are the smallest and densest stars known to exist. Though neutron stars typically have a radius on the order of 10 kilometres (6.2 mi), they can have masses of about twice that of the Sun. They result from the supernova explosion of a massive star, combined with gravitational collapse, that compresses the core past the white dwarf star density to that of atomic nuclei. Most of the basic models for these objects imply that neutron stars are composed almost entirely of neutrons, which are subatomic particles with no net electrical charge and with slightly larger mass than protons. They are supported against further collapse by neutron degeneracy pressure, a phenomenon described by the Pauli exclusion principle. If the remnant has too great a density, something which occurs in excess of an upper limit of the size of neutron stars at 2–3 solar masses, it will continue collapsing to form a black hole.

Earths Sun is about 4.7 Billion years old and has about 5 Billion years left in its life.

Sun consists of Hydrogen (about 74% of its Mass, or 92% of its Volume), Helium (about 24% of mass, 7% of volume), and trace quantities of other elements, including Iron, Nickel, Oxygen, Silicon, Sulfur, Magnesium, Carbon, Neon, Calcium, and Chromium.

The sun takes one month to rotate, It rotates counterclockwise.

SDO: Year 6 Ultra-HD (youtube)
Simulation of the Sun's Magnetic Field (youtube)

Each second, more than 4 million tonnes of matter are converted into energy within the Sun's core.
The Suns surface temperature is 6,000 C or 10,832 F.
Diameter 1,392,000 km just over 109 times the diameter of the Earth, that means that 1,300,000 Earths could fit in the Sun.
The Sun orbits the Milky Way Galaxy at a distance of approximately 24,000–26,000 light years from the Galactic Center.
The Sun is moving 486,000 miles per hour and takes 240 million years to complete one orbit around our Galaxy.
The Sun rotates one complete turn every 34 days.  The Sun's magnetic field reverses polarity, "flips" every 11 years.
The Earth takes one day to rotate and travels 67,000 miles per hour.
The sun is 99.8 percent of all the mass in the solar systemAtoms

Solar Core is considered to extend from the center to about 0.2 to 0.25 of solar radius. It is the hottest part of the Sun and of the Solar System. It has a density of 150 g/cm³ (150 times the density of liquid water) at the center, and a temperature of 15 million degrees Celsius. The core is made of hot, dense gas in the plasmic state (ions and electrons), at a pressure estimated at 265 billion bar (3.84 trillion psi or 26.5 petapascals (PPa)) at the center. Due to fusion, the composition of the solar plasma drops from 68-70% hydrogen by mass at the outer core, to 33% hydrogen at the core/Sun center. The core inside 0.20 of the solar radius, contains 34% of the Sun's mass, but only 0.8% of the Sun's volume. Inside 0.24 solar radius, the core generates 99% of the fusion power of the Sun. There are two distinct reactions in which four hydrogen nuclei may eventually result in one helium nucleus: the proton-proton chain reaction – which is responsible for most of the Sun's released energy – and the CNO cycle. Proton-proton chain reaction is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium.

Solar Radius is a unit of distance used to express the size of stars in astronomy. The solar radius is usually defined as the radius to the layer in the Sun's photosphere where the optical depth equals 2/3: Solar Core - The solar radius is approximately 695,700 kilometres (432,288 miles), which is about 10 times the average radius of Jupiter, 110 times the radius of the Earth, and 1/215th of an astronomical unit, the distance of the Earth from the Sun. It varies slightly from pole to equator due to its rotation, which induces an oblateness in the order of 10 parts per million. (See 1 gigametre for similar distances.)

The Sun has become 30% brighter in the last four and a half billion years and will continue to increase in brightness by 1% every 100 million years.

Energy Transfer - Let there be Light

The high-energy photons (gamma rays) released in fusion reactions take indirect paths to the Sun's surface. According to current models, random scattering from free electrons in the solar radiative zone (the zone within 75% of the solar radius, where heat transfer is by radiation) sets the photon diffusion time scale (or "photon travel time") from the core to the outer edge of the radiative zone at about 170,000 years. From there they cross into the convective zone (the remaining 25% of distance from the Sun's center), where the dominant transfer process changes to convection, and the speed at which heat moves outward becomes considerably faster. In the process of heat transfer from core to photosphere, each gamma ray in the Sun's core is converted during scattering into several million visible light photons before escaping into space. Neutrinos are also released by the fusion reactions in the core, but unlike photons they very rarely interact with matter, so almost all are able to escape the Sun immediately. For many years measurements of the number of neutrinos produced in the Sun were much lower than theories predicted, a problem which was recently resolved through a better understanding of neutrino oscillation.

Photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of all forms of electromagnetic radiation including light. It is the force carrier for electromagnetic force, even when static via virtual photons. The photon has zero rest mass and as a result, the interactions of this force with matter at long distance are observable at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality, exhibiting properties of both waves and particles. A photon is massless, has no electric charge, and is a stable particle. A photon has two possible polarization states. Light does not carry any charge itself, so it does not attract or repel charged particles like electrons. Instead light is an oscillating electric and magnetic field. All electromagnetic radiation is transmitted as photons and photons occur on all of the frequencies.

Corona is an aura of plasma that surrounds the sun and other stars. The Sun's corona extends millions of kilometres into space and is most easily seen during a total solar eclipse, but it is also observable with a coronagraph. The sun's corona is much hotter (by a factor from 150 to 450) than the visible surface of the Sun: the photosphere's average temperature is 5800 kelvin compared to the corona's one to three million kelvins. The corona is 10−12 times as dense as the photosphere, and so produces about one-millionth as much visible light. The corona is separated from the photosphere by the relatively shallow chromosphere. The exact mechanism by which the corona is heated is still the subject of some debate, but likely possibilities include induction by the Sun's magnetic field and magnetohydrodynamic waves from below. The outer edges of the Sun's corona are constantly being transported away due to open magnetic flux and hence generating the solar wind.

70% of Stars are Red Dwarfs which are small and relatively cool stars, of either K or M spectral type. Red dwarfs range in mass from a low of 0.075 solar masses (M☉) to about 0.50 M☉ and have a surface temperature of less than 4,000 K. Red dwarfs are by far the most common type of star in the Milky Way, at least in the neighborhood of the Sun, but because of their low luminosity, individual red dwarfs cannot be easily observed. From Earth, not one is visible to the naked eye. Proxima Centauri, the nearest star to the Sun, is a red dwarf (Type M5, apparent magnitude 11.05), as are twenty of the next thirty nearest stars. According to some estimates, red dwarfs make up three-quarters of the stars in the Milky Way.

Habitability of Red Dwarf Systems

O-type Star is a hot, blue-white star of spectral type O in the Yerkes classification system employed by astronomers. They have temperatures in excess of 30,000 Kelvin (K).

Brown Dwarf are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giants and the lightest stars.

Compact Star is used to refer collectively to white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. It would grow to include exotic stars if such hypothetical dense bodies are confirmed. Most compact stars are the endpoints of stellar evolution and are thus often referred to as stellar remnants, the form of the remnant depending primarily on the mass of the star when it formed. These objects are all small in volume for their mass, giving them a very high density. The term compact star is often used when the exact nature of the star is not known, but evidence suggests that it is very massive and has a small radius, thus implying one of the above-mentioned categories. A compact star that is not a black hole may be called a degenerate star.

Exotic Star s a hypothetical compact star composed of something other than electrons, protons, neutrons, and muons; and balanced against gravitational collapse by degeneracy pressure or other quantum properties. These include quark stars (composed of quarks) and perhaps strange stars (based upon strange quark matter, a condensate of up, down and strange quarks), as well as speculative preon stars (composed of preons, a hypothetical particle and "building block" of quarks, if quarks prove to be decomposable into component sub-particles). Of the various types of exotic star proposed, the most well evidenced and understood is the quark star.

Substellar Object sometimes called a substar, is an astronomical object whose mass is smaller than the smallest mass at which hydrogen fusion can be sustained.

Stellar Classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.

The light from our nearest star, Proxima Centauri, is 4 years old. Time passes slower the faster you move. If you flew to the Star Sirius at 99% of the speed of light, then flew back again, the people you left behind on Earth would have aged more than 17 years. But you would have aged less than two and a half years.

Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.

Stellar Nucleosynthesis is the process by which the natural abundances of the chemical elements within stars change due to nuclear fusion reactions in the cores and their overlying mantles. Stars are said to evolve (age) with changes in the abundances of the elements within. Core fusion increases the atomic weight of elements and reduces the number of particles, which would lead to a pressure loss except that gravitation leads to contraction, an increase of temperature, and a balance of forces. A star loses most of its mass when it is ejected late in the star's stellar lifetimes, thereby increasing the abundance of elements heavier than helium in the interstellar medium.

Synthesis of the Elements in Stars

Periodic Table - Carbon - Solar System

Celestial Body is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that current science has demonstrated to exist in the observable universe.

Solar Path
Sunrise and Sunset Times

Solar Maximum is a normal period of greatest solar activity in the 11 year solar cycle of the Sun. During solar maximum, large numbers of sunspots appear and the sun's irradiance output grows by about 0.07%. The increased energy output of solar maxima can impact Earth's global climate and recent studies have shown some correlation with regional weather patterns.

Solar Cycle or solar magnetic activity cycle is the nearly periodic 11-year change in the Sun's activity (including changes in the levels of solar radiation and ejection of solar material) and appearance (changes in the number and size of sunspots, flares, and other manifestations).

The Suns Magnetic Field is about to Flip. Approximately every eleven years the polarity of the Sun's magnetic field is reversed, with solar activity peaking with the same frequency. This manifests itself in an increase in sunspots -- dark patches on the Sun's surface which originate from strongly concentrated magnetic fields.

ScienceCasts: The Sun's Magnetic Field is About to Flip (youtube)

Stellar Magnetic Field is a magnetic field generated by the motion of conductive plasma inside a star. This motion is created through convection, which is a form of energy transport involving the physical movement of material. A localized magnetic field exerts a force on the plasma, effectively increasing the pressure without a comparable gain in density. As a result, the magnetized region rises relative to the remainder of the plasma, until it reaches the star's photosphere. This creates starspots on the surface, and the related phenomenon of coronal loops. Magnetic Field of the Sun.

Dynamo Theory proposes a mechanism by which a celestial body such as Earth or a star generates a magnetic field. The dynamo theory describes the process through which a rotating, convecting, and electrically conducting fluid can maintain a magnetic field over astronomical time scales. A dynamo is thought to be the source of the Earth's magnetic field, as well as the magnetic fields of other planets. Electromagnetism

Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

NASA’s Cassini, Voyager Missions Suggest New Picture of Sun’s Interaction with Galaxy

Heliosphere is the bubble-like region of space dominated by the Sun, which extends far beyond the orbit of Pluto. Plasma "blown" out from the Sun, known as the solar wind, creates and maintains this bubble against the outside pressure of the interstellar medium, the hydrogen and helium gas that permeates the Milky Way Galaxy. The solar wind flows outward from the Sun until encountering the termination shock, where motion slows abruptly. The Voyager spacecraft have actively explored the outer reaches of the heliosphere, passing through the shock and entering the heliosheath, a transitional region which is in turn bounded by the outermost edge of the heliosphere, called the heliopause. The overall shape of the heliosphere is controlled by the interstellar medium through which it is traveling, as well as the Sun, and is not perfectly spherical. The limited data available and unexplored nature of these structures have resulted in many theories. Oort Cloud - Kuiper Belt.

Heliospheric Current Sheet is the surface within the Solar System where the polarity of the Sun's magnetic field changes from north to south.

Polarization the ability of waves to oscillate in more than one direction; in particular polarization of light, responsible for example for the glare-reducing effect of polarized sunglasses.

Vortex- Torus

Sun Trek - Solar Center

Analemma is a diagram showing the deviation of the Sun from its mean motion in the sky, as viewed from a fixed location on the Earth. Due to the Earth's axial tilt and orbital eccentricity, the Sun will not be in the same position in the sky at the same time every day. The north–south component of the analemma is the Sun's declination, and the east–west component is the equation of time. This diagram has the form of a slender figure-eight, and can often be found on globes of the Earth.

Dyson Sphere is a hypothetical megastructure that completely encompasses a star and captures most or all of its power output.

Photic Sneeze Reflex is why the Sun makes you sneeze.


Solar Wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. This plasma consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with energies usually between 1.5 and 10 keV; embedded in the solar-wind plasma is the interplanetary magnetic field. The solar wind varies in density, temperature and speed over time and over solar longitude. Its particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high energy resulting from the high temperature of the corona and magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic phenomena within it.

Sunshine Recorder is a device that records the amount of sunshine at a given location. The results provide information about the weather and climate as well as the temperature of a geographical area. This information is useful in meteorology, science, agriculture, tourism, and other fields. It has also been called a heliograph.

Candela is the base unit of luminous intensity in the International System of Units (SI); that is, luminous power per unit solid angle emitted by a point light source in a particular direction. Luminous intensity is analogous to radiant intensity, but instead of simply adding up the contributions of every wavelength of light in the source's spectrum, the contribution of each wavelength is weighted by the standard luminosity function (a model of the sensitivity of the human eye to different wavelengths). A common wax candle emits light with a luminous intensity of roughly one candela. If emission in some directions is blocked by an opaque barrier, the emission would still be approximately one candela in the directions that are not obscured.

Luminous Intensity s a measure of the wavelength-weighted power emitted by a light source in a particular direction per unit solid angle, based on the luminosity function, a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye. The SI unit of luminous intensity is the candela (cd), an SI base unit. Photometry deals with the measurement of visible light as perceived by human eyes. The human eye can only see light in the visible spectrum and has different sensitivities to light of different wavelengths within the spectrum. When adapted for bright conditions (photopic vision), the eye is most sensitive to greenish-yellow light at 555 nm. Light with the same radiant intensity at other wavelengths has a lower luminous intensity. The curve which measures the response of the human eye to light is a defined standard, known as the luminosity function. This curve, denoted V(λ) or y ( λ ) (\lambda ), is based on an average of widely differing experimental data from scientists using different measurement techniques. For instance, the measured responses of the eye to violet light varied by a factor of ten.

Pyranometer is a type of actinometer used for measuring solar irradiance on a planar surface and it is designed to measure the solar radiation flux density (W/m2) from the hemisphere above within a wavelength range 0.3 μm to 3 μm.

Pyrheliometer is an instrument for measurement of direct beam solar irradiance. Sunlight enters the instrument through a window and is directed onto a thermopile which converts heat to an electrical signal that can be recorded. The signal voltage is converted via a formula to measure watts per square metre. It is used with a solar tracking system to keep the instrument aimed at the sun. A pyrheliometer is often used in the same setup with a pyranometer.

Solar Irradiance (heat)

Cosmic Ray are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System. Upon impact with the Earth's atmosphere, cosmic rays can produce showers of secondary particles that sometimes reach the surface. Composed primarily of high-energy protons and atomic nuclei, they are of mysterious origin. Data from the Fermi space telescope (2013) have been interpreted as evidence that a significant fraction of primary cosmic rays originate from the supernovae explosions of stars. Active galactic nuclei probably also produce cosmic rays.

Ultraviolet Index - Radiation

Dosimeter is a device that measures exposure to ionizing radiation. It has two main uses: for human radiation protection and for measurement of dose in both medical and industrial processes.

A particular cloud produced by a supernova explosion 10,000 years ago contains enough dust to make 7,000 Earths.

Astronomy - Eyes in the Sky

Solar Flare Video or Coronal Mass Ejection, by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's AIA instrument. SDO collected one frame every 12 seconds, and the movie plays at 30 frames per second, so each second in this video corresponds to 6 minutes of real time. The video covers 12:30 a.m. EDT to 10:00 p.m. EDT on July 19, 2012.

Can there be stars without a universe? Is there stars in the middle of no where without a universe near by?

Void Astronomy are vast spaces between filaments (the largest-scale structures in the Universe), which contain very few or no galaxies. Voids typically have a diameter of 10 to 100 megaparsecs; particularly large voids, defined by the absence of rich superclusters, are sometimes called supervoids.

Olbers' Paradox is the argument that the darkness of the night sky conflicts with the assumption of an infinite and eternal static universe.

Star Forming The Photo on right is a massive star forming 4,200 light years away. The star, W75N(B)-VLA 2, is eight times larger than our sun and is believed to be just a few thousand years old.

Protostar is a very young star that is still gathering mass from its parent molecular cloud.

Proto-Suns teeming with Prebiotic Molecules

Star Formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", fuse to form stars. Star Formation.

Nebula is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases. Most nebulae are of vast size, some are hundreds of light years in diameter. Other nebulae form as the result of supernova explosions; the death throes of massive, short-lived stars. The materials thrown off from the supernova explosion are then ionized by the energy and the compact object that its core produces. One of the best examples of this is the Crab Nebula, in Taurus.

Lagoon Nebula Zoom and Flythrough (youtube) - Located in the constellation Sagittarius in the direction of our Milky Way galaxy’s central bulge.

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Infant stars are born in large groups – never in isolation. Star’s chemical composition bears the signature of the evolution of its predecessors. How Many Milky Way Stars are Formed?

Galaxy Stopped making New Stars This Galaxy stopped making Stars only a few billion years after the big bang. This artist's concept shows what the young, dead, disk galaxy MACS2129-1, right, would look like when compared with the Milky Way galaxy, left. Although three times as massive as the Milky Way, it is only half the size. MACS2129-1 is also spinning more than twice as fast as the Milky Way. Note that regions of Milky Way are blue from bursts of star formation, while the young, dead galaxy is yellow, signifying an older star population and no new star birth. Why this galaxy stopped forming stars is still unknown. It may be the result of an active galactic nucleus, where energy is gushing from a supermassive black hole. This energy inhibits star formation by heating the gas or expelling it from the galaxy. Or it may be the result of the cold gas streaming onto the galaxy being rapidly compressed and heated up, preventing it from cooling down into star-forming clouds in the galaxy's center.

Looking at the Stars in the night sky is seeing the Past, the Future and the Present all at once.

If you look at galaxies that are 5 billion light years away, then you're looking at the Universe as it was 5 billion years ago.

Seeing a supernova 150,000 light years away is seeing what happened 150,000 years ago, so the star was dead long before we saw it explode into a Supernova. So stars could be gone long before we see it. Time Perception.

