Electricity


Electricity is the movement of free electrons through a medium that is produced by an energy source, but it is the magnetic waves or energy field around the power lines that carries the electrical energy. So electricity is more than a physical phenomenon associated with stationary or the moving of electrons and protons. Energy is made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor. Charge is the quantity of unbalanced electricity in a body (either positive (+) or negative (-) and construed as an excess or deficiency of electrons. Voltage causes electrons to move in one direction, like with DC. AC voltage moves in two directions. Current flows from positive ions to negative ions. High potential has positive ions and low potential has negative ions. The flow of electrons is from negative to positive and the current flows in opposite direction to it. Current flows from high potential to low potential. Higher potential is more positive charges. Lower potential is more negative charges or no charge.

Magnetics - Physics - Bioelectric - Waves - Electric Field - Static

Previous SubjectNext Subject

Electrical Spark Electric Charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric charges: positive and negative. Like charges repel and unlike or opposite charges attract. An object is negatively charged if it has an excess of electrons, and is otherwise positively charged or uncharged. When atoms don't have as many electrons as they do protons, they carry a charge. Negative charge is carried by electrons, and positive charge is carried by the protons in the nuclei of atoms.

Electric Discharge describes any flow of electric charge through a gas, liquid or solid. The properties and effects of electric discharges are useful over a wide range of magnitudes. Electric discharges can convey substantial energy to the electrodes at the ends of the discharge. Discharge is the release and transmission of electricity in an applied electric field through a medium such as a gas.

Electrostatic Discharge - Lightning - Capacitors - Energy Types - Human Energy

When we learned how to convert electricity into a language, we realized that our potential is endless. Taming lightning is just the beginning.

The Big Misconception About Electricity (youtube) - What is Electricity? (youtube) - How Electricity Works. Animated (youtube)

AC is Alternating Current or an electric current that reverses direction sinusoidally in a succession of waves or curves. AC has no polarity. 120 V.

DC is Direct Current or an electric current that flows in one direction steadily, resulting in a constant polarity. Batteries - Inverter.

Amps is the rate at which electrons are flowing.
Ampere is the basic unit of electric current. Ampere.
Current is the flow of electricity through a conductor. Current - Impedance.
Voltage is the the rate at which energy is drawn from a source. Voltage (pressure) 120 V and a frequency of 60 Hz.
Watt is a unit of power. Watt - Microwatt is one millionth (10-6) of a watt, abbreviated as µW.
Ohm is a unit of electrical resistance equal to the resistance between two points on a conductor when a potential difference of one volt between them produces a current of one ampere. Ohm (wiki).

Capacitance is the ability of a body to store an electrical charge. Battery.

resistance triangle Resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor. Voltge = Time x Resistance. Current equals Voltage divided by Resistance (I=V/R), Resistance equals Voltage divided by Current (R=V/I), and Voltage equals Current times Resistance (V=IR). The important factor here is the temperature.

Ohm's Law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points. Introducing the constant of proportionality, the resistance, one arrives at the usual mathematical equation that describes this relationship: I = V R, where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the voltage measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms. More specifically, Ohm's law states that the R in this relation is constant, independent of the current. Ohm's law is an empirical relation which accurately describes the conductivity of the vast majority of electrically conductive materials over many orders of magnitude of current. However some materials Ohm's law states that the voltage or potential difference between two points is directly proportional to the current or electricity passing through the resistance, and directly proportional to the resistance of the circuit. The formula for Ohm's law is V=IR. non-ohmic do not obey Ohm's law.

Speed of Electricity. The word electricity refers generally to the movement of electrons (or other charge carriers) through a conductor in the presence of a potential difference or an electric field. The speed of this flow has multiple meanings. In everyday electrical and electronic devices, the signals travel as electromagnetic waves typically at 50%–99% of the speed of light, while the electrons themselves move much more slowly. The speed at which energy or signals travel down a cable is actually the speed of the electromagnetic wave traveling along (guided by) the cable. i.e. a cable is a form of a waveguide. The propagation of the wave is affected by the interaction with the material(s) in and surrounding the cable, caused by the presence of electric charge carriers (interacting with the electric field component) and magnetic dipoles (interacting with the magnetic field component). These interactions are typically described using mean field theory by the permeability and the permittivity of the materials involved. The energy/signal usually flows overwhelmingly outside the electric conductor of a cable; the purpose of the conductor is thus not to conduct energy, but to guide the energy-carrying wave.

Power Triangle Voltage is the difference in electric potential between two points. The difference in electric potential between two points (i.e., voltage) in a static electric field is defined as the work needed per unit of charge to move a test charge between the two points. In the International System of Units, the derived unit for voltage is named volt. In SI units, work per unit charge is expressed as joules per coulomb, where 1 volt = 1 joule (of work) per 1 coulomb (of charge). The official SI definition for volt uses power and current, where 1 volt = 1 watt (of power) per 1 ampere (of current). This definition is equivalent to the more commonly used 'joules per coulomb'. Voltage or electric potential difference is denoted symbolically by ∆V, but more often simply as V, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws. Electric potential differences between points can be caused by electric charge, by electric current through a magnetic field, by time-varying magnetic fields, or some combination of these three. A voltmeter can be used to measure the voltage (or potential difference) between two points in a system; often a common reference potential such as the ground of the system is used as one of the points. A voltage may represent either a source of energy (Electromotive Force) or lost, used, or stored energy (potential drop). (voltage is also referred as electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension).

Voltage is the pressure from an electrical circuit's power source that pushes charged electrons (current) through a conducting loop, enabling them to do work such as illuminating a light. In brief, voltage = pressure, and it is measured in volts (V). The term recognizes Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745-1827), inventor of the voltaic pile—the forerunner of today's household battery. In electricity's early days, voltage was known as electromotive force (emf). This is why in equations such as Ohm's Law, voltage is represented by the symbol E. Current returns to the power source.

Voltage and the term "potential difference" are often used interchangeably. Potential difference might be better defined as the potential energy difference between two points in a circuit. The amount of difference (expressed in volts) determines how much potential energy exists to move electrons from one specific point to another. The quantity identifies how much work, potentially, can be done through the circuit. A household AA alkaline battery, for example, offers 1.5 V. Typical household electrical outlets offer 120 V. The greater the voltage in a circuit, the greater its ability to "push" more electrons and do work. Voltage/potential difference can be compared to water stored in a tank. The larger the tank, and the greater its height (and thus its potential velocity), the greater the water's capacity to create an impact when a valve is opened and the water (like electrons) can flow. Circuits are used to deliver energy to a load—from a small device to a household appliance to an industrial motor. Loads often carry a nameplate that identifies their standard electrical reference values, including voltage and current. In place of a nameplate, some manufacturers provide a detailed schematic (technical diagram) of a load's circuitry. Manuals may include standard values.

Voltage Regulation is a measure of change in the voltage magnitude between the sending and receiving end of a component, such as a transmission or distribution line. Voltage regulation describes the ability of a system to provide near constant voltage over a wide range of load conditions. The term may refer to a passive property that results in more or less voltage drop under various load conditions, or to the active intervention with devices for the specific purpose of adjusting voltage.

Transformer - Inverter - Power Supply (test equipment) - Measuring Voltage

Voltage Regulator Module is a buck converter that provides a microprocessor the appropriate supply voltage, converting +5 V or +12 V to a much lower voltage required by the CPU, allowing processors with different supply voltage to be mounted on the same motherboard.

