Knowledge and Information about Cancer and some of the things that you should know about Cancer.
Cancer kills 20,000 people every single day around
. Almost 2,000 everyday in the U.S. alone.
8 Million people die every year from cancer globally
In 1900 only 1 of 20 got cancer, in 2020 it's 1 in 3 get cancer.
57 percent of cancer cases now occur in low and middle-income countries. 65 percent of
cancer deaths worldwide
occur in these countries.
Don't wait till you get cancer to
start eating healthier
Cancer worldwide is expected to rise by 75 % over the next 20
. Cancer Screening
- Immune System
- Cancer Therapies
there were 14.1 million new cases of cancer
around the globe. One in two
men and one in three women will be diagnosed with cancer.
there will be 1,660,290
new cancer cases
projected to occur in the
U.S. In 2016
, an estimated 1,685,210 new
cases of cancer will be diagnosed in the United States and 595,690 people
will die from the disease. In 2019
1.8 million people will be diagnosed with cancer
in the United States.
50 children in the age group of one month to 14 years die of cancer every
day in India
. The rate of mortality due to
in India is at 37 per million every year. According to
Cancer Research UK
, 54% of men and 48% of women will get cancer at
some point in their lives.
Just 10 cancers in eight organs, the
, will account for more than 70 percent of new cancer cases in the United
States this year in 2017, according to estimates from the
American Cancer Society
An Ounce of Prevention
is worth a pound of cure.
Most cancers are
As many as 40
percent of cancer cases, and half of cancer deaths, come down to things
people could easily change
Smoking causes 80 to 90 percent of lung cancer deaths. So the best cure
for cancer is to avoid the things that cause cancer, which is easier said
More than 15.5 million children and adults with a history of cancer were
alive on January 1, 2016, in the United States. By January 1, 2026, it is
estimated that the population of cancer survivors will increase to 20.3
million: almost 10 million males and 10.3 million females.
many of the deadliest cancers receive the least amount of research funding
like lung and liver, are underfunded. Colon, endometrial, liver and bile
duct, cervical, ovarian, pancreatic and lung cancers. In developed
countries, more than 80% of children suffering with cancer are cured
because of significant progress in treatment.
List of Cancer Mortality Rates in the United States
Cancer Drug Spending tops $100 Billion in 2014
, up 10% in a Year.
Two-thirds of Americans diagnosed with cancer now live at least
five years, versus just more than half in 1990. Living long
enough to give
There is no Profit in the Cure
. There is only
in the Treatment.
Despite all the pink ribbons and billions of dollars in research, another
246,000 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer this year. The Number
Of Women Dying Of Cancer Could Double By 2030.
describes the practice of companies connecting their
products to breast cancer awareness and fundraising, often
the ways their products may contribute to environmental cancer through the
materials or methods used in production
Epidemiology of Cancer
is the study of the
factors affecting cancer
, as a way to infer possible trends and
causes. The study of cancer epidemiology uses epidemiological methods to
find the cause of cancer and to identify and develop improved treatments.
This area of study must contend with problems of
lead time bias
length time bias
. Lead time bias is the concept that early diagnosis may
artificially inflate the survival statistics of a cancer, without really
improving the natural history of the disease. Length bias is the concept
that slower growing, more indolent tumors are more likely to be diagnosed
by screening tests, but improvements in diagnosing more cases of indolent
cancer may not translate into better patient outcomes after the
implementation of screening programs. A related concern is
that may not actually impact the patient's longevity. This problem
especially applies to prostate cancer and PSA screening. Some cancer
researchers have argued that negative cancer clinical trials lack
sufficient statistical power to discover a benefit to treatment. This may
be due to fewer patients enrolled in the study than originally planned.
Cancer Screening - Early Detection
aims to detect cancer before symptoms appear. This may involve blood tests, urine
tests, other tests, or medical imaging. The benefits of screening in terms
of cancer prevention, early detection and subsequent treatment must be
weighed against any harms. 1800-4-CANCER or 1-800-422-6237 - NCI Cancer
Early Cancer Detection
Test for Pancreatic Cancer
(video) - 15-year-old Jack Andraka
New Device Accurately Identifies Cancer in Seconds
MasSpec Pen rapidly
and accurately detects cancer in humans during surgery, helping improve
treatment and reduce the chances of cancer recurrence.
Chip-based optical sensor detects cancer biomarker in urine
Researchers have used a
with an integrated laser to detect very low levels
of a cancer protein biomarker in a urine sample
The new technology is more sensitive than other designs and could lead to
non-invasive and inexpensive ways to detect molecules that indicate the
presence or progression of a disease.
OnCoBlot Blood Serum Test
helps identify up
to 25 different cancers with a single test and it is 96% accurate?
A new approach to detecting cancer earlier from blood tests
scientists have combined 'liquid biopsy,' epigenetic alterations and
machine learning to develop a blood test to detect and classify cancer at its earliest stages.
Blood test detects over 50 types of cancer, some before symptoms appear
Developed by GRAIL, Inc., of Menlo Park, Calif., the test uses
next-generation sequencing to analyze the arrangement of chemical units
called methyl groups on the DNA of cancer cells. Adhering to specific
sections of DNA, methyl groups help control whether genes are active or
inactive. In cancer cells, the placement of methyl groups, or methylation
pattern, is often markedly different from that of normal cells -- to the
extent that abnormal methylation patterns are even more characteristic of
cancer cells than genetic mutations are. When tumor cells die, their DNA,
with methyl groups firmly attached, empties into the blood, where it can
be analyzed by the new test.
Fecal Immunochemical Test
is a screening test for colon cancer.
It tests for hidden blood in the stool
, which "could" be an early sign of cancer.
Colorectal Cancer Incidence Patterns in the United States
, 1974–2013. (FIT).
Circulating Tumor Cells
which are cells that have shed into the vasculature or lymphatics from a
primary tumor and are carried around the body in the circulation.
A simple new blood test that can catch cancer early
Blood Test that
detects Breast Cancer
I.D. Verification for Cancer
. Tiny devices made of DNA detect cancer
with fewer false alarms. DNA circuits could help ensure that cancer
screens and therapies zero in on the right culprits. A new
cancer-detecting tool uses tiny circuits made of DNA to identify cancer
cells by the molecular signature on their surface. The circuits work by
attaching to the outside of a cell and analyzing it for proteins that are
more abundant on some cell types than others. The devices distinguish cell
types with higher specificity than previous methods, giving researchers
hope their work could improve diagnosis, or give cancer therapies better
App - Cloud4Cancer Breast Cancer Detection
diagnose cancer from blood samples. It examines DNA
fragments in the bloodstream that are spewed out by cells as they die.
Using deep learning, it asks computers to find correlations between
cell-free DNA and some cancers.
TINY cancer detection device proves effective in Uganda testing.
About half the size of a lunch box, the Tiny
Isothermal Nucleic acid quantification sYstem
(or TINY) has shown
promise as a point-of-care detector of Kaposi sarcoma-associated
herpesvirus (KSHV) in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan
Nanowire Device to Detect Cancer with a Urine Test
. After introducing
a urine sample onto the device, extracellular vesicles are captured by a
nanowire substrate via electrostatic forces. MicroRNAs can then be
directly extracted from the substrate. Cells communicate with each other
through a number of different mechanisms. In animals, for example,
predatory threats can drive the release of
hormone that travels through the bloodstream and triggers heart and muscle
cells to initiate a "fight-or-flight
" response. A
far less familiar mode of cellular transport is the
. EVs can be
thought of as small "chunks" of a cell that are able to pinch off and
circulate throughout the body to deliver messenger cargo to other cells.
These messengers have become increasingly recognized as crucial mediators
of cell-to-cell communication.
Using the Swimming Power of Sperm to Ferry a Cancer Drug directly to a
- Tiny Machines
Cancer-Fighting Nanorobots programmed to seek and destroy and shrink
tumors by cutting off their blood supply
. Study shows first
applications of DNA origami for
Olfactory Cells may act as Trojan Horse to carry Anticancer Therapy to
Deadly Brain Tumors
. Cells that protect newly generated neurons can be
genetically engineered to activate anticancer drug, reduce tumor growth
and improve survival in mouse model.
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells could serve as Cancer Vaccine
Cellular Process that Stops Cancer before it starts
Cellular recycling process
, thought to fuel
cancer's growth, can actually prevent it.
Gene Fusion shifts cell activity into high gear, causing some cancer
Researchers have discovered that a common fusion of two adjacent genes can
cause cancer by kicking mitochondria into overdrive, increasing the amount
of fuel available for rampant cell growth.
Molecule plays a big role in Reducing Cancer’s Spread
. Molecule that
helps regulate gene expression plays a big role in keeping us safe from
the machinations of cancer. In human lung cancer cells, they have shown
low levels of the microRNA,
, which enables the death of aberrant cells like cancer
cells, correlates with high levels of the protein
which is already associated with a poor prognosis in patients with cancer.
Conversely, when they decrease TIMP-1 levels in these highly lethal cancer
cells, tumor spread goes down while rates of cell death go up along with
expression of miR-125a-5p.
Sneaky Cancer Cells Stopped in their Tracks
. A new study by biomedical
engineers shows how they stopped cancer cells from moving and spreading,
even when the cells changed their movements. After targeting the "motors"
that generate forces in cancer cells to move, the cancer cells switch to a
dendritic or "flowing" response to follow pathways in tumors that drive
cell migration and promote spreading of the cancer. By using these
controlled network microenvironments, researchers were able to test
hundreds of cell movement events in hours compared to one or two in the
same time frame by imaging a tumor.
helps Cancer Cells dodge death
(youtube) - Cancer cells send a “don’t
eat me” signal to stop the immune system
attacking them comes from a protein called
researchers blocked the CD24 signal
in mice implanted with human
cancers, they found this allowed the immune cells, called macrophages, to
attack the cancer cells.
Scientists find a cellular process that stops cancer before it starts
Cellular recycling process, thought to fuel cancer's growth, can actually
Tailoring cancer treatments to individual patients
help researchers design cancer models and predict treatments outcomes
based on patient-specific conditions.
Testing Cells for Cancer Drug Resistance
. Biophysicists have
demonstrated that Raman
can be used to detect the resistance of tumor cells to
cancer drugs. Unlike conventional approaches, this method does not require
any antibodies or markers. It detects the response of cells to
administered drugs and therefore could determine the effect of drugs in
Stopping the spread of Glioblastoma with a new drug AMD3100
is the deadliest form of Brain
, this fluid has a much higher pressure, causing it to move
fast and forcing cancer cells to spread.
Convection Enhanced Delivery
to invade the rest of the brain.
Pediatric Leukemia 'Super Drug' could be developed in the coming years
Protein widely known to Fight Tumors also Boosts Cancer Growth
PUMA WTp53 Protein
works inside the cell's mitochondria to switch
energy production processes and stimulate cancer growth.
Bacteria can Promote Lung Tumor Development
. Antibiotics or
anti-inflammatory drugs may help combat lung cancer.
Bacteria in Soil
is capable of manufacturing
, an antibiotic
that is also an important treatment for certain types of
pancreatic cancer. The compound chemical structure known as a
produced through an enzymatic pathway, reveals the novel
chemistry that drives the process. Soil
Researchers develop prostate cancer prediction tool that has unmatched
using machine-learning framework that distinguishes between
low- and high-risk prostate cancer with more precision than ever before.
Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in American
men, second only to lung cancer.
PI-RADS v2 Scoring
New cancer-driving mutation in 'dark matter' of the cancer genome
Change in just one letter of DNA code in a gene conserved through
generations of evolution can cause multiple types of cancer. A research
group has discovered a novel cancer-driving
in the vast non-coding
regions of the human cancer genome, also known as the 'dark
' of human cancer DNA. The U1-snRNA mutation was found in
patient tumours with certain subtypes of brain cancer, including nearly
all of the studied samples from adult patients with sonic hedgehog
medulloblastoma. The mutation was also found in samples of chronic
lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) -- the most common type of adult leukemia --
and hepatocellular carcinoma -- the most common type of liver cancer.
A hidden route for fatty acids can make cancers resistant to therapy
Simply Shining Light on 'Dinosaur Metal' compound kills cancer cells
A new compound based on
a rare metal which landed in the Gulf of Mexico 66 million years ago,
a protein in blood, can attack the nucleus of cancerous cells when
switched on by light
researchers have found.
Can solar technology kill cancer cells
? Scientists have revealed a new
way to detect and attack cancer cells using technology traditionally
reserved for solar power
. The results
showcases dramatic improvements in light-activated fluorescent dyes for
disease diagnosis, image-guided surgery and site-specific tumor treatment.
Fluorescent dyes used for therapeutics and diagnostics, aka
tuning organic salt nanoparticles used as
theranostics, the Lunts were able to control them in a range of cancer
studies. Coaxing the nanoparticles into the nontoxic zone resulted in
enhanced imaging, while pushing them into the phototoxic -- or
light-activated -- range produced effective on-site tumor treatment. The
key was learning to control the electronics of their photoactive molecules
independently from their optical properties and then making the leap to
apply this understanding in a new way to a seemingly unrelated field.
Richard had recently discovered the ability to electronically tune these
salts from his work in converting photovoltaics into solar glass. Sophia
had long studied metabolic pathways unique to cancer cells. It was when
the Lunts were discussing solar glass during a walk that they made the
connection: Molecules active in the solar cells might also be used to more
effectively target and kill cancer cells.
Artificial intelligence tracks down leukemia
. Largest metastudy to
date on acute myeloid leukemia.
How mysterious circular DNA causes cancer in children
rings of DNA known as extrachromosomal circular DNA can contribute to
cancer development in children.
Extrachromosomal Circular DNA
are circular DNA found in human, plant
and animal cells in addition to chromosomal DNA. eccDNA originate from
chromosomal DNA and can be from 50 base pairs to approximately one
thousand base pairs in length. eccDNAs that are 200-400 bp in size were
recently recoined as microDNA, to draw attention to their size. eccDNA,
ecDNA or micro DNA are not to be confused with circular RNA or circRNA.