Nova is a cataclysmic nuclear explosion on a white dwarf, which causes a sudden brightening of the star. Novae are not to be confused with other brightening phenomena such as supernovae or luminous red novae.

Supernova is an astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a massive star's life, whose dramatic and catastrophic destruction is marked by one final titanic explosion. This causes the sudden appearance of a "new" bright star, before slowly fading from sight over several weeks or months. List of Supernovae (wiki) - History of Supernova observation (wiki).

Type Ia Supernova is a type of supernova that occurs in binary systems (two stars orbiting one another) in which one of the stars is a white dwarf. The other star can be anything from a giant star to an even smaller white dwarf.

Cepheid Variable is a type of star that pulsates radially, varying in both diameter and temperature and producing changes in brightness with a well-defined stable period and amplitude. A strong direct relationship between a Cepheid variable's luminosity and pulsation period established Cepheids as important indicators of cosmic benchmarks for scaling galactic and extragalactic distances.

Luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object per unit time. It is related to the brightness, which is the luminosity of an object in a given spectral region. In SI units luminosity is measured in joules per second or watts. Values for luminosity are often given in the terms of the luminosity of the Sun. Luminosity can also be given in terms of magnitude: the absolute bolometric magnitude (Mbol) of an object is a logarithmic measure of its total energy emission rate.

Magnitude in astronomy is a logarithmic measure of the brightness of an object in a defined passband, often in the visible or infrared spectrum, but sometimes across all wavelengths. An imprecise but systematic determination of the magnitude of objects was introduced in ancient times by Hipparchus.

Seeing the light from our own Sun is 8 minutes old.

List of Nearest Stars (wiki)

Are the stars in the night sky just the History of the Universe Frozen in Time? Is what we see just an image of us, what we were like millions of years ago at different times? We can travel within our own galaxy, but if we try to reach another galaxy, we would never make it, because it's already gone.

"So when you look out at the stars you're not seeing now, you're seeing the past, something that may be already gone. So what is now? We have no idea what now is. Yes we have our own personal measurement of time, but that's just for humans on planet earth. We see the universe but does somebody out there see us? Maybe not because they're already gone. Or maybe we were not seen yet because we have not yet been born yet. So even if they are looking in our direction they don't even see us because our sun has not yet been born."

This is What We Know, so far

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Light


Spot Light Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can produce a visual sensation. Any device serving as a source of illumination. Visible light is carried by photons, and so are all the other kinds of electromagnetic radiation like X-rays, microwaves and radio waves. Is light a particle or a wave? Does light only travel through Space?

What Is Light? (youtube) - LED's

Light is invisible, darkness is invisible, but when you add darkness and light together, along with matter, then we see colors and shapes. You can only see a beam of light when there is darkness, and you can only see a beam of darkness when there is light, and you can only see light when it comes in contact with matter. The Sun does not illuminate outer space, you only see light when it comes in contact with matter, like when we see the moon at night, or when light comes in contact with your eye, which is also matter.

Photophysics is the physics of light, especially of its interaction with matter. Light Therapy - Photo-Chemistry - Dark Matter.

How Light is Detected affects the Atom that emits it, An atom or molecule in the fluorescent tube that is in an excited state spontaneously decays to a lower energy state, releasing a particle called a photon. When the photon enters your eye, something similar happens but in reverse. The photon is absorbed by a molecule in the retina and its energy kicks that molecule into an excited state. Light is both a particle and a wave, and this duality is fundamental to the physics that rule the Lilliputian world of atoms and molecules. How we look at light can affect the atom that emits it (youtube).

Photometer is an instrument that measures light intensity or the optical properties of solutions or surfaces. Photometers detect the light with photoresistors, photodiodes or photomultipliers which are the class of vacuum phototubes that are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. These detectors multiply the current produced by incident light by as much as 100 million times (i.e., 160 dB), in multiple dynode stages, enabling (for example) individual photons to be detected when the incident flux of light is low. To analyze the light, the photometer may measure the light after it has passed through a filter or through a monochromator for determination at defined wavelengths or for analysis of the spectral distribution of the light. Monochromator is an optical device that transmits a mechanically selectable narrow band of wavelengths of light or other radiation chosen from a wider range of wavelengths available at the input.
Photometers measure:
Illuminance is the total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area. It is a measure of how much the incident light illuminates the surface, wavelength-weighted by the luminosity function to correlate with human brightness perception. Similarly, luminous emittance is the luminous flux per unit area emitted from a surface. Luminous emittance is also known as luminous exitance.
Irradiance In radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area. Spectral irradiance is the irradiance of a surface per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength. The two forms have different dimensions: spectral irradiance of a frequency spectrum is measured in watts per square metre per hertz (W·m−2·Hz−1), while spectral irradiance of a wavelength spectrum is measured in watts per square metre per metre (W·m−3), or more commonly watts per square metre per nanometre (W·m−2·nm−1).
Light Absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom. Thus, the electromagnetic energy is transformed into internal energy of the absorber, for example thermal energy. The reduction in intensity of a light wave propagating through a medium by absorption of a part of its photons is often called attenuation. Usually, the absorption of waves does not depend on their intensity (linear absorption), although in certain
conditions (usually, in optics), the medium changes its transparency dependently on the intensity of waves going through, and saturable absorption (or nonlinear absorption) occurs. UV.
Scattering of Light is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass. In conventional use, this also includes deviation of reflected radiation from the angle predicted by the law of reflection. Reflections that undergo scattering are often called diffuse reflections and unscattered reflections are called specular (mirror-like) reflections. Scattering may also refer to particle-particle collisions between molecules, atoms, electrons, photons and other particles. Examples include: cosmic ray scattering in the Earth's upper atmosphere; particle collisions inside particle accelerators; electron scattering by gas atoms in fluorescent lamps; and neutron scattering inside nuclear reactors.
Reflection of Light is either specular (mirror-like) or diffuse (retaining the energy, but losing the image) depending on the nature of the interface. In specular Reflection the phase of the reflected waves depends on the choice of the origin of coordinates, but the relative phase between s and p (TE and TM) polarizations is fixed by the properties of the media and of the interface between them. A Mirror provides the most common model for specular light reflection, and typically consists of a glass sheet with a metallic coating where the significant reflection occurs. Reflection is enhanced in metals by suppression of wave propagation beyond their skin depths. Reflection also occurs at the surface of transparent media, such as water or glass.
Fluorescence - Phosphorescence - Luminescence - Bending of Light.

Light Meter is a device used to measure the amount of light that allows a photographer to determine which shutter speed and f-number should be selected for an optimum exposure, given a certain lighting situation and film speed.
Exposure Value is a number that represents a combination of a camera's shutter speed and f-number, such that all combinations that yield the same exposure have the same EV (for any fixed scene luminance). Exposure value is also used to indicate an interval on the photographic exposure scale, with a difference of 1 EV corresponding to a standard power-of-2 exposure step, commonly referred to as a stop. Frames Per Second.

Photodetector are sensors of light or other electromagnetic energy. A photo detector has a p–n junction that converts light photons into current. The absorbed photons make electron–hole pairs in the depletion region. Photodiodes and photo transistors are a few examples of photo detectors. Solar Cells convert some of the light energy absorbed into electrical energy.

Photoreceptor Cell is a specialized type of sensory neuron found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction. The great biological importance of photoreceptors is that they convert light (visible electromagnetic radiation) into signals that can stimulate biological processes. To be more specific, photoreceptor proteins in the cell absorb photons, triggering a change in the cell's membrane potential.

Physicists Create New Form of Light. Newly observed optical state could enable quantum computing with photons. Individual photons that make up light do not interact. But what if light particles could be made to interact, attracting and repelling each
other like atoms in ordinary matter? Quantum.

Structured Light is the process of projecting a known pattern (often grids or horizontal bars) on to a scene. The way that these deform when striking surfaces allows vision systems to calculate the depth and surface information of the objects in the scene, as used in structured light 3D scanners. Invisible (or imperceptible) structured light uses structured light without interfering with other computer vision tasks for which the projected pattern will be confusing. Example methods include the use of infrared light or of extremely high frame rates alternating between two exact opposite patterns. Structured light is used by a number of police forces for the purpose of photographing fingerprints in a 3D scene. Where previously they would use tape to extract the fingerprint and flatten it out, they can now use cameras and flatten the fingerprint digitally, which allows the process of identification to begin before the officer has even left the scene.

Light Wave Graph Spontaneous Emission is the process by which a quantum system such as an atom, molecule, nanocrystal or nucleus in an excited state undergoes a transition to a state with a lower energy (e.g., the ground state) and emits quanta of energy.

Excited State of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum). Excitation is an elevation in energy level above an arbitrary baseline energy state.

Ground State of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system. An excited state is any state with energy greater than the ground state. In the quantum field theory, the ground state is usually called the vacuum state or the vacuum.

Interference wave propagation is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude. Interference usually refers to the interaction of waves that are correlated or coherent with each other, either because they come from the same source or because they have the same or nearly the same frequency. Interference effects can be observed with all types of waves, for example, light, radio, acoustic, surface water waves or matter waves.

If you could fly nonstop to the Sun at 60 mph, it would take you 180 years to get there.

If a Space Ship could travel 35,000 mph, it would take 81,000 years to travel 4.3 light years.

One Light Year is about 5.9 trillion miles. A light-year is the distance that light travels in a vacuum in one Julian year (365.25 days).

Speed of Light is 299,792,458 metres per second. 300,000 km/s, or 983,571,056.4304 feet per second (9.836e+8), approximately 3.00×108 m/s. (186,000 miles per second). Light travels at a speed of about 671 Million MPH.

Capturing the Speed of Light One Trillion Frames Per Second (youtube)
Finding The Speed Of Light With Peeps (youtube)

Slow Light is the propagation of an optical pulse or other modulation of an optical carrier at a very low group velocity. Slow light occurs when a propagating pulse is substantially slowed down by the interaction with the medium in which the propagation takes place. When light propagates through a material, it travels slower than the vacuum speed. Liquid properties of light emerge under special circumstances, when the photons that form the light wave are able to interact with each other.
Stop Light: Humans tame light, stop it from moving for a full minute.
Lene Hau is a Danish physicist who in 1999 succeeded in slowing a beam of light to about 17 metres per second.

Physics - Action Physics
Spatial Intelligence
Medical Imaging
Electromagnetic Spectrum

Colors

Glass Prism Showing Color Spectrum Prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract light. At least two of the flat surfaces must have an angle between them. The exact angles between the surfaces depend on the application. The traditional geometrical shape is that of a triangular prism with a triangular base and rectangular sides, and in colloquial use "prism" usually refers to this type. Some types of optical prism are not in fact in the shape of geometric prisms. Prisms can be made from any material that is transparent to the wavelengths for which they are designed. Typical materials include glass, plastic and fluorite. Optics.

Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation. Historically, spectroscopy originated through the study of visible light dispersed according to its wavelength, by a prism. Later the concept was expanded greatly to include any interaction with radiative energy as a function of its wavelength or frequency. Spectroscopic data is often represented by an emission spectrum, a plot of the response of interest as a function of wavelength or frequency.

Minimum Deviation a ray of light enters the transparent material, the ray's direction is deflected, based on both the entrance angle (typically measured relative to the perpendicular to the surface) and the material's refractive index, and according to Snell's Law. A beam passing through an object like a prism or water drop is deflected twice: once entering, and again when exiting. The sum of these two deflections is called the deviation angle. The deviation angle in a prism depends upon: Refractive index of the prism: The refractive index depends on the material and the wavelength of the light. The larger the refractive index, the larger the deviation angle. Angle of the prism: The larger the prism angle, the larger the deviation angle. Angle of incidence: The deviation angle depends on the angle that the beam enters the object, called angle of incidence. The deviation angle first decreases with increasing incidence angle, and then it increases. There is an angle of incidence at which the sum of the two deflections is a minimum. The deviation angle at this point is called the "minimum deviation" angle, or "angle of minimum deviation". At the minimum deviation angle, the incidence and exit angles of the ray are identical. One of the factors that causes a rainbow is the bunching of light rays at the minimum deviation angle that is close to the rainbow angle.

Relativistic Doppler Effect is the change in frequency (and wavelength) of light, caused by the relative motion of the source and the observer (as in the classical Doppler effect), when taking into account effects described by the special theory of relativity.

How much information is in the Light? - Li-Fi

"If I can see the light, does that mean that I'm connected to its source?"

Optical Communications is communication at a distance using light to carry information. It can be performed visually or by using electronic devices. The earliest basic forms of optical communication date back several millennia, while the earliest electrical device created to do so was the photophone, invented in 1880.

Optical Illusions (spatial Intelligence)

Nonlinear Optics is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light.

Photolithography is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate. It uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photomask to a light-sensitive chemical "photoresist", or simply "resist," on the substrate. A series of chemical treatments then either engraves the exposure pattern into, or enables deposition of a new material in the desired pattern upon, the material underneath the photo resist. For example, in complex integrated circuits, a modern CMOS wafer will go through the photolithographic cycle up to 50 times.

The Optical Society

Optical Tweezers are scientific instruments that use a highly focused laser beam to provide an attractive or repulsive force (typically on the order of piconewtons), depending on the refractive index mismatch to physically hold and move microscopic dielectric objects similar to tweezers. Optical tweezers have been particularly successful in studying a variety of biological systems in recent years.

Optogenetics is a biological technique which involves the use of light to control cells in living tissue, typically neurons, that have been genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels. It is a neuromodulation method employed in neuroscience that uses a combination of techniques from optics and genetics to control and monitor the activities of individual neurons in living tissue—even within freely-moving animals—and to precisely measure these manipulation effects in real-time.

Opticks is a book by English natural philosopher Isaac Newton that was published in English in 1704. (A scholarly Latin translation appeared in 1706.) The book analyzes the fundamental nature of light by means of the refraction of light with prisms and lenses, the diffraction of light by closely spaced sheets of glass, and the behaviour of color mixtures with spectral lights or pigment powders. It is considered one of the great works of science in history. Opticks was Newton's second major book on physical science. Newton's name did not appear on the title page of the first edition of Opticks.

Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics usually describes the behaviour of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light. Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar properties. Telescopes.

Lasers
Optical focusing deep inside dynamic scattering media with near-infrared time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) light

Light Thermometer

Diffuse Interstellar Band are absorption features seen in the spectra of astronomical objects in the Milky Way and other galaxies. They are caused by the absorption of light by the interstellar medium. Circa 500 bands have now been seen, in ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths.

Buckminsterfullerene is a spherical fullerene molecule with the formula C60. It has a cage-like fused-ring structure (truncated icosahedron) which resembles a soccer ball (football), made of twenty hexagons and twelve pentagons, with a carbon atom at each vertex of each polygon and a bond along each polygon edge.

Light Bends

measure the distance from stars Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.

Telescope Lens Bends Light

Aberration of Light is an astronomical phenomenon which produces an apparent motion of celestial objects about their true positions, dependent on the velocity of the observer. Aberration causes objects to appear to be displaced towards the direction of motion of the observer compared to when the observer is stationary. The change in angle is typically very small — of the order of v/c where c is the speed of light and v the velocity of the observer. In the case of "stellar" or "annual" aberration, the apparent position of a star to an observer on Earth varies periodically over the course of a year as the Earth's velocity changes as it revolves around the Sun, by a maximum angle of approximately 20 arcseconds in right ascension or declination.

Cosmic Distance Ladder is the succession of methods by which astronomers determine the distances to celestial objects. A real direct distance measurement of an astronomical object is possible only for those objects that are "close enough" (within about a thousand parsecs) to Earth. The techniques for determining distances to more distant objects are all based on various measured correlations between methods that work at close distances and methods that work at larger distances. Several methods rely on a standard candle, which is an astronomical object that has a known luminosity, which is the total amount of energy emitted by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object per unit time. It is related to the brightness, which is the luminosity of an object in a given spectral region.

Signal Strength refers to the transmitter power output as received by a reference antenna at a distance from the transmitting antenna. High-powered transmissions, such as those used in broadcasting, are expressed in dB-millivolts per metre (dBmV/m). For very low-power systems, such as mobile phones, signal strength is usually expressed in dB-microvolts per metre (dBµV/m) or in decibels above a reference level of one milliwatt (dBm). In broadcasting terminology, 1 mV/m is 1000 µV/m or 60 dBµ (often written dBu).
Light Bends
Measuring Receiver is a calibrated laboratory-grade radio receiver designed to measure the characteristics of radio signals. The parameters of such receivers (tuning frequency, receiving bandwidth, gain) can usually be adjusted over a much wider range of values than is the case with other radio receivers. Their circuitry is optimized for stability and to enable calibration and reproducible results. Some measurement receivers also have especially robust input circuits that can survive brief impulses of more than 1000 V, as they can occur during measurements of radio signals on power lines and other conductors.

Einstein Ring is the deformation of the light from a source (such as a galaxy or star) into a ring through gravitational lensing of the source's light by an object with an extremely large mass (such as another galaxy or a black hole).

Gravitational Lens is a distribution of matter (such as a cluster of galaxies) between a distant light source and an observer, that is capable of bending the light from the source as the light travels towards the observer. This effect is known as gravitational lensing, and the amount of bending is one of the predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. Classical physics also predicts the bending of light, but only half that predicted by general relativity.

DNA Phantom Effect

Collimated Light is light whose rays are parallel, and therefore will spread minimally as it propagates. A perfectly collimated beam, with no divergence, would not disperse with distance. Such a beam cannot be created, due to Diffraction, which refers to various phenomena which occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit. It is defined as the bending of light around the corners of an obstacle or aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of the obstacle. In classical physics, the diffraction phenomenon is described as the interference of waves according to the Huygens–Fresnel principle, which is a method of analysis applied to problems of wave propagation both in the far-field limit and in near-field diffraction.

Wave Propagation is any of the ways in which waves travel. With respect to the direction of the oscillation relative to the propagation direction, we can distinguish between longitudinal wave and transverse waves. For electromagnetic waves, propagation may occur in a vacuum as well as in a material medium. Other wave types cannot propagate through a vacuum and need a transmission medium to exist.

Refraction is the change in direction of a wave passing from one medium to another or from a gradual change in the medium. The change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium. Schlieren Photography.