Amplifier is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current). It is a two-port electronic circuit that uses electric power from a power supply to increase the amplitude of a signal applied to its input terminals, producing a proportionally greater amplitude signal at its output. The amount of amplification provided by an amplifier is measured by its gain: the ratio of output voltage, current, or power to input. An amplifier is a circuit that has a power gain greater than one.

When one Ampere flows, one coulomb of charge passes “a point” every second. Each electron has a charge of 1.602 x 10^-19 Coulombs, so you need 6.24 x 10^18 of them to make a whole coulomb. That's 6,240,000,000,000,000,000 electrons per second. One ampere equals one coulomb per second. To convert from amperes to electrons per second, multiply that conversion factor by the current strength in amperes. For example, in a current of 15 amps, 15 × (6.242 × 1018) = 9.363 × 1019 electrons are flowing per second. In a current of 7 mA (0.007 amps), 4.369 × 1016 electrons are flowing per second.

A 100-watt light bulb uses 100 joules of energy per second, by definition of a watt. Since there are 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes in an hour.

mAh is 1/1000 of an Ah, to convert Ah (amp hours) to Joules just use 1000 x 3.6 = 3600 as the conversion factor instead of 3.6. )1 amp = 6.24 X 10 to 18 power electrons flowing per second).

Coulomb is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge. The unit is the amount of electric charge (symbol: Q or q) transported by a constant electric current of one ampere in one second. the elementary charge (the charge of the proton and of the electron, but also of other fundamental particles) is exactly 1.602176634×10-19 coulombs. Thus the coulomb is the charge of exactly 1/(1.602176634×10-19) elementary charges, which is approximately 6.2415090744×10^18 elementary charges (1.036×10-5 mol). The same number of electrons has the same magnitude but opposite sign of charge, that is, a charge of -1 C.

Joule is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units. It is equal to the energy transferred to (or work done on) an object when a force of one newton acts on that object in the direction of the force's motion through a distance of one metre (1 newton metre or N m). It is also the energy dissipated as heat when an electric current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second.

Ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge. Ions can be created, by either chemical or physical means, via ionization, which is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions.

Speed of Electricity refers generally to the movement of electrons (or other charge carriers) through a conductor in the presence of potential and an electric field. The speed of this flow has multiple meanings. In everyday electrical and electronic devices, the signals or energy travel as electromagnetic waves typically on the order of 50%–99% of the speed of light, while the electrons themselves move (drift) much more slowly. The speed at which energy or signals travel down a cable is actually the speed of the electromagnetic wave, not the movement of electrons. Electromagnetic wave propagation is fast and depends on the dielectric constant of the material. In a vacuum the wave travels at the speed of light and almost that fast in air. The Speed of Sound is 4.689 miles in second., 768 mph or 12.8 miles a minute.



Electronics


Electricity Danger Sign Electronics is the science of controlling electrical energy electrically, in which the electrons have a fundamental role. Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes, integrated circuits, associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies. Commonly, electronic devices contain circuitry consisting primarily or exclusively of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; such a circuit is described as an electronic circuit.

Heat-High Temperatures - Noise

Micro Electronics relates to the study and manufacture (or microfabrication) of very small electronic designs and components. Testing.

Low-Power Electronics are electronics that have been designed to use less electric power, e.g. notebook processors.

Analogue Electronics are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two levels. The term "analogue" describes the proportional relationship between a signal and a voltage or current that represents the signal. The word analogue is derived from the Greek word ανάλογος (analogos) meaning "proportional".

Digital Electronics are electronics that handle digital signals – discrete bands of analog levels – rather than by continuous ranges as used in analog electronics. All levels within a band of values represent the same information state. Because of this discretization, relatively small changes to the analog signal levels due to manufacturing tolerance, signal attenuation or noise do not leave the discrete envelope, and as a result are ignored by signal state sensing circuitry.

Solid-State Electronics are those circuits or devices built entirely from solid materials and in which the electrons, or other charge carriers, are confined entirely within the solid material. While solid-state can include crystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous solids and refer to electrical conductors, insulators and semiconductors, the building material is most often a crystalline semiconductor. Common solid-state devices include transistors, microprocessor chips, and RAM. A specialized type of RAM called flash memory is used in flash drives and, more recently, solid-state drives to replace mechanically rotating magnetic disc hard drive. Also means semiconductor electronics; electronic equipment using semiconductor devices such as semiconductor diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits (ICs). The term is also used for devices in which semiconductor electronics which have no moving parts replace devices with moving parts, such as the solid-state relay in which transistor switches are used in place of a moving-arm electromechanical relay, or the solid state disk (SSD) a type of semiconductor memory used in computers to replace hard disk drives, which store data on a rotating disk.

Flexible Electronics is a technology for assembling electronic circuits by mounting electronic devices on flexible plastic substrates, such as polyimide, PEEK or transparent conductive polyester film. Additionally, flex circuits can be screen printed silver circuits on polyester. Flexible electronic assemblies may be manufactured using identical components used for rigid printed circuit boards, allowing the board to conform to a desired shape, or to flex during its use. An alternative approach to flexible electronics suggests various etching techniques to thin down the traditional silicon substrate to few tens of micrometers to gain reasonable flexibility (~ 5 mm bending radius).

Wearable Sensors - Sensors

Customizable, Fabric-Like Supercapacitor Power source for Wearable Electronics can be folded or stretched without losing its function. Being highly stretchable, these flexible power sources are promising next-generation 'fabric' energy storage devices that could be integrated into wearable electronics.

NUS researchers achieve major breakthrough in flexible electronics.

Hard-to-Stretch Silicon becomes Superelastic. Formless And Hard Silicon Could Be Grown Into Nanowires, Useful For Future Bendable Electronics.



Electricians - Safety - Breakers - Wiring


High Voltage Warning Sign Electrician is a tradesperson specializing in electrical wiring of buildings, stationary machines, and related equipment. Electricians may be employed in the installation of new electrical components or the maintenance and repair of existing electrical infrastructure. Electricians may also specialize in wiring ships, airplanes, and other mobile platforms, as well as data and cable. Multi-Meter.

When in doubt, call a professional. An electrical impulse as small as 14 milliamps is enough to kill a person.

Electrical Safety Testing is essential to ensure safe operating standards for any product that uses electricity.

Electrical Safety Inspection Check List (pdf)
Electrical Safety Inspection List (pdf)
Power Outage Safety Check List (image)

Circuit Breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by excess current from an overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to interrupt current flow after a fault is detected. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect low-current circuits or individual household appliance, up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city. The generic function of a circuit breaker, or fuse, as an automatic means of removing power from a faulty system is often abbreviated as OCPD (Over Current Protection Device). Grounding.

Thermal Management of Electronics (over heating and high temperatures)

Distribution Board is a component of an electricity supply system that divides an electrical power feed into subsidiary circuits, while providing a protective fuse or circuit breaker for each circuit in a common enclosure. Normally, a main switch, and in recent boards, one or more residual-current devices (RCD) or residual current breakers with overcurrent protection (RCBO), are also incorporated. In the United Kingdom, a distribution board designed for domestic installations is known as a consumer unit. (Distribution Board is also known as panelboard, breaker panel, or electric panel).