Large extrachromosomal DNA (denoted originally as double minutes, and now
re-branded as ecDNA) were discovered in 1970s in human cancer cells by
Jerome Vinograd at Caltech and Robert Schimke at Stanford (and doctoral
student Fred Alt). This type of ecDNA has unique characteristics: (1)
ecDNA found in cancer cells contain one or more genes that confer a
selective advantage, (2) they are larger in size than eccDNA, generally
ranging in size from 100 Kb to 1-3 Mb and beyond, (3) they are visible by
light microscopy. These large ecDNA molecules have been found in the
nuclei of human cancer cells and are shown to carry many copies of driver
oncogenes which are transcribed in tumour cells. Based on this evidence it
is thought that these ecDNA contributes to cancer growth and resistance to
Most people no longer produce Siglec-12 protein
, but some of those who
do are at twice the risk for advanced cancer. The primate
encodes one of the CD33-related Siglec family of
signaling molecules in immune cells. We had previously reported that this
gene harbors a human-specific missense mutation of the codon for an Arg
residue required for sialic acid recognition. Here we show that this R122C
mutation of the Siglec-XII protein is fixed in the human population, i.e.
it occurred prior to the origin of modern humans. Additional mutations
have since completely inactivated the SIGLEC12 gene in some but not all
humans. The most common inactivating mutation with a global allele
frequency of 58% is a single nucleotide frameshift that markedly shortens
the open reading frame. Unlike other CD33-related Siglecs that are
primarily found on immune cells, we found that Siglec-XII protein is
expressed not only on some macrophages but also on various epithelial cell
surfaces in humans and chimpanzees. We also found expression on certain
human prostate epithelial carcinomas and carcinoma cell lines. This
expression correlates with the presence of the nonframeshifted, intact
SIGLEC12 allele. Although SIGLEC12 allele status did not predict prostate
carcinoma incidence, restoration of expression in a prostate carcinoma
cell line homozygous for the frameshift mutation induced altered
regulation of several genes associated with carcinoma progression. These
stably transfected Siglec-XII-expressing prostate cancer cells also showed
enhanced growth in nude mice. Finally, monoclonal antibodies against the
protein were internalized by Siglec-XII-expressing prostate carcinoma
cells, allowing targeting of a toxin to such cells. Polymorphic expression
of Siglec-XII in humans thus has implications for prostate cancer biology
Dozens of non-oncology drugs can kill cancer cells
. Researchers tested
approximately 4,518 drug compounds on 578 human cancer cell lines and
found nearly 50 that have previously unrecognized anti-cancer activity.
These drugs have been used to treat conditions such as diabetes,
inflammation, alcoholism, and even arthritis in dogs. The findings suggest
a possible way to accelerate the development of new cancer drugs or
repurpose existing drugs to treat cancer. The researchers tested all the
compounds in the Drug Repurposing Hub on 578 human cancer cell lines from
the Broad's Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE). Using a molecular
barcoding method known as PRISM, which was developed in the Golub lab, the
researchers tagged each cell line with a DNA barcode, allowing them to
pool several cell lines together in each dish and more quickly conduct a
larger experiment. The team then exposed each pool of barcoded cells to a
single compound from the repurposing library, and measured the survival
rate of the cancer cells. Nearly a dozen non-oncology drugs killed cancer
cells that express a protein called PDE3A by stabilizing the interaction
between PDE3A and another protein called SLFN12 -- a previously unknown
mechanism for some of these drugs. Most of the non-oncology drugs that
killed cancer cells in the study did so by interacting with a previously
unrecognized molecular target. For example, the anti-inflammatory drug
tepoxalin, originally developed for use in people but approved for
treating osteoarthritis in dogs, killed cancer cells by hitting an unknown
target in cells that overexpress the protein MDR1, which commonly drives
resistance to chemotherapy drugs. The researchers were also able to
predict whether certain drugs could kill each cell line by looking at the
cell line's genomic features, such as mutations and methylation levels,
which were included in the CCLE database. This suggests that these
features could one day be used as biomarkers to identify patients who will
most likely benefit from certain drugs. For example, the alcohol
dependence drug disulfiram (Antabuse) killed cell lines carrying mutations
that cause depletion of metallothionein proteins. Compounds containing
vanadium, originally developed to treat diabetes, killed cancer cells that
expressed the sulfate transporter SLC26A2.
Researchers destroy cancer cells with ultrasound treatment
combines ultrasound application and tumor-targeted microbubbles that
attach to cancer cells and explode.
A 'switch' that turns autoimmunity drugs into powerful anti-cancer
. Scientists have discovered a way to transform antibody
drugs previously developed to treat autoimmunity into antibodies with
powerful anti-cancer activity through a simple molecular 'switch'.
Cancer's hidden vulnerabilities
. To fight cancer more effectively, a
researcher probes its inner workings for metabolic weakness. Utilizing a
technique called Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with its advanced
version, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. Raman spectroscopy
takes advantage of the natural vibrations that occur in the bonds between
the atoms that make up a molecule. In this method, a molecule is bombarded
with laser light. As the laser light's photons bounce off the molecule,
they gain or lose energy as a result of their interaction with the
vibrations in the molecule's bonds. Because each kind of bond in a
molecule affects photons in a unique and predictable way, the structure of
the molecule can be deduced by how the photons "look" after they bounce
off of it. By mapping the distribution of targeted chemical bonds, SRS
microscopy then provides imagery of these molecular structures.
Cancer Treatment is So Expensive
that 42% of patients deplete their
entire life's assets to afford treatment within the first 2 years,
according to a new study. Patients faced higher likelihood of asset
depletion with worsening cancer, continuing treatment, and increasing age.
Some patients with imminently fatal cancer still receive treatment.
Patients who died within one month of being newly diagnosed with
metastatic cancer in the United States received ineffective surgery,
chemotherapy, radiation, and hormonal therapy.
is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential
to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Not all tumors are
cancerous; benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body.
Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged
cough, unexplained weight loss and a change in bowel movements. While
these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes. Over 100
cancers affect humans.
harmless and not malignant. (bih-nyn).
is a mass of cells (tumor)
that lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue or metastasize. These
characteristics are required for a tumor to be defined as cancerous and
therefore benign tumors are non-cancerous.
is a dangerous uncontrolled growth of a tumor that easily
spreads like an infection and is poisonous and harmful. Malignancy
is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.
Stage 0 Cancer
means there's no
cancer, only abnormal cells with the potential to become cancer. This is
also called carcinoma in situ.Stage I Cancer
means the cancer is small and only in one area. This is also called
early-stage cancer.Stage II and III Cancer
means the cancer is larger and has grown into nearby tissues or lymph
nodes.Stage IV Cancer
means the cancer
has spread to other parts of your body. It's also called advanced or
spread of a cancer or other disease from one organ or part of the body to
another without being directly connected with it. The new occurrences of
disease thus generated are referred to as metastases (mets). Cancer occurs
after a single cell in a tissue is progressively genetically damaged to
produce cells with uncontrolled proliferation. This uncontrolled
proliferation by mitosis produces a primary heterogeneic tumour. The cells
which constitute the tumor eventually undergo metaplasia, followed by
dysplasia then anaplasia, resulting in a malignant phenotype. This
malignancy allows for invasion into the circulation, followed by invasion
to a second site for tumorigenesis.
is the spread of cancer
to other areas in the
body by metastasis, which is the development of secondary malignant
growths at a distance from a primary site of cancer.
is an abnormal growth of tissue,
and, when it also forms a mass, is commonly referred to as a tumor.
This abnormal growth (neoplasia) usually but not always forms a mass.
is an abnormal mass of tissue that
can harm organs in the body and cause death by swelling or causing
is a malignant skin tumor
Scientists identify protein that promotes brain metastasis
protein, CEMIP, will now be a focus of efforts to predict, prevent and
treat brain metastases, which are a frequent cause of cancer deaths.
migration-inducing and hyaluronan-binding protein
or CEMIP, formerly
known as KIAA1199, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEMIP
gene. CEMIP has been shown to bind hyaluronic acid and catalyze its
depolymerization independently of CD44 and hyaluronidases. Such function
has been also been validated in mice.
is the diffusion or accumulation (in a tissue
or cells) of foreign substances or in amounts in excess of the normal. The
material collected in those tissues or cells is called infiltrate. As part
of a disease process, infiltration is sometimes used to define the
invasion of cancer cells into the underlying matrix or the blood vessels.
Similarly, the term may describe the deposition of amyloid protein. During
leukocyte extravasation, white blood cells move in response to cytokines
from within the blood, into the diseased or infected tissues, usually in
the same direction as a chemical gradient, in a process called chemotaxis.
The presence of lymphocytes in tissue in greater than normal numbers is
likewise called infiltration. As part of medical intervention, local
anaesthetics may be injected at more than one point so as to infiltrate an
area prior to a surgical procedure. However, the term may also apply to
unintended iatrogenic leakage of fluids from phlebotomy or intravenous
drug delivery procedures, a process also known as extravasation or "tissuing".
is the formation of a cancer
cells are transformed into cancer cells
. The process is characterized by
changes at the cellular, genetic, and epigenetic levels
, in some cancers forming a malignant mass. Cell division is a
physiological process that occurs in almost all tissues and under many
circumstances. Under normal circumstances, the balance between
proliferation and programmed cell death
, usually in the form of apoptosis,
is maintained by regulation of both processes to ensure the integrity of
tissues and organs. (tumorigenesis).
Cell-Free Tumour DNA
circulating freely in the blood of a cancer patient. Analysis of the
fraction of mutant-alleles from ctDNA compared to normal-alleles from the
patients normal genome provides opportunities for minimally-invasive
cancer diagnosis, prognosis and tumour monitoring. ctDNA originates from
dying tumour cells and can be present in a wide range of cancers but at
varying levels and mutant allele fractions. The ctDNA is highly fragmented
to around 170 bp and is cleared rapidly after surgery to remove tumours or
is a part of
the cell cycle
are separated into two new nuclei. In general, mitosis
(division of the nucleus) is preceded by the S stage of interphase (during
which the DNA is replicated) and is often accompanied or followed by
cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane
into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular
describes the observation that different tumour cells
can show distinct morphological
phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression,
metabolism, motility, proliferation, and metastatic potential.
is the most
aggressive cancer that begins within the
is any substance,
radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in
. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the
disruption of cellular metabolic processes. Several radioactive substances
are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed
to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles, which they
emit. Common examples of non-radioactive carcinogens are inhaled asbestos,
the public generally associates carcinogenicity with
it is equally likely to arise in both natural and synthetic substances.
Carcinogens are not necessarily immediately toxic, thus their effect can
is something that is cancer-producing. (kar-sin-oh-jen-ik).
List of IARC Group 2B Carcinogens
Cellphones and Cancer
is a rare, aggressive form of cancer that is caused by a person either
inhaling or ingesting tiny
is a gene
that has the potential to cause cancer. In tumor cells, they are
often mutated or expressed at high levels. Most normal cells will undergo
a programmed form of rapid cell death (apoptosis) when critical functions
are altered. Activated oncogenes can cause those cells designated for
apoptosis to survive and proliferate instead. Most oncogenes require an
additional step, such as mutations in another gene, or environmental
factors, such as viral infection, to cause cancer. Since the 1970s, dozens
of oncogenes have been identified in human cancer. Many cancer drugs
target the proteins encoded by oncogenes.
is a branch of
medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of
cancer. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist.
The three components which have improved survival in cancer are:
Prevention - This is by reduction of risk factors like tobacco and alcohol
consumption. Early diagnosis - Screening of common cancers and
comprehensive diagnosis and staging. Treatment - Multimodality management
by discussion in tumor board and treatment in a comprehensive cancer centre.
Childhood Cancer Organization
mtDNA mutations increase tumorigenicity in prostate cancer
Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer
The Basis of Oncoimmunology
Cold climate increases Cancer Risk
Populations living in very low temperatures, like in Denmark and Norway,
had among the highest incidences of cancer in the world. Cell resistance
at low temperatures and at high altitude and diet
is a genus of
viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the
subfamily Betaherpesvirinae. Humans and monkeys serve as natural hosts.
is a high number of
cancer cases occurs in a group of people in a particular geographic area
over a limited period of time. Historical examples of work-related cancer
clusters are well documented in the medical literature.
Cancer Incidence and
Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
is a peer-reviewed medical
journal devoted to research in the field of cancer epidemiology. Topics
include descriptive, analytical, biochemical, and molecular epidemiology,
the use of biomarkers to study the neoplastic and preneoplastic
processes in humans, chemoprevention and other types of prevention trials,
and the role of behavioral factors in cancer etiology and prevention.
Epidemiology of Cancer
Deadly Type of Breast Cancer
. Limiting an amino acid called
in laboratory mice who had triple-negative breast cancer
could dramatically reduce the ability of the cancer to travel to distant
sites in the body.
DNA Repair - Bodies Natural Defenses against Cancer
Tumor Suppressor Gene
is a gene that protects a cell from one step on
the path to cancer. When this gene
to cause a loss or
reduction in its function, the cell can progress to cancer, usually in
combination with other genetic changes
. The loss of these genes may be
even more important than proto-oncogene/oncogene activation for the
formation of many kinds of human cancer cells. Tumor suppressor genes can
be grouped into categories including caretaker genes, gatekeeper genes,
and landscaper genes; the classification schemes are evolving as medicine
advances, learning from fields including molecular biology, genetics, and
epigenetics. Immune Response
(stem cells) -
from damage in the mitochondria
could come from exposure to
chemicals or toxins
ferments sugar and does not need oxygen to grow.
helps to feed cancer and
makes it grow. So it's a good idea to lower sugar intake
and do some
sensitizes cancer cells to death, and increases the stress capability of
healthy cells. Avoid animal meats and go on a more plant based diet to
reduce IGF-1 signalling, which can allow cancer cells to survive under
stressors. Supplement lots of broccoli sprouts,
broccoli sprouts has many similar effects to fasting, sensitizing cancer
cells to death & increasing stress capability of healthy cells. Eat
foods that will help inhibit some of the glutamine intake. Avoid high
antioxidants such as vitamin A or C, which can reduce effects of fasting,
exercise and sulforaphane. Avoid all
morphine, fentanyl, vicodin, oxycodone etc, these increase cancer
metastasis. Avoid the ketogenic diet
that could be
harmful depending on the type of cancer. Optimize her
which boosts the
immune system in fighting cancer. Increase
, has similar effects to fasting and sulforaphane.
encode products that stabilize the genome.
Fundamentally, mutations in caretaker genes lead to genomic instability.