Straight Objects Shift when in a glass of water because the glass is so thin and because the light starts and finished in air, the refraction into and out of the glass causes little deviation in the light's original direction.) As you sight at the portion of the pencil that was submerged in the water, light travels from water to air (or from water to glass to air). List of Refractive Indices (wiki).

Refractive Index of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how fast light propagates through the material.

Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit. It is defined as the bending of light around the corners of an obstacle or aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of the obstacle.

Optical Phenomenon are any observable events that result from the interaction of light and matter. See also list of optical topics and optics. A mirage is an example of an optical phenomenon.

Camera Obscura is the natural optical phenomenon that occurs when an image of a scene at the other side of a screen (or for instance a wall) is projected through a small hole in that screen as a reversed and inverted image (left to right and upside down) on a surface opposite to the opening. The surroundings of the projected image have to be relatively dark for the image to be clear, so many historical camera obscura experiments were performed in dark rooms.

Fata Morgana Mirage is an unusual and complex form of superior mirage that is seen in a narrow band right above the horizon.

Binocular Disparity refers to the difference in image location of an object seen by the left and right eyes, resulting from the eyes’ horizontal separation (parallax). The brain uses binocular disparity to extract depth information from the two-dimensional retinal images in stereopsis. In computer vision, binocular disparity refers to the difference in coordinates of similar features within two stereo images.

Dark Matter


Quotes about Light, and Darkness...

“Darkness cannot drive out darkness: only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate: only love can do that.” Martin Luther King

“We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light.” Plato.

Light thinks it travels faster than anything but it is wrong. No matter how fast light travels, it finds the darkness has always got there first, and is waiting for it.”  Terry Pratchett, Reaper Man.

“Look at how a single candle can both defy and define the darkness.” Anne Frank

"I'm like the light, you will always have me, but you can never keep me."

“When you light a candle, you also cast a shadow.” Ursula K. Le Guin

"For you were once darkness, but now you are light. Live as children of light."

“I will love the light for it shows me the way, yet I will endure the darkness for it shows me the stars.” Og Mandino

"The Lord of Light, the giver of Heat and Energy. Our Star is truly a Star."

Star is an important performer with excellent skills who plays a principal role.



Space


The Second to the Last Final Frontier.

Outer Space Outer Space is the void that exists between celestial bodies, including the Earth. It is not completely empty, but consists of a hard Vacuum containing a low density of particles, predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust and cosmic rays.

Nassim Haramein 2015 - The Connected Universe (youtube) - space is blackholes in various sizes. Scale.

Space is an empty area (usually bounded in some way between things). An area reserved for some particular purpose. The interval between two times.

Dimensions - Spatial Intelligence - Dark Energy

Void is an empty area or space. Empty is holding or containing Nothing. Not any thing, nothing at all. Zero? Set Theory.

Void in astronomy are vast spaces between filaments (the largest-scale structures in the Universe), which contain very few or no galaxies. Voids typically have a diameter of 10 to 100 megaparsecs; particularly large voids, defined by the absence of rich superclusters, are sometimes called supervoids. They have less than one-tenth of the average density of matter abundance that is considered typical for the observable Universe. Voids are believed to have been formed by baryon acoustic oscillations in the Big Bang, collapses of mass followed by implosions of the compressed baryonic matter. Starting from initially small anisotropies from quantum fluctuations in the early Universe, the anisotropies grew larger in scale over time. Regions of higher density collapsed more rapidly under gravity, eventually resulting in the large-scale, foam-like structure or “cosmic web” of voids and galaxy filaments seen today. Voids located in high-density environments are smaller than voids situated in low-density spaces of the universe. Voids appear to correlate with the observed temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) because of the Sachs–Wolfe effect. Colder regions correlate with voids and hotter regions correlate with filaments because of gravitational redshifting. As the Sachs–Wolfe effect is only significant if the Universe is dominated by radiation or dark energy, the existence of voids is significant in providing physical evidence for dark energy.

Giant Void or Super Void is an extremely large region of space of underdensity of galaxies within the constellation Canes Venatici. It is the second largest confirmed void to date, with an estimated diameter of 300 to 400 Mpc (1 to 1.3 billion light years) and is approximately 1.5 billion light years away (z = 0.116). It was discovered in 1988, and was the largest void in the Northern Galactic Hemisphere, and possibly the second largest ever detected. Even the hypothesized "Eridanus Supervoid" corresponding to the location of the WMAP cold spot is dwarfed by this void, although the Giant Void does not correspond any significant cooling to the cosmic microwave background. Although a vast void, inside it are 17 galaxy clusters, concentrated in a spherical shaped region 50 Mpc in diameter. Studies of the motion of the clusters show that they have no interaction to each other, meaning the density of the clusters is very low resulting in weak gravitational interaction. The void's location in the sky is close to the Boötes void. The Boötes void is 5 times nearer but only has ¼ of the size of the Giant Void.

"Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning." Albert Einstein.

Interstellar Medium is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy. This matter includes gas in ionic, atomic, and molecular form, as well as dust and cosmic rays. It fills interstellar space and blends smoothly into the surrounding intergalactic space. The energy that occupies the same volume, in the form of electromagnetic radiation, is the interstellar radiation field.

Interstellar Space is the physical space within a galaxy beyond the influence each star has upon the encompassed plasma.

Interstitial is a space between structures or objects.

Interstices is a small structural space between tissues or parts of an organ.

Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.

Subspace is a space that is contained within another space.

Space in mathematics is a set (sometimes called a universe) with some added structure.

Space Science Outline encompasses all of the scientific disciplines that involve space exploration and study natural phenomena and physical bodies occurring in outer space, such as space medicine and astrobiology.

Aether Theories in physics propose the existence of a medium, meaning "upper air" or "pure, fresh air", a space-filling substance or field, thought to be necessary as a transmission medium for the propagation of electromagnetic or gravitational forces.

Vacuum


Vacuum is space void of matter. Negative Pressures (wiki)

Vacuum Energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space throughout the entire Universe.

Cosmological Constant is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space.

Vacuum State is the quantum state with the lowest possible energy. Zero Point.

False Vacuum is a metastable sector of space that appears to be a perturbative vacuum, but is unstable due to instanton effects that may tunnel to a lower energy state.

Vacuum State in quantum field theory, the quantum vacuum state (also called the quantum vacuum or vacuum state) is the quantum state with the lowest possible energy. Generally, it contains no physical particles. Zero-point field is sometimes used as a synonym for the vacuum state of an individual quantized field. According to present-day understanding of what is called the vacuum state or the quantum vacuum, it is "by no means a simple empty space". According to quantum mechanics, the vacuum state is not truly empty but instead contains fleeting electromagnetic waves and particles that pop into and out of existence.

Schwarzschild Metric is the solution to the Einstein field equations that describes the gravitational field outside a spherical mass, on the assumption that the electric charge of the mass, angular momentum of the mass, and universal cosmological constant are all zero.

Deriving the Schwarzschild solution describes spacetime in the vicinity of a non-rotating massive spherically-symmetric object.

Schwarzschild Radius is the radius of a sphere such that, if all the mass of an object were to be compressed within that sphere, the escape velocity from the surface of the sphere would equal the speed of light.

Feather & Hammer Drop on Moon and hit the ground at the same time. Footage of the Apollo 15 astronaut that dropped a hammer & feather on the moon to prove Galileo's theory that in the absence of atmosphere, objects will fall at the same rate regardless of mass.

Brian Cox visits the world's biggest vacuum chamber - Human Universe: Episode 4 Preview - BBC Two (youtube)

Expansion - Contraction


Why Do Drops of Liquid Form Spheres in Space?


Molecules are attracted to each other, so they naturally form the shape which minimizes the number of them that are not surrounded by others. Surface Tension Every molecule pulls on every molecule that's its immediate neighbor, until it gets close enough, and then it stops pulling. The system looses potential energy and transforms it into Thermal Energy. The sphere is the minimal potential energy configuration of the molecules. Potential Energy is defined by the relative position of molecules to each other, and the forces between them (electromagnetic + gravitation).

Spherical Harmonics are special functions defined on the surface of a sphere. They are often employed in solving partial differential equations that commonly occur in science. The spherical harmonics are a complete set of orthogonal functions on the sphere, and thus may be used to represent functions defined on the surface of a sphere, just as circular functions (sines and cosines) are used to represent functions on a circle via Fourier series. Like the sines and cosines in Fourier series, the spherical harmonics may be organized by (spatial) angular frequency, as seen in the rows of functions in the illustration on the right. Further, spherical harmonics are basis functions for SO(3), the group of rotations in three dimensions, and thus play a central role in the group theoretic discussion of SO(3).

Flame in a Vacuum Photo Formal Charge is the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, assuming that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally between atoms, regardless of relative electronegativity. When determining the best Lewis structure (or predominant resonance structure) for a molecule, the structure is chosen such that the formal charge on each of the atoms is as close to zero as possible.

Lewis Structure are diagrams that show the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.

RED 4K Video of Colorful Liquid in Space (youtube)

Bubble in physics is a round particle of one substance in another, usually gas in a liquid. Due to the Marangoni effect, bubbles may remain intact when they reach the surface of the immersive substance.

Giant Bubble Reflections in 4K | Shanks FX | PBS Digital Studios (youtube)

Soap Bubble is an extremely thin film of soapy water enclosing air that forms a hollow sphere with an iridescent surface.

Surface Tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible. Surface tension allows insects (e.g. water striders), usually denser than water, to float and slide on a water surface. At liquid–air interfaces, surface tension results from the greater attraction of liquid molecules to each other (due to cohesion) than to the molecules in the air (due to adhesion). The net effect is an inward force at its surface that causes the liquid to behave as if its surface were covered with a stretched elastic membrane. Thus, the surface comes under tension from the imbalanced forces, which is probably where the term "surface tension" came from. Because of the relatively high attraction of water molecules to each other through a web of hydrogen bonds, water has a higher surface tension (72.8 millinewtons per meter at 20 °C) than most other liquids. Surface tension is an important factor in the phenomenon of capillarity. Surface tension has the dimension of force per unit length, or of energy per unit area. The two are equivalent, but when referring to energy per unit of area, it is common to use the term surface energy, which is a more general term in the sense that it applies also to solids. In materials science, surface tension is used for either surface stress or surface energy. Surface Tension - Why are drops spherical? (youtube) - Inside a drop, each water molecule is pulled with a force by its neighboring molecules. But because of the inward force, each surface molecule contracts to form a shape that has minimum surface area which is a sphere.

Marangoni Effect is the mass transfer along an interface between two fluids due to surface tension gradient. In the case of temperature dependence, this phenomenon may be called thermo-capillary convection (or Bénard–Marangoni convection).

Toroidal Bubble Ring is an underwater vortex ring where an air bubble occupies the core of the vortex, forming a ring shape. The ring of air as well as the nearby water spins poloidally as it travels through the water, much like a flexible bracelet might spin when it is rolled on to a person's arm. The faster the bubble ring spins, the more stable it becomes. Bubble rings and smoke rings are both examples of vortex rings—the physics of which is still under active study in fluid dynamics. Devices have been invented which generate bubble vortex rings.

A Composite False-Color Image of Fire in Space The photo on right is a composite false-color image of Fire in Space that looks like someone praying? Smithsonian Mag.

Fluidized Bed is a physical phenomenon occurring when a quantity of a solid particulate substance (usually present in a holding vessel) is placed under appropriate conditions to cause a solid/fluid mixture to behave as a fluid. This is usually achieved by the introduction of pressurized fluid through the particulate medium. This results in the medium then having many properties and characteristics of normal fluids, such as the ability to free-flow under gravity, or to be pumped using fluid type technologies.

What does a Snowflake look like in Zero Gravity?

Pi - Geometry 


Sound in Space


Did you hear that?

Sound travels in waves like light or heat does. But in order for Humans to hear sounds, the sound needs to make molecules vibrate. In deep space, the large empty areas between stars and planets, there are no molecules to vibrate, so humans hear no sounds. But this does not mean that sounds are not present in space, or not traveling through space. Sound does exist in the form of electromagnetic vibrations that pulsate in wavelengths.

Space is not a perfect vacuum.
NASA Space Sounds (youtube)
Cosmic Noise (wiki)
5 Most Mysterious Sounds Recorded in Space (youtube)
Shapes created by Sound

Acoustic Levitation is a method for suspending matter in a medium by using acoustic radiation pressure from intense sound waves in the medium.

Acoustic Radiation Pressure is the apparent pressure difference between the average pressure at a surface moving with the displacement of the wave propagation (the Lagrangian pressure) and the pressure that would have existed in the fluid of the same mean density when at rest. Numerous authors make a distinction between the phenomena of Rayleigh radiation pressure and Langevin radiation pressure.

Sonoluminescence is the emission of short bursts of light from imploding bubbles in a liquid when excited by sound.

Fusion - Higgs Boson - Physics

Spheres of Water in Space

Is space a Growth Medium for the Universe?


Black Holes


Blackhole Energy Black Hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it. Black Holes may be the result of collapsed Stars from super nova's or other phenomenon like the collision of neutron stars. Dark Matter.

Supermassive Black Hole is the largest type of black hole, in the order of hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses (M☉), and is found in the centre of almost all currently known massive galaxies. In the case of the Milky Way, the SMBH corresponds with the location of Sagittarius A*.

Supermassive Black Hole Devours Star In Event Called ASASSN-14li

Supermassive Black Hole at the Center of our Galaxy | Cosmic Journeys (youtube) 
Observing Supermassive Black Holes in Virtual Reality (youtube) 
Darkness Visible: Shedding New Light on Black Holes (youtube) - World Science Festival

Scientists observe Supermassive Black Hole in infant Universe. Findings present a puzzle as to how such a huge object could have grown so quickly.

Astronomers find fastest-growing black hole known in space that devours a mass equivalent to our sun every two days.

Binary Black Hole is a system consisting of two black holes in close orbit around each other. Like black holes themselves, binary black holes are often divided into stellar binary black holes, formed either as remnants of high-mass binary star systems or by dynamic processes and mutual capture, and binary supermassive black holes believed to be a result of galactic mergers.

White Hole is a hypothetical region of spacetime which cannot be entered from the outside, although matter and light can escape from it. In this sense, it is the reverse of a black hole, which can only be entered from the outside and from which matter and light cannot escape. White holes appear in the theory of eternal black holes. In addition to a black hole region in the future, such a solution of the Einstein field equations has a white hole region in its past. What Are White Holes? (youtube).

Accretion Disk is a structure (often a circumstellar disk) formed by diffused material in orbital motion around a massive central body. The central body is typically a star. Friction causes orbiting material in the disk to spiral inward towards the central body. Gravitational and frictional forces compress and raise the temperature of the material, causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. The frequency range of that radiation depends on the central object's mass. Accretion disks of young stars and protostars radiate in the infrared; those around neutron stars and black holes in the X-ray part of the spectrum. The study of oscillation modes in accretion disks is referred to as diskoseismology.

Event Horizon is a boundary in spacetime beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer.

Magnetorotational Instability is a fluid instability that causes an accretion disk orbiting a massive central object to become turbulent. It arises when the angular velocity of a conducting fluid in a magnetic field decreases as the distance from the rotation center increases.

Ergosphere is a region located outside a rotating black hole's outer event horizon. It is theoretically possible to extract energy and mass from this region. The ergosphere touches the event horizon at the poles of a rotating black hole and extends
to a greater radius at the equator. With a low spin of the central mass the shape of the ergosphere can be approximated by an oblated spheroid, while with higher spins it resembles a pumpkin-shape.

Black-Hole Thermodynamics is the area of study that seeks to reconcile the laws of thermodynamics with the existence
of black-hole event horizons. As the study of the statistical mechanics of black-body radiation led to the advent of the theory of quantum mechanics, the effort to understand the statistical mechanics of black holes has had a deep impact upon the understanding of quantum gravity, leading to the formulation of the holographic principle.

Black Holes' Magnetism Surprisingly Wimpy

Penrose Process is a process theorised by Roger Penrose wherein energy can be extracted from a rotating black hole.

Blandford-Znajek Process is a mechanism for the extraction of energy from a rotating black hole.

Kugelblitz in astrophysics is a concentration of light so intense that it forms an event horizon and becomes self-trapped: according to general relativity, if enough radiation is aimed into a region, the concentration of energy can warp spacetime enough for the region to become a black hole (although this would be a black hole whose original mass-energy had been in
the form of radiant energy rather than matter). In simpler terms, a kugelblitz is a black hole formed from radiation as opposed to matter. According to Einstein's general theory of relativity, once an event horizon has formed, the type of energy that created it no longer matters. A kugelblitz is so hot it surpasses the Planck temperature, the temperature of the universe 5.4×10−44 seconds after The Big Bang.

The Big Star that couldn’t become a Supernova. Ohio State University watched a star disappear and possibly become a black hole. Instead of becoming a black hole through the expected process of a supernova, the black hole candidate formed through a "failed supernova."

Centripetal Force is a force that makes a body follow a curved path. Its direction is always orthogonal to the motion of the body and towards the fixed point of the instantaneous center of curvature of the path. Magnetism.

Are black holes a type of super-magnet made up of magnetite, with one side sucking in matter, and the other side expanding the universe?

Milky Way Galaxy has a Black hole about 4 million to 5 million times the mass of the sun.

Center Of The Milky Way Has Thousands Of Black Holes, Study Shows. A localized increase in number—of stellar-mass black holes near a supermassive black hole is a fundamental prediction of galactic stellar dynamics.

Astronomers Observe Evolution Of A Black Hole As It Wolfs Down Stellar. X-ray pulse detected near event horizon as black hole devours star. Pulse pattern suggests distant black hole must be spinning at least at 50 percent the speed of light.

Sagittarius A* is a bright and very compact astronomical radio source at the center of the Milky Way, near the border of the constellations Sagittarius and Scorpius. It is part of a larger astronomical feature known as Sagittarius A. Sagittarius A* is thought to be the location of a supermassive black hole.

It takes only a day for the black hole to shred the star (in a process known as tidal disruption), and only about a year for the resulting fragments to pull themselves back together. This is in contrast to the millions of years required to create a planet like Jupiter from scratch. Once launched at 20 million miles per hour, it would take about a million years for one of these objects to reach Earth's neighborhood. The challenge will be to tell it apart from free-floating planets that are created during the more mundane process of star and planet formation. Harvard Smithsonian Center or Astrophysics.