Switch is an electrical component that can "make" or "break" an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another. The mechanism of a switch removes or restores the conducting path in a circuit when it is operated. It may be operated manually, for example, a light switch or a keyboard button, may be operated by a moving object such as a door, or may be operated by some sensing element for pressure, temperature or flow. A switch will have one or more sets of contacts, which may operate simultaneously, sequentially, or alternately. Switches in high-powered circuits must operate rapidly to prevent destructive arcing, and may include special features to assist in rapidly interrupting a heavy current. Multiple forms of actuators are used for operation by hand or to sense position, level, temperature or flow. Special types are used, for example, for control of machinery, to reverse electric motors, or to sense liquid level. Many specialized forms exist. A common use is control of lighting, where multiple switches may be wired into one circuit to allow convenient control of light fixtures. By analogy with the devices that select one or more possible paths for electric currents, devices that route information in a computer network are also called "switches" - these are usually more complicated than simple electromechanical toggles or pushbutton devices, and operate without direct human interaction. Power Button - Dimmer.

Electric Generator

Failure Modes of Electronics are failures that can be caused by excess temperature, excess current or voltage, ionizing radiation, mechanical shock, stress or impact, and many other causes. In semiconductor devices, problems in the device package may cause failures due to contamination, mechanical stress of the device, or open or short circuits.

Fault in electronics is an equipment failure attributable to some defect in a circuit like a loose connection or insulation failure or short circuit etc..

Failure Rate is the frequency with which an engineered system or component fails, expressed in failures per unit of time. It is often denoted by the Greek letter λ (lambda) and is highly used in reliability engineering.

Planed Obsolescence (low quality, high waste)

Failure Analysis is the process of collecting and analyzing data to determine the cause of a failure, often with the goal of determining corrective actions or liability. Short Circuit.

Fuse is an electrical safety device that operates to provide overcurrent protection of an electrical circuit. Its essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows through it, thereby stopping or interrupting the current. It is a sacrificial device; once a fuse has operated it is an open circuit, it must be replaced or rewired, depending on type. Fuses have been used as essential safety devices from the early days of electrical engineering. Today there are thousands of different fuse designs which have specific current and voltage ratings, breaking capacity and response times, depending on the application. The time and current operating characteristics of fuses are chosen to provide adequate protection without needless interruption. Wiring regulations usually define a maximum fuse current rating for particular circuits. Short circuits, overloading, mismatched loads, or device failure are the prime or some of the reasons for fuse operation. A fuse is an automatic means of removing power from a faulty system; often abbreviated to ADS (Automatic Disconnection of Supply). Circuit breakers can be used as an alternative to fuses, but have significantly different characteristics. Solar Systems Safety Switches.

Power-System Protection is a branch of electrical power engineering that deals with the protection of electrical power systems from faults through the disconnection of faulted parts from the rest of the electrical network. The objective of a protection scheme is to keep the power system stable by isolating only the components that are under fault, whilst leaving as much of the network as possible still in operation. Thus, protection schemes must apply a very pragmatic and pessimistic approach to clearing system faults. The devices that are used to protect the power systems from faults are called protection devices.

Surge Protector is an appliance or device designed to protect electrical devices from voltage spikes.

Sacrificial Part is a part of a machine or product that is intentionally engineered to fail under excess mechanical stress, electrical stress, or other unexpected and dangerous situations. The sacrificial part is engineered to fail first, and thus protect other parts of the system. Predictable Failure.

Lockout-Tagout is a safety procedure used in industry and research settings to ensure that dangerous machines are properly shut off and not able to be started up again prior to the completion of maintenance or repair work. It requires that hazardous energy sources be "isolated and rendered inoperative" before work is started on the equipment in question. The isolated power sources are then locked and a tag is placed on the lock identifying the worker who placed it. The worker then holds the key for the lock, ensuring that only he or she can remove the lock and start the machine. This prevents accidental startup of a machine while it is in a hazardous state or while a worker is in direct contact with it. Lockout-tagout is used across industries as a safe method of working on hazardous equipment and is mandated by law in some countries.

Kill Switch is a safety mechanism used to shut off machinery in an emergency, when it cannot be shut down in the usual manner. Unlike a normal shut-down switch or shut-down procedure, which shuts down all systems in order and turns off the machine without damage, a kill switch is designed and configured to abort the operation as quickly as possible (even if it damages the equipment) and to be operated simply and quickly (so that even a panicked operator with impaired executive functions or a bystander can activate it). Kill switches are usually designed to be noticeable, even to an untrained operator or a bystander. Hardware Trojan – malware embedded in hardware; harder to detect and fix than software vulnerabilities. Internet kill switch – Single shut off mechanism for all Internet traffic. Security switch – Hardware device to protect computers, laptops, smartphones and similar devices from unauthorized access or operation. Blue light station – Combined emergency telephone and emergency power-off switch in rapid transit stations and other points along electrified railways. USBKill – Anti-forensic software designed to react to unfamiliar USB devices. SawStop – American table saw manufacturer a fast kill switch for table saws triggered by electrical conductivity of user's finger. Battleshort – Emergency override of safety features to complete a mission the opposite of a kill switch, where a system is designed to operate even if damage or injury will occur.

Polyphase System is a means of distributing alternating-current electrical power. Polyphase systems have three or more energized electrical conductors carrying alternating currents with a definite time offset between the voltage waves in each conductor. Polyphase systems are particularly useful for transmitting power to electric motors. The most common example is the three-phase power system used for industrial applications and for power transmission. A major advantage of three phase power transmission (using three conductors, as opposed to a single phase power transmission, which uses two conductors), is that, since the remaining conductors act as the return path for any single conductor, the power transmitted by a balanced three phase system is three times that of a single phase transmission but only one extra conductor is used. Thus, a 50% / 1.5x increase in the transmission costs achieves a 200% / 3.0x increase in the power transmitted.

Wire is a single usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal. Wires are used to bear mechanical loads or electricity and telecommunications signals. Wire is commonly formed by drawing the metal through a hole in a die or draw plate. Wire gauges come in various standard sizes, as expressed in terms of a gauge number. The term 'wire' is also used more loosely to refer to a bundle of such strands, as in "multistranded wire", which is more correctly termed a wire rope in mechanics, or a cable in electricity. Wire comes in solid core, stranded, or braided forms. Although usually circular in cross-section, wire can be made in square, hexagonal, flattened rectangular, or other cross-sections, either for decorative purposes, or for technical purposes such as high-efficiency voice coils in loudspeakers. Edge-wound coil springs, such as the Slinky toy, are made of special flattened wire.

Transmission Power Lines - Transformers - Thermal Insulator

Electrical Wiring is the electrical wiring used to send and receive electricity using associated devices such as switches, plugs, meters and light fittings that are used in buildings or other structures. Electrical wiring uses insulated conductors that cover the wire so that it's safer to use.

Wire Gauge Chart Wire Gauge is a measurement of wire diameter. This determines the amount of electric current a wire can safely carry, as well as its electrical resistance and weight.

American Wire Gauge also known as the Brown & Sharpe wire gauge, is a logarithmic stepped standardized wire gauge system used since 1857, predominantly in North America, for the diameters of round, solid, nonferrous, electrically conducting wire. Dimensions of the wires are given in ASTM standard B 258. The cross-sectional area of each gauge is an important factor for determining its current-carrying ampacity. Increasing gauge numbers denote decreasing wire diameters, which is similar to many other non-metric gauging systems such as British Standard Wire Gauge (SWG), but unlike IEC 60228, the metric wire-size standard used in most parts of the world. This gauge system originated in the number of drawing operations used to produce a given gauge of wire. Very fine wire (for example, 30 gauge) required more passes through the drawing dies than 0 gauge wire did. Manufacturers of wire formerly had proprietary wire gauge systems; the development of standardized wire gauges rationalized selection of wire for a particular purpose. The AWG tables are for a single, solid and round conductor. The AWG of a stranded wire is determined by the cross-sectional area of the equivalent solid conductor. Because there are also small gaps between the strands, a stranded wire will always have a slightly larger overall diameter than a solid wire with the same AWG.