Tumor cells arise from two distinct classes of genomic instability:
mutational instability arising from changes in the nucleotide sequence of
DNA and chromosomal instability arising from improper rearrangement of
. In contrast to caretaker genes, gatekeeper genes encode gene
products that act to prevent growth of potential cancer cells and prevent
accumulation of mutations that directly lead to increased cellular
proliferation. The third classification of genes, the landscapers, encode
products that, when mutated, contribute to the neoplastic growth of cells
by fostering a stromal environment conducive to unregulated cell
- Immune Therapy
is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and
to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. In human
cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as
radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 1 million
individual molecular lesions per cell per day. Many of these lesions cause
structural damage to the DNA molecule and can alter or eliminate the
cell's ability to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA
lesions induce potentially harmful mutations in the cell's genome, which
affect the survival of its daughter cells after it undergoes mitosis. As a
consequence, the DNA repair process is constantly active as it responds to
damage in the DNA structure. When normal repair processes fail, and when
does not occur, irreparable DNA damage may occur,
including double-strand breaks and DNA crosslinkages (interstrand
crosslinks or ICLs). This can eventually lead to malignant tumors, or
cancer as per the two hit hypothesis. The rate of DNA repair is dependent
on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the
extracellular environment. A cell that has accumulated a large amount of
DNA damage, or one that no longer effectively repairs damage incurred to
its DNA, can enter one of three possible states: An irreversible state of
dormancy, known as senescence. Cell suicide
also known as apoptosis or programmed cell death. Unregulated cell
division, which can lead to the formation of a tumor that is cancerous.
The DNA repair ability of a cell is vital to the integrity of its genome
and thus to the normal functionality of that organism. Many genes that
were initially shown to influence life span have turned out to be involved
in DNA damage repair and protection.
Teaching Human Cells to Clean House to Delay Aging and Fight
How brain cells repair their DNA reveals 'hot spots' of aging and disease
Neurons lack the ability to replicate their DNA, so they're constantly
working to repair damage to their genome. A new study finds that these
repairs are not random, but instead focus on protecting certain genetic
'hot spots' that appear to play a critical role in neural identity and
is the natural, regulated mechanism of the cell that
disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components. It allows the
orderly degradation and recycling of cellular components. Three forms of
autophagy are commonly described:
(CMA). In macroautophagy, targeted
cytoplasmic constituents are isolated from the rest of the cell within a
double-membraned vesicle known as an autophagosome. The
eventually fuses with lysosomes and the contents are degraded and
recycled. In disease, autophagy has been seen as an adaptive response to
stress, which promotes survival, whereas in other cases it appears to
promote cell death
and morbidity. In the extreme case of starvation,
the breakdown of cellular components promotes cellular survival by
maintaining cellular energy levels.
New Repair Mechanism for repairing alcohol-induced DNA Damage
. Our DNA
is a daily target for a barrage of damage caused by radiation or toxic
substances such as alcohol. When alcohol is metabolized,
is formed. Acetaldehyde causes a dangerous kind of DNA
damage -- the interstrand crosslink (ICL) -- that sticks together the two
strands of the DNA. As a result, it obstructs cell division and protein
production. Ultimately, an accumulation of ICL damage may lead to cell
death and cancer. Thankfully, every cell in our
body possesses a toolkit with which it can repair this type of damage to
. The first line of defense against ICLs caused by
acetaldehyde is the ALDH2 enzyme, that largely breaks down acetaldehyde
before it causes any harm. However, not everyone profits from this enzyme
-- about half of the Asian population, more than 2 billion people
worldwide, possess a mutation in the gene coding for this enzyme. Because
they are not able to break down acetaldehyde, they are more prone to
develop alcohol-related cancer.
any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms,
such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice). This homolog (originally thought
to be, and often spoken of as, a single protein) is crucial in
multicellular organisms, where it prevents cancer formation, thus,
functions as a tumor suppressor. As such, p53 has been described as "the
guardian of the genome" because of its role in conserving stability by
preventing genome mutation. Hence TP53 is classified as a tumor
suppressor gene.(Italics are used to denote the TP53 gene name and
distinguish it from the protein it encodes).
P53 Tumor Suppressor Protein
Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres
are specialized structures at the ends of the linear
chromosomes. Their maintenance is essential for the unlimited
proliferation of cells due to the 3'-end erosion, a process intrinsic to
the replication of linear chromosomes
Progressive telomere shortening in somatic cells can lead to the induction
of senescence or apoptosis, thus acting as a barrier to unlimited
proliferation and tumorigenesis
, which is
the production of a new tumor or tumors.
is an antigenic substance produced in tumor cells, i.e.,
it triggers an immune response
in the host. Tumor antigens are useful
tumor markers in identifying tumor cells with diagnostic tests and are
potential candidates for use in cancer therapy. The field of cancer
immunology studies such topics.
The Cancer Genome Atlas
is a project,
begun in 2005, to catalogue genetic mutations responsible for cancer,
using genome sequencing and bioinformatics. TCGA applies high-throughput
genome analysis techniques to improve our ability to diagnose, treat, and
prevent cancer through a better understanding of the genetic basis of this
is the study of
modifications to the genome
of cancer cells that do not involve a change in the nucleotide sequence.
Epigenetic alterations are as important as genetic
in a cell's
transformation to cancer, and their manipulation holds great promise for
cancer prevention, detection, and therapy.
Bone Morphogenetic Protein
are a group of growth factors also known as
cytokines and as metabologens. Originally discovered by their ability to
induce the formation of bone and cartilage, BMPs are now considered to
constitute a group of pivotal morphogenetic signals, orchestrating tissue
architecture throughout the body. The important functioning of BMP signals
in physiology is emphasized by the multitude of roles for dysregulated BMP
signaling in pathological processes. Cancerous disease often involves
misregulation of the BMP signaling system. Absence of BMP signaling is,
for instance, an important factor in the progression of colon cancer, and
conversely, over activation of BMP signaling following reflux-induced
esophagitis provokes Barrett's esophagus and is thus instrumental in the
development of adenocarcinoma in the proximal portion of the
gastrointestinal tract.A signaling pathway
is a group of molecules in a cell that work together to control one or
more cell functions. Like a cascade, after the first molecule in a pathway
receives a signal
, it activates another molecule and so forth until the
cell function is carried out.
is a person with cancer of any type who is
still living. Whether a person becomes a survivor at the time of diagnosis
or after completing treatment, whether people who are actively dying are
considered survivors, and whether healthy friends and family members of
the cancer patient are also considered survivors, varies from group to
group. Some people who have been diagnosed with cancer reject the term
survivor or disagree with some definitions of it. How many people are
cancer survivors depends on the definition used. About 11 million
Americans alive today—one in 30 people–are either currently undergoing
treatment for cancer or have done so in the past. Currently nearly 65% of
adults diagnosed with cancer in the developed world are expected to live
at least five years after the cancer is discovered.
Almost 15 percent of Lung Cancer Survivors are still smokers
. Prevalence and correlates of smoking and cessation-related behavior among
survivors of ten cancers.
While studying the underpinnings of
multiple sclerosis, investigators came across important clues for how to
treat cancer. Researchers describe an Anti-LAP Antibody that can precisely
target regulatory T cells
which in turn unleashes the immune system to
kill cancer cells. The team reports that the antibody decreased tumor
growth in models of melanoma, glioblastoma and colorectal carcinoma,
making it an attractive candidate for cancer immunotherapy.
New cancer-driving mutation in 'dark matter' of the cancer genome
Change in just one letter of DNA code in a gene conserved through
generations of evolution can cause multiple types of cancer.
, which makes up 98 per cent of the
genome, is notoriously difficult to study and is often overlooked since it
does not code for proteins.
Zombie gene protects against cancer in elephants.
Dead gene reborn helps destroy cells with damaged DNA. Master tumor
gene enables humans and elephants to recognize unrepaired DNA damage, a
precursor of cancer. Then it causes those damaged cells to die. Pseudogene
leukemia inhibitory factor 6
(LIF6) that had somehow evolved a new
on-switch. LIF6, back from the dead, had become a valuable working gene.
Its function, when activated by p53, is to respond to damaged DNA by
killing the cell. The LIF6 gene makes a protein that goes, quite rapidly,
to the mitochondria, the cell's main energy source. That protein pokes
holes in the mitochondria, causing the cell to die. "Hence, zombie," said
Lynch. "This dead gene came back to life. When it gets turned on by
damaged DNA, it kills that cell, quickly. This is beneficial, because it
acts in response to genetic mistakes, errors made when the DNA is being
repaired. Getting rid of that cell can prevent a subsequent cancer."
is a host
comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism
that protects against disease
. To function properly, an immune system
a wide variety of agents, known as
, from viruses to
parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy
is a large,
mainly by plasma cells
that is used by the immune system
to neutralize pathogens such as
pathogenic bacteria and viruses
antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen,
via the Fab's variable region. Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains
a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular
epitope (similarly, analogous to a key) on an antigen
, allowing these two
structures to bind together with precision. Using this binding mechanism,
an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other
parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for
example, by inhibiting a part of a microbe that is essential for its
invasion and survival). Depending on the antigen, the binding may impede
the biological process causing the disease or may activate macrophages to
destroy the foreign substance. The ability of an antibody to communicate
with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc
region (located at the base of the "Y"), which contains a conserved
glycosylation site involved in these interactions. The production of
antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system. Antibodies
are secreted by B cells
of the adaptive immune system, mostly by
differentiated B cells called
. Antibodies can occur in two
physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free
in the blood plasma, and a membrane-bound form that is attached to the
surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). The
BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation
of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody
factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the
body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon
future exposure. In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a
is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore,
antibody generation following antigen binding. Soluble antibodies are
released into the blood
and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions to
continue to survey for invading microorganisms. Antibodies are
glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. They constitute
most of the gamma globulin fraction of the blood proteins. They are
typically made of basic structural units—each with two large heavy chains
and two small light chains. There are several different types of antibody
heavy chains that define the five different types of crystallisable
fragments (Fc) that may be attached to the antigen-binding fragments. The
five different types of Fc regions allow antibodies to be grouped into
five isotypes. Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to
bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the
BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different
roles depending on which FcR it binds. The ability of an antibody to bind
to its corresponding FcR is further modulated by the structure of the
glycan(s) present at conserved sites within its Fc region. The ability of
to bind to FcRs helps to direct the appropriate immune response
for each different type of foreign object they encounter. For example, IgE
is responsible for an allergic response consisting of mast cell
degranulation and histamine release. IgE's Fab paratope binds to allergic
antigen, for example house dust mite particles, while its Fc region binds
to Fc receptor ε. The allergen-IgE-FcRε interaction mediates allergic
signal transduction to induce conditions such as asthma. Though the
general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the
tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies
with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to
exist. This region is known as the hypervariable region. Each of these
variants can bind to a different antigen. This enormous diversity of
antibody paratopes on the antigen-binding fragments allows the immune
system to recognize an equally wide variety of antigens. The large and
diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random
recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different
antigen-binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this
area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. This
recombinational process that produces clonal antibody paratope diversity
is called V(D)J or VJ recombination. Basically, the antibody paratope is
polygenic, made up of three genes, V, D, and J. Each paratope locus is
also polymorphic, such that during antibody production, one allele of V,
one of D, and one of J is chosen. These gene segments are then joined
together using random genetic recombination to produce the paratope. The
regions where the genes are randomly recombined together is the hyper
variable region used to recognise different antigens on a clonal basis.
Antibody genes also re-organize in a process called class switching that
changes the one type of heavy chain Fc fragment to another, creating a
different isotype of the antibody that retains the antigen-specific
variable region. This allows a single antibody to be used by different
types of Fc receptors, expressed on different parts of the immune system.
is any of a class
of proteins present in the serum and cells of the immune system, which
function as antibodies.Antibiotics
are antibodies that are made by identical
that are all clones of a unique parent
cell or an antibody made by cloning a unique white blood cell. Monoclonal antibodies can have monovalent affinity, in that they
bind to the same epitope (the part of an antigen that is recognized by the antibody).
In contrast, polyclonal antibodies bind to multiple epitopes and are
usually made by several different antibody secreting plasma cell lineages.
Bispecific monoclonal antibodies can also be engineered, by increasing the
therapeutic targets of one single monoclonal antibody to two epitopes. It
is possible to produce monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind to
virtually any suitable substance; they can then serve to detect or purify
it. This capability has become an important tool in biochemistry,
molecular biology, and medicine.
are a type of
white blood cell
the immune system, that engulfs and digests cellular debris, foreign
cells, and anything else that does not have the type of
specific to healthy
body cells on its surface in a process called
. These large phagocytes are found in essentially all
tissues, where they patrol for potential
by amoeboid movement.
They take various forms (with various names) throughout the body (e.g.,
histiocytes, Kupffer cells, alveolar macrophages, microglia, and others),
but all are part of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Besides
phagocytosis, they play a critical role in nonspecific defense (innate
immunity) and also help initiate specific defense mechanisms (adaptive
immunity) by recruiting other immune cells such as lymphocytes. For
example, they are important as antigen presenters to T cells. In humans,
dysfunctional macrophages cause severe diseases such as chronic
granulomatous disease that result in frequent
is a system of structures and processes involving the
biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the nervous
system and immune system which protect
from pathogens. It
serves to protect neurons against disease by maintaining selectively
permeable barriers (e.g., the
and blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier), mediating
neuroinflammation and wound healing in damaged neurons, and mobilizing
host defenses against pathogens
The neuroimmune system and peripheral immune system are structurally
distinct. Unlike the peripheral system, the neuroimmune system is composed
primarily of glial cells; among all the hematopoietic cells of the immune
system, only mast cells are normally present in the neuroimmune system.
However, during a neuroimmune response, certain peripheral immune cells
are able to cross various blood or fluid–brain barriers in order to
respond to pathogens that have entered the brain. For example, there is
evidence that following injury macrophages and T cells of the immune
system migrate into the spinal cord. Production of immune cells of the
complement system have also been documented as being created directly in
the central nervous system
is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules
found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement
proteins, and certain antimicrobial peptides. Humoral immunity is so named
because it involves substances found in the humors, or body fluids. It
. Its aspects involving antibodies are often
called antibody-mediated immunity. The study of the molecular and cellular
components that form the immune system, including their function and
interaction, is the central science of immunology. The immune system is
divided into a more primitive innate immune system, and acquired or
adaptive immune system of vertebrates, each of which contains humoral and
cellular components. Humoral immunity refers to antibody production and
the accessory processes that accompany it, including: Th2 activation and
cytokine production, germinal center formation and isotype switching,
affinity maturation and memory cell generation. It also refers to the
effector functions of antibodies, which include pathogen and toxin
neutralization, classical complement activation, and opsonin promotion of
phagocytosis and pathogen elimination. T-Cells
Peripheral Immune System
is composed of
disconnected lymphocyte clones which remain in a resting state unless they
are specifically activated by an antigen giving rise to a classical immune
response.Central Immune System
composed of a network of clones which display autonomous activity and
integrates antigens into its ongoing regulatory dynamics. Functionally,
the PIS is appropriate for reactions to immunizing antigens, whereas the
CIS is appropriate for body antigens.