CO-0.40-0.22 is 200 light years away from the central molecular zone, about 25,000 to 28,000 Light Years from Earth.

A black hole 12 billion times as massive as the sun has been found in a glowing quasar that existed when the universe was just a fraction of its current age using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Two Micron All-Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. This black hole-quasar combo is estimated to exist 12.8 billion light years away.

PKS 1302-102 is a pair of supermassive black holes located in the Virgo Constellation, some 3.5 billion light-years away. These two supermassive black holes are in the process of merging, and are 180 billion miles (2.9×1011 km) apart. They are anticipated to merge within about a million years. I can't wait!


Radioactive Decay


Radio Active Warning Symbol Radioactive Decay is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of Internal conversion. A material containing such unstable nuclei is considered radioactive. Certain highly excited short-lived nuclear states can decay through neutron emission, or more rarely, proton emission. Radioactive decay is a stochastic (i.e. random) process at the level of single atoms, in that, according to quantum theory, it is impossible to predict when a particular atom will decay, regardless of how long the atom has existed. However, for a collection of atoms, the collection's expected decay rate is characterized in terms of their measured decay constants or half-lives. This is the basis of radiometric dating. Carbon Dating. The half-lives of radioactive atoms have no known upper limit, spanning a time range of over 55 orders of magnitude, from nearly instantaneous to far longer than the age of the universe. Radioactive decay is the spontaneous breakdown of an atomic nucleus resulting in the release of energy and matter from the nucleus. Remember that a radioisotope has unstable nuclei that does not have enough binding energy to hold the nucleus together. Exponential Decay. Matter can be recreated and also be diminished? Decomposition.

Particle Decay Particle decay is the spontaneous process of one unstable subatomic particle transforming into multiple other particles. The particles created in this process (the final state) must each be less massive than the original, although the total invariant mass of the system must be conserved. A particle is unstable if there is at least one allowed final state that it can decay into. Unstable particles will often have multiple ways of decaying, each with its own associated probability. Decays are mediated by one or several fundamental forces. The particles in the final state may themselves be unstable and subject to further decay. The term is typically distinct from radioactive decay, in which an unstable atomic nucleus is transformed into a lighter nucleus accompanied by the emission of particles or radiation, although the two are conceptually similar and are often described using the same terminology.

Radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium. This includes: electromagnetic radiation, such as heat, radio waves, visible light, x-rays, and gamma radiation (?). Particle radiation, such as alpha radiation (a), beta radiation (ß), and neutron radiation (particles of non-zero rest energy). Acoustic radiation, such as ultrasound, sound, and seismic waves (dependent on a physical transmission medium). Gravitational radiation, radiation that takes the form of gravitational waves, or ripples in the curvature of spacetime. Radiation is often categorized as either ionizing or non-ionizing depending on the energy of the radiated particles. Ionizing radiation carries more than 10 eV, which is enough to ionize atoms and molecules, and break chemical bonds. This is an important distinction due to the large difference in harmfulness to living organisms. A common source of ionizing radiation is radioactive materials that emit a, ß, or ? radiation, consisting of helium nuclei, electrons or positrons, and photons, respectively. Other sources include X-rays from medical radiography examinations and muons, mesons, positrons, neutrons and other particles that constitute the secondary cosmic rays that are produced after primary cosmic rays interact with Earth's atmosphere. Gamma rays, X-rays and the higher energy range of ultraviolet light constitute the ionizing part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The lower-energy, longer-wavelength part of the spectrum including visible light, infrared light, microwaves, and radio waves is non-ionizing; its main effect when interacting with tissue is heating. This type of radiation only damages cells if the intensity is high enough to cause excessive heating. Ultraviolet Radiation has some features of both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. While the part of the ultraviolet spectrum that penetrates the Earth's atmosphere is non-ionizing, this radiation does far more damage to many molecules in biological systems than can be accounted for by heating effects, sunburn being a well-known example. These properties derive from ultraviolet's power to alter chemical bonds, even without having quite enough energy to ionize atoms. The word radiation arises from the phenomenon of waves radiating (i.e., traveling outward in all directions) from a source. This aspect leads to a system of measurements and physical units that are applicable to all types of radiation. Because such radiation expands as it passes through space, and as its energy is conserved (in vacuum), the intensity of all types of radiation from a point source follows an inverse-square law in relation to the distance from its source. This law does not apply close to an extended source of radiation or for focused beams.

Radionuclide is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable. This excess energy can be used in one of three ways: emitted from the nucleus as gamma radiation; transferred to one of its electrons to release it as a conversion electron; or used to create and emit a new particle (alpha particle or beta particle) from the nucleus. During those processes, the radionuclide is said to undergo radioactive decay. These emissions are considered ionizing radiation because they are powerful enough to liberate an electron from another atom. The radioactive decay can produce a stable nuclide or will sometimes produce a new unstable radionuclide which may undergo further decay. Radioactive decay is a random process at the level of single atoms: it is impossible to predict when one particular atom will decay. However, for a collection of atoms of a single element the decay rate, and thus the half-life (t1/2) for that collection can be calculated from their measured decay constants. The range of the half-lives of radioactive atoms have no known limits and span a time range of over 55 orders of magnitude.

Black-Body Radiation is the type of electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body), assumed for the sake of calculations and theory to be held at constant, uniform temperature. The radiation has a specific spectrum and intensity that depends only on the temperature of the body.

Black Body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence. A white body is one with a "rough surface [that] reflects all incident rays completely and uniformly in all directions.

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation is electromagnetic radiation left over from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology. In older literature, the CMB is also variously known as cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) or "relic radiation". The CMB is a faint cosmic background radiation filling all space that is an important source of data on the early universe because it is the oldest electromagnetic radiation in the universe, dating to the epoch of recombination.

Nuclear Energy - Nuclear Bombs

Ionizing Radiation is radiation that carries enough energy to free electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them. Ionizing radiation is made up of energetic subatomic particles, ions or atoms moving at high speeds (usually greater than 1% of the speed of light), and electromagnetic waves on the high-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Cosmic Ray are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System. Big Bang?

Pierre Auger Observatory is an international cosmic ray observatory in Argentina designed to detect ultra-high-energy cosmic rays: sub-atomic particles traveling nearly at the speed of light and each with energies beyond 1018 eV. In Earth's atmosphere such particles interact with air nuclei and produce various other particles. These effect particles (called an "air shower") can be detected and measured. But since these high energy particles have an estimated arrival rate of just 1 per km2 per century, the Auger Observatory has created a detection area of 3,000 km2 (1,200 sq mi)—the size of Rhode Island, or Luxembourg—in order to record a large number of these events. It is located in the western Mendoza Province, Argentina, near the Andes.

Solar Irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.

Harvesting renewable energy from Earth’s mid-infrared emissions

Force

Intense laser experiments provide first evidence that light can stop electrons

Abraham Lorentz Force is the recoil force on an accelerating charged particle caused by the particle emitting electromagnetic radiation. It is also called the radiation reaction force or the self force.

Jerk in physics is the rate of change of acceleration; that is, the derivative of acceleration with respect to time, and as such the second derivative of velocity, or the third derivative of position. Jerk is a vector, and there is no generally used term to describe its scalar magnitude (more precisely, its norm, e.g. "speed" as the norm of the velocity vector). According to the result of dimensional analysis of jerk, [length/time3], the SI units are m/s3 (or m·s−3); jerk can also be expressed in standard gravity per second (g/s).

Magnetic Radiation Reaction Force is a force on an electromagnet when its magnetic moment changes. One can derive an electric radiation reaction force for an accelerating charged particle caused by the particle emitting electromagnetic radiation. Likewise, a magnetic radiation reaction force can be derived for an accelerating magnetic moment emitting electromagnetic radiation. Similar to the electric radiation reaction force, three conditions must be met in order to derive the following formula for the magnetic radiation reaction force. First, the motion of the magnetic moment must be periodic, an assumption used to derive the force. Second, the magnetic moment is traveling at non-relativistic velocities (that is, much slower than the speed of light). Finally, this only applies to the realm of classical physics. Since the magnetic moment is proportional to velocity, this force is proportional to the fifth derivative of the position as a function of time (sometimes somewhat facetiously referred to as the "Crackle"). Unlike the Abraham–Lorentz force, the force points in the direction opposite of the "Crackle".

Everything is moving at high speeds in space, even black holes are moving, and everything around the black hole moves together, it moves, it spins, it sucks in, and it spits out.  If a Black hole sucks in, where does it Go? Another Dimension? 

Torus (clifford)

Uncertainty Principle is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.

Singularity studies spaces that are almost manifolds, but not quite. A string can serve as an example of a one-dimensional manifold, if one neglects its thickness. A singularity can be made by balling it up, dropping it on the floor, and flattening it. In some places the flat string will cross itself in an approximate "X" shape. The points on the floor where it does this are one kind of singularity, the double point: one bit of the floor corresponds to more than one bit of string. Perhaps the string will also touch itself without crossing, like an underlined 'U'. This is another kind of singularity. Unlike the double point, it is not stable, in the sense that a small push will lift the bottom of the 'U'away from the 'underline'.

Black Hole Black Hole Information Paradox suggests that physical information could permanently disappear in a black hole, allowing many physical states to devolve into the same state. This is controversial because it violates a commonly assumed tenet of science—that in principle complete information about a physical system at one point in time should determine its state at any other time. A fundamental postulate of quantum mechanics is that complete information about a system is encoded in its wave function up to when the wave function collapses. The evolution of the wave function is determined by a unitary operator, and unitarity implies that information is conserved in the quantum sense. Information Paradox (image).

Data Remanence is the residual representation of digital data that remains even after attempts have been made to remove or erase the data. This residue may result from data being left intact by a nominal file deletion operation, by reformatting of storage media that does not remove data previously written to the media, or through physical properties of the storage media that allow previously written data to be recovered. Data remanence may make inadvertent disclosure of sensitive information possible should the storage media be released into an uncontrolled environment (e.g., thrown in the trash or lost). Entropy.

Firewall in physics is a hypothetical phenomenon where an observer that falls into an old black hole encounters high-energy quanta at (or near) the event horizon.

Big Bounce is a hypothetical scientific model of the formation of the known universe. It was originally suggested as a property of the cyclic model or oscillatory universe interpretation of the Big Bang where the first cosmological event was the result of the collapse of a previous universe; however, it is also a consequence of applying loop quantum gravity techniques to Big Bang cosmology and this need not be cyclic.

Information Backup (knowledge preservation)

Virtual Particle is a transient fluctuation that exhibits many of the characteristics of an ordinary particle, but that exists for a limited time.


Mass can Neither be Created nor Destroyed


Conservation of Mass states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter and energy, the mass of the system must remain constant over time, as system mass cannot change quantity if it is not added or removed. Hence, the quantity of mass is "conserved" over time. The law implies that mass can neither be created nor destroyed, though it may be rearranged in space, or the entities associated with it may be changed in form, as for example when light or physical work is transformed into particles that contribute the same mass to the system as the light or work had contributed. Thus, during any chemical reaction, nuclear reaction, or radioactive decay in an isolated system, the total mass of the reactants or starting materials must be equal to the mass of the products. Thermodynamics.

Maybe the main reason why matter cannot be destroyed is so that life doesn't accidentally destroy itself or accidentally destroy the universe. And if humans could just create their own matter, then all hell would break lose, annihilation. These safety features are most likely by design. Humans are not mentally mature enough to handle any type of power, as we have all kinds of evidence that proves our imaturity, it's all around us today and throughout our history. Smashing atoms together like a bunch of cave men will not solve our problems. It's time to focus on much bigger problems, like our existence, and the lack of existence. Existence is the state or fact of existing.

What about Anti Matter? Physicists have created antimatter in the laboratory. But when they do, they create an equal amount of matter, how? Can Stars create matter?

Conservation of Energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant—it is said to be conserved over time. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; rather, it transforms from one form to another. For instance, chemical energy can be converted to kinetic energy in the explosion of a stick of dynamite. Action Physics.

Energy Transformation is the process of changing energy from one of its forms into another. In physics, energy is a quantity that provides the capacity to perform many actions—some as simple as lifting or warming an object. In addition to being convertible, energy is transferable to a different location or object, but it cannot be created or destroyed.

Radioactive Decay - Radiation

21 Grams is the measure of mass lost by a human when the soul departed the body at Death.

Quantum Teleportation is a process by which quantum information (e.g. the exact state of an atom or photon) can be transmitted (exactly, in principle) from one location to another, with the help of classical communication and previously shared quantum entanglement between the sending and receiving location. Because it depends on classical communication, which can proceed no faster than the speed of light, it cannot be used for faster-than-light transport or communication of classical bits. While it has proven possible to teleport one or more qubits of information between two (entangled) atoms, this has not yet been achieved between molecules or anything larger.

Bell's Theorem is a "no-go theorem" that draws an important distinction between quantum mechanics (QM) and the world as described by classical mechanics. No physical theory of local hidden variables can ever reproduce all of the predictions of quantum mechanics.

Physical Information refers generally to the information that is contained in a physical system. Its usage in quantum mechanics (i.e. quantum information) is important, for example in the concept of quantum entanglement to describe effectively direct or causal relationships between apparently distinct or spatially separated particles.

Human Energy

A Brief History of Time is a 1988 popular-science book by British physicist Stephen Hawking. What we Know so far.

Hawking Radiation is blackbody radiation that is predicted to be released by black holes, due to quantum effects near the event horizon.

Light Cone is the path that a flash of light, emanating from a single event (localized to a single point in space and a single moment in time) and traveling in all directions, would take through spacetime.

Wormhole or "Einstein-Rosen Bridge" is a hypothetical topological feature that would fundamentally be a shortcut connecting two separate points in spacetime. A wormhole may connect extremely long distances such as a billion light years or more, short distances such as a few feet, different universes, and different points in time. A wormhole is much like a tunnel with two ends, each at separate points in spacetime. Photo of a Wormhole (image).

Tidal disruption event ASASSN-14li - black hole shreds a star (youtube)

If Black Holes come in various sizes, then is Space just a huge Black Hole?

Dark Flow is an astrophysical term describing a possible non-random component of the peculiar velocity of galaxy clusters. The actual measured velocity is the sum of the velocity predicted by Hubble's Law plus a possible small and unexplained (or dark) velocity flowing in a common direction.

Anthropic Principle that observations of the Universe must be compatible with the conscious and sapient life that observes it. Some proponents of the anthropic principle reason that it explains why this universe has the age and the fundamental physical constants necessary to accommodate conscious life. As a result, they believe it is unremarkable that this universe has fundamental constants that happen to fall within the narrow range thought to be compatible with life

It's been estimated that it would take our solar system 10^30 years (1 nonillion) to end up at the center of our galaxy, which is way beyond the expected life span of earth and our sun, so we're cool.

Maybe Black Holes are Recyclers of Matter, and during that recycling process it compresses information. Black holes also gives our galaxy enough gravity, or magnetic field, to hold it together, just like when stars and planets form. If you don't have the glue, or the gravitational force to hold it together and take shape, then you end up with an asteroid belt. Matter loves to be circular in shape, because the circle shape is the shape that requires the least amount of energy to form. Planets and stars are round. Planets start out more molten then rock, so planets naturally become round. Stars are born from gas, so stars naturally become round. So it kind of makes sense that black holes are used in some way to form planets and stars, and not just used to hold galaxies together. You have to have some continuity. The universe can't be totally chaotic, even though it looks that way at times.

Do Black-Holes recycle the energy of space to supply energy to dark matter and dark energy?

Banach–Tarski Paradox in set-theoretic geometry, which states the following: Given a solid ball in 3‑dimensional space, there exists a decomposition of the ball into a finite number of disjoint subsets, which can then be put back together in a different way to yield two identical copies of the original ball.

Conductor

Are Planets semiconductors, and is space a conductor? Conductor also means Director, as controls resources and expenditures, so is space a type of controlling mechanism?

Is space a form of Radiant Energy, which is energy that exists in the absence of matter? 

Radiant Energy is the energy of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation.

Electricity

Space is not matter or energy as we know it.



Dark Matter


Dark Energy ammounts Dark Matter is unidentified. Comprising approximately 27% of the mass and energy in the observable Universe that is not accounted for by dark energy, baryonic matter (ordinary matter), and neutrinos. The name refers to the fact that it does not emit or interact with electromagnetic radiation, such as light, and is thus invisible to the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Matter (mass). Mathematical Models calculate that there must be something else in space that causes matter to bind together, the claim is that the magnetic forces of matter alone are not strong enough to form solar systems and galaxies, so there must be some other form of energy or matter.

Vacuum Energy - Space - Anti-Gravity - Negative Mass - Expansion.

Invisible is something unable to be seen and not visible to the human eye.

Transparent is when a a material or article allows light to pass through so that objects behind can be distinctly seen. Low-Mass Particles.

Vantablack is a material developed by Surrey NanoSystems in the United Kingdom and is one of the darkest substances known, absorbing up to 99.6% of radiation in the visible spectrum.

Darkness is understood as a lack of illumination or an absence of visible light.

Maybe we should stop calling it Matter and stop calling it Dark, especially when we're not sure what it is.

Dark Matter 26.8% - Dark Energy 68.3% - Total Energy Matter Density 4.9%

Components of unknown origin (if it's unknown then why is it there?) Finding something that is there, but it's gone already by the time you look at it. How do you measure percentages? Observer Effect.