Dirty Electricity is a term that describes the problem of electromagnetic noise on the mains wiring of a house. Dirty electricity is a growing type of electrical pollution linked to health problems and disease. (also known as dirty mains, dirty power, or electrical pollution).

Electrical Wiring Tips - Wires (image for reference only, colors may change)

Wire Colors Meanings by Country (image)

Grounded (earthing) - Voltage Sag (wiki) - Voltage Reduction (wiki) - LED's

Define Electronics Terms (App)

Brownout is an intentional or unintentional drop in voltage in an electrical power supply system.

Electrical Polarity is a term used throughout industries and fields that involve electricity. There are two types of poles: positive (+) and negative (-). This represents the electrical potential at the ends of a circuit. A battery has a positive terminal (+ pole) and a negative terminal (- pole). Interconnection of electrical device nearly always require correct polarity to be maintained. Correct polarity is essential for the operation of vacuum tube and semiconductor devices, many electric motors, electrochemical cells, electrical instruments, and other devices. Conventional current flows from the positive pole (terminal) to the negative pole. Electrons flow from negative to positive. In a direct current (DC) circuit, current flows in one direction only, and one pole is always negative and the other pole is always positive. In an alternating current (AC) circuit the two poles alternate between negative and positive and the direction of the current (electron flow) reverses periodically. In AC systems the two wires of a circuit alternate polarity many times per second. In electrical power systems, all wires carrying the same instantaneous polarity at any moment will have a common identifying marking scheme, such as wire color. Depending on the conventions used for wiring the power system, the color coding or other marking may also indicate additional properties of the conductor, such as its role as neutral in a power circuit. In a polyphase AC system, identifying the wires belonging to a common phase is important to ensure proper operation of the circuit. Where alternating current circuits are used to carry signals such as audio, polarity is also required to ensure proper function of the system. For example, a set of loudspeakers used for stereo music reproduction will have all device terminals and wiring marked to ensure the same instantaneous polarity, so that the resulting sound produced by each speaker element is in the same phase and add correctly at the listener's ear.


Insulator


Electrical Insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely and very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field. This contrasts with other materials, semiconductors and conductors, which conduct electric current more easily. The property that distinguishes an insulator is its resistivity. Insulators have higher resistivity than semiconductors or conductors. A perfect insulator does not exist, because even insulators contain small numbers of mobile charges (charge carriers) which can carry current. In addition, all insulators become electrically conductive when a sufficiently large voltage is applied that the electric field tears electrons away from the atoms. This is known as the breakdown voltage of an insulator. Some materials such as glass, paper and Teflon, which have high resistivity, are very good electrical insulators. A much larger class of materials, even though they may have lower bulk resistivity, are still good enough to prevent significant current from flowing at normally used voltages, and thus are employed as insulation for electrical wiring and cables. Examples include rubber-like polymers and most plastics which can be thermoset or thermoplastic in nature. Insulators are used in electrical equipment to support and separate electrical conductors without allowing current through themselves. An insulating material used in bulk to wrap electrical cables or other equipment is called insulation. The term insulator is also used more specifically to refer to insulating supports used to attach electric power distribution or transmission lines to utility poles and transmission towers. They support the weight of the suspended wires without allowing the current to flow through the tower to ground.


Circuit


Circuit is an electrical device that provides a path for electrical current to flow. A circuit can also mean an established itinerary of venues or events that a particular group of people travel to. A journey or route all the way around a particular place or area.

Electronic Circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow. The combination of components and wires allows various simple and complex operations to be performed: signals can be amplified, computations can be performed, and data can be moved from one place to another. Science Kits.

H Bridge is an electronic circuit that enables a voltage to be applied across a load in opposite direction. These circuits are often used in robotics and other applications to allow DC motors to run forwards or backwards. Most DC-to-AC converters (power inverters), most AC/AC converters, the DC-to-DC push–pull converter, most motor controllers, and many other kinds of power electronics use H bridges. In particular, a bipolar stepper motor is almost invariably driven by a motor controller containing two H bridges. Feedback Loops.

Continuity Test is the checking of an electric circuit to see if current flows or that it is in fact a complete circuit. A continuity test is performed by placing a small voltage (wired in series with an LED or noise-producing component such as a piezoelectric speaker) across the chosen path. If electron flow is inhibited by broken conductors, damaged components, or excessive resistance, the circuit is "open". Devices that can be used to perform continuity tests include multimeters which measure current and specialized continuity testers which are cheaper, more basic devices, generally with a simple light bulb that lights up when current flows. An important application is the continuity test of a bundle of wires so as to find the two ends belonging to a particular one of these wires; there will be a negligible resistance between the "right" ends, and only between the "right" ends.

Continuity Tester is an item of electrical test equipment used to determine if an electrical path can be established between two points; that is if an electrical circuit can be made. The circuit under test is completely de-energized prior to connecting the apparatus.

Short Circuit is an electrical circuit that allows a current to travel along an unintended path with no or a very low electrical impedance. The electrical opposite of a short circuit is an "open circuit", which is an infinite resistance between two nodes. It is common to misuse "short circuit" to describe any electrical malfunction, regardless of the actual problem.

Integrated Circuit (IC's)

Electrical Network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).

Voltage Source is a two terminal device which can maintain a fixed voltage.

Topology in electrical circuits is what connections exist between the components.

New curriculum improves students' understanding of electric circuits in schools. Not only do secondary school students gain a better conceptual understanding of electric circuits, but teachers also perceive the curriculum as a significant improvement in their teaching.


Parallel - Series


Parallel Circuit Parallel Circuits have multiple paths for the current to move along. If an item in the circuit is broken, current will continue to move along the other paths, while ignoring the broken one. This type of circuit is used for most household electrical wiring. For example: when you turn off your TV, it doesn’t also turn off your lights.

Components Connected in Parallel are connected, so the same voltage is applied to each component. Parallel is when multiple components can share the same power source separately without being effected by the other components. Parallel Angles - Parallel Computing.

When Wiring Solar Panels in Parallel, the amperage (current) is additive, but the voltage remains the same. eg. If you had 4 solar panels in parallel and each was rated at 12 volts and 5 amps, the entire array would be 12 volts and 20 amps. Solar Energy.

Series Circuit Series circuits have only one path for current to travel along. Therefore, all the current in the circuit must flow through all the loads. A series circuit is a continuous, closed loop - breaking the circuit at any point stops the entire series from operating. An example of a series circuit is a string of old Christmas lights - if one bulb breaks, the whole string turns off.

Components connected in Series are connected along a single path, so the same current flows through all of the components. Series is when components are wired one after another on the same power line with each component acting as a power relay for the next component.

When Wiring Solar Panels in a Series, the voltage is additive, but the amperage remains the same. eg. If you had 4 solar panels in a series and each was rated at 12 volts and 5 amps, the entire array would be 48 volts and 5 amps. Remember: just like batteries, solar panels have a negative terminal ( - ) and a positive terminal ( + ). Current flows from the negative terminal through a load (current consumed by a piece of equipment) to the positive terminal.