Second generation immune network
are unable to account
satisfactorily for the CIS/PIS distinction. A third generation immune
network Model, incorporating B-T cell co-operation, is able to accommodate
both the structural and the functional properties of CIS and PIS in a
coherent account, and moreover to explain how the CIS/PIS distinction can
be generated by the self-organizing properties of the network.
Finally, we emphasize that the difficulty in establishing a productive
relationship between theory and experiment
is a hallmark of the whole
network approach to the immune system, and is perhaps the reason why, at
the present time, the immunological community.
Adaptive Immune System
is a subsystem of
the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic
cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth. The
adaptive immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in
vertebrates (the other being the innate immune system). Adaptive immunity
after an initial response to a specific
pathogen, and leads to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with
that pathogen. This process of acquired immunity
is the basis of
. Like the innate system, the adaptive system includes both humoral immunity components and cell-mediated immunity components.
Innate Immune System
is an important subsystem of the overall immune
system that comprises the cells and mechanisms that defend the host from
infection by other organisms. The cells of the
system recognize and
respond to pathogens in a similar way, but, unlike the adaptive immune
system, the system does not provide long-lasting immunity
to the host.
Innate immune systems provide immediate defense against infection, and are
found in all classes of plant and animal life. The innate immune system is
an evolutionarily older defense strategy, and is the dominant immune
system found in plants, fungi, insects, and primitive multicellular
organisms. The major functions of the vertebrate innate immune system
include: Recruiting immune cells to sites of infection through the
production of chemical factors, including specialized chemical mediators
called cytokines. Activation of the complement cascade to identify
bacteria, activate cells, and promote clearance of antibody complexes or
dead cells. Identification and removal of foreign substances present in
organs, tissues, blood and lymph, by specialized white blood cells.
Activation of the adaptive immune system through a process known as
antigen presentation. Acting as a physical and chemical barrier to
infectious agents. Virus infection in vertebrates results in two general
types of immune response. The first is a rapid-onset "innate" response
against the virus, which involves the synthesis of
proteins called interferons
and the stimulation of "natural killer"
. The acquired immune system, with help from the innate
system, produces cells (antibodies
) to protect your
body from a specific invader. These antibodies are developed by cells
called B lymphocytes after the body has been exposed to the invader. The
cells of both parts of the immune system are made in various organs of the
body, including: Adenoids. Two glands located at the back of the nasal
passage. Bone marrow. The soft, spongy tissue found in bone cavities.
Lymph nodes. Small organs shaped like beans, which are located throughout
the body and connect via the lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels. A
network of channels throughout the body that carries lymphocytes to the
lymphoid organs and bloodstream. Peyer's patches. Lymphoid tissue in the
small intestine. Spleen. A fist-sized organ located in the abdominal
cavity. Thymus. Two lobes that join in front of the trachea behind the
breastbone. Tonsils. Two oval masses in the back of the throat. A special
cell of the immune system called a T cell circulates looking for
infections. One type of T cell is called a cytotoxic T cell because it
kills cells that are infected with viruses with toxic mediators. Cytotoxic
T cells have specialized proteins on their surface that help them to
recognize virally-infected cells. These proteins are called T cell
receptors (TCRs). Each cytotoxic T cell has a TCR that can specifically
recognize a particular antigenic peptide bound to an MHC molecule. If the
T cell receptor detects a peptide from a virus, it warns its T cell of an
infection. The T cell releases cytotoxic factors to kill the infected cell
and, therefore, prevent survival of the invading virus.
is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having
adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other
unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid
allergy, and autoimmune diseases. What is the
number of viruses that can be recognized by the immune system
is the immunological response
originating from immune system activation by
, including immunity to pathogenic microorganisms and its
products, as well as autoimmunity to self-antigens allergies, and graft
ejections. In this process main cells involved are the T
, B cells of
lymphocytes, and macrophagea. These cells produce lymphokines that
influence the other host cells activities. B cells
mature to produce immunoglobulins or antibodies, that react with antigens. At same time,
macrophages are processing the antigens into immunogenic units which
stimulate B lymphocites to differentiation into antibody secreting plasma
cells, stimulating the T cells to realise lymphokines.
Study reveals details of immune defense guidance system
. At the
beginning of an immune response, a molecule known to mobilize immune cells
into the bloodstream, where they home in on infection sites, rapidly
shifts position. Researchers say this indirectly amplifies the attack on
foreign microbes or the body's own tissues. Past studies had shown that
the immune system regulates the concentration of the molecule,
sphingosine 1 phosphate
or S1P, in order to draw cells to the right
locations. The targeted cells have proteins on their surface that are
sensitive to levels of this molecule, enabling them to follow the
molecule's "trail," researchers say. S1P concentration gradients, for
instance, can guide immune T cells to either stay in lymph nodes,
connected glands in which these cells mature, or move into blood vessels.
For the first time, researchers at NYU Grossman School of Medicine showed
in mice experiments that S1P levels in lymph nodes increase as the immune
response mounts. Such activation of immune cells can cause inflammation,
swelling, and/or death of targeted cells. While past work had shown that
S1P is produced by cells attached to lymph nodes, the new study found that
monocytes, circulating immune cells, also produced it when mice were
infected with a virus. This in turn may influence the migration of T
cells, a set of white blood cells that expands rapidly in response to
are substances (drugs and nutrients) that
stimulate the immune system
by inducing activation or increasing activity
of any of its components. One notable example is the granulocyte
macrophage colony-stimulating factor.
is a part of the
immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of
phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells
from an organism,
promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's plasma membrane. It is
part of the innate immune system, which is not adaptable and does not
change over the course of an individual's lifetime. It can be recruited
and brought into action by the adaptive immune system. The complement
system consists of a number of small
found in the blood,
synthesized by the liver, which circulate as inactive precursors
(pro-proteins). When stimulated by one of several triggers, proteases in
the system cleave specific proteins to release cytokines and initiate an
amplifying cascade of further cleavages. The end result of this complement
activation or complement fixation cascade is stimulation of phagocytes to
clear foreign and damaged material, inflammation to attract additional
phagocytes, and activation of the cell-killing membrane attack complex.
Over 30 proteins and protein fragments make up the complement system,
including serum proteins, and cell membrane receptors. They account for
about 10% of the globulin fraction of blood serum. Three biochemical
pathways activate the complement system: the classical complement pathway,
the alternative complement pathway, and the lectin pathway.
Boost your Immune System
Ebola Virus disables the body's immune defenses
, an important line of immune defense, thus
rendering the infected person less able to combat the infection.
White blood cells
an important part of our immune system.
happens when the white blood T cell count in the
bloodstream is lower than normal -- in fact, the extent of lymphopenia is
one of the strongest indicators of how severe the Ebola infection will
Scientists stimulate immune system, stop cancer growth
Evolution of Immune Systems From Viruses and Transposable Elements
The immune system's fountain of youth
. Helping the immune system clear
away old cells in aging mice helped restore youthful characteristics.
Human Mast Cells From Adipose Tissue Target and Induce Apoptosis of Breast
. Mast cells
(MC) are important
immune sentinels found in most tissue and widely recognized for their role
as mediators of Type I hypersensitivity. However, they also secrete
anti-cancer mediators such as
tumor necrosis factor alpha
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
Deciphering the sugar code
. Researchers discover vaccine to strengthen
the immune system of plants. Like animals and humans, plants possess a
kind of immune system. It can e.g. recognize pathogenic fungi by the
chitin in their cell walls, triggering disease resistance. Some fungi hide
from the immune system by modifying some of the chitin building blocks,
converting chitin into chitosan. Researchers now found that plants can
react to a certain pattern in this chitosan, stimulating their immune
Origins of immune system mapped, opening doors for new cancer
. Cell atlas of human thymus could help engineer
improved therapeutic T cells. A first cell atlas of the human thymus gland
could lead to new immune therapies to treat cancer and autoimmune
diseases. Researchers mapped thymus tissue through the human lifespan to
understand how it develops and makes vital immune cells called
. In the future, this information could help
researchers to generate an artificial thymus and engineer improved
therapeutic T cells. The atlas could also help scientists understand
diseases that affect T cell development such as severe combined
(SCID), and adds to the Human
Cell Atlas initiative which is creating a Google map of the entire human
Obesity impairs immune cell function, accelerates tumor growth
High-fat diet allows cancer cells to outcompete immune cells for fuel.
Cancer cells do so by rewiring their metabolisms to increase fat
consumption. Blocking this rewiring enhances anti-tumor immunity. The
findings suggest new strategies to target cancer metabolism and improve
immunotherapies. Reporting in Cell on Dec. 9, the research team shows that
a high-fat diet reduces the numbers and antitumor activity of CD8+ T
cells, a critical type of immune cell, inside tumors. This occurs because
cancer cells reprogram their metabolism in response to increased fat
availability to better gobble up energy-rich fat molecules, depriving T
cells of fuel and accelerating tumor growth.
refers to the gradual
deterioration of the immune system
brought on by natural
. The adaptive immune system
is affected more than the innate immune system. Immunosenescence involves
both the host's capacity to respond to infections
and the development of long-term immune memory
especially by vaccination. This age-associated immune deficiency is
ubiquitous and found in both long- and short-living species as a function
of their age relative to life expectancy rather than chronological time.
It is considered a major contributory factor to the increased frequency of
morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Immunosenescence is not a
random deteriorative phenomenon, rather it appears to inversely repeat an
evolutionary pattern and most of the parameters affected by
immunosenescence appear to be under genetic control. Immunosenescence can
also be sometimes envisaged as the result of the continuous challenge of
the unavoidable exposure to a variety of antigens such as viruses and bacteria.
Epigenetic changes drive the fate of a B cell
. Scientists discover
epigenetic changes unique to B cells
and B cell
subtypes. B cells are the immune cells responsible for creating
, and most produce antibodies in
response to a pathogen or a vaccine. A small subset of B cells instead
spontaneously make antibodies that perform vital housekeeping functions.
Understanding how epigenetics spur these differences in such similar cells
is an important fundamental question in immunology
Like all the cells in the body, B1 and B2 cells have the same DNA, and
therefore the same starting set of instructions. It is through epigenetic
modifications, which open and close different areas of the genome to the
machinery that reads the genetic instructions, that the same genome can be
used to create unique instructions for each cell type. Understanding how
the different epigenetic landscapes -- the changes in instructions --
allows for these differences in such similar cells is both an important
fundamental question in immunology and can help scientists better
understand diseases linked to B cells' dysregulation. Through our
analysis, we found the fate of a B cell is determined by epigenetic
modifications driven by a protein called DNMT3A. The team studied CpG
methylation, a type of epigenetic modification that opens up specific
areas of DNA and marks regulatory elements that can turn genes on or off.
They discovered a set of regulatory elements with unique features in these
B1 and B2 cells. In most cases, CpG methylation is permanent and, once
added, is even passed on when the cell replicates. But in B cells, the
protein DNMT3A had to continually work to maintain these epigenetic
modifications. If DNMT3A was removed from B1 cells, the epigenetic
modifications were lost, and chronic lymphomic leukemia (CLL), a cancer
caused by the uncontrolled replication of B1 cells, would arise.
is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".
designed to elicit or amplify an immune response are classified as activation
immunotherapies, while immunotherapies that reduce or suppress are
classified as suppression immunotherapies. Immunomodulatory regimens often
have fewer side effects than existing drugs, including less potential for
creating resistance when treating microbial disease. Cell-based
immunotherapies are effective for some cancers. Immune effector cells such
,macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells (NK
Cell), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), etc., work together to defend the
body against cancer by targeting abnormal antigens expressed on the
surface of tumor cells. Therapies such as granulocyte colony-stimulating
factor (G-CSF), interferons, imiquimod and cellular membrane fractions
from bacteria are licensed for medical use. Others including IL-2, IL-7,
IL-12, various chemokines, synthetic cytosine phosphate-guanosine (CpG)
oligodeoxynucleotides and glucans are involved in clinical and preclinical
DNA sensor plays critical role in cancer immunotherapy via response to
unexpected DNA form
Most drugs are made from natural or synthetic compounds.
consist of fully functional cells that have been selected and
often modified to treat specific diseases, such as cancer. Immunotherapy
encompasses several types of treatment that marshal the immune system
against cancer. Drugs known as cell therapies fall into this category.
They are often made by collecting specific sets of cells from a patient’s
blood, modifying them to produce or elicit a more vigorous attack on a
patient’s cancer cells, and reinfusing them into the patient. Two types of
cellular therapy that have recently become available are CAR (chimeric
antigen receptor) T cells and therapeutic vaccines. CAR T cells are immune
system T cells that have been genetically engineered to latch onto and
kill a patient’s cancer cells. Therapeutic Vaccines are Vaccines to treat
cancer take a variety of forms: Some are made from cancer cells, others
from parts of cancer cells, and still others are from specially
conditioned immune system cells. One type of cell-based vaccine involves
removing certain immune system cells from a patient’s blood and converting
them into dendritic cells, whose job is to display cancer- or
infection-related proteins on their surface. The dendritic cells are
combined with pieces of tumor cells and, often, other stimulatory proteins
and infused back into the patient. The cancer-related proteins on the
dendritic cells’ surface, called antigens, spur the patient’s immune
system to go on the offensive against cancer cells.
Cancer ‘vaccine’ eliminates tumors in mice by Activating T cells in Tumors
Injecting microgram amounts of two immune-stimulating agents directly into
solid tumors (A microgram is one-millionth of a gram). One, a short
stretch of DNA called a
, works with other nearby immune cells to amplify
the expression of an activating receptor called OX40 on the surface of the
T cells. The other, an antibody that binds to OX40, activates the
to lead the charge against the cancer cells.
Because the two agents are injected directly into the tumor, only T cells
that have infiltrated it are activated. In effect, these T cells are
“prescreened” by the body to recognize only cancer-specific proteins.
Immune therapy takes a 'BiTE' out of brain cancer
. The treatment,
known as chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR T) therapy, involves
collecting and genetically modifying a patient's immune-fighting T cells
to recognize specific targets (antigens) on the surface of tumors, and
then returning them to the patient. Two CAR T cell products have been
approved by the FDA for treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and acute
lymphoblastic leukemia, respectively cancers of the lymphatic system and
Researchers Develop Synthetic T Cells, mimics form and function of human
Polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cell (PMN-MDSC)
high levels of a surface protein known as FAS-ligand, which induces T cell
suicide when it binds its receptor on T cells. The researchers show that
depleting PMN-MDSCs from the tumors or blocking
binding to its receptor restored the ability of the
to kill induced tumors.
is part of the
vital part of the immune system
, comprising a
network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph directionally towards the
. (lympha from
Latin meaning "water").