Transparency and Translucency is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered. On a macroscopic scale (one where the dimensions investigated are much, much larger than the wavelength of the photons in question), the photons can be said to follow Snell's Law. Translucency (also called translucence or translucidity) is a superset of transparency: it allows light to pass through, but does not necessarily (again, on the macroscopic scale) follow Snell's law; the photons can be scattered at either of the two interfaces where there is a change in index of refraction, or internally. In other words, a translucent medium allows the transport of light while a transparent medium not only allows the transport of light but allows for image formation. The opposite property of translucency is opacity. Transparent materials appear clear, with the overall appearance of one color, or any combination leading up to a brilliant spectrum of every color. When light encounters a material, it can interact with it in several different ways. These interactions depend on the wavelength of the light and the nature of the material. Photons interact with an object by some combination of reflection, absorption and transmission. Some materials, such as plate glass and clean water, transmit much of the light that falls on them and reflect little of it; such materials are called optically transparent. Many liquids and aqueous solutions are highly transparent. Absence of structural defects (voids, cracks, etc.) and molecular structure of most liquids are mostly responsible for excellent optical transmission. Materials which do not transmit light are called opaque. Many such substances have a chemical composition which includes what are referred to as absorption centers. Many substances are selective in their absorption of white light frequencies. They absorb certain portions of the visible spectrum while reflecting others. The frequencies of the spectrum which are not absorbed are either reflected or transmitted for our physical observation. This is what gives rise to color. The attenuation of light of all frequencies and wavelengths is due to the combined mechanisms of absorption and scattering. Transparency can provide almost perfect camouflage for animals able to achieve it. This is easier in dimly-lit or turbid seawater than in good illumination. Many marine animals such as jellyfish are highly transparent.

Dark Energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe. Dark energy is the most accepted hypothesis to explain the observations since the 1990s indicating that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate.

Dark Fluid is an alternative theory to both dark matter and dark energy and attempts to explain both phenomena in a single framework. Dark fluid proposes that dark matter and dark energy are not separate physical phenomena as previously thought, nor do they have separate origins, but that they are strongly linked together and can be considered as two facets of a single fluid. At galactic scales, the dark fluid behaves like dark matter, and at larger scales its behavior becomes similar to dark energy. Our observations within the scales of the Earth and the Solar System are currently insufficient to explain the gravitational effects observed at such larger scales.

A Unifying Theory of Dark Energy and Dark Matter: Negative Masses and Matter Creation within a Modified ΛCDM Framework. Dark energy and dark matter constitute 95% of the observable Universe. Yet the physical nature of these two phenomena remains a mystery. Einstein suggested a long-forgotten solution: gravitationally repulsive negative masses, which drive cosmic expansion and cannot coalesce into light-emitting structures. However, contemporary cosmological results are derived upon the reasonable assumption that the Universe only contains positive masses. By reconsidering this assumption, I have constructed a toy model which suggests that both dark phenomena can be unified into a single negative mass fluid. The model is a modified ΛCDM cosmology, and indicates that continuously-created negative masses can resemble the cosmological constant and can flatten the rotation curves of galaxies. The model leads to a cyclic universe with a time-variable Hubble parameter, potentially providing compatibility with the current tension that is emerging in cosmological measurements. In the first three-dimensional N-body simulations of negative mass matter in the scientific literature, this exotic material naturally forms haloes around galaxies that extend to several galactic radii. These haloes are not cuspy. The proposed cosmological model is therefore able to predict the observed distribution of dark matter in galaxies from first principles. The model makes several testable predictions and seems to have the potential to be consistent with observational evidence from distant supernovae, the cosmic microwave background, and galaxy clusters. These findings may imply that negative masses are a real and physical aspect of our Universe, or alternatively may imply the existence of a superseding theory that in some limit can be modelled by effective negative masses. Both cases lead to the surprising conclusion that the compelling puzzle of the dark Universe may have been due to a simple sign error.

Metric Space is a set for which distances between all members of the set are defined. Those distances, taken together, are called a metric on the set. A metric on a space induces topological properties like open and closed sets, which lead to the study of more abstract topological spaces.

Bioastronautics is a specialty area of biological and astronautical research which encompasses numerous aspects of biological, behavioral, and medical concern governing humans and other living organisms in a space flight environment; and includes design of payloads, space habitats, and life support systems. In short, it spans the study and support of life in space.

Interstellar Medium is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy. This matter includes gas in ionic, atomic, and molecular form, as well as dust and cosmic rays. It fills interstellar space and blends smoothly into the surrounding intergalactic space. The energy that occupies the same volume, in the form of electromagnetic radiation, is the interstellar radiation field.

Our Space - Space - Un-Manifest Inertia

Magnetism & Inertia: Explaining the Field Geometry that defines the entire Universe (youtube)

Dark Energy Survey

Millennium Run is a computer N-body simulation used to investigate how the distribution of matter in the Universe has evolved over time, in particular, how the observed population of galaxies was formed. It is used by scientists working in physical cosmology to compare observations with theoretical predictions.

Zoom Into Millenium Simulation of Universe [720p] (youtube)

Chameleon Particle

Scalar Field Dark Matter is a classical, minimally coupled, scalar field postulated to account for the inferred dark matter.

Baryonic Dark Matter is dark matter composed of baryons. Only a small proportion of the dark matter in the universe is likely to be baryonic.

Baryon is a type of composite subatomic particle which contains an odd number of valence quarks (at least 3). Baryons belong to the hadron family of particles, which are the quark-based particles. They are also classified as fermions, i.e., they have half-integer spin.

Maybe the instruments should be in motion, like warp speed.

UCI Physicists confirm possible discovery of Fifth Force of Nature. Light particle could be key to understanding dark matter in universe. Physics.

XENON dark matter research project operated at the Italian Gran Sasso laboratory is a deep underground research facility featuring increasingly ambitious experiments aiming to finally detect long sought after dark matter particles. These particles in the form of Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are believed to be found by looking for rare interactions via nuclear recoils in a liquid xenon target chamber. The current detector consists of a dual phase Time projection chamber (TPC). Xenon Collaboration - Xenon1t.

Dama-Libra Collaboration investigated the presence of dark matter particles in the galactic halo by exploiting the model-independent annual modulation signature. As a consequence of its orbit, the Earth should be exposed to a higher flux of dark matter particles around June 2, when its orbital speed is added to the one of the solar system with respect to the galaxy and to a smaller one around December 2, when the two velocities are subtracted. The annual modulation signature is distinctive since the effect induced by dark matter particles must simultaneously satisfy many requirements.

Weakly Interacting Massive Particles is a hypothetical particle physics candidate for dark matter. The term “WIMP” is given to a dark matter particle that was produced by falling out of thermal equilibrium with the hot dense plasma of the early universe, although it is often used to refer to any dark matter candidate that interacts with standard particles via a force similar in strength to the weak nuclear force.

Atom Interferometer is an interferometer which uses the wave character of atoms. Similar to optical interferometers, atom interferometers measure the difference in phase between atomic matter waves along different paths. Atom interferometers have many uses in fundamental physics including measurements of the gravitational constant, the fine-structure constant, the universality of free fall, and have been proposed as a method to detect gravitational waves. They also have applied uses as accelerometers, rotation sensors, and gravity gradiometers.

Scalar Field associates a scalar value to every point in a space. The scalar may either be a mathematical number or a physical quantity. Scalar fields are required to be coordinate-independent, meaning that any two observers using the same units will agree on the value of the scalar field at the same absolute point in space (or spacetime) regardless of their respective points of origin. Examples used in physics include the temperature distribution throughout space, the pressure distribution in a fluid, and spin-zero quantum fields, such as the Higgs field. These fields are the subject of scalar field theory. Chameleon Particle.

Fifth Force is a postulated force accompanying the four known fundamental forces, in terms of which modern physics describes physical reality. Since physics has no accepted universal framework, occasionally physicists have postulated the existence of an additional fundamental fifth force. Most postulate a force of roughly the strength of gravity (i.e. it is much weaker than electromagnetism or the nuclear forces) and to have a range of anywhere from less than a millimeter to cosmological scales.

Are Dark Matter And Dark Energy The Same? (youtube)

Quantum Foam is the fluctuation of spacetime on very small scales due to quantum mechanics. With an incomplete theory of quantum gravity, it is impossible to be certain what spacetime would look like at small scales. However, there is no reason that spacetime needs to be fundamentally smooth. It is possible that instead, in a quantum theory of gravity, spacetime would consist of many small, ever-changing regions in which space and time are not definite, but fluctuate in a foam-like manner.

Quantum State refers to the state of an isolated quantum system. A quantum state provides a probability distribution for the value of each observable, i.e. for the outcome of each possible measurement on the system. Knowledge of the quantum state together with the rulesfor the system's evolution in time exhausts all that can be predicted about the system's behavior.

Quantum Electrodynamics is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics. In essence, it describes how light and matter interact and is the first theory where full agreement between quantum mechanics and special relativity is achieved. QED mathematically describes all phenomena involving electrically charged particles interacting by means of exchange of photons and represents the quantum counterpart of classical electromagnetism giving a complete account of matter and light interaction. In technical terms, QED can be described as a perturbation theory of the electromagnetic quantum vacuum. Richard Feynman called it "the jewel of physics" for its extremely accurate predictions of quantities like the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and the Lamb shift of the energy levels of hydrogen.:Ch1

Light Bending - Space


Torus - Vortex


Primary Connection Torus Torus is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle. If the axis of revolution does not touch the circle, the surface has a ring shape and is called a torus of revolution.

TThe Universal Pattern Torus (youtube)
Double Torus (youtube)
Torus Flow Process

Clifford Torus is a special kind of torus sitting inside the unit 3-sphere S3 in R4, the Euclidean space of four dimensions. Or equivalently, it can be seen as a torus sitting inside C2 since C2 is topologically equivalent to R4. It is specifically the torus in S3 that is geometrically the cartesian product of two circles, each of radius sqrt(1/2). The Clifford torus is an example of a square torus, because it is isometric to a square with opposite sides identified. It is further known as a Euclidean 2-torus (the "2" is its topological dimension); figures drawn on it obey Euclidean geometry as if it were flat, whereas the surface of a common "doughnut"-shaped torus is positively curved on the outer rim and negatively curved on the inner. Although having a different geometry than the standard embedding of a torus in three-dimensional Euclidean space, the square torus can also be embedded into three-dimensional space, by the Nash embedding theorem; one possible embedding modifies the standard torus by a fractal set of ripples running in two perpendicular directions along the surface.

Tokamak is a device that uses a powerful Magnetic Field to confine plasma in the shape of a torus.

Vector Equilibrium

Vortex is the shape of something rotating rapidly. Vortices form in stirred fluids, and may be observed in phenomena such as smoke rings, whirlpools in the wake of boat, or the winds surrounding a tornado or dust devil.

Helix - Tornado - Contraction

Impeller is a rotor used to increase the pressure and flow of a fluid, or decrease in case of turbines. Propeller.
A helix composed of sinusoidal x and y components

Life and Math

The temperature of the Universe today is about 2.73 degrees above absolute zero in every part of the sky.

Thermal Equilibrium  if no heat flows between them when they are connected by a path permeable to heat. Thermal equilibrium obeys the zeroth law of thermodynamics. A system is said to be in thermal equilibrium with itself if the temperature within the system is spatially and temporally uniform. E=MC^2

The Universe has no center and no edge?

Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way"). Precise definitions depend on the subject area. Exceptions, or inequalities, are frequently indicated by the prefix an, hence anisotropy. Anisotropy is also used to describe situations where properties vary systematically, dependent on direction. Isotropic radiation has the same intensity regardless of the direction of measurement, and an isotropic field exerts the same action regardless of how the test particle is oriented.

Anisotropy is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy. It can be defined as a difference, when measured along different axes, in a material's physical or mechanical properties (absorbance, refractive index, conductivity, tensile strength, etc.) An example of anisotropy is the light coming through a polarizer. Another is wood, which is easier to split along its grain than against it.

Cosmic Microwave Background is the thermal radiation left over from the time of recombination in Big Bang cosmology. In older literature, the CMB is also variously known as cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) or "relic radiation". The CMB is a cosmic background radiation that is fundamental to observational cosmology because it is the oldest light in the universe, dating to the epoch of recombination. With a traditional optical telescope, the space between stars and galaxies (the background) is completely dark. However, a sufficiently sensitive radio telescope shows a faint background glow, almost isotropic, that is not associated with any star, galaxy, or other object. This glow is strongest in the microwave region of the radio spectrum.

Cosmic Variance is the statistical uncertainty inherent in observations of the universe at extreme distances.

Recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.[nb 1] Recombination occurred about 378,000 years after the Big Bang (at a redshift of z = 1100).

Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe originally known as the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), was a spacecraft operating from 2001 to 2010 which measured temperature differences across the sky in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) – the radiant heat remaining from the Big Bang.

The universe is infinitely large and infinitely small, there's even infinity within a confined space. There's black holes in various sizes, there's atoms, there's dark matter, dark energy, double torus...what an incredible machine...time does not stop, and it's not a constant, time can go extremely fast and go extremely slow....The mind is the interface, but not all of the connections and controls have been defined, at least not yet anyway.

Interface is a program that allows a user to interact with a system. Linking one device with another. Interfaces.

Time Travel

How can atoms have so much space and be in constant motion and yet some how become a solid? Is it because there are 5 Sextillion Atoms in a single drop of water, so this 0.1 % of mass actually adds up to create something more solid? We have physical limitations but seem to have no mental limitations. We are an energy wave in constant motion and in constant renewal, but we can retain our memories. Is it just our current speed and frequency that is dictating our current limitations? Can the human mind adjust the speed and frequency in which we currently operate in?

"The Wave of Life"

Angular Momentum - Torque - Coriolis Effect
Wavelength
Scaling Law
Finite Subdivision Rules - Math

Density of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

Optical Resolution describes the ability of an imaging system to resolve detail in the object that is being imaged.
Resolution Types

Ratio - Pattern
Vacuum Singularity

Conservation of Mass - Conservation of Energy

Open System (Open to what? Closed to What?)

Rate is the ratio between two related quantities. Often it is a rate of change. If the unit or quantity in respect of which something is changing is not specified, usually the rate is per unit of measurement. However, a rate of change can be specified per unit of time, or per unit of length or mass or another quantity. The most common type of rate is "per unit of time", such as speed, heart rate and flux. Ratios that have a non-time denominator include exchange rates, literacy rates and electric field (in volts/meter).

Rate Function is a function used to quantify the probabilities of rare events. It is required to have several properties which assist in the formulation of the large deviation principle. In some sense, the large deviation principle is an analogue of weak convergence of probability measures, but one which takes account of how well the rare events behave.

Volumetric Flow Rate is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time; usually represented by the symbol Q (sometimes V̇). The SI unit is m3/s (cubic metres per second). Another unit used is sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute).

Telemetry is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.



Dimensions


Dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it. Thus a line has a dimension of one because only one coordinate is needed to specify a point on it – for example, the point at 5 on a number line. A surface such as a plane or the surface of a cylinder or sphere has a dimension of two because two coordinates are needed to specify a point on it – for example, both a latitude and longitude are required to locate a point on the surface of a sphere. The inside of a cube, a cylinder or a sphere is three-dimensional because three coordinates are needed to locate a point within these spaces.

Dimensional Analysis is the analysis of the relationships between different physical quantities by identifying their fundamental dimensions (such as length, mass, time, and electric charge) and units of measure (such as miles vs. kilometers, or pounds vs. kilograms vs. grams) and tracking these dimensions as calculations or comparisons are performed.

Dr Quantum - Flatland (youtube)
Tenth Dimension (youtube)
Number of Dimensions (string theory)
4D Toys: a box of four-dimensional toys, and how objects bounce and roll in 4D (youtube)

1 Dimensional Space is where the position of each point on it can be described by a single number.
2 Dimensional Space is a geometric model of the planar projection of the physical universe. The two dimensions are commonly called length and width. Both directions lie in the same plane.
3 Dimensional Space is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point). This is the informal meaning of the term dimension.
4 Dimensional Space is a geometric space with four dimensions. It typically is more specifically four-dimensional Euclidean space, generalizing the rules of three-dimensional Euclidean space. It has been studied by mathematicians and philosophers for over two centuries, both for its own interest and for the insights it offered into mathematics and related fields.
5 Dimensional Space is one more than the usual three spatial dimensions and the fourth dimension of time used in relativitistic physics.
6 Dimensional Space is any space that has six dimensions, six degrees of freedom, and that needs six pieces of data, or coordinates, to specify a location in this space.
7 Dimensional Space refers to a seven-dimensional vector space over any field, such as a seven-dimensional complex vector space, which has 14 real dimensions. It may also refer to a seven-dimensional manifold such as a 7-sphere, or a variety of other geometric constructions.
8 Dimensional Space refers to an eight-dimensional vector space over any field, such as an eight-dimensional complex vector space, which has 16 real dimensions. It may also refer to an eight-dimensional manifold such as an 8-sphere, or a variety of other geometric constructions. Crystal Lattice.

Octonions are a normed division algebra over the real numbers, usually represented by the capital letter O, using boldface O or blackboard bold O {\displaystyle \mathbb {O} } \mathbb {O} . Octonions have eight dimensions; twice the number of dimensions of the quaternions, of which they are an extension. Along with the real numbers R, complex numbers C, and quaternions H, octonions complete the set of numbers capable of being added, subtracted, multiplied or divided; as such, they are believed by some researchers to have fundamental importance in physical theory. They are noncommutative and nonassociative, but satisfy a weaker form of associativity; namely, they are alternative. Octonions are not as well known as the quaternions and complex numbers, which are much more widely studied and used. Despite this, they have some interesting properties and are related to a number of exceptional structures in mathematics, among them the exceptional Lie groups. Additionally, octonions have applications in fields such as string theory, special relativity, and quantum logic. Applying the Cayley-Dickson construction to the octonions produces the sedenions.

Another Dimension is a belief that there are other series of planes of existence where the laws of nature differ. Almost all of the electromagnetic spectrum is invisible to us. And we didn't even know that it existed until recently. And the fact that we have no idea what 90% of outer space is made out of, is also an indicator of how little we know. Virtual Reality

Understanding Gravity: The Nano-Scale search for Extra Dimensions. Scientists use high-sensitivity experiments to probe exotic gravitational force. Scientists have used a pulsed slow neutron beamline to probe the deviation of the inverse square law of gravity below the wavelength of 0.1 nm. The experiment achieved the highest sensitivity for a neutron experiment demonstrated to date, and is a significant step toward determining whether the space we live in is really limited to the three dimensions most are familiar with.

New Class of 2D Artificial Materials using atoms in a ferroelectric-like metal that contains barium titanate, strontium titanate and lanthanum titanate.