Battery Wiring Diagram for Parallel and Series Components of an electrical circuit or electronic circuit can be connected in series, parallel, or series-parallel. Components connected in series are connected along a single conductive path, so the same current flows through all of the components but voltage is dropped (lost) across each of the resistances. In a series circuit, the sum of the voltages consumed by each individual resistance is equal to the source voltage. Components connected in parallel are connected along multiple paths so that the current can split up; the same voltage is applied to each component. A circuit composed solely of components connected in series is known as a series circuit; likewise, one connected completely in parallel is known as a parallel circuit. In a series circuit, the current that flows through each of the components is the same, and the voltage across the circuit is the sum of the individual voltage drops across each component. In a parallel circuit, the voltage across each of the components is the same, and the total current is the sum of the currents flowing through each component. Consider a very simple circuit consisting of four light bulbs and a 12-volt automotive battery. If a wire joins the battery to one bulb, to the next bulb, to the next bulb, to the next bulb, then back to the battery in one continuous loop, the bulbs are said to be in series. If each bulb is wired to the battery in a separate loop, the bulbs are said to be in parallel. If the four light bulbs are connected in series, the same amperage flows through all of them and the voltage drop is 3-volts across each bulb, which may not be sufficient to make them glow. If the light bulbs are connected in parallel, the currents through the light bulbs combine to form the current in the battery, while the voltage drop is 12-volts across each bulb and they all glow. In a series circuit, every device must function for the circuit to be complete. If one bulb burns out in a series circuit, the entire circuit is broken. In parallel circuits, each light bulb has its own circuit, so all but one light could be burned out, and the last one will still function. - All About Circuits.

Batteries - Generators - Human Power

Linear is arranged in or extending along a straight or nearly straight lines. Progressing from one stage to another in a single series of steps; sequential. A circuit or device having an output that is proportional to the input. Measured lengthwise.

Linearity is the property of a mathematical relationship or function which means that it can be graphically represented as a straight line. Examples are the relationship of voltage and current across a resistor (Ohm's law), or the mass and weight of an object. Proportionality implies linearity, but linearity does not imply proportionality.


Components


Electronic Component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields.

Component
is an abstract part of something. Something determined in relation to something that includes it.

Passive Component may be either a component that consumes (but does not produce) energy (thermodynamic passivity), or a component that is incapable of power gain (incremental passivity).

Computer Components - Batteries

Circuit Diagram is a graphical representation of an electrical circuit. A pictorial circuit diagram uses simple images of components, while a schematic diagram shows the components and interconnections of the circuit using standardized symbolic representations. The presentation of the interconnections between circuit components in the schematic diagram does not necessarily correspond to the physical arrangements in the finished device. Unlike a block diagram or layout diagram, a circuit diagram shows the actual electrical connections. A drawing meant to depict the physical arrangement of the wires and the components they connect is called artwork or layout, physical design, or wiring diagram. Circuit diagrams are used for the design (circuit design), construction (such as PCB layout), and maintenance of electrical and electronic equipment.

Fuse (overcurrent protection)

Diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance to the flow of current in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.

Capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to temporarily store electrical energy in an electric field.

Transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in Integrated Circuits. Memristors - Computer Code.

Threshold Voltage also called the gate voltage, commonly abbreviated as Vth or VGS (th), of a field-effect transistor (FET) is the minimum gate-to-source voltage differential that is needed to create a conducting path between the source and drain terminals. When referring to a junction field-effect transistor (JFET), the threshold voltage is often called "pinch-off voltage" instead. This is somewhat confusing since "pinch off" applied to insulated-gate field-effect transistor (IGFET) refers to the channel pinching that leads to current saturation behaviour under high source–drain bias, even though the current is never off. Unlike "pinch off", the term "threshold voltage" is unambiguous and refers to the same concept in any field-effect transistor.

Resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, and terminate transmission lines, among other uses.

Potentiometer is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding or rotating contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. If only two terminals are used, one end and the wiper, it acts as a variable resistor or rheostat. The measuring instrument called a potentiometer is essentially a voltage divider used for measuring electric potential (voltage); the component is an implementation of the same principle, hence its name.

Thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance is dependent on temperature, more so than in standard resistors. The word is a portmanteau of thermal and resistor. Thermistors are widely used as inrush current limiters, temperature sensors (negative temperature coefficient or NTC type typically), self-resetting overcurrent protectors, and self-regulating heating elements (positive temperature coefficient or PTC type typically). Thermistors are of two opposite fundamental types: With NTC thermistors, resistance decreases as temperature rises. An NTC is commonly used as a temperature sensor, or in series with a circuit as an inrush current limiter. With PTC thermistors, resistance increases as temperature rises. PTC thermistors are commonly installed in series with a circuit, and used to protect against overcurrent conditions, as resettable fuses.

Inductor also called a coil or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component which resists changes in electric current passing through it. It consists of a conductor such as a wire, usually wound into a coil. Energy is stored in a magnetic field in the coil as long as current flows. When the current flowing through an inductor changes, the time-varying magnetic field induces a voltage in the conductor, according to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.

Bridge is a type of electrical circuit in which two circuit branches (usually in parallel with each other) are "bridged" by a third branch connected between the first two branches at some intermediate point along them.

Connector is an electro-mechanical device used to join electrical terminations and create an electrical circuit. Electrical connectors consist of plugs (male-ended) and jacks (female-ended). The connection may be temporary, as for portable equipment, require a tool for assembly and removal, or serve as a permanent electrical joint between two wires or devices. An adapter can be used to effectively bring together dissimilar connectors.

Sensor is an object whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment, and then provide a corresponding output. A sensor is a type of transducer; sensors may provide various types of output, but typically use electrical or optical signals.


Conductor - Superconductors


Conductor of Electricity is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions. A metal wire is a common electrical conductor. Metals with the most free electrons or conductivity are Graphene, silver, copper, gold, platinum and aluminum (develops film on the surface). Resistance.

Conductivity electrolytic of an electrolyte solution is a measure of its ability to conduct electricity. The SI unit of conductivity is Siemens per meter (S/m).

Conductivity of Different Water Types: Pure distilled and deionized water has a conductivity of 0.05 µS/cm, which corresponds to a resistivity of 18 megohm-cm (MΩ). Seawater has a conductivity of 50 mS/cm, and drinking water has a conductivity of 200 to 800 µS/cm. The permeate of an RO unit varies based on the feed concentration and operating pressure.

The best topological conductor yet: Spiraling crystal is the key to exotic discovery. X-ray research reveals samples are a new state of matter.

Semiconductor are crystalline or amorphous solids with distinct electrical characteristics, the material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a metal, like copper, gold, etc. and an insulator, such as glass. They are of high resistance — higher than typical resistance materials, but still of much lower resistance than Insulators. Their resistance decreases as their temperature increases, which is behavior opposite to that of a metal. Integrated Circuit.

Plastic Semiconductors. Conjugated polymers, plastics that conduct electricity like metals, using a simple dehydration reaction the only byproduct of which is water. Nature has been using this reaction for billions of years and industry more than a hundred. Poly(hetero)arenes, one of the most studied classes of conjugated polymers which have been used to make lightweight, low- cost electronics such as solar cells, LED displays, and chemical and biochemical sensors. Dehydration is a common method to make polymers, a chain of repeating molecules or monomers that link up like a train. Nature uses the dehydration reaction to make complex sugars from glucose, as well as proteins and other biological building blocks such as cellulose. Plastics manufacturers use it to make everything from nylon to polyester, cheaply and in mind-boggling bulk.