CAR T-Cell Gene Therapy Kymriah
(tisagenlecleucel) is a living drug
that involves using genetically modified T-cells
or immune cells from
patients to attack their cancer. Kymriah is a genetically-modified
autologous T-cell immunotherapy. The patient’s T-cells are collected and
sent to a manufacturing center where they are genetically modified to
include a new gene that contains a specific protein (a
chimeric antigen receptor or CAR
) that directs the T-cells
and kill leukemia cells that have a specific antigen (CD19) on the
surface. Once the cells are modified, they are infused back into the
patient to kill the cancer cells. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia is a cancer
of the bone marrow and blood, in which the body makes abnormal
lymphocytes, which is a type of
white blood cell
Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells
are T cells that have been
to produce an
artificial T-cell receptor for use in immunotherapy. (also known as
CAR T cells
Researchers have cracked a code in T-cells that could make autoimmune
diseases and organ transplant rejection a thing of the past.
scientists have identified a critical switch that controls T-cell function
and dysfunction and have discovered a pathway to target it. Their study
reveals targeting the IRF4 molecule in T-cells is the key to potentially
curing most autoimmune diseases and eliminating
Mucosal Associated Invariant T cell
makes up a subset of T cells in
the immune system that display innate, effector-like qualities. In humans,
MAIT cells are found in the blood, liver, lungs, and mucosa, defending
against microbial activity and infection. The MHC class I-like protein,
MR1, is responsible for presenting bacterially-produced vitamin B
metabolites to MAIT cells. After the presentation of foreign antigen by
MR1, MAIT cells secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and are capable of
lysing bacterially-infected cells. MAIT cells can also be activated
through MR1-independent signaling. In addition to possessing innate-like
functions, this T cell subset supports the adaptive immune response and
has a memory-like phenotype. Furthermore, MAIT cells are thought to play a
role in autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, arthritis and
inflammatory bowel disease, although definitive evidence is yet to be
is a branch of
that covers the
in all organisms
Brain Immune System Link
Blood Brain Barrier
Virus-mimicking drug helps immune system target cunning cancer cells
Researchers found that a drug that activates the body's natural defenses
by behaving like a virus may also make certain stealthy melanoma tumors
visible to the immune system, allowing them to be better targeted by
immunotherapy. Interferon's are
in cells that respond to viral infection by impeding the
virus's ability to replicate and alerting the immune system to marshal its
forces. Activating interferon signaling in tumors helps slow down tumor
division and can lead to the release of molecules that recruit more immune
cells to the tumor.
are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host
cells in response to the presence of several viruses. In a typical
scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby
cells to heighten their anti-viral defenses.
Fight cancer using someone else's immune cells
are a class of
that play a key
role in the innate immune system. They are single, membrane-spanning,
non-catalytic receptors usually expressed on sentinel cells such as
macrophages and dendritic cells, that recognize structurally conserved
molecules derived from microbes. Once these microbes have reached physical
barriers such as the skin or intestinal tract mucosa, they are recognized
by TLRs, which activate immune cell responses. The TLRs include TLR1, TLR2,
TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR10, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13,
though the latter three are not found in humans.
Immunity - Autoimmunity
is the balanced state of having
adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other
unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid
allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Above the Law
are a number
of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system
in the environment that usually causes little or no problem in most
people. These diseases include hay fever, food allergies
dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis. Symptoms may include red
eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, a runny nose, shortness of breath, or
swelling. Food intolerances
and food poisoning
is an immune response to nonself antigens from members of
the same species, which are called alloantigens or isoantigens. Two major
types of alloantigens are blood group antigens and histocompatibility
antigens. In alloimmunity, the body creates antibodies against the
, allotransplanted tissue, and even the fetus in some
cases. Alloimmune (isoimmune) response results in graft rejection, which
is manifested as deterioration or complete loss of graft function. In
contrast, autoimmunity is an immune response to the self's own antigens.
is the system of immune
responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues
disease that results from such an aberrant immune response is termed an
is a condition arising from an abnormal
to a normal body part. There are at least 80 types of
autoimmune diseases. Nearly any body part can be involved. Common symptoms
include low grade fever and feeling tired. Often symptoms come and go.
Cargo-carrying Red Blood Cells alleviate Autoimmune Diseases in Mice
Antibodies to Brain Proteins may Trigger Psychosis
. Antibodies defend
the body against bacterial, viral, and other invaders. But sometimes the
body makes antibodies that attack healthy cells. In these cases,
autoimmune disorders develop. Immune abnormalities in patients with
have been recognized for over a
century, but it has been only relatively recently that scientists have
identified specific immune mechanisms that seem to directly produce
symptoms of psychosis, including hallucinations and delusions.
Body Burdened from Toxins
Low Serotonin Levels
have been linked to
is an important chemical and
in the human
body. It is believed to help regulate mood and social behavior, appetite
and digestion, sleep, memory, and sexual desire and function.
Serotonin and Brain Development
. The role of the serotonergic system
in the neuroplastic events that create, repair, and degenerate the brain
has been explored. Synaptic plasticity occurs throughout life and is
critical during brain development. Evidence from biochemical,
pharmacological, and clinical studies demonstrates the huge importance of
an intact serotonergic system for normal central nervous system
(CNS)function. Serotonin acts as a growth factor during embryogenesis, and
serotonin receptor activity forms a crucial part of the cascade of events
leading to changes in brain structure. The serotonergic system interacts
with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), S100beta, and other
chemical messengers, in addition to ts cross talk with the GABAergic,
glutamatergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems. Disruption of
these processes may contribute to CNS disorders that have been associated
with impaired development. Furthermore, many psychiatric drugs alter
serotonergic activity and have been shown to create changes in brain
structure with long-term treatment. However, the mechanisms for their
therapeutic efficacy are still unclear. Treatments for psychiatric illness
are usually chronic and alleviate psychiatric symptoms, rather than cure
these diseases. Therefore, greater exploration of the serotonin system
during brain development and growth could lead to real progress in the
discovery of treatments for mental disorders
Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Disease
. Autoimmune diseases currently
affect 5–7% of the world's population; in most diseases there are
circulating autoantibodies. Brain-reactive antibodies are present in
approximately 2–3% of the general population but do not usually contribute
to brain pathology. These
penetrate brain tissue only early in development or under
pathologic conditions. This restriction on their pathogenicity and the
lack of correlation between serum titers and brain pathology have, no
doubt, contributed to a delayed appreciation of the contribution of
autoantibodies in diseases of the central nervous system. Nonetheless, it
is increasingly clear that antibodies can cause damage in the brain and
likely initiate or aggravate multiple neurologic conditions;
brain-reactive antibodies contribute to symptomatology in autoimmune
disease, infectious disease, and malignancy.
may help reduce the destructive inflammation of autoimmune
diseases like rheumatoid arthritis,
. They have some of the first evidence of how the cheap,
our spleen to promote instead an
environment that could be therapeutic in the face of
inflammatory disease, scientists report.
How Immune Cells Kill Bacteria with Acid
. Crucial protein for
acidification of macrophage phagosome discovered.
Experimental Therapy Restores Nerve Insulation Damaged by Autoimmune
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)
National Institute of
Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
is a rare chronic blistering skin disease. It is classified as a type II
hypersensitivity reaction, with the formation of antibodies against
desmosomes, components of the skin that function to keep certain layers of
skin bound to each other. As desmosomes are attacked, the layers of skin
separate and the clinical picture resembles a blister. Over time the
condition inevitably progresses without treatment: lesions increase in
size and distribution throughout the body, behaving physiologically like a
severe burn. Before the advent of modern treatments, mortality for the
disease was close to 90%. Today, the mortality rate with treatment is
is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response
on the part of the
host organism, though sometimes antigens can be part of the host itself.
In other words, an antigen is any substance that causes an immune system
to produce antibodies against it. Each antibody is specifically produced
by the immune system to match an antigen after cells in the
come into contact with it; this allows a
antigen and the initiation of a tailored response. The antibody is said to
"match" the antigen in the sense that it can bind to it thanks to
performed to a region of the antibody
; because of this, many
different antibodies can be produced, with specificity to bind many
different antigens while sharing the same basic structure. In most cases,
an antibody can only bind one specific antigen; in some instances,
however, antibodies may bind more than one antigen.
is any molecule or chemical
group of an organism which acts as an antigen in inducing antibody
formation in another organism but to which the healthy immune system of
the parent organism is tolerant.
refers to the gradual deterioration of the immune
brought on by natural age advancement. It involves both the host's
capacity to respond to infections and the development of long-term immune
memory, especially by vaccination
is when your immune
system's defenses are low
, affecting its ability to fight off infections
and diseases. Depending on why your immune system
is compromised, this
state can be either permanent or temporary.
is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the
immune system. Some portions of the immune system itself have
immunosuppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and
immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other
is a dysfunction
of the immune system. These disorders
can be characterized in several different ways:
By the component(s) of
the immune system affected. By whether the immune system is overactive or
By whether the condition is congenital or acquired.
is a state
in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and
cancer is compromised
or entirely absent.
Most cases are acquired ("secondary") due to extrinsic factors that affect
the patient's immune system.
HIV - Aids
hides in specific subsets of CD4+ T-cells. (effector
). Specific immune memory T-cells where infectious HIV
'hides' in the human body to evade detection by the
. 36.9 million people were living
with HIV in 2017
. 940,000 people died of AIDS-related illnesses in
2017. 35.4 million people
from AIDS-related illnesses since the epidemic was identified in 1981.
or Human immunodeficiency virus
infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), is a
spectrum of conditions caused by
with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following
initial infection, a person may not notice any symptoms or may experience
a brief period of influenza-like illness
Typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms. As the
infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system,
increasing the risk of common infections like tuberculosis, as well as
other opportunistic infections, and tumors that rarely affect people who
have working immune systems. These late symptoms of infection are referred
to as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS
). This stage is often also
associated with weight loss.
Management of HIV-AIDS
the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV
infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on
different stages of the HIV life-cycle. The use of multiple drugs that act
on different viral targets is known as highly active antiretroviral
therapy (HAART). HAART decreases the patient's total burden of HIV,
maintains function of the immune system, and prevents opportunistic
infections that often lead to death.
. Daily PrEP reduces the risk of getting HIV
from sex by more than 90%.
New approach for AIDS:
Lock HIV in reservoir cells
The Dangerous Evolution of HIV: Edsel Salvaña 2017
(video and text)
Gene Therapy using CAR T-cells could provide long-term protection against
. Through gene therapy, researchers engineered blood-forming stem
cells (hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, or HSPCs) to carry chimeric
antigen receptor (CAR) genes to make cells that can detect and destroy
HIV-infected cells. These engineered cells not only destroyed the infected
cells, they persisted for more than two years, suggesting the potential to
create long-term immunity from the virus that causes AIDS. Because HIV
uses CD4 to infect cells, the researchers used a CAR molecule that hijacks
the essential interaction between HIV and the cell surface molecule CD4 to
make stem cell-derived T-cells target infected cells. When the CD4 on the
CAR molecule binds to HIV, other regions of the CAR molecule signal the
cell to become activated and kill the HIV infected cell. The researchers
found that, in test animals, modification of the blood-forming stem cells
resulted in more than two years of stable production of CAR-expressing
cells without any adverse effects. In addition, these cells were widely
distributed throughout the lymphoid tissues and gastrointestinal tract,
which are major anatomic sites for HIV replication and persistence in
infected people. Most important, engineered CAR T-cells showed
efficacy in attacking and killing HIV-infected cells.
HIV eliminated from the genomes of living animals
. Researchers have
for the first time eliminated replication-competent HIV-1 DNA -- the virus
responsible for AIDS -- from the genomes of living animals. The study
marks a critical step toward the development of a possible cure for human HIV infection.
Synthetic immunology: modulating the human
In synthetic immunology,
biological devices are engineered to
rationally modulate immune responses.
Molecules derived from the immune system are
modified to capture cytokines or cells
Autologous immune cells
are designed to cure
or eradicate tumors.
Pattern Recognition Receptor
are a primitive part of the immune
system. They are proteins expressed by cells of the innate immune system
to identify two classes of molecules: pathogen-associated molecular
patterns (PAMPs), which are associated with microbial pathogens, and
damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are associated with
cell components that are released during cell damage or death. They are
also called primitive pattern recognition receptors because they evolved
before other parts of the immune system, particularly before adaptive
is a branch of
immunology that studies interactions between the immune system and cancer
cells (also called tumors or malignancies). It is a field of research that
aims to discover cancer immunotherapies to treat and retard progression of
the disease. The immune response, including the recognition of
cancer-specific antigens, forms the basis of targeted therapy (such as
vaccines and antibody therapies) and tumor marker-based diagnostic tests.
Cholesterol Byproduct Hijacks Immune Cells, lets Breast Cancer Spread
How to Help our Immune Cells to Recognize
What the Sugar Coating on your Cells is trying to tell you
is a generic term for the N- or O-substituted derivatives of
neuraminic acid, a monosaccharide with a nine-carbon backbone. It is also
the name for the most common member of this group, N-acetylneuraminic acid
(Neu5Ac or NANA). Sialic acids are found widely distributed in animal
tissues and to a lesser extent in other organisms, ranging from plants and
fungi to yeasts and bacteria, mostly in glycoproteins and gangliosides
(they occur at the end of sugar chains connected
to the surfaces of cells
) In humans the brain has the highest sialic acid concentration,
where these acids play an important role in
ganglioside structure in synaptogenesis. In general, the amino group bears
either an acetyl or a glycolyl group, but other modifications have been
described. These modifications along with linkages have shown to be tissue
specific and developmentally regulated expressions, so some of them are
only found on certain types of glycoconjugates in specific cells. The
hydroxyl substituents may vary considerably; acetyl, lactyl, methyl,
sulfate, and phosphate groups have been found.
New cause of inflammation in people with HIV identified
infection, HIV becomes a part of an infected person's DNA forever, and in
most cases, infected cells are silent and do not replicate the virus.
Occasionally, however, RNA is produced from this HIV DNA, which is a first
step towards virus replication. Antiretroviral treatments help prevent HIV
and AIDS-related complications, but they do not prevent the chronic
inflammation that is common among people with HIV and is associated with
A single injection of a drug called
given every two months has been shown to be more
effective than a daily oral dose of Truvada.
and cabotegravir are both
, medicines that have been incredibly effective in
controlling HIV infections. A single injection of a drug called
cabotegravir every two months was so successful in preventing HIV in a
clinical trial among women in sub-Saharan Africa that the study was
wrapped up ahead of schedule.