Coordinate System is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of a point or other geometric element on a manifold such as Euclidean space. The order of the coordinates is significant, and they are sometimes identified by their position in an ordered tuple and sometimes by a letter, as in "the x-coordinate". The coordinates are taken to be real numbers in elementary mathematics, but may be complex numbers or elements of a more abstract system such as a commutative ring. The use of a coordinate system allows problems in geometry to be translated into problems about numbers and vice versa; this is the basis of analytic Geometry.

Celestial Coordinate System is a system for specifying positions of celestial objects: satellites, planets, stars, galaxies, and so on. Coordinate systems can specify an object's position in three-dimensional space or plot merely its direction on a celestial sphere, if the object's distance is unknown or trivial. The coordinate systems are implemented in either spherical or rectangular coordinates. Spherical coordinates, projected on the celestial sphere, are analogous to the geographic coordinate system used on the surface of Earth. These differ in their choice of fundamental plane, which divides the celestial sphere into two equal hemispheres along a great circle. Rectangular coordinates, in appropriate units, are simply the cartesian equivalent of the spherical coordinates, with the same fundamental (x, y) plane and primary (x-axis) direction. Each coordinate system is named after its choice of fundamental plane. Navigating Space.

Euclidean Space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces. It is named after the Ancient Greek mathematician Euclid of Alexandria. The term "Euclidean" distinguishes these spaces from other types of spaces considered in modern geometry. Euclidean spaces also generalize to higher dimensions. Every point in three-dimensional Euclidean space is determined by three coordinates.

Cartesian Coordinate System is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length. Each reference line is called a coordinate axis or just axis of the system, and the point where they meet is its origin, usually at ordered pair (0, 0). The coordinates can also be defined as the positions of the perpendicular projections of the point onto the two axis, expressed as signed distances from the origin.

There is no up or down in space, only coordinates, and you need at least 3 identifiable reference points to know where you are, and at least 6 identifiable reference points to know where you're going, and also have a way to accurately measure the distances between every reference point in space, which is really difficult when everything is moving. Space Travel.

Jones Diagram opposite directions of an axis represent different quantities, unlike in a Cartesian graph where they represent positive or negative signs of the same quantity. The Jones diagram therefore represents four variables. Each quadrant shares the vertical axis with its horizontal neighbor, and the horizontal axis with the vertical neighbor. For example, the top left quadrant shares its vertical axis with the top right quadrant, and the horizontal axis with the bottom left quadrant. The overall system response is in quadrant I; the variables that contribute to it are in quadrants II through IV.

Quadrant Plane The axes of a two-dimensional Cartesian system divide the plane into four infinite regions, called quadrants, each bounded by two half-axes.

Regular Grid is a tessellation of n-dimensional Euclidean space by congruent parallelotopes (e.g. bricks). Grids of this type appear on graph paper and may be used in finite element analysis as well as finite volume methods and finite difference methods. Since the derivatives of field variables can be conveniently expressed as finite differences, structured grids mainly appear in finite difference methods. Unstructured grids offer more flexibility than structured grids and hence are very useful in finite element and finite volume methods.

Grid Reference define locations on maps using Cartesian Coordinates. Grid lines on maps define the coordinate system, and are numbered to provide a unique reference to features.

Grid illusion is any kind of grid that deceives a person's vision. The two most common types of grid illusions are the Hermann grid illusion and the scintillating grid illusion. Grid Cell.

Spin - Trajectory - Action Physics - Relative?

Orientability is a property of surfaces in Euclidean space that measures whether it is possible to make a consistent choice of surface normal Vector at every point. A choice of surface normal allows one to use the right-hand rule to define a "clockwise" direction of loops in the surface, as needed by Stokes' theorem for instance. More generally, orientability of an abstract surface, or manifold, measures whether one can consistently choose a "clockwise" orientation for all loops in the manifold. Equivalently, a surface is orientable if a two-dimensional figure such as Small  in the space cannot be moved (continuously) around the space and back to where it started so that it looks like its own mirror image.

Flower of Life (symmetry) - Shapes

Four-Dimensional Physics in Two Dimensions. Light passing through a two-dimensional waveguide array that flows through the device behaves precisely according to the predictions of the four-dimensional quantum Hall effect.

Grassmannian is a space which parameterizes all linear subspaces of a vector space V of given dimension r. For example, the Grassmannian Gr(1, V) is the space of lines through the origin in V, so it is the same as the projective space of one dimension lower than V.

Amplituhedron enables simplified calculation of particle interactions in some quantum field theories. In planar N = 4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory, also equivalent to the perturbative topological B model string theory in twistor space, an amplituhedron is defined as a mathematical space known as the positive Grassmannian. Symmetry.

Riemannian Geometry is the branch of differential geometry that studies Riemannian manifolds, smooth manifolds with a Riemannian metric, i.e. with an inner product on the tangent space at each point that varies smoothly from point to point. This gives, in particular, local notions of angle, length of curves, surface area, and volume. From those some other global quantities can be derived by integrating local contributions.

Spatial Intelligence
Geometry
Structure Matrix
Holography
Measurements
Infinity



Magnetics


Electromagnetism is a branch of physics which involves the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force usually exhibits electromagnetic fields, such as electric fields, magnetic fields, and light. The electromagnetic force is one of the four fundamental interactions (commonly called forces) in nature. The other three fundamental interactions are the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and gravitation. Electrodynamics is the branch of mechanics concerned with the interaction of electric currents with magnetic fields or with other electric currents. Mechanics is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

What are Magnets?

Magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are controlled by that object's magnetic field. We live in a Magnetic Universe.

Earth's Magnetic Field (0.5 Gauss) - Sun Magnetic Field - Black Holes - Expansion Contraction

Tractor Beam is a device with the ability to attract one object to another from a distance.

Measuring Magnetism Tools - EMP

Earth Magnetic Field Electromagnetic Radiation is the radiant energy released by certain electromagnetic processes.

Visible Light is electromagnetic radiation, as is invisible light, such as radio, infrared, and X-rays. MRI.

Infrared is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore invisible, although it is sometimes loosely called infrared light. It extends from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz), to 1 mm (300 GHz) (although people can see infrared up to at least 1050 nm in experiments). Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared. Like all EMR, IR carries radiant energy, and behaves both like a wave and like its quantum particle, the photon. Measuring Infrared.

Magnetic Field is the magnetic effect of electric currents and magnetic materials. The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both a direction and a magnitude (or strength); as such it is a vector field. Interplanetary Magnetic Field is the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind among the planets of the Solar System.

Electromagnetic Field or EMF is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects. It affects the behavior of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. The electromagnetic field extends indefinitely throughout space and describes the electromagnetic interaction. It is one of the four fundamental forces of nature (the others are gravitation, weak interaction and strong interaction). The field can be viewed as the combination of an electric field and a magnetic field. The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges (currents); these two are often described as the sources of the field. The way in which charges and currents interact with the electromagnetic field is described by Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz force law. The force created by the electric field is much stronger than the force created by the magnetic field. From a classical perspective in the history of electromagnetism, the electromagnetic field can be regarded as a smooth, continuous field, propagated in a wavelike manner; whereas from the perspective of quantum field theory, the field is seen as quantized, being composed of individual particles. Electromotive Force - Gyroscopes.

Electric Field is a vector field that associates to each point in space the Coulomb force that would be experienced per unit of electric charge, by an infinitesimal test charge at that point. Electric fields converge and diverge at electric charges and can be induced by time-varying magnetic fields. The electric field combines with the magnetic field to form the electromagnetic field.

Electric Displacement Field is denoted by D, is a vector field that appears in Maxwell's equations. It accounts for the effects of free and bound charge within materials while its sources are the free charges only. "D" stands for "displacement", as in the related concept of displacement current in dielectrics. In free space, the electric displacement field is equivalent to flux density, a concept that lends understanding to Gauss's law. In SI, it is expressed in units of coulomb per metre squared (C m−2).

Magnetic Reconnection is a physical process in highly conducting plasmas in which the magnetic topology is rearranged and magnetic energy is converted to kinetic energy, thermal energy, and particle acceleration. Magnetic reconnection occurs on timescales intermediate between slow resistive diffusion of the magnetic field and fast Alfvénic timescales. The qualitative description of the reconnection process is such that magnetic field lines from different magnetic domains (defined by the field line connectivity) are spliced to one another, changing their patterns of connectivity with respect to the sources. It is a violation of an approximate conservation law in plasma physics, called the Alfvén's Theorem, and can concentrate mechanical or magnetic energy in both space and time. Solar flares, the largest explosions in the Solar System, may involve the reconnection of large
systems of magnetic flux on the Sun, releasing, in minutes, energy that has been stored in the magnetic field over a period of hours to days. Magnetic reconnection in Earth's magnetosphere is one of the mechanisms responsible for the aurora, and it is important to the science of controlled nuclear fusion because it is one mechanism preventing magnetic confinement of the fusion fuel. Magnetic reconnection refers to the breaking and reconnecting of oppositely directed magnetic field lines in a plasma. In the
process, magnetic field energy is converted to plasma kinetic and thermal energy. Reconnection is at the heart of many spectacular events in our solar system.

Discovering a previously unknown role for a source of Magnetic Fields

Biermann Battery is a process by which a weak seed magnetic field can be generated from zero initial conditions. The relative motion between electrons and ions is driven by rotation.

Vector Field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space. A vector field in the plane (for instance), can be visualised as: a collection of arrows with a given magnitude and direction, each attached to a point in the plane. Vector fields are often used to model, for example, the speed and direction of a moving fluid throughout space, or the strength and direction of some force, such as the magnetic or gravitational force, as it changes from point to point. Line of Force.

Magnonics is an emerging field of modern magnetism, which can be considered a sub-field of modern solid state physics. Magnonics combines waves and magnetism, its main aim is to investigate the behaviour of spin waves in nano-structure elements. In essence, spin waves are a propagating re-ordering of the Magnetisation in a material and arise from the precession of magnetic moments. Magnetic moments arise from the orbital and spin moments of the electron, most often it is this spin moment that contributes to the net magnetic moment, which is a quantity that represents the magnetic strength and orientation of a magnet or other object that produces a magnetic field.

Gravito-Magnetism Gravitoelectromagnetism refers to a set of formal analogies between the equations for electromagnetism and relativistic gravitation; specifically: between Maxwell's field equations and an approximation, valid under certain conditions, to the Einstein field equations for general relativity. Gravitomagnetism is a widely used term referring specifically to the kinetic effects of gravity, in analogy to the magnetic effects of moving electric charge. The most common version of GEM is valid only far from isolated sources, and for slowly moving test particles. Gravitomagnetic field H due to (total) angular momentum J.

Right Hand Rule Right-Hand Rule is a common mnemonic for understanding orientation conventions for vectors in three dimensions. Most of the various left and right-hand rules arise from the fact that the three axes of 3-dimensional space have two possible orientations. This can be seen by holding your hands outward and together, palms up, with the fingers curled. If the curl of your fingers represents a movement from the first or X axis to the second or Y axis then the third or Z axis can point either along your left thumb or right thumb. Left and right-hand rules arise when dealing with co-ordinate axes, rotation, spirals, electromagnetic fields, mirror images and enantiomers in mathematics and chemistry.

Meissner Effect is the expulsion of a magnetic field from a superconductor during its transition to the superconducting state. In the presence of an applied magnetic field, were cooled below their superconducting transition temperature, whereupon the samples cancelled nearly all interior magnetic fields. They detected this effect only indirectly because the magnetic flux is conserved by a superconductor: when the interior field decreases, the exterior field increases. The experiment demonstrated for the first time that superconductors were more than just perfect conductors and provided a uniquely defining property of the superconductor state. Rotating Super Conductor (feral fluid cooled for zero friction) 60,000 rpm). Anti Gravity

Flux is a vector quantity, describing the magnitude and direction of the flow of a substance or property. In electromagnetism, flux is a scalar quantity, defined as the surface integral of the component of a vector field perpendicular to the surface at each point. As will be made clear, the easiest way to relate the two concepts is that the surface integral of a flux according to the first definition is a flux according to the second definition. Magnetic Flux through a surface is the surface integral of the normal component of the magnetic field B passing through that surface. Compressed Magnetic Flux Generator is a generator device of compressed magnetic flux.

Dielectric is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field. When a dielectric is placed in an electric field, electric charges do not flow through the material as they do in a conductor, but only slightly shift from their average equilibrium positions causing dielectric polarization. Because of dielectric polarization, positive charges are displaced toward the field and negative charges shift in the opposite direction. This creates an internal electric field that reduces the overall field within the dielectric itself. If a dielectric is composed of weakly bonded molecules, those molecules not only become polarized, but also reorient so that their symmetry axes align to the field.

Electromagnetic Induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor due to its dynamic interaction with a magnetic field.

Action physics - Why don't magnets have an electrical charge?

Maxwell's Equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits. They underpin all electric, optical and radio technologies, including power generation, electric motors, wireless communication, cameras, televisions, computers etc. Maxwell's equations describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated by charges, currents, and changes of each other. One important consequence of the equations is that they demonstrate how fluctuating electric and magnetic fields propagate at the speed of light. Known as electromagnetic radiation, these waves may occur at various wavelengths to produce a spectrum from radio waves to γ-rays.

Faraday's Law of Induction is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF)—a phenomenon called electromagnetic induction. It is the fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators and solenoids.

Solenoid is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix. A coil whose length is substantially greater than its diameter, often wrapped around a metallic core, which produces a uniform magnetic field in a volume of space (where some experiment might be carried out) when an electric current is passed through it. A solenoid is a type of electromagnet when the purpose is to generate a controlled magnetic field. If the purpose of the solenoid is instead to impede changes in the electric current, a solenoid can be more specifically classified as an inductor rather than an electromagnet. Not all electromagnets and inductors are solenoids; for example, the first electromagnet, invented in 1824, had a horseshoe rather than a cylindrical solenoid shape.

Lenz's Law is a common way to understand how electromagnetic circuits obey Newton's third law and the conservation of energy. An induced electromotive force (emf) always gives rise to a current whose magnetic field opposes the original change in magnetic flux. Lenz's law is shown with the negative sign in Faraday's law of induction:
 Lenzs law which indicates that the induced emf (ℰ) and the change in magnetic flux (∂ΦB) have opposite signs.
8.02x - Lect 16 - Electromagnetic Induction, Faraday's Law, Lenz Law, SUPER DEMO (youtube) - Fusion.

Copper's Surprising Reaction to Strong Magnets | Force Field Motion Dampening (youtube) Experiment with Lenz's Law And Faraday's Law of Induction to generate electricity and magnetic force fields in copper. Anti-Gravity.

Permittivity is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a medium. In other words, permittivity is a measure of how an electric field affects, and is affected by, a dielectric medium.

Permeability (electromagnetism) is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field within itself. Hence, it is the degree of magnetization that a material obtains in response to an applied magnetic field.

Polarization in waves is a parameter applying to waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillation. Electromagnetic waves such as light exhibit multiple polarizations, as do many other types of waves such as gravitational waves and sound waves in solids. On the other hand, sound waves in a gas or liquid only oscillate in the wave's direction of propagation, and the oscillation of ocean waves is always in the vertical direction. In these cases one doesn't normally speak of "polarization" since the oscillation's direction is not in question.

Coherence is when two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency. It is an ideal property of waves that enables stationary (i.e. temporally and spatially constant) interference.

Interference in wave propagation is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.

Polarizability s the ability to form instantaneous dipoles. It is a property of matter. Polarizabilities determine the dynamical response of a bound system to external fields, and provide insight into a molecule's internal structure. In a solid, polarizability is defined as the dipole moment per unit volume of the crystal cell. LCR meters give the measurements needed to calculate polarizability.

Dipole is an electric dipole is a separation of positive and negative charges. The simplest example of this is a pair of electric charges of equal magnitude but opposite sign, separated by some (usually small) distance. A permanent electric dipole is called an electret. A magnetic dipole is a closed circulation of electric current. A simple example of this is a single loop of wire with some constant current through it.

Electric Dipole Moment is a measure of the separation of positive and negative electrical charges within a system, that is, a measure of the system's overall polarity. The electric field strength of the dipole is proportional to the magnitude of dipole moment. The SI units for electric dipole moment are Coulomb-meter (C m), however the most commonly used unit is the Debye (D).

Magnetic Monopole is a hypothetical elementary particle in particle physics that is an isolated magnet with only one magnetic pole (a north pole without a south pole or vice versa).

Magnet Types


Magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field. This magnetic field is invisible but is responsible for the most notable property of a magnet: a force that pulls on other ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, and attracts or repels other magnets. Child Dangers: Between 2002 and 2011, there were over 22,500 magnet-related injuries in those under 21. Most were from swallowing them, but 21 percent were nose-related.

Rare-Earth Magnet are strong permanent magnets made from alloys of rare-earth elements (elements in the lanthanide series, plus scandium and yttrium).

Permanent Magnet is an object made from a material that is magnetized and creates its own persistent magnetic field. Permanent magnet is a magnet that retains its magnetic properties in the absence of an inducing field or current.

Temporary magnets are those which act like a permanent magnet when they are within a strong magnetic field, but lose their magnetism when the magnetic field disappears.

Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields. Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other currents and magnetic moments. Every material is influenced to some extent by a magnetic field. The most familiar effect is on permanent magnets, which have persistent magnetic moments caused by ferromagnetism, which is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.

Gauss's Law for Magnetism states that the magnetic field B has divergence equal to zero, that it is a solenoidal vector field. It is equivalent to the statement that magnetic monopoles do not exist. Rather than "magnetic charges", the basic entity for magnetism is the magnetic dipole, which is the limit of either a closed loop of electric current or a pair of poles as the dimensions of the source are reduced to zero while keeping the magnetic moment constant.

Magnetic Susceptibility is one measure of the magnetic properties of a material. The susceptibility indicates whether a material is attracted into or repelled out of a magnetic field, which in turn has implications for practical applications. Quantitative measures of the magnetic susceptibility also provide insights into the structure of materials, providing insight into bonding and energy levels.

Ferrimagnetism material is one that has populations of atoms with opposing magnetic moments, as in antiferromagnetism; however, in ferrimagnetic materials, the opposing moments are unequal and a Spontaneous Magnetization remains. This happens when the populations consist of different materials or ions (such as Fe2+ and Fe3+).

Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets and stick together. Only a few substances are ferromagnetic. The common ones are iron, nickel, cobalt and most of their alloys, some compounds of rare earth metals, and a few naturally occurring minerals, including some varieties of lodestone (magnetite is considered ferrimagnetic, rather than ferromagnetic). Making Ferro-Magnets Stronger by adding Non-Magnetic Element.

Reflecting Antiferromagnetic Arrangements. An X-ray imaging technique could help scientists understand -- and ultimately
control -- the magnetic structure of promising materials for the development of electronic devices that exploit electron spin.

Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field. (attracts but does not come in contact or stick.)

Diamagnetism materials create an induced magnetic field in a direction opposite to an externally applied magnetic field, and are repelled by the applied magnetic field. In contrast, the opposite behavior is exhibited by paramagnetic materials. (Silver and Gold).

Antiferromagnetism the magnetic moments of atoms or molecules, usually related to the spins of electrons, align in a regular pattern with neighboring spins (on different sublattices) pointing in opposite directions.

Neodymium Magnet is a type of rare-earth magnet, is a permanent magnet made from an alloy of neodymium, iron and boron to form the Nd2Fe14B tetragonal crystalline structure. Nodymium Rare Earth Block Magnet.

Amazing Magnets - Aec Magnetics

Electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current. The magnetic field disappears when the current is turned off. Electromagnets usually consist of insulated wire wound into a coil. A current through the wire creates a magnetic field which is concentrated in the hole in the center of the coil. The wire turns are often wound around a magnetic core made from a ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic material such as iron; the magnetic core concentrates the magnetic flux and makes a more powerful magnet. The main advantage of an electromagnet over a permanent magnet is that the magnetic field can be quickly changed by controlling the amount of electric current in the winding. However, unlike a permanent magnet that needs no power, an electromagnet requires a continuous supply of current to maintain the magnetic field. Electromagnets are widely used as components of other electrical devices, such as motors, generators, relays, loudspeakers, hard disks, MRI machines, scientific instruments, and magnetic separation equipment. Electromagnets are also employed in industry for picking up and moving heavy iron objects such as scrap iron and steel.

Strongest Magnet in the World. The strongest magnet ever build is 22-foot tall and weights 34 tons. It was built in a research lab in Tallahassee and it produces a magnetic field of at least 45 Tesla. To understand how powerful this is you have to know that the strength of a magnetic field is measured in Gauss (G) or Tesla (T). National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (MagLab)

Samarium Cobalt Magnet is a type of rare earth magnet, is a strong permanent magnet made of an alloy of samarium and cobalt.

Alnico is a family of iron alloys which in addition to iron are composed primarily of aluminium (Al), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co), hence al-ni-co. They also include copper, and sometimes titanium. Alnico alloys are ferromagnetic, with a high coercivity (resistance to loss of magnetism) and are used to make permanent magnets. Before the development of rare-earth magnets in the 1970s, they were the strongest type of permanent magnet.

Ferrite Magnet is a type of ceramic compound composed of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3) combined chemically with one or more additional metallic elements. They are both electrically nonconductive and ferrimagnetic, meaning they can be magnetized or attracted to a magnet. Ferrites can be divided into two families based on their magnetic coercivity, their resistance to being demagnetized. Hard ferrites have high coercivity, hence they are difficult to demagnetize. They are used to make magnets, for devices such as refrigerator magnets, loudspeakers and small electric motors. Soft ferrites have low coercivity. They are used in the electronics industry to make ferrite cores for inductors and transformers, and in various microwave components. Ferrite compounds have extremely low cost, being made of iron oxide (i.e. rusted iron), and also have excellent corrosion resistance. They are very stable and difficult to demagnetize, and can be made with both high and low coercive forces.

Atomically Thin Magnets. Researchers have become the first to control atomically thin magnets with an electric field, a breakthrough that provides a blueprint for producing exceptionally powerful and efficient data storage in computer chips, among other applications. (Two-dimensional chromium-triiodide magnets)

Single-Molecule Magnet are a class of metalorganic compounds that show superparamagnetic behavior below a certain blocking temperature at the molecular scale. In this temperature range, SMMs exhibit magnetic hysteresis of purely molecular origin. Contrary to conventional bulk magnets and molecule-based magnets, collective long-range magnetic ordering of magnetic moments is not necessary.

2-D Platinum Magnet. University of Groningen physicists have induced magnetism in platinum with an electric field created by a paramagnetic ionic liquid. As only the surface of the platinum is affected, this creates a switchable 2D ferromagnet.

Degaussing is the process of decreasing or eliminating a remnant magnetic field.

Lodestone is a naturally magnetized piece of the mineral magnetite. They are naturally-occurring magnets, which can attract iron.

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars, where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova, which scatters the iron into space. Iron Oxide are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen. All together, there are sixteen known iron oxides and oxyhydroxides. Iron (III) Chloride is an industrial scale commodity chemical compound, with the formula FeCl3 and with iron in the +3 oxidation state. The colour of iron(III) chloride crystals depends on the viewing angle: by reflected light the crystals appear dark green, but by transmitted light they appear purple-red. Anhydrous iron(III) chloride is
deliquescent, forming hydrated hydrogen chloride mists in moist air. It is rarely observed in its natural form, the mineral molysite, known mainly from some fumaroles.

Magnetite is a mineral and one of the main iron ores. With the chemical formula is Fe3O4, it is one of the oxides of iron. Magnetite is ferrimagnetic; it is attracted to a magnet and can be magnetized to become a permanent magnet itself.

Tetrataenite is a native metal found in meteorites with the composition FeNi. It is one of the mineral phases found in meteoric iron.

Rock Magnetism is the study of the magnetic properties of rocks, sediments and soils.

Exotic Elements vs. Magnet | Part 5/5 | Platinum Group! (youtube)
Professor Eric Laithwaite: The Circle of Magnetism - 1968 (youtube) - Imperial College London demonstrates some of the
most difficult concepts in electricity & magnetism.

Magnetic Domain is a region within a magnetic material in which the magnetization is in a uniform direction. This means that the individual magnetic moments of the atoms are aligned with one another and they point in the same direction.

Magnetic Moment of a magnet is a quantity that determines the torque it will experience in an external magnetic field. A loop of electric current, a bar magnet, an electron, a molecule, and a planet all have magnetic moments. The magnetic moment may be considered to be a vector having a magnitude and direction. The direction of the magnetic moment points from the south to north pole of the magnet. The magnetic field produced by the magnet is proportional to its magnetic moment. More precisely, the term magnetic moment normally refers to a system's magnetic dipole moment, which produces the first term in the multipole expansion of a general magnetic field. The dipole component of an object's magnetic field is symmetric about the direction of its magnetic dipole moment, and decreases as the inverse cube of the distance from the object.

Bio-Electromagnetism is the study of the interaction between electromagnetic fields and biological entities.

The DEEPEST Secrets of Magnetism, first time explained & CENTER OF LIGHT at the Inertia Plane (youtube)

Ferrofluid is a liquid that becomes strongly magnetized in the presence of a magnetic field.(portmanteau of ferromagnetic and fluid). Ferrocell Complete Systems

Monster Magnet meets Magnetic Fluid..Neodymium Magnet and Ferrofluid (youtube)

Spirograph is a geometric drawing toy that produces mathematical roulette curves of the variety technically known as hypotrochoids and epitrochoids.

Hypotrochoid Circle Torus - Black Holes

Toroflux 3D Flow Ring Kinectic Spring (amazon)

Hyperboloid is a surface that may be generated by rotating a hyperbola around one of its principal axes. A hyperboloid is a surface that may be obtained from a paraboloid of revolution by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation. A hyperboloid is a quadric surface, that is a surface that may be defined as the zero set of a polynomial of degree two in three variables. Among quadric surfaces, a hyperboloid is characterized by not being a cone or a cylinder, having a center of symmetry, and intersecting many planes into hyperbolas. A hyperboloid has also three pairwise perpendicular axes of symmetry, and three pairwise perpendicular planes of symmetry.

Hypotrochoid is a roulette traced by a point attached to a circle of radius r rolling around the inside of a fixed circle of radius R, where the point is a distance d from the center of the interior circle.

Field in mathematics is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers. A field is thus a fundamental algebraic structure, which is widely used in algebra, number theory and many other areas of mathematics.

Algebraic Structure is a set (called carrier set or underlying set) with one or more finitary operations defined on it that satisfies a list of axioms. Examples of algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, and lattices. More complex structures can be defined by introducing multiple operations, different underlying sets, or by altering the defining axioms. Examples of more complex algebraic structures include vector spaces, modules, and algebras.

Topology is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing. This can be studied by considering a collection of subsets, called open sets, that satisfy certain properties, turning the given set into what is known as a topological space. Important topological properties include connectedness and compactness.

Algebraic Topology is a branch of mathematics that uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces. The basic goal is to find algebraic invariants that classify topological spaces up to homeomorphism, though usually most classify up to homotopy equivalence.

Topological Space is defined as a set of points, along with a set of neighbourhoods for each point, satisfying a set of axioms relating points and neighbourhoods. The definition of a topological space relies only upon set theory and is the most general notion of a mathematical space that allows for the definition of concepts such as continuity, connectedness, and convergence. Other spaces, such as manifolds and metric spaces, are specializations of topological spaces with extra structures or constraints.

Topological Property is a property of a topological space which is invariant under homeomorphisms. Shapes.

Synthetic Magnetic State in Solids JILA’s record-setting atomic clock, in which strontium atoms are trapped in a laser grid known as an optical lattice.

Magnetorheological Fluid is a type of smart fluid in a carrier fluid, usually a type of oil. When subjected to a magnetic field, the fluid greatly increases its apparent viscosity, to the point of becoming a viscoelastic solid. Importantly, the yield stress of the fluid when in its active ("on") state can be controlled very accurately by varying the magnetic field intensity. The upshot is that the fluid's ability to transmit force can be controlled with an electromagnet, which gives rise to its many possible control-based applications.

North Pole Spins Counter Clock Wise causing Matter to Contract.
Earth's Rotation is Counter Clock Wise.
South Pole Energy Spins Clock Wise and causes matter to Expand.

The Truth About Toilet Swirl - Northern Hemisphere (youtube)
ENLIGHTENED MAGNETISM, PART 1 (youtube)

Electrical Polarity (positive and negative) is the term used to describe the direction of current flow in an electrical circuit. Current flows from the positive pole to the negative pole. (electrons flows from negative to positive. Dipole.

Polarity mutual inductance for a device with mutual inductance designates the relative instantaneous current directions of such device's winding leads.

Chemical Polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.

Video 1 Uncovering the Missing Secrets of Magnetism (video channel)
"Quartz" crystals at the Earth's core power its Magnetic Field

Superconductor is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

Research reveals novel quantum state in strange insulating materials. Experiments show how electrons in Mott insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling arrange themselves to make the materials magnetic at low temperatures. The work could help zero in on a more complete quantum theory of magnetism.

Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electrical Generator

Extremely Low Frequency is the ITU designation for electromagnetic radiation (radio waves) with frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz, and corresponding wavelengths of 100,000 to 10,000 kilometers, respectively. In atmospheric science, an alternative definition is usually given, from 3 Hz to 3 kHz. In the related magnetosphere science, the lower frequency electromagnetic oscillations (pulsations occurring below ~3 Hz) are considered to lie in the ULF range, which is thus also defined differently from the ITU radio bands.

Radiation

Electronic Warfare - Effects of Nuclear Explosions

Edward Leedskalnin Magnetic Current Research
Edward Leedskalnin (January 12, 1887 – December 7, 1951)

Electricity - Light

Ley Line are apparent alignments of land forms, places of ancient religious significance or culture, often including man-made structures. They are ancient, straight 'paths' or routes in the landscape which are believed to have spiritual significance.

Tuned Mass Damper also known as a harmonic absorber, is a device mounted in structures to reduce the amplitude of mechanical vibrations. Their application can prevent discomfort, damage, or outright structural failure. They are frequently used in power transmission, automobiles, and buildings.

Neural Oscillation is rhythmic or repetitive neural activity in the central nervous system.  Neural tissue can generate oscillatory activity in many ways, driven either by mechanisms within individual neurons or by interactions between neurons. In individual neurons, oscillations can appear either as oscillations in membrane potential or as rhythmic patterns of action potentials, which then produce oscillatory activation of post-synaptic neurons. At the level of neural ensembles, synchronized activity of large numbers of neurons can give rise to macroscopic oscillations, which can be observed in an electroencephalogram. Oscillatory activity in groups of neurons generally arises from feedback connections between the neurons that result in the synchronization of their firing patterns. The interaction between neurons can give rise to oscillations at a different frequency than the firing frequency of individual neurons. A well-known example of macroscopic neural oscillations is alpha activity.

Phase-Locked Loop is a control system that generates an output signal whose phase is related to the phase of an input signal.

Dirac Equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928. In its free form, or including electromagnetic interactions, it describes all spin-1/2 massive particles such as electrons and quarks for which parity is a symmetry. It is consistent with both the principles of quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity, and was the first theory to account fully for special relativity in the context of quantum mechanics. It was validated by accounting for the fine details of the hydrogen spectrum in a completely rigorous way.

Gravity

Michelson-Morley Experiment was performed over the spring and summer of 1887 by Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley at what is now Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, and published in November of the same year. It compared the speed of light in perpendicular directions, in an attempt to detect the relative motion of matter through the stationary luminiferous aether ("aether wind"). The result was negative, in that the expected difference between the speed of light in the direction of movement through the presumed aether, and the speed at right angles, was found not to exist; this result is generally considered to be the first strong evidence against the then-prevalent aether theory, and initiated a line of research that eventually led to special relativity, which rules out a stationary aether. The experiment has been referred to as "the moving-off point for the theoretical aspects of the Second Scientific Revolution"

Large Underground Xenon experiment (LUX) aims to directly detect weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter interactions with ordinary matter on Earth. Despite the wealth of (gravitational) evidence supporting the existence of non-baryonic dark matter in the Universe, dark matter particles in our galaxy have never been directly detected in an experiment. LUX utilizes a 370 kg liquid xenon detection mass in a time-projection chamber (TPC) to identify individual particle interactions, searching for faint dark matter interactions with unprecedented sensitivity.

Measuring Electromagnetic Radiation
NGC1624-2 Magnetosphere Compared Solar System Geomagnetic Storm is a temporary disturbance of the Earth's magnetosphere caused by a solar wind shock wave and/or cloud of magnetic field that interacts with the Earth's magnetic field. The increase in the solar wind pressure initially compresses the magnetosphere. The solar wind's magnetic field interacts with the Earth’s magnetic field and transfers an increased energy into the magnetosphere. Both interactions cause an increase in plasma movement through the magnetosphere (driven by increased electric fields inside the magnetosphere) and an increase in electric current in the magnetosphere and ionosphere.

Bose-Einstein Condensate is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero. Under such conditions, a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, at which point microscopic quantum phenomena, particularly wavefunction interference, become apparent. A BEC is formed by cooling a gas of extremely low density, about one-hundred-thousandth the density of normal air, to ultra-low temperatures.

Coherence two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency. It is an ideal property of waves that enables stationary (i.e. temporally and spatially constant) interference. It contains several distinct concepts, which are limiting cases that never quite occur in reality but allow an understanding of the physics of waves, and has become a very important concept in quantum physics. More generally, coherence describes all properties of the correlation between physical quantities of a single wave, or between several waves or wave packets.

Phase Waves is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle. A complete cycle is defined as the interval required for the waveform to return to its arbitrary initial value.

Frequencies

Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.

Spectral Density is any signal that can be represented as an amplitude that varies in time has a corresponding frequency spectrum. This includes familiar entities such as visible light (perceived as color), musical notes (perceived as pitch), radio/TV (specified by their frequency, or sometimes wavelength) and even the regular rotation of the earth.

Harmonic in its strictest sense describes any member of the harmonic series. The term is employed in various disciplines, including music and acoustics, electronic power transmission, radio technology, etc. It is typically applied to repeating signals, such as sinusoidal waves. A harmonic of such a wave is a wave with a frequency that is a positive integer multiple of the frequency of the original wave, known as the fundamental frequency. The original wave is also called 1st harmonic, the following harmonics are known as higher harmonics. As all harmonics are periodic at the fundamental frequency, the sum of harmonics is also periodic at that frequency. For example, if the fundamental frequency is 50 Hz, a common AC power supply frequency, the frequencies of the first three higher harmonics are 100 Hz (2nd harmonic), 150 Hz (3rd harmonic), 200 Hz (4th harmonic) and any addition of waves with these frequencies is periodic at 50 Hz.
Right Hand Rule
Resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at a specific preferential frequency.
Sound

Overtone is any frequency greater than the fundamental frequency of a sound.

Impedance of Free Space is a physical constant relating the magnitudes of the electric and magnetic fields of electromagnetic radiation travelling through free space.

Amazing Resonance Experiment over 1000hz (youtube) - Vibrate Metal plate using a Tone Generator.

Tone Generator can play four different waveforms: Sine, Square, Sawtooth and Triangle.

Function Generator
Electromagnetic Field Wave
Lavitrón la magia de los imanes (youtube)
Logarithm
Heliosphere

The Electric Universe - HD Documentary 2015 (youtube)
Primer Fields
Magnetoquasistatic Field
Magnetic Field Emitter

Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission (NSSA)
Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (wiki)

What is Space made of?

3D Model of Electric dipole Logarithmics Volume Conduction a term used in bio-electro-magnetism, can be defined as the transmission of electric or magnetic fields from an electric primary current source through biological tissue towards measurement sensors.

Bioelectromagnetics is the study of the interaction between electromagnetic fields and biological entities. Areas of study include electrical or electromagnetic fields produced by living cells, tissues or organisms, including bioluminescent bacteria; for example, the cell membrane potential and the electric currents that flow in nerves and muscles, as a result of action potentials. Others include animal navigation utilizing the geomagnetic field; potential effects of man-made sources of electromagnetic fields like mobile phones; and developing new therapies to treat various conditions. The term can also refer to the ability of living cells, tissues, and organisms to produce electrical fields and the response of cells to electromagnetic fields.

Biomagnetism is the phenomenon of magnetic fields produced by living organisms; it is a subset of bioelectromagnetism. In contrast, organisms' use of magnetism in navigation is magnetoception and the study of the magnetic fields' effects on organisms is magnetobiology.