Insulator (not conductive)

Graphene is a 1,000 more times conductive then copper. Materials - Nano-Materials (Nano Technologies)

Graphene on the way to Superconductivity. Scientists have found evidence that double layers of Graphene have a property that may let them conduct current completely without resistance. They probed the band structure at BESSY II with extremely high resolution ARPES and could identify a flat area at a surprising location. Carbon atoms have diverse possibilities to form bonds. Pure carbon can therefore occur in many forms, as diamond, graphite, as nanotubes, football molecules or as a honeycomb-net with hexagonal meshes, graphene. This exotic, strictly two-dimensional material conducts electricity excellently, but is not a superconductor. But perhaps this can be changed.

Nanotube Fiber antennas as capable as Copper. Fibers made of carbon nanotubes configured as wireless antennas can be as good as copper antennas but 20 times lighter.

Strontium Ruthenate is the first reported perovskite superconductor that did not contain copper.

Electrical Resistance and Conductance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor. The inverse quantity is electrical conductance, and is the ease with which an electric current passes. Electrical resistance shares some conceptual parallels with the notion of mechanical friction. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm (Ω), while electrical conductance is measured in siemens (S).

Electrical Impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied. The term complex impedance may be used interchangeably. Impedance is the effective resistance of an electric circuit or component to alternating current, arising from the combined effects of ohmic resistance and reactance. High impedance, when only a small amount of current is allowed through. Characteristic Impedance or surge impedance (usually written Z0) of a uniform transmission line is the ratio of the amplitudes of voltage and current of a single wave propagating along the line; that is, a wave travelling in one direction in the absence of reflections in the other direction. Characteristic impedance is determined by the geometry and materials of the transmission line and, for a uniform line, is not dependent on its length. The SI unit of characteristic impedance is the ohm. Nominal Impedance refers to the approximate designed impedance of an electrical circuit or device.

Charge-Transfer Complex is an association of two or more molecules, or of different parts of one large molecule, in which a fraction of electronic charge is transferred between the molecular entities. The resulting electrostatic attraction provides a stabilizing force for the molecular complex. The source molecule from which the charge is transferred is called the electron donor and the receiving species is called the electron acceptor.

Superconductivity is a set of physical properties observed in certain materials where electrical resistance vanishes and magnetic flux fields are expelled from the material. Any material exhibiting these properties is a superconductor. Unlike an ordinary metallic conductor, whose resistance decreases gradually as its temperature is lowered even down to near absolute zero, a superconductor has a characteristic critical temperature below which the resistance drops abruptly to zero. An electric current through a loop of superconducting wire can persist indefinitely with no power source. Levitation - Friction.

Superconductor is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

Organic Superconductor is a synthetic organic compound that exhibits superconductivity at low temperatures. First Room Temperature Superconductor And What It Means For Us (youtube) - Anton Petrov.

Type-II Superconductor is characterized by the formation of magnetic vortices in an applied magnetic field. The vortex density increases with increasing field strength. Anti-Gravity.

Bringing a hidden Superconducting state to Light. High-power light reveals the existence of superconductivity associated with charge 'stripes' in the copper-oxygen planes of a layered material above the temperature at which it begins to transmit electricity without resistance.

Physicists uncover new competing state of matter in Superconducting Material.

Scientists glimpse signs of a puzzling state of matter in a superconductor. Known as 'pair-density waves,' it may be key to understanding how superconductivity can exist at relatively high temperatures. Scientists have found the first direct evidence that a mysterious phase of matter known as the "pseudogap" competes with high-temperature superconductivity, robbing it of electrons that otherwise might pair up to carry current through a material with 100 percent efficiency.

Scientists break record for highest-temperature Superconductor. Experiment produces new material that can conduct electricity perfectly.

Mapping the electronic states in an Exotic Superconductor. Scientists mapped the electronic states in an exotic superconductor. The maps point to the composition range necessary for topological superconductivity, a state that could enable more robust quantum computing.

Novel material switches between electrically conducting and insulating states. Approach could inform the design of quantum materials platforms for future electronics.

Meissner Effect is the expulsion of a magnetic field from a superconductor during its transition to the superconducting state.

Niobium Atom Niobium is used in various superconducting materials. These superconducting alloys, also containing titanium and tin, are widely used in the superconducting magnets of MRI scanners. Other applications of niobium include welding, nuclear industries, electronics, optics, numismatics, and jewelry. In the last two applications, the low toxicity and iridescence produced by anodization are highly desired properties is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41. It is a soft, grey, ductile transition metal, often found in the minerals pyrochlore and columbite.

Room Temperature Superconductor is a hypothetical material that would be capable of exhibiting superconductivity at operating temperatures above 0° C (273.15 K). While this is not strictly "room temperature", which would be approximately 20–25 °C, it is the temperature at which ice forms and can be reached and easily maintained in an everyday environment. The highest temperature known superconducting material is highly pressurized hydrogen sulfide, the transition temperature of which is 203 K (−70 °C), the highest accepted superconducting critical temperature as of 2015. By substituting a small part of sulfur with phosphorus and using even higher pressures, it has been predicted that it may be possible to raise the critical temperature to above 0 °C and achieve room-temperature superconductivity. Previously the record was held by the cuprates, which have demonstrated superconductivity at atmospheric pressure at temperatures as high as 138 K (−135 °C), and 164 K (−109 °C) under high pressure. Although some researchers doubt whether room-temperature superconductivity is actually achievable, superconductivity has repeatedly been discovered at temperatures that were previously unexpected or held to be impossible.

Evidence for Superconductivity at Ambient Temperature and Pressure in Nanostructures.

High-Temperature Superconductivity are materials that behave as superconductors at unusually high temperatures. Whereas "ordinary" or metallic superconductors usually have transition temperatures (temperatures below which they are superconductive) below 30 K (−243.2 °C), and must be cooled using liquid helium in order to achieve superconductivity, HTS have been observed with transition temperatures as high as 138 K (−135 °C), and can be cooled to superconductivity using liquid nitrogen. Until 2008, only certain compounds of copper and oxygen (so-called "cuprates") were known to have HTS properties, and the term high-temperature superconductor was used interchangeably with cuprate superconductor for compounds such as bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide (BSCCO) and yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO). Several iron-based compounds (the iron pnictides) are now known to be superconducting at high temperatures. Buckyballs which are soccer-ball-shaped carbon molecules discovered at Bell Labs in 1991, exhibit s-wave superconductivity at 40° Kelvin (-388°F, -233°C), a very high temperature for superconductors. They can change the behavior of a certain class of cuprates from d-wave to s-wave if they dope it with sufficient amounts of the element cerium, which is a common ingredient in glassware.

Thermal Conductivity - Vacuum - Magnetics - Insulator - Heat Sinks

Avogadro Constant is the number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole, which is the unit of measurement in the International System of Units (SI) for amount of substance. It is defined as the amount of a chemical substance that contains as many elementary entities, e.g., atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, or photons, as there are atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12 (12C), the isotope of carbon with relative atomic mass 12 by definition. This number is expressed by the Avogadro constant, which has a value of 6.022140857(74)×1023 mol-1. The mole is one of the base units of the SI, and has the unit symbol mol.


Inverter


Voltage Regulator is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative feedback control loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC Voltages. Valves.

Power Inverter is an electronic device or circuitry that changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC). A power inverter can be entirely electronic or may be a combination of mechanical effects (such as a rotary apparatus) and electronic circuitry. Static inverters do not use moving parts in the conversion process. Circuitry that performs the opposite function, converting AC to DC, is called a rectifier.

Rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction. The process is known as rectification, since it "straightens" the direction of current. Physically, rectifiers take a number of forms, including vacuum tube diodes, mercury-arc valves, stacks of copper and selenium oxide plates, semiconductor diodes, silicon-controlled rectifiers and other silicon-based semiconductor switches. Historically, even synchronous electromechanical switches and motors have been used. Early radio receivers, called crystal radios, used a "cat's whisker" of fine wire pressing on a crystal of galena (lead sulfide) to serve as a point-contact rectifier or "crystal detector". Rectifiers have many uses, but are often found serving as components of DC power supplies and high-voltage direct current power transmission systems. Rectification may serve in roles other than to generate direct current for use as a source of power. As noted, detectors of radio signals serve as rectifiers. In gas heating systems flame rectification is used to detect presence of a flame. Because of the alternating nature of the input AC sine wave, the process of rectification alone produces a DC current that, though unidirectional, consists of pulses of current. Many applications of rectifiers, such as power supplies for radio, television and computer equipment, require a steady constant DC current (as would be produced by a battery). In these applications the output of the rectifier is smoothed by an electronic filter, which may be a capacitor, choke, or set of capacitors, chokes and resistors, possibly followed by a voltage regulator to produce a steady current. More complex circuitry that performs the opposite function, converting DC to AC, is called an inverter.

Transformers - Converter - Thermodynamics - Actuator

Electronvolt is a unit of energy equal to approximately 1.6×10−19 joules (symbol J). By definition, it is the amount of energy gained (or lost) by the charge of a single electron moving across an electric potential difference of one volt. 1 volt (1 joule per coulomb, 1 J/C) multiplied by the elementary charge (e, or 1.6021766208(98)×10−19 C). Therefore, one electronvolt is equal to 1.6021766208(98)×10−19 J. Historically, the electronvolt was devised as a standard unit of measure through its usefulness in electrostatic particle accelerator sciences, because a particle with charge q has an energy E = qV after passing through the potential V; if q is quoted in integer units of the elementary charge and the terminal bias in volts, one gets an energy in eV. The electronvolt is not a SI unit, and its definition is empirical (unlike the litre, the light-year and other such non-SI units), where its value in SI units must be obtained experimentally.



Static Electricity


Rub Balloon on Hair Static Static Electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material. The charge remains until it is able to move away by means of an electric current or electrical discharge. Static electricity is named in contrast with current electricity, which flows through wires or other conductors and transmits energy. A static electric charge can be created whenever two surfaces contact and separate, and at least one of the surfaces has a high resistance to electric current (and is therefore an electrical insulator). The effects of static electricity are familiar to most people because people can feel, hear, and even see the spark as the excess charge is neutralized when brought close to a large electrical conductor (for example, a path to ground), or a region with an excess charge of the opposite polarity (positive or negative). The familiar phenomenon of a static shock – more specifically, an electrostatic discharge – is caused by the neutralization of charge.

Kinetic Energy (piezoelectric) - Lightning

Electrostatics is a branch of physics that deals with study of the electric charges at rest. Since classical physics, it has been known that some materials such as amber attract lightweight particles after rubbing. Electrostatic phenomena arise from the forces that electric charges exert on each other. Such forces are described by Coulomb's law. Even though electrostatically induced forces seem to be rather weak, some electrostatic forces such as the one between an electron and a proton, that together make up a hydrogen atom, is about 36 orders of magnitude stronger than the gravitational force acting between them. There are many examples of electrostatic phenomena, from those as simple as the attraction of the plastic wrap to your hand after you remove it from a package to the apparently spontaneous explosion of grain silos, the damage of electronic components during manufacturing, and photocopier & laser printer operation. Electrostatics involves the buildup of charge on the surface of objects due to contact with other surfaces. Although charge exchange happens whenever any two surfaces contact and separate, the effects of charge exchange are usually only noticed when at least one of the surfaces has a high resistance to electrical flow. This is because the charges that transfer are trapped there for a time long enough for their effects to be observed. These charges then remain on the object until they either bleed off to ground or are quickly neutralized by a discharge: e.g., the familiar phenomenon of a static 'shock' is caused by the neutralization of charge built up in the body from contact with insulated surfaces. Magnetism.

Triboelectric Effect is a type of contact electrification on which certain materials become electrically charged after they are separated from a different material with which they were in contact. Rubbing the two materials each with the other increases the contact between their surfaces, and hence the triboelectric effect. Rubbing glass with fur for example, or a plastic comb through the hair, can build up triboelectricity. Most everyday static electricity is triboelectric. The polarity and strength of the charges produced differ according to the materials, surface roughness, temperature, strain, and other properties.

How Friction Leads to Static Electricity. Tiny deformations in the rubbed materials' surfaces give rise to voltages. Triboelectricity, Flexoelectricity and Friction are inextricably linked. At the nanoscale, all materials have rough surfaces with countless tiny protrusions. When two materials come into contact and rub against one another, these protrusions bend and deform. Static Electricity could Charge our Electronics.

Electric Field is a force field that surrounds electric charges that attracts or repels other electric charges. Mathematically the electric field is a vector field that associates to each point in space the force, called the Coulomb force, that would be experienced per unit of charge, by an infinitesimal test charge at that point. The units of the electric field in the SI system are newtons per coulomb (N/C), or volts per meter (V/m). Electric fields are created by electric charges, and by time-varying magnetic fields. Electric fields are important in many areas of physics, and are exploited practically in electrical technology. On a microscopic scale, the electric field is responsible for the attractive force between the atomic nucleus and electrons that holds atoms together, and the forces between atoms that cause chemical bonding. The electric field and the magnetic field together form the electromagnetic force, one of the four fundamental forces of nature.

Coulomb's Law is an experimental law of physics that quantifies the amount of force between two stationary, electrically charged particles. The electric force between charged bodies at rest is conventionally called electrostatic force or Coulomb force. The quantity of electrostatic force between stationary charges is always described by Coulomb's law. Magnets.

Kinetic Energy - Capacitors

Static Electricity. Why does rubbing a balloon on your hair make it stick?

Electrostatic Generator is an electromechanical generator that produces static electricity, or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current. Graphene - Francis Hauksbee Generator (wiki).

Hygroelectricity is a type of static electricity that forms on water droplets and can be transferred from droplets to small dust particles. The phenomenon is common in the earth's atmosphere but has also been observed in the steam escaping from boilers. It was the basis for a proposal by Nikola Tesla to tap electricity from the air, an idea which has been recently revived.
Hygroelectric charge is the likely source of the electric charge which, under certain conditions such as exist in thunderstorms, volcanic eruptions and some dust storms, gives rise to lightning.

antistatic wrist strap with crocodile clip Electrostatic Discharge is the sudden flow of electricity between two electrically charged objects caused by contact, an electrical short, or dielectric breakdown. A buildup of static electricity can be caused by tribocharging or by electrostatic induction. The ESD occurs when differently-charged objects are brought close together or when the dielectric between them breaks down, often creating a visible spark. ESD can create spectacular electric sparks (lightning, with the accompanying sound of thunder, is a large-scale ESD event), but also less dramatic forms which may be neither seen nor heard, yet still be large enough to cause damage to sensitive electronic devices. Electric sparks require a field strength above approximately 40 kV/cm in air, as notably occurs in lightning strikes. Other forms of ESD include corona discharge from sharp electrodes and brush discharge from blunt electrodes. ESD can cause a range of harmful effects of importance in industry, including gas, fuel vapour and coal dust explosions, as well as failure of solid state electronics components such as integrated circuits. These can suffer permanent damage when subjected to high voltages. Electronics manufacturers therefore establish electrostatic protective areas free of static, using measures to prevent charging, such as avoiding highly charging materials and measures to remove static such as grounding human workers, providing antistatic devices, and controlling humidity. ESD simulators may be used to test electronic devices, for example with a human body model or a charged device model.