Discovery of Brain-like activity in immune system promises better disease
. Human immune cells contain particles that have
neurotransmitters including dopamine, which plays a crucial role in immune
responses. Neurons rely on synaptic interactions and neurotransmitters
such as dopamine, which are small molecules transmitted across synapses to
deliver signals from one cell to another that play a major role in
reward-motivated behaviour. Like neurons, specialised T cells transfer
to B cells
that provides additional 'motivation' for
to produce the
best antibodies they can to help to clear up an
white blood cells
secrete large volumes of antibodies
. They are transported by the
and the lymphatic system
. Plasma cells originate in the bone
marrow; B cells
differentiate into plasma
that produce antibody
molecules closely modeled after the receptors of the precursor B cell.
Once released into the blood
, these antibody molecules bind to
the target antigen (foreign substance) and initiate its neutralization or
are a type of
white blood cell
of the lymphocyte subtype. They function in the
component of the adaptive immune system by secreting antibodies.
Additionally, B cells present antigen (they are also classified as
professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs)) and secrete cytokines.
Bad antibodies in the immune system are usually 'silenced' in B cells
because they can harm the body by attacking itself, can provide crucial
protection against invading microbes.
Memory B Cell
are a B cell sub-type that
are formed within germinal centers following primary infection and are
important in generating an accelerated and more robust antibody-mediated
in the case of re-infection (also known as a
is a type of lymphocyte and a subtype of
white blood cell
that plays a
central role in
which is an immune response that does not involve
. Rather, cell-mediated immunity is the activation of
T-lymphocytes, and the release of various
in response to an antigen. T cells can be distinguished from
, such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the
presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface. They are called T cells
because they mature in the thymus from thymocytes (although some also
mature in the tonsils). The several subsets of T cells each have a
distinct function. The majority of human T cells rearrange their alpha and
beta chains on the cell receptor and are termed alpha beta T cells (αβ T
cells) and are part of the adaptive immune system. Specialized gamma delta
T cells, (a small minority of T cells in the human body, more frequent in
ruminants), have invariant T cell receptors with limited diversity, that
can effectively present antigens to other T cells and are considered to be
part of the innate immune system
Memory T Cell
are the cells in the body that 'remember'
previous infections and how to defeat them
. These are the cells
that provide life-long immunity to
such as measles or chicken pox.
Memory T Cells are a subset of infection-
as well as potentially cancer-fighting T cells (also known as a T
lymphocyte) that have previously encountered and responded to their
cognate antigen; thus, the term antigen-experienced T cell is often
applied. Such T cells can recognize foreign invaders, such as bacteria or
viruses, as well as cancer cells. Memory T cells have become "experienced"
by having encountered antigen during a prior infection, encounter with
cancer, or previous vaccination. At a second encounter with the invader,
memory T cells can reproduce to mount a faster and stronger immune
response than the first time the immune system responded to the invader.
This behavior is utilized in T lymphocyte proliferation assays, which can
reveal exposure to specific antigens
G.M. T Cell Therapy
Cytotoxic T Cell
is a T lymphocyte or a
white blood cell
that kills cancer cells
cells that are infected, particularly with viruses, or cells that are
damaged in other ways.
T Helper Cell
are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system
particularly in the adaptive immune system. They help the activity of
other immune cells by releasing T cell cytokines. These cells help
suppress or regulate immune responses. They are essential in B cell
antibody class switching, in the activation and growth of cytotoxic T
cells, and in maximizing bactericidal activity of phagocytes such as
Sunlight Energizes Infection Fighting T
Engineering T cells to attack cancer broadly
. This study builds on
decades of work showing that the
attacks cancer broadly, and is the first to deliver the
protein using T cells. This approach is in contrast to CAR-T cells, which
are built to recognize proteins on the surface of cancer cells and haven't
been successful against solid tumors. Mice with prostate cancer
experienced shrinkage of the original tumor as well as distant metastases
following treatment with IL-24 T cells.
Scientists find molecular key to body making healthy T cells
Researchers seek new therapies to stop immune diseases. For T cells to
activate and mature, the scientists say
must help open up
-- the twisting structure of DNA that winds around and
condenses itself in the cell nucleus to control the cell. This stimulates
a cascade of genetic and molecular programs that cooperate to form the
cells. In experiments where the scientists inhibited AP-1 in early CD4 T
cells, the chromatin didn't open as it's supposed to and the T cells
didn't form or function correctly. What makes the finding significant is
the AP-1 transcription factor accumulates and influences molecular
processes at sites called risk loci. Risk loci are locations on the
chromatin that are prone to genetic mutation and linked to multiple immune
diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, allergies or the
neurodegenerative condition multiple sclerosis. The research involves a
multidisciplinary collaboration of different teams, including scientists
in the Center for Autoimmune Genomics and Etiology and the division of
Biomedical Informatics and Genetics. Combining different biological and
computational methods of analysis, the research team was able to profile
the accessibility of chromatin to molecular remodeling during the early
stages of CD4 T cell activation. They used technologies called ChIP-seq
(chromatin immunoprecipitation) and ATAC-Seq (Assay for Transposase
Accessible Chromatin) that analyze all the different protein interactions
with DNA and chromatin state. This allowed the researchers to identify the
specific binding sites on chromatin of DNA-associated proteins. Combining
the experimental and computational analysis revealed AP-1 binding to DNA
during the early stages of CD4 T cell activation. The researchers show
when AP-1 does bind to certain chromatin locations, it does so in
conjunction with its molecular partner, NFAT1 (nuclear factor of activated
T cells). The researchers said earlier studies have focused on genetic
disruption of individual members AP-1 family proteins, of which there are
eighteen. In the current study however, the researchers said they broadly
blocked the entire AP-1 family of proteins in human naïve T cells. When
study authors inhibited AP-1, they said it prevented chromatin changes
that normally occur in the cell nucleus and the T failed to activate. Now
Barski and his colleagues are working to find out if the absence of AP-1
contributes to people acquiring an immune disease when AP-1 is unable to
bind with mutated loci. Barski says the scientists want to use new
information from their future experiments to look for new, groundbreaking
therapies that could change the outcome for patients.
is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system. Within the
thymus, T cells or T lymphocytes mature. T cells are critical to the
adaptive immune system, where the body adapts specifically to foreign
invaders. The thymus is composed of two identical lobes and is located
anatomically in the anterior superior mediastinum, in front of the heart
and behind the sternum.
are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune
system. The role NK cells play is analogous to that of cytotoxic T cells
in the vertebrate adaptive immune response. NK Cells
responses to viral-infected cells, acting at around 3 days after
infection, and respond to tumor formation. Typically, immune
detect major histocompatibility
complex (MHC) presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine
release, causing lysis or apoptosis. NK cells are unique, however, as they
have the ability to recognize stressed cells in the absence of antibodies
and MHC, allowing for a much faster immune reaction. They were named
"natural killers" because of the initial notion that they do not require
activation to kill cells that are missing "self" markers of MHC class 1.
This role is especially important because harmful cells that are missing
MHC I markers cannot be detected and destroyed by other immune cells, such
as T lymphocyte cells. NK cells (belonging to the group of innate lymphoid
cells) are defined as large granular lymphocytes (LGL) and constitute the
third kind of cells differentiated from the common lymphoid
progenitor-generating B and T lymphocytes. NK cells are known to
differentiate and mature in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils,
and thymus, where they then enter into the circulation. NK cells differ
from natural killer T cells (NKTs) phenotypically, by origin and by
respective effector functions; often, NKT cell activity promotes NK cell
activity by secreting interferon gamma. In contrast to NKT cells, NK cells
do not express T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) or pan T marker CD3 or
surface immunoglobulins (Ig) B cell receptors, but they usually express
the surface markers CD16 (FcγRIII) and CD56 in humans, NK1.1 or NK1.2 in
C57BL/6 mice. The NKp46 cell surface marker constitutes, at the moment,
another NK cell marker of preference being expressed in both humans,
several strains of mice (including BALB/c mice) and in three common monkey
species. In addition to the knowledge that natural killer cells are
effectors of innate immunity, recent research has uncovered information on
both activating and inhibitory NK cell receptors which play important
functional roles, including self tolerance and the sustaining of NK cell
activity. NK cells also play a role in the adaptive immune response:
numerous experiments have demonstrated their ability to readily adjust to
the immediate environment and formulate antigen-specific immunological
memory, fundamental for responding to secondary infections with the same
antigen. The role of NK cells in both the innate and adaptive immune
responses is becoming increasingly important in research using NK cell
activity as a potential cancer therapy.
The Immune System's Super-Cell
. NK cells, or natural killer cells, play
an important role in the body's defences against cancer and various
infections. Now scientists have mapped how the different steps of the
maturation process of these supercells from blood producing stem cells in
the bone marrow are regulated: knowledge which is crucial for the
development of new immunotherapies against cancer.
Killer T Cell
are a heterogeneous group of T cells that share
properties of both T cells and natural killer cells. Many of these
cells recognize the non-polymorphic CD1d molecule, an antigen-presenting
molecule that binds self and foreign lipids and glycolipids. They
constitute only approximately 0.1% of all peripheral blood T cells.
Natural killer T cells should not be confused with natural killer cells.
is a resident cell of connective tissue that contains many
granules rich in histamine and heparin. Specifically, it is a type of
granulocyte derived from the myeloid stem cell that is a part of the
and neuroimmune systems . Although best known
for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, mast cells play an important
protective role as well, being intimately involved in
, angiogenesis, immune
tolerance, defense against pathogens, and blood–brain barrier function.
The mast cell is very similar in both appearance and function to the
basophil, another type of white blood cell. Although mast cells were once
thought to be tissue resident basophils, it has been shown that the two
cells develop from different hematopoietic lineages and thus cannot be the
are antigen-presenting cells
known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system. Their main
function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface
to the T cells of the immune system. They act as messengers between the
innate and the adaptive immune systems. Dendritic cells are present in
those tissues that are in contact with the external environment, such as
the skin (where there is a specialized dendritic cell type called the
Langerhans cell) and the inner lining of the nose, lungs, stomach and
intestines. They can also be found in an immature state in the blood. Once
activated, they migrate to the lymph nodes where they interact with T
cells and B cells to initiate and shape the adaptive immune response. At
certain development stages they grow branched projections, the dendrites
that give the cell its name (δένδρον or déndron being Greek for 'tree').
While similar in appearance, these are structures distinct from the
dendrites of neurons. Immature dendritic cells are also called veiled
cells, as they possess large cytoplasmic 'veils' rather than dendrites.
is the study of the interaction between
psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human
body. PNI takes an interdisciplinary approach, incorporating psychology,
neuroscience, immunology, physiology, genetics, pharmacology, molecular
biology, psychiatry, behavioral medicine, infectious diseases,
endocrinology, and rheumatology.
are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of
monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages and on
hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. They
range in structure from linear to highly branched. Examples include
storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural
polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin.
is the only known positive
regulator of complement activation that stabilizes the alternative pathway
convertases. It is found in the blood serum of more complex animals.
are cells that protect the
body by ingesting (phagocytosing) harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and
dead or dying cells.
is one of the subtypes of
white blood cell
vertebrate's immune system. Lymphocytes include natural killer cells (NK
cells) (which function in cell-mediated, cytotoxic innate immunity), T
cells (for cell-mediated, cytotoxic adaptive immunity), and B cells (for
humoral, antibody-driven adaptive immunity). They are the main type of
cell found in lymph, which prompted the name "lymphocyte".
is a potentially fatal
immune reaction consisting of a positive feedback loop between cytokines
and white blood cells, with highly elevated levels of various cytokines.
are a broad and loose category
of small proteins
that are important in cell signaling. Their release has an effect on the
behavior of cells around them. Cell Death
Food - Nutrition - Beneficial Diets
Foods with Processed Sugar
is a good idea because Cancer cells usually grow quickly, multiplying at a
fast rate, which takes a lot of energy. This means they need lots of
glucose. But all our healthy cells need glucose too, so eliminating foods
with natural sugar won’t stop cancer cells from dividing. Diets high in
sugar and refined carbohydrates can lead to overweight and obesity, which
indirectly increases cancer risk over time. When reading food labels, look
for sugar listed as the first ingredient and be aware of hidden
: fructose, lactose,
sucrose, maltose, glucose, dextrose. Natural sugars—molasses, agave
nectar, honey and maple syrup—contain beneficial antioxidants but those,
too, should be consumed in moderation
Research suggests that glucose depletion therapies might work, as long as
the cancer cells produce
- Nutrition Knowledge
Modified Gerson Approach
Dr. William Li
is the physiological
process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels. In
precise usage this is distinct from vasculogenesis, which is the de novo
formation of endothelial cells from mesoderm cell precursors, and from
neovascularization, although discussions are not always precise
(especially in older texts). The first vessels in the developing embryo
form through vasculogenesis, after which angiogenesis is responsible for
most, if not all, blood vessel growth during development and in disease.
Angiogenesis is a normal and vital process in growth and development, as
well as in wound healing and in the formation of granulation tissue.
However, it is also a fundamental step in the transition of tumors from a
benign state to a malignant one, leading to the use of angiogenesis
inhibitors in the treatment of cancer. The essential role of angiogenesis
in tumor growth was first proposed in 1971 by Judah Folkman, who described
tumors as "hot and bloody," illustrating that, at least for many tumor
types, flush perfusion and even hyperemia are characteristic.
Proteins Restricts Tumor Growth
Breast Cancer Linked to Bacterial Imbalances
- Medical Marijuana -
(benefits of eating
Bioactive Novel Compounds from Endangered Tropical Plant Species
Biologists have isolated 17 secondary metabolites, including three novel
compounds from the valuable endangered tropical plant species
. A newly isolated compound, 8-hydroxytubulosine,
showed growth inhibitory effects at submicromolar levels against several
human tumor cell lines except for drug transporter-overexpressing cells.
Compound 1 caused accumulation of sub-G1 cells with no effect on cell
cycle progression, suggesting that this substance is an apoptosis inducer.
Many antitumor drugs currently in clinical use, such as paclitaxel,
vinca alkaloids (vinblastine and vincristine), podophyllotoxin analogues (etoposide
and teniposide), and topotecan (camptothecin analog) are based on
natural plants. According to a report, 83% of new chemical entities
identified as anticancer agents from 1981 to 2014 were derived from
are cells forming the outer
layer of a blastocyst, which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop
into a large part of the placenta. They are formed during the first stage
of pregnancy and are the first cells to differentiate from the fertilized
egg. This layer of trophoblasts is also collectively referred to as "the
trophoblast", or, after gastrulation, the trophectoderm, as it is then
contiguous with the ectoderm of the embryo.
is the common name for most
obligate hemiparasitic plants in the order Santalales. Mistletoes attach
to and penetrate the branches of a tree or shrub by a structure called the
haustorium, through which they absorb water and nutrients from the host
is a poisonous cyanogenic
glycoside found in many plants, but most notably in the seeds (kernels) of
apricot, bitter almonds, apple, peach, and plum.
in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies
in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood
provides most of the energy
are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and
their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) containing the ketone group
that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food
intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged
intense exercise, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated)
type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the
extra-hepatic tissues (tissues outside the liver) and converted into
acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the
mitochondria for energy. In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make
acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the
liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e.