Biofields List (wiki)

Team Maps Magnetic Fields of Bacterial Cells, Nano-objects for the first time

Star Fish Larva Magnetic Field Passive Electrolocation in Fish is a process where certain species of fish or aquatic amphibians can detect electric fields using specialized electroreceptors to detect and to locate the source of an external electric field in its environment creating the electric field. These external electric fields can be produced from animate sources such as: DC fields produced by any bioelectrical process in a living organism. DC fields produced from wounded or damaged organism. Electric fields produced by actions of the nerves or muscles of fish. Electric fields emitted by specially developed electric organs from fish or to inanimate sources such as the electric fields induced by movement of a conducting organism through the earth's magnetic field, or from atmospheric electricity. These external fields the fish identifies are low or high frequency, weak electric signals that the fish uses to detect prey, locate other fish, avoid predators, and navigate in the Earth’s magnetic field.

Animals that Navigate using Magnetism

Magnetoception is the ability to detect magnetic fields, which is principally useful in providing a sense of direction when detecting the Earth’s magnetic field. Unlike most birds, humans do not have a strong magentoception, however, experiments have demonstrated that we do tend to have some sense of magnetic fields. The mechanism for this is not completely understood; it is theorized that this has something to do with deposits of ferric iron in our noses. This would make sense if that is correct as humans who are given magnetic implants have been shown to have a much stronger magnetoception than humans without. Fast Triplet, the triplet referring to the spin state of the electron pair.

Magnetic Sense of Birds - Compass (navigation)

Cryptochrome are a class of flavoproteins that are sensitive to blue light. They are found in plants and animals. Cryptochromes are involved in the circadian rhythms of plants and animals, and possibly also in the sensing of magnetic fields in a number of species. The name cryptochrome was proposed as a portmanteau combining the cryptic nature of the photoreceptor, and the cryptogamic organisms on which many blue-light studies were carried out.

Flavoprotein are proteins that contain a nucleic acid derivative of riboflavin that are involved in a wide array of biological processes, including, but by no means limited to, bioluminescence, removal of radicals contributing to oxidative stress, photosynthesis, DNA repair, and apoptosis. The spectroscopic properties of the flavin cofactor make it a natural reporter for changes occurring within the active site; this makes flavoproteins one of the most-studied enzyme families.

Cry4 protein belongs to a group of proteins called cryptochromes. Normally they regulate the biological clock, but have also been considered significant for the magnetic sense. Cry4 is an ideal magnetoreceptor as the level of the protein in the eyes is constant.

Animal Navigation is the ability of many animals to find their way accurately without maps or instruments. Birds such as the Arctic tern, insects such as the monarch butterfly and fish such as the salmon regularly migrate thousands of miles to and from their breeding grounds, and many other species navigate effectively over shorter distances.

Jual Magnet - Toko Magnet

Fermi Lab - Higgs Boson - T-Shirts

Electromagnetic Fields and the Human Heart

Human Body Magnetic Field


Gravity


Gravitation is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought toward (or gravitate toward or Magnetism) one another, including planets, stars and galaxies. Since energy and mass are equivalent, all forms of energy, including light, also cause gravitation and are under the influence of it.

Gravity will accelerate any object at a rate of 32 feet per second per second. (fps 2 ).

Newton Universal Gravitation Gravitational Constant is an empirical physical constant involved in the calculation of gravitational effects in Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation and in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. Its measured value is approximately 6.674×10−11 m3⋅kg−1⋅s−2. (also known as the universal gravitational constant, or as Newton's constant, denoted by the letter G).

Magnetism - Anti-Gravity

Equations for a falling body describes the resultant trajectories when objects move owing to a constant gravitational force under normal Earth-bound conditions. For example, Newton's law of universal gravitation simplifies to F = mg, where m is the mass of the body. This assumption is reasonable for objects falling to earth over the relatively short vertical distances of our everyday experience, but is untrue over larger distances, such as spacecraft trajectories. Please note that in this article any resistance from air (drag) is neglected.

A Rocket needs to travel 11 kilometers (7 miles) per second, or over 40,000 kilometers per hour (25,000 miles per hour), to enter Low Earth Orbit. Then you would need to travel 370,000 miles or 600,000 kilometers from the Earth in order to be free from Earths Gravitational Pull.  Then you would need to travel 39.5 astronomical units or 3,670,050,000 miles or 5,906,380,000 kilometers from the Suns Magnetic pull far beyond the orbit of Pluto.

Escape Velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body. The escape velocity from Earth is about 11.186 km/s (6.951 mi/s; 40,270 km/h; 25,020 mph) at the surface. More generally, escape velocity is the speed at which the sum of an object's kinetic energy and its gravitational potential energy is equal to zero; an object which has achieved escape velocity is neither on the surface, nor in a closed orbit (of any radius). With escape velocity in a direction pointing away from the ground of a massive body, the object will move away from the body, slowing forever and approaching, but never reaching, zero speed. Once escape velocity is achieved, no further impulse need be applied for it to continue in its escape. In other words, if given escape velocity, the object will move away from the other body, continually slowing, and will asymptotically approach zero speed as the object's distance approaches infinity, never to return. Note that the minimum escape velocity assumes that there is no friction (e.g., atmospheric drag), which would increase the required instantaneous velocity to escape the gravititational influence, and that there will be no future sources of additional velocity (e.g., thrust), which would reduce the required instantaneous velocity.

Standard Gravity is the nominal gravitational acceleration of an object in a vacuum near the surface of the Earth. It is defined by standard as 9.80665 m/s2, which is exactly 35.30394 km/(h·s) (about 32.174 ft/s2, or 21.937 mph/s).

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe using a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

General Relativity generalizes special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime. In particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present. The relation is specified by the Einstein field equations, a system of partial differential equations.

Micro-G Environment a synonym of weightlessness and zero-g, but indicates that g-forces are not quite zero, just very small.

Zero Gravity does not exist (very low gravity)

G-Force is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes weight.

Zero-G Experiments on Earth: The Bremen Drop Tower (youtube)
The Bremen Drop Tower

Gravity is 0.1% stronger in the northern United States than in the southern United States. 

Orthometric Height of a point is the distance H along a plumb line from the point to the geoid, which is the shape that the surface of the oceans would take under the influence of Earth's gravity and rotation alone, in the absence of other influences such as winds and tides.

Gravitational Wave are ripples in the curvature of spacetime that propagate as waves at the speed of light, generated in certain gravitational interactions that propagate outward from their source.

Gravitational Energy s the gravitational potential energy a body with mass has in relation to another massive object. It is potential energy associated with the gravitational field. Gravitational energy is dependent on the masses of two bodies, their distance apart and the gravitational constant (G).

Gravitational Lens is a distribution of matter (such as a cluster of galaxies) between a distant light source and an observer, that is capable of bending the light from the source as the light travels towards the observer.

Einstein Field Equations is the set of 10 equations in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity that describes the fundamental interaction of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by mass and energy.

Field Equation is a partial differential equation which determines the dynamics of a physical field, specifically the time evolution and spatial distribution of the field. The solutions to the equation are mathematical functions which correspond directly to the field, as a functions of time and space. Since the field equation is a partial differential equation, there are families of solutions which represent a variety of physical possibilities. Usually, there is not just a single equation, but a set of coupled equations which must be solved simultaneously. Field equations are not ordinary differential equations since a field depends on space and time, which requires at least two variables.

Inverse-Square Law is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.

Gravitation Physics Book (amazon)

General Relativity generalizes special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime.

Equivalence Principle is any of several related concepts dealing with the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and to Albert Einstein's observation that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth) is actually the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.

Quantum Gravity is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.


Anti-Gravity


Anti-Gravity is an idea of creating a place or object that is free from the force of gravity.

Levitation is the process by which an object is held aloft, without mechanical support, in a stable position. Levitation is accomplished by providing an upward force that counteracts the pull of gravity (in relation to gravity on earth), plus a smaller stabilizing force that pushes the object toward a home position whenever it is a small distance away from that home position. The force can be a fundamental force such as magnetic or electrostatic, or it can be a reactive force such as optical, buoyant, aerodynamic, or hydrodynamic. Levitation excludes floating at the surface of a liquid because the liquid provides direct mechanical support. Levitation excludes hovering flight by insects, hummingbirds, helicopters, rockets, and balloons because the object provides its own counter-gravity force. Gyroscopes - Vacuum.

Superconducting Quantum Levitation on a 3 Möbius Strip (youtube)

Levitating a Superconductor: Boaz Almog (video and interactive text) How can a super-thin 3-inch disk levitate something 70,000 times its own weight?

Anti-Gravity Project - Jeff Lucas Astrophotographer - Published on Oct 26, 2018 (youtube) - Lenz's, Ohm's Law and Nikola Tesla about how I think anti-gravity works. When it comes to building anti-gravity, everyone is building it wrong, its upside down, its not the number of magnets, it how much E = I/R ~ direct current you can apply to magnets to create levitation repulsive force, polarities e.g. North to North, South to South.

Meissner Effect - Gravito - Gravito-Electromagnetism

Quantum Levitation Kits - Meta-Materials

Scientists Levitate Particles with Sound to find out how they cluster together. Scientists have used sound waves to levitate particles, revealing new insights about how materials cluster together in the absence of gravity -- principles which underlie everything from how molecules assemble to the very early stages of planet formation from space dust.

Magnetic Levitation is a method by which an object is suspended with no support other than magnetic fields. Magnetic force is used to counteract the effects of the gravitational acceleration and any other accelerations. The two primary issues involved in magnetic levitation are lifting forces: providing an upward force sufficient to counteract gravity, and stability: ensuring that the system does not spontaneously slide or flip into a configuration where the lift is neutralized. Magnetic levitation is used for maglev trains, contactless melting, magnetic bearings and for product display purposes.

Spin-Stabilized Magnetic Levitation is a phenomenon of magnetic levitation whereby a spinning magnet or array of magnets is levitated via magnetic forces above another magnet or array of magnets, and stabilised by gyroscopic effect due to a spin that is neither too fast, nor too slow to allow for a necessary precession.

Levitron is a brand of levitating toys and gifts in science and educational markets.

United States Gravity Control Propulsion Research publicized goals were to develop and discover technologies and theories for the manipulation of gravity or gravity-like fields for propulsion. (anti-gravity, anti-gravitation, baricentric, counterbary, electrogravitics (eGrav), G-projects, gravitics, gravity control, and gravity propulsion). Space Travel.

Halbach Array is a special arrangement of permanent magnets that augments the magnetic field on one side of the array while cancelling the field to near zero on the other side. This is achieved by having a spatially rotating pattern of magnetisation. The rotating pattern of permanent magnets (on the front face; on the left, up, right, down) can be continued indefinitely and have the same effect. The effect of this arrangement is roughly similar to many horseshoe magnets placed adjacent to each other, with similar poles touching.

Gravitational Singularity is a location in space-time where the gravitational field of a celestial body becomes infinite in a way that does not depend on the coordinate system.

Quantum Gravity is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe the force of gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored. Quantum Gravity.

Casimir Effect is physical forces arising from a quantized field.

Loop Quantum Gravity is a theory that attempts to describe the quantum properties of the universe and gravity. It is also a theory of quantum spacetime because, according to general relativity, gravity is a manifestation of the geometry of spacetime. LQG is an attempt to merge quantum mechanics and general relativity.

Speed of Gravity refers to the speed of a gravitational wave, which is the same speed as the speed of light.

Quantum Entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated or interact in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the others, even when the particles are separated by a large distance – instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole. Connectedness.

Quantum Teleportation is a process by which quantum information (e.g. the exact state of an atom or photon) can be transmitted (exactly, in principle) from one location to another, with the help of classical communication and previously shared quantum entanglement between the sending and receiving location. Because it depends on classical communication, which can proceed no faster than the speed of light, it cannot currently be used for faster-than-light transport or communication of classical bits. While it has proven possible to teleport one or more qubits of information between two (entangled) atoms, this has not yet been achieved between molecules or anything larger.

Strange Matters (2015) (video 1:47)

Aegis uses a beam of antiprotons from the Antiproton Decelerator to measure the value of Earth's gravitational acceleration.

Gbar - Gravitational Behaviour of Antihydrogen at Rest.

Acoustic Tractor Beams use the Power of Sound to hold particles in mid-air, and unlike magnetic levitation, they can grab most solids or liquids even small insects. Acoustic tractor beam could pave the way for levitating humans.

Difference between Sound Waves and Electromagnetic Waves

Anti-Matter - Magnetics



Contraction - Expansion


Gravitational Collapse is the contraction of an astronomical object due to the influence of its own gravity, which tends to draw matter inward toward the center of mass. Implosion - Cavitation - Torus.

Expansion and Contraction (youtube)

Contraction of a Dark Matter - Dark Energy - Negative Energy

Adiabatic Process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings. In an adiabatic process, energy is transferred only as work. The adiabatic process provides a rigorous conceptual basis for the theory used to expound the first law of thermodynamics, and as such it is a key concept in thermodynamics.

Black Holes Contracting

Contraction is the process or result of becoming smaller or pressed together. The act of decreasing. 

Length Contraction is the phenomenon of a decrease in length of an object as measured by an observer who is traveling at any non-zero velocity relative to the object.

Compression is the application of balanced inward ("pushing") forces to different points on a material or structure, that is, forces with no net sum or torque directed so as to reduce its size in one or more directions. It is contrasted with tension or traction, the application of balanced outward ("pulling") forces; and with shearing forces, directed so as to displace layers of the material parallel to each other. The compressive strength of materials and structures is an important engineering consideration.

Compressibility is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change.

Expansion and Contraction (PDF)
Contraction of Dark Matter (PDF)

Big Crunch is a theory that space will eventually stop expanding and then reverse and collapse.

The Contraction and Expansion of Magnetic Fields
Contraction Operator Theory
Tensor Contraction - Tensor

Expansion is a polytope operation where facets are separated and moved radially apart, and new facets are formed at separated elements (vertices, edges, etc.). Equivalently this operation can be imagined by keeping facets in the same position but reducing their size. Vacuum.

Metric Expansion of Space is the increase of the distance between two distant parts of the universe with time. It is an intrinsic expansion whereby the scale of space itself changes. This is different from other examples of expansions and explosions in that, as far as observations can ascertain, it is a property of the entirety of the universe rather than a phenomenon that can be contained and observed from the outside. Torus.

The Universe is Accelerating, or the Universe Was Accelerating? Seeing the Past back in Time.

Hubble's Law s the observation in physical cosmology that: Objects observed in deep space—extragalactic space, 10 megaparsecs (Mpc) or more—are found to have a redshift, interpreted as a relative velocity away from Earth; This Doppler shift-measured velocity of various galaxies receding from the Earth is approximately proportional to their distance from the Earth for galaxies up to a few hundred megaparsecs away. Hubble's law is considered the first observational basis for the expansion of the universe and today serves as one of the pieces of evidence most often cited in support of the Big Bang model. The motion of astronomical objects due solely to this expansion is known as the Hubble flow.

Friedmann Equations are a set of equations in physical cosmology that govern the expansion of space in homogeneous and isotropic models of the universe within the context of general relativity. Steady State.

Expansion of the Universe is the increase of the distance between two distant parts of the universe with time.

Inflation Cosmology is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe.

Taylor Expansion is a representation of a function as an infinite sum of terms that are calculated from the values of the function's derivatives at a single point.

Radiating
is to extend or spread outward from a center or focus or inward towards a center. Send out rays or waves. Experience a feeling of well-being or happiness, as from good health or an intense emotion.

Big Bounce is a hypothetical cosmological model of the formation of the known universe. It was originally suggested as a property of the cyclic model or oscillatory universe interpretation of the Big Bang where the first cosmological event was the result of the collapse of a previous universe; however, it is also a consequence of applying loop quantum gravity techniques to Big Bang cosmology and thus need not be cyclic.

Our universe is continually contracting and expanding, and humans are somewhere in between the contraction and the radiating.

Space is just weird, everything seems to be in a constant state of Flux...What is here? What is there? Where does it go?

Conservation of Energy - Torus - Thermodynamics

Embryos are also turning themselves upside down and inside out. Embryo folds inwards into a cup-like shape.

Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a trilaminar ("three-layered") structure known as the gastrula. These three germ layers are known as the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

Chromosomal Inversion is a chromosome rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end. An inversion occurs when a single chromosome undergoes breakage and rearrangement within itself. Inversions are of two types: paracentric and pericentric.

Volvox embryo turning itself inside out (youtube)
How to Turn a Sphere Inside Out (youtube)

Morphogenesis is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape. It is one of three fundamental aspects of developmental biology along with the control of cell growth and cellular differentiation, unified in evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). ( "beginning of the shape").

Impermanence doctrine asserts that all of conditioned existence, without exception, is "transient, evanescent, inconstant". All temporal things, whether material or mental, are compounded objects in a continuous change of condition, subject to decline and destruction. The concept of impermanence is also found in various schools of Hinduism and Jainism and is one of the essential doctrines and a part of three marks of existence in Buddhism.

Quantum Tunneling

Macrocosm and Microcosm refers to a vision of cosmos where the part (microcosm) reflects the whole (macrocosm) and vice versa.

Is space made up of Extremely Tiny Micro Black Holes? And when these tiny holes need to group together, they form A Black Hole, which helps stars, planets and galaxies form?

Is Space a type of Superconductor? - Lightning

Is Gravity just Electromagnetic Energy?

Is Gravity just a product of Matter, and not related to Space?

Space moves too, but in what direction?

"Everything is moving Relative to everything else."

"Things appear to be the same to every observer frame of reference."

The Universe looks like one large experiment, trying all kind of things. Not every planet has life, not every star gives life, but you can still learn something from all these different outcomes. We are literally standing on one of these successful experiments.

Space is Alive. Is Space a living entity? With out space there would be no life, no universe. Dark Matter, dark energy, maybe space is not dark at all. Space is the giver of life. Without darkness there is no light? Since space is everywhere, maybe space is God? If space is a living organism, then maybe praying does help. Maybe someone hears our prayers because space is connected to everything in the Universe. But we must speak our prayers, and not just think them.


Astronaut Space Walking



The Thinker Man