, starving, low
carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise
and untreated type 1 diabetes
mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production
of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids). They
are therefore always released into the blood by the liver together with
newly produced glucose
after the liver glycogen stores have been depleted
(these glycogen stores are depleted within the first 24 hours of fasting).
When two acetyl-CoA molecules lose their -CoAs, (or Co-enzyme A groups)
they can form a (covalent) dimer called acetoacetate. Beta-hydroxybutyrate
is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted
into an alcohol (or hydroxyl) group. Both
are 4-carbon molecules, that can readily be converted back into acetyl-CoA
by most tissues of the body, with the notable exception of the liver.
Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be
converted back into acetyl-CoA except via detoxification in the liver
where it is converted into lactic acid, which can, in turn, be oxidized
into pyruvic acid
, and only then into acetyl-CoA. Ketone bodies have a
characteristic smell, which can easily be detected in the breath of
persons in ketosis and ketoacidosis. It is often described as fruity or
like nail polish remover (which usually contains acetone or ethyl
acetate). Apart from the three endogenous ketone bodies, acetone, acetoacetic acid, and beta-hydroxybutyric
acid, other ketone bodies
like beta-ketopentanoate and beta-hydroxypentanoate may be created as a
result of the metabolism of synthetic triglycerides, such as triheptanoin.
, ketone bodies are also used to
make acetyl-CoA into long-chain
. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the
extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the
citric acid cycle
and is oxidized
in the mitochondria
is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is
used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in
children. The diet forces the body to burn fats rather than carbohydrates.
Normally, the carbohydrates
contained in food are converted into glucose,
which is then transported around the body and is particularly important in
. However, if there is very little carbohydrate in
the diet, the liver converts fat into fatty acids and ketone bodies. The
ketone bodies pass into the brain and replace glucose as an energy source.
An elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood, a state known as ketosis,
leads to a reduction in the frequency of epileptic seizures.
Starving Cancer Cells using a key nutrient Amino Acids, slows Tumor
is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms,
such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
believe that each person has a unique
, and that the proportion of
macromolecules (proteins, carbohydrates and fats) which are optimal for
one person may not be for a second, and could even be detrimental to them.
Links between Metabolism and Cancer
is the synthesis and
degradation of lipids in cells. Lipid metabolism is the break down or
storage of fats for energy; these fats are obtained from consuming food
and absorbing them or they are synthesized by an animal's liver. Aberrant Lipid Metabolism in the
Forebrain Niche Suppresses
Proliferation in an Animal Model of
Evidence Points to a Specific Diet That Can Starve Cancer Cells of Their
Prime Fuels. The Metabolic Approach to Cancer: Integrating Deep Nutrition,
the Ketogenic Diet, and Nontoxic Bio-Individualized Therapies.
Marine phospholipids--a promising new dietary approach to tumor-associated
Cancer: The Forbidden Cures
is a collection of
extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and
biochemical support to the surrounding cells. Because multicellularity
evolved independently in different multicellular lineages, the composition
of ECM varies between multicellular structures; however, cell adhesion,
cell-to-cell communication and differentiation are common functions of the
is an herbal tea promoted as an
alternative treatment for cancer and other illnesses. There is no evidence
it is beneficial to health, and it may be harmful.
Laetrile Research Film
or Mayapple, all the parts
of the plant are poisonous, including the green fruit, but once the fruit
has turned yellow, it can be safely eaten with the seeds removed.
New Health Benefits discovered in Berry Pigment
. Naturally occurring
pigments in berries, also known as anthocyanins, increase the function of
the sirtuin 6 enzyme in cancer cells, a new study shows. The regulation of
this enzyme could open up new avenues for cancer treatment.
water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear
red, purple, or blue. Food plants rich in anthocyanins include the
blueberry, raspberry, black rice, and black soybean, among many others
that are red, blue, purple, or black. Some of the colors of autumn
leaves are derived from anthocyanins.
and mono-ADP ribosyltransferase enzyme encoded by
the SIRT6 gene. SIRT6 functions in multiple molecular pathways related to
aging, including DNA repair
, telomere maintenance,
glycolysis and inflammation
on tree that only grows in Far North Queensland.
is a type of epithelium that lines the
interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an
interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of
the vessel wall. It is a thin layer of simple squamous cells called
endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are
called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with
lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial cells
line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest
capillaries. These cells have unique functions in vascular biology. These
functions include fluid filtration, such as in the glomerulus of the
kidney, blood vessel tone, hemostasis, neutrophil recruitment, and hormone
trafficking. Endothelium of the interior surfaces of the heart chambers is
that contain the psychedelic compounds psilocybin and psilocin. Common
colloquial terms include magic mushrooms and shrooms. They are used mainly
as an entheogen and recreational drug whose effects can include euphoria,
altered thinking processes, closed and open-eye visuals, synesthesia, an
altered sense of time and spiritual experiences. Biological genera
containing psilocybin mushrooms include Copelandia, Galerina, Gymnopilus,
Inocybe, Mycena, Panaeolus, Pholiotina, Pluteus, and Psilocybe. Over 100
species are classified in the genus Psilocybe. Psilocybin mushrooms may
have been used since prehistoric times. They are possibly depicted in
Stone Age rock art in Europe and Africa, and have a history of use in
pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. Many cultures have used these mushrooms in
their religious rites and ceremonie.
is a genus of yeasts and is the most common
cause of fungal infections worldwide. Many species are harmless commensals
or endosymbionts of hosts including humans; however, when mucosal barriers
are disrupted or the immune system is compromised they can invade and
cause disease. Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species, and
can cause infections (candidiasis or thrush) in humans and other animals.
In winemaking, some species of Candida can potentially spoil wines.
Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin
is a large,
multisubunit, oxygen-carrying, metalloprotein that is found in the
hemolymph of the giant keyhole limpet, Megathura crenulata, a species of
keyhole limpet that lives off the coast of California, from Monterey Bay
to Isla Asuncion off Baja California.
Caris Life Sciences
are biologically occurring short chains of
amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Reactive Oxygen species
reactive chemical species containing
. Examples include peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and
is a single organism composed of
cells from different zygotes. This can result in male and female organs,
two blood types, or subtle variations in form. Animal chimeras are
produced by the merger of multiple fertilized eggs.
Therapies for Cancer
is therapy in which cellular material is injected into a patient; this
generally means intact, living cells
. For example, T cells capable of
fighting cancer cells via cell-mediated immunity may be injected in the
course of immunotherapy.
is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid polymers into a patient's
cells as a drug to treat disease.
is a humanized
used in cancer immunotherapy
. It destroys a protective mechanism on cancer
cells, and allows the immune system to destroy those cancer cells. It
targets the programmed cell death
1 (PD-1) receptor. The drug was
initially used in treating metastatic melanoma.
Personalized Cell Therapies
engineers immune cells
can detect proteins and target cancer cells specifically.
City of Hope
International Agency for Research on Cancer
Cancer Genes Turned Off
is the use of
a mixture of antibodies (immunoglobulins) to treat a number of health
coagulase-negative member of the genus Staphylococcus, consisting of
Gram-positive bacteria with spherical cells that appear in clusters.
Engineered Liposomes Sequester Bacterial
is a spherical vesicle having
at least one lipid bilayer. The liposome can be used as a vehicle for
administration of nutrients and pharmaceutical drugs. Liposomes can be
prepared by disrupting biological membranes (such as by sonication).
is a toxin secreted by
bacteria. An exotoxin can cause damage to the host by destroying cells or
disrupting normal cellular metabolism. They are highly potent and can
cause major damage to the host. Exotoxins may be secreted, or, similar to
endotoxins, may be released during lysis of the cell. Gram negative
pathogens may secrete outer membrane vesicles containing
lipopolysaccharide endotoxin and some virulence proteins in the bounding
membrane along with some other toxins as intra-vesicular contents, thus
adding a previously unforeseen dimension to the well-known eukaryote
process of membrane vesicle trafficking, which is quite active at the
is a cell-based cancer immunotherapy for
prostate cancer (CaP). It is a personalized treatment that works by
programming each patient's immune system to seek out cancer and attack it
as if it were foreign.
is blood plasma
that has been enriched with platelets. As a concentrated source of
autologous platelets, PRP contains several different growth factors and
other cytokines that can stimulate healing of soft tissue. Platelet-rich
plasma therapy is an old therapy and used extensively in specialities of
dermatology, orthopedics and dentistry. Platelet rich plasma therapy
utilizes growth factors present in alpha granules of platelets in an
autologous manner. Main indications in dermatology for PRP are
androgenetic alopecia, wound healing, face rejuvenation etc. For
preparation of PRP, various protocols are used and no standard protocol
exists but main principles essentially involve concentrating platlets in a
concentration of 3–5 times the physiological value and then injecting this
concentrated plasma in the tissue where healing or effect is desired.
As of 2016, no large-scale randomized controlled trials have confirmed the
efficacy of PRP as a treatment for musculoskeletal or nerve injuries, the
accelerated healing of bone grafts, or the reduction of androgenic hair
Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Therapy
Transfusion Cellular Therapies
Offering abiraterone (Zytiga) up-front with standard hormone treatment
extends survival in men whose prostate cancer has spread
Combined immunotherapy could help control melanoma that has spread to the
brainStimulating Defense Mechanisms
Naturally occurring molecule enhances
defense mechanisms in neurodegenerative
is a monosaccharide
and a derivative of glucose. It is an amide between glucosamine and acetic
Protein Quality Control and
is a region of repetitive
nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end
of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring
Rare byproduct of marine bacteria
kills cancer cells by
Alternative Cancer Treatments
are alternative or complementary treatments
for cancer that have not been approved by the government agencies
responsible for the regulation of therapeutic goods.
Tumor Treating Fields
is a type of
electromagnetic field therapy using low-intensity electrical fields
Alternating Electric Field Therapy
is a type of electromagnetic field
therapy using low-intensity electrical fields to treat cancer. A TTF-generating
device manufactured by the Israeli company Novocure is approved in the
United States and Europe for the treatment of newly diagnosed and
recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and is undergoing clinical trials
for several other tumor types. Despite earning regulatory approval, the
efficacy of this technology remains controversial among medical experts.
Sometimes called tumor treating fields TTF or TTFields.
refers to therapy involving the use of
magnets or electromagnets
include: Bioelectromagnetics, the study of how electromagnetic fields
interact with and influence biological processes. Electrotherapy, the use
of electrical or electromagnetic energy in medicine; Electromagnetic
therapy (alternative medicine), the use of
to treat disease. Evidence of efficacy is lacking. Pulsed Electromagnetic
Field Therapy, or PEMF, the use of weak electromagnetic fields to initiate
osteogenesis. Alternating electric field therapy, also known as "Tumor
Treating Fields", the use of electric fields as an anti-mitotic therapy
for cancer patients.
refers to efforts to use electromagnetic
radiation (most often in infrared wavelengths) for the treatment of
various medical conditions, including cancer. This approach is an
extension of photodynamic therapy, in which a photosensitizer is excited
with specific band light. This activation brings the sensitizer to an
excited state where it then releases vibrational energy (heat), which is
what kills the targeted cells. Unlike photodynamic therapy, photothermal
therapy does not require oxygen to interact with the target cells or
tissues. Current studies also show that photothermal therapy is able to
use longer wavelength light, which is less energetic and therefore less
harmful to other cells and tissues.
Targeted treatment of cancer with Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields
amplitude-modulated at Tumor-Specific Frequencies
. There have been
many attempts to treat cancer with low levels of electric and magnetic
fields. We have developed noninvasive
examination devices and techniques and discovered that
patients with the same tumor type exhibit biofeedback responses to the
same, precise frequencies. Intrabuccal administration of 27.12 MHz
(EMF), which are amplitude-modulated at
tumor-specific frequencies, results in long-term objective responses in
patients with cancer and is not associated with any significant adverse
effects. Intrabuccal administration allows for therapeutic delivery of
very low and safe levels of EMF throughout the body as exemplified by
responses observed in the femur, liver, adrenal glands, and lungs. In
vitro studies have demonstrated that tumor-specific frequencies identified
in patients with various forms of cancer are capable of blocking the
growth of tumor cells in a tissue- and tumor-specific fashion. Current
experimental evidence suggests that tumor-specific modulation frequencies
regulate the expression of genes involved in migration and invasion and
disrupt the mitotic spindle. This novel targeted treatment approach is
emerging as an appealing therapeutic option for patients with advanced
cancer given its excellent tolerability. Dissection of the molecular
mechanisms accounting for the anti-cancer effects of tumor-specific
modulation frequencies is likely to lead to the discovery of novel
pathways in cancer.
Fake Cancer Cures
Bogus Cancer Treatments
Ernst T. Krebs
was an American biochemist. He is known for promoting
various substances as alternative cures for cancer.
is an alternative medical
treatment promoted as a cure for cancer.
Ryke Geerd Hamer
is a German former physician, a system of
purports to be able to cure cancer
Cancer Misdiagnosis Guide
is a type of healer who
treated ailments believed to be caused by
, which is the practice of, and belief in, magical skills
and abilities that are able to be exercised by individuals and certain
critical thinking about treatment claims.
Effects of the Informed Health Choices
podcast on the ability of
parents of primary school children in Uganda to assess claims about
treatment effects: a randomized controlled trial.
category of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs
(chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Each year, about 650,000 cancer patients receive
in an outpatient oncology clinic in the United States.
is a regimen for chemotherapy, defining the drugs to be used,
, the frequency and duration of treatments, and other
considerations. In modern oncology, many regimens combine several
chemotherapy drugs in combination chemotherapy. The majority of drugs used
in cancer chemotherapy are cytostatic, many via cytotoxicity.
Because chemotherapy drugs travel through the body, they can also impact
healthy cells, leading to a variety of side effects. Chemo is designed to
kill fast-growing cancer cells, but this can sometimes lead to side
effects involving the body’s other, healthy fast-growing cells. Blood
forming cells in the bone marrow (anemia, increased risk of infection,
bruising). Hair follicles (temporary hair loss) Cells in the mouth,
digestive and reproductive tract (nausea, loss appetite, constipation,
diarrhea) Some chemo drugs can damage cells in the heart, kidneys,
bladder, lungs, and nervous system. Your doctor monitors you closely and
may prescribe medicines to protect your body’s normal cells. There are
also medicines to help relieve side effects.
Mitochondria are the 'canary in the coal mine' for cellular stress
How some cancers resist chemotherapy. Mitochondria, tiny structures
present in most cells, are known for their energy-generating machinery.
Now, researchers have discovered a new function of mitochondria: they set
off molecular alarms when cells are exposed to stress or chemicals that
can damage DNA, such as chemotherapy. The results could lead to new cancer
treatments that prevent tumors from becoming resistant to chemotherapy.
inhibition of cell growth and multiplication.
the quality of being toxic to cells.
is a combination
chemotherapy regimen used to treat Hodgkin's disease. The acronym is
derived from the component drugs of the regimen:(M)ustargen (also known as
mechlorethamine, chlormethine, mustine, nitrogen mustard, or MSD). (O)ncovin
(also known as Vincristine or VCR). (P)rocarbazine (also known as Matulane
or Natulan). (P)rednisone (also known as Deltasone or Orasone). The
treatment is usually administered in four week cycles, often for six
cycles. MSD and VCR are administered intravenously, while procarbazine and
prednisone are pills taken orally. A newer Hodgkin's lymphoma treatment is
ABVD. C-MOPP involves switching the nitrogen mustard from mechlorethamine
to cyclophosphamide. C-MOPP is thus very similar to COPP, using the same 4
agents and differing at most in dosages and timing.
describes the cognitive
impairment that can result from chemotherapy treatment. Approximately
20–30% of people who undergo chemotherapy experience some level of
post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment. The phenomenon first came to light
because of the large number of breast cancer survivors who complained of
changes in memory, fluency, and other
their ability to function as they had pre-chemotherapy.
Warnings from Medications
is therapy using
ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or
kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
therapy may be curative in a number of types of cancer if they
are localized to one area of the body. It may also be used as part of
adjuvant therapy, to prevent tumor recurrence after surgery to remove a
primary malignant tumor (for example, early stages of breast cancer).
Radiation therapy is synergistic with chemotherapy, and has been used
before, during, and after chemotherapy in susceptible cancers. Radiation
therapy is the use of high-energy particles or waves to destroy or damage
cancer cells. Radiation is delivered using special equipment that sends
high doses of radiation to the cancer cells or tumor. Radiation can also
affect healthy cells, however, normal cells can repair themselves, while
cancer cells cannot.
transcription factors that respond to decreases in available
in the cellular
environment, or hypoxia.
Focused Ultrasound to Dissolve Tumors.
High Intensity Focused Ultrasound
is an early stage medical technology that is
in various stages of development worldwide to treat a range of disorders.
The mechanism is similar to using a magnifying glass to focus sunlight.
Focused ultrasound uses an acoustic lens to concentrate multiple
intersecting beams of ultrasound on a target. Each individual beam passes
through tissue with little effect but at the focal point where the beams
converge, the energy can have useful thermal or mechanical effects. HIFU
is typically performed with real-time imaging via ultrasound or MRI to
enable treatment targeting and monitoring (including thermal tracking with
is a specialized cell which acts as a
sensory receptor which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance and
generates a biological signal. This signal may be in the form of an action
potential if the chemoreceptor is a neuron (nerve cell), or in the form of
a neurotransmitter that can activate a nearby nerve fiber if the
chemosensor is a specialized sensory cell, such as a sensory cell in a
taste bud or in an internal chemoreceptor such as the carotid body. In
more general terms, a chemosensor detects chemicals in the internal or
external environment and transmits that information to the nervous system.
named because they are sensory extensions of the peripheral nervous system
into blood vessels where they detect changes in chemical concentrations.
As transducers of patterns of variability in the surrounding environment,
carotid and aortic bodies count as ‘sensors’ in a similar way as taste
buds and photoreceptors. However, because carotid and aortic bodies detect
variation within the body’s internal organs, they are considered interoceptors. Taste buds, olfactory bulbs, photoreceptors, and other
receptors associated with the five traditional sensory modalities, by
contrast, are exteroceptors in that they respond to stimuli outside the
body. The body also contains proprioceptors, which respond to the amount
of stretch within the organ, usually muscle, that they occupy.
Pathwork Molecular Diagnostics
Alternating Electric Field Therapy
is a type of
therapy using low-intensity electrical fields to treat cancer.
Experimental Cancer Treatment
medical therapies intended or claimed to treat cancer (see also tumor) by
improving on, supplementing or replacing conventional methods (surgery,
chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy).
You need to do a lot of research when seeking out cancer
. And don't believe that Doctors are looking out for
your best interest because sadly too many Doctors are corrupted by money.
The Cure is Worse than the
is when the medical treatment for an illness produces a
worse net result than the illness does (threatens a non-negligible risk of
doing so), especially via adverse effects. (figuratively) The solution or
proposed solution to a problem produces a worse net result than the
problem does (threatens a non-negligible
of doing so), especially via unintended consequences.
(skeptic) - Informed Consent
are cancers that arise from the
. They are due to the development of abnormal
that have the
ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. More than 1
million cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the United States each year.
There are 3 Main Types of Skin Cancers
Basal-Cell Skin Cancer
is the most common skin cancer.
Squamous-Cell skin Cancer
is cancer that begins from
, a type of skin cell.
is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells
, which are melanin-producing neural-crest derived cells
located in the bottom layer (the stratum basale) of the skin's epidermis,
the middle layer of the eye (the uvea), the inner ear, meninges, bones,
and heart. Melanin
is the pigment primarily responsible for skin color.
Once synthesised, melanin is contained in a special organelle called a
melanosome and moved along arm-like structures called dendrites, so as to
reach the keratinocytes.
Approximately 5.4 million basal and squamous cell skin
cancers are diagnosed each year.
is a type
of cancer that develops from
. Specifically, a carcinoma is a cancer that begins in
a tissue that lines the inner or outer surfaces of the body, and that
generally arises from cells originating in the
germ layer during embryogenesis. Carcinomas occur when the
DNA of a cell is damaged or altered and the cell begins to grow
uncontrollably and become malignant. It is from the Greek καρκίνωμα 'karkinoma'
meaning sore, ulcer, or cancer, itself derived from karkinos 'crab.
Deep learning algorithm does as well as dermatologists in identifying skin
USC Viterbi researchers invent waterproof patch to monitor UV ray exposure
Color-changing smart material sensor will alert user that it’s time to get
out of the sun.
(images of Benign
Wart or a Mole
Promising new drug stops spread of melanoma by 90 percent
Some skin cancers may start in hair follicles
. Some of the most deadly
skin cancers may start in stem cells that lend color to hair, and
originate in hair follicles rather than in skin layers.
long term autoimmune disease that results in hardening of the skin. In the
more severe form, it also affects internal organs. The cause is unknown.
The underlying mechanism involves the body's immune system
healthy tissues. There is a strong association with certain mutations in HLA genes. Environmental factors have also been implicated.
protein that in humans is encoded by the MYOCD gene. Myocardin is a smooth
muscle and cardiac muscle-specific transcriptional coactivator of serum
response factor. When expressed ectopically in nonmuscle cells, myocardin
can induce smooth muscle differentiation by its association with serum
response factor (SRF; MIM 600589).[supplied by OMIM].
Beneficial skin bacteria protect against skin cancer
. A strain of S.
epidermidis was shown to produce a molecule that kills cancer cells and
inhibits the development of skin tumors on mice. UC San Diego Health.
strain produces the chemical compound 6-N-hydroxyaminopurine,
6-HAP is a molecule that impairs the creation of DNA, known as DNA
synthesis, and prevents the spread of transformed tumor cells as well as
the potential to suppress development of UV-induced skin tumors.
is the biochemical process that helps organisms cope with molecular damage
caused by sunlight
. Plants and
other oxygenic phototrophs have developed a suite of photoprotective
mechanisms to prevent photoinhibition and oxidative stress caused by
excess or fluctuating light conditions. Humans and other animals have also
developed photoprotective mechanisms to avoid
photodamage to the skin,
prevent DNA damage, and minimize the downstream effects of oxidative
Principles and Practice of Photoprotection
. Summarizes the beneficial
roles of photoprotection in relation to skin cancers, photoaging,
photodermatoses, autoimmune and other skin conditions
is a form
burn that affects living tissue, such as skin, that results
from an overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation
, commonly from the
Common symptoms in humans and other animals include red or reddish skin
that is hot to the touch, pain,
general fatigue, and mild dizziness.
Degrees of Burns
. An excess of UV radiation can be life-threatening in extreme cases.
Excessive UV radiation is the leading cause of primarily non-malignant
skin tumors. Sunburn is an inflammatory response
in the skin triggered by
direct DNA damage by UVR. When the skin cells' DNA is overly damaged by
, type I cell-death is
triggered and the skin is replaced. Sun protective measures including
sunscreen and sun protective clothing is widely accepted to prevent
sunburn and some types of skin cancer. Special populations including
children are especially susceptible to sunburn and protective measures
should be used. Skin Types:
Type I: Pale
white skin, burns easily, does not tan. Type II: White skin, burns easily,
tans with difficulty. Type III: White skin, may burn but tans easily. Type
IV: Light brown/olive skin, hardly burns, tans easily. Type V: Brown skin,
usually does not burn, tans easily. Type VI: Black skin, very unlikely to
burn, becomes darker with UVR exposure. Lower the
Limit sun exposure between the hours of 10am and 4pm, when UV
rays are the strongest. Seek shade
when UV rays are most intense. Do not burn.
. Wear sun-protective clothing including a wide brim
hat, sunglasses, and tightly-woven, loose-fitting clothing. Avoid tanning
beds and artificial UV exposure. Treatment:
For pain relief, take cool baths or showers frequently. Use soothing
moisturizers that contain aloe vera or soy. Hydrocortisone creams that can
be purchased over-the-counter can also be used on areas that are painful,
however avoid creams that end in "caine" as these can be more irritating.
Anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen or aspirin can help with
pain. Keep hydrated
drink extra water. If your sunburn Blisters
, do not pop them. Instead, let
them heal on their own. Protect sunburned skin with loose clothing when
going outside to prevent further damage. The
indicates the risk of
getting a sunburn at a given time and location.
Contributing Factors Include:
The time of day. In most locations,
the sun's rays are strongest between approximately 10am and 4pm daylight
saving time. Cloud cover
is partially blocked by clouds; but even on an overcast day, a significant
percentage of the sun's damaging UV radiation can pass through clouds.
Proximity to Reflective Surfaces
, such as
water, sand, concrete, snow, and ice. All of these reflect the sun's rays
and can cause sunburns. The
season of the year
. The position of the sun in late spring and early
summer can cause a more-severe sunburn. Altitude
At a higher altitude it is easier to become burnt, because there is less
of the earth's atmosphere to block the sunlight. UV exposure increases
about 4% for every 1000 ft (305 m) gain in elevation
. Proximity to the
equator (latitude). Between the polar and tropical regions, the closer to
the equator, the more direct sunlight passes through the atmosphere over
the course of a year. For example, the southern United States gets fifty
percent more sunlight than the northern United States
Study gives insight into sun-induced DNA damage and cell repair
Ultraviolet light from the sun is a ubiquitous carcinogen that can inflict
structural damage to the cellular DNA
. As DNA
carries important blueprints for cellular functions, failure in removing
and restoring damaged parts of DNA in a timely fashion can have
detrimental outcomes and lead to skin cancers in humans. Min and her team
showed how the repair
would bind to one such UV-induced DNA damage--6-4
photoproduct -- to mark the damaged site along the DNA in preparation for
the rest of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) process in cells.
Structure and mechanism of
(6-4) photoproduct recognition by the Rad4/XPC
nucleotide excision repair complex.
lotion, spray, gel or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some
of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus helps protect against
sunburn. Diligent use of sunscreen can also slow or temporarily prevent
the development of wrinkles, moles and sagging skin.
organic compound. It is a pale-yellow solid that is readily soluble in
most organic solvents. Oxybenzone belongs to the class of aromatic ketones
known as benzophenones. It is a component of many sunscreen lotions and is
used as an additive in plastics to protect them from UV degradation.
Benzophenones (along with three other active ingredients)[which?] in
sunscreens have been linked to coral bleaching. Around 3,500 sun
protection products containing oxybenzone are currently available to
occurs when coral polyps expel algae that live inside their tissues, and
as the algae provide the coral with up to 90% of its energy, after
expelling the algae the coral begins to
is an organic compound that is an ingredient in some
sunscreens and lip balms. It is an ester formed from methoxycinnamic acid
and (RS)-2-ethylhexanol. It is a clear liquid that is insoluble in water.
sweat blocks the sun's harmful rays and fights
is a small
benign tumor that forms primarily in areas where the
such as the neck, armpit and groin. They may also occur on the face,
usually on the eyelids. Perianal skin tags can be associated with Crohn's
disease. Acrochorda are generally harmless and painless and usually do not
grow or change over time. Though tags up to a half-inch long have been
seen, they are typically the size of a grain of rice. The surface of an
acrochordon may be smooth or irregular in appearance and is often raised
from the surface of the skin on a fleshy stalk called a peduncle.
Microscopically, an acrochordon consists of a fibrovascular core,
sometimes also with fat cells, covered by an unremarkable epidermis.
However, tags may become irritated by shaving, clothing, jewellery or
eczema. Skin hanger is a tiny, benign, outpouching of skin that is
typically connected to the underlying skin by a thin stalk. Skin tags look
like tiny bits of "hanging" skin
and typically occur in sites where
clothing rubs against the skin or where there is skin-to-skin friction,
such as the underarms, neck, upper chest, and groin. Skin tags are not
present at birth and their frequency increases with age. Skin tags can be
observed in about 25% of adults. Studies have shown a genetic
predisposition to the development of skin tags. Therefore, skin tags can
run in families. A skin tag is medically termed an acrochordon. Sometimes,
other terms have been used to refer to skin tags. These include soft warts
(although they do not represent true warts), soft fibromas,
fibroepithelial polyps (FEP), fibroma pendulans, and pedunculated fibroma.
Man Found A Lump On His Arm. This Is What Happened To His Brain
- metastatic melanoma.
Cancer in Pets
Not only do humans get abused by cancer and the cost of cancer treatments, but our pets do as well.
Dogs and Cancer
Cancer in Cats: Types, symptoms, prevention and treatments
Cancer in Pets
Signs of Cancer in Pets