Electrostatic Discharge (youtube) - Grounding - Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP)

Surge Protector is an appliance or device designed to protect electrical devices from voltage spikes.

Antistatic Device is any device that reduces, dampens, or otherwise inhibits electrostatic discharge; the buildup or discharge of static electricity, which can damage electrical components such as computer hard drives, and even ignite flammable liquids and gases.

Antistatic Bag is a bag used for storing electronic components, which are prone to damage caused by electrostatic discharge (ESD). Faraday Bag.

Electromotive Force is the electrical intensity or "pressure" developed by a source of electrical energy such as a battery or generator. The electrical action produced by a non-electrical source. A device that converts other forms of energy into electrical energy (a "transducer") provides an emf as its output. (The word "force" in this case is not used to mean mechanical force, as may be measured in pounds or newtons.) In electromagnetic induction, emf can be defined around a closed loop of conductor as the electromagnetic work that would be done on an electric charge (an electron in this instance) if it travels once around the loop. For a time-varying magnetic flux linking a loop, the electric potential scalar field is not defined due to a circulating electric vector field, but an emf nevertheless does work that can be measured as a virtual electric potential around the loop. (While electrical charges travel around the loop, their energy is typically converted into thermal energy due to the resistance of the conductor comprising the loop.) In the case of a two-terminal device (such as an electrochemical cell) which is modeled as a Thévenin's equivalent circuit, the equivalent emf can be measured as the open-circuit potential difference or "voltage" between the two terminals. This potential difference can drive an electric current if an external circuit is attached to the terminals.

Faraday's Law of Induction is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF)—a phenomenon called electromagnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field. It is the fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators and solenoids.

Corona Discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid such as air surrounding a conductor that is electrically charged. Spontaneous corona discharges occur naturally in high-voltage systems unless care is taken to limit the electric field strength. A corona will occur when the strength of the electric field (potential gradient) around a conductor is high enough to form a conductive region, but not high enough to cause electrical breakdown or arcing to nearby objects. It is often seen as a bluish (or other color) glow in the air adjacent to pointed metal conductors carrying high voltages, and emits light by the same property as a gas discharge lamp. In many high voltage applications corona is an unwanted side effect. Corona discharge from high voltage electric power transmission lines constitutes an economically significant waste of energy for utilities. In high voltage equipment like Cathode Ray Tube televisions, radio transmitters, X-ray machines and particle accelerators the current leakage caused by coronas can constitute an unwanted load on the circuit. In air, coronas generate gases such as ozone (O3) and nitric oxide (NO), and in turn nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and thus nitric acid (HNO3) if water vapor is present. These gases are corrosive and can degrade and embrittle nearby materials, and are also toxic to people and the environment. Corona discharges can often be suppressed by improved insulation, corona rings, and making high voltage electrodes in smooth rounded shapes. However, controlled corona discharges are used in a variety of processes such as air filtration, photocopiers and ozone generators. Corona discharge is a process by which a current flows from an electrode with a high potential into a neutral fluid, usually air, by ionizing that fluid so as to create a region of plasma around the electrode. The ions generated eventually pass charge to nearby areas of lower potential, or recombine to form neutral gas molecules. Aura.

Electrohydrodynamics is the study of the dynamics of electrically charged fluids. It is the study of the motions of ionized particles or molecules and their interactions with electric fields and the surrounding fluid. ESHD covers the following types of particle and fluid transport mechanisms: electrophoresis, electrokinesis, dielectrophoresis, electro-osmosis, and electrorotation. In general, the phenomena relate to the direct conversion of electrical energy into kinetic energy, and vice versa.



Natures Electric Properties


Electric Eel is an electric fish, and the only species in its genus. Despite the name, it is not an eel, but rather a knifefish. In the electric eel, some 5,000 to 6,000 stacked electroplaques can make a shock up to 860 volts and 1 ampere of current (860 watts) for two milliseconds (ms). Such a shock is extremely unlikely to be deadly for an adult human, due to the very short duration of the discharge. Atrial fibrillation requires that roughly 700 mA be delivered across the heart muscle for 30 ms or more, far longer than the eel can produce. Still, this level of current is reportedly enough to produce a brief and painful numbing shock likened to a stun gun discharge, which due to the voltage can be felt for some distance from the fish; this is a common risk for aquarium caretakers and biologists attempting to handle or examine electric eels.

Electric Fish is any fish that can generate electric fields. A fish that can generate electric fields is said to be electrogenic while a fish that has the ability to detect electric fields is said to be electroreceptive. Most electrogenic fish are also electroreceptive. Electric fish species can be found both in the ocean and in freshwater rivers of South America (Gymnotiformes) and Africa (Mormyridae). Many fish such as sharks, rays and catfishes can detect electric fields and are thus electroreceptive, but they are not classified as electric fish because they cannot generate electricity. Most common bony fish (teleosts), including most fish kept in aquaria or caught for food, are neither electrogenic nor electroreceptive. Electric fish produce their electrical fields from a specialized structure called an electric organ. This is made up of modified muscle or nerve cells, which became specialized for producing bioelectric fields stronger than those that normal nerves or muscles produce. Typically this organ is located in the tail of the electric fish. The electrical output of the organ is called the electric organ discharge

Electric Organ is an organ common to all electric fish used for the purposes of creating an electric field. The electric organ is derived from modified nerve or muscle tissue. The electric discharge from this organ is used for navigation, communication, defense and also sometimes for the incapacitation of prey. Natural Batteries - Zero Point.

Electrolocation animals use this sense to locate objects around them. This is important in ecological niches where the animal cannot depend on vision: for example in caves, in murky water and at night. Many fish use electric fields to detect buried prey. Some shark embryos and pups "freeze" when they detect the characteristic electric signal of their predators. It has been proposed that sharks can use their acute electric sense to detect the earth's magnetic field by detecting the weak electric currents induced by their swimming or by the flow of ocean currents. The walking behaviour of cockroaches can be affected by the presence of a static electric field: they like to avoid the electric field. Cabbage loopers are also known to avoid electric fields.

Electroreception is the biological ability to perceive natural electrical stimuli. It has been observed almost exclusively in aquatic or amphibious animals, since salt-water is a much better conductor than air; the currently known exceptions being the monotremes (echidnas and platypuses), cockroaches and bees. Electroreception is used in electrolocation (detecting objects) and for electrocommunication.

Electrocommunication is the communication method used by weakly electric fishes. Weakly electric fishes are a group of animals that utilize a communicating channel that is "invisible" to most other animals: electric signaling. Electric fishes communicate electrically by one fish generating an electric field and a second individual receiving that electric field with its electroreceptors. The receiving side will interpret the signal frequencies, waveforms, and delay, etc. The best studied species are two freshwater lineages- the African Mormyridae and the South American.

Bioelectrogenesis is the generation of electricity by living organisms, a phenomenon that belongs to the science of electrophysiology. In biological cells, electrochemically active transmembrane ion channel and transporter proteins, such as the sodium-potassium pump, make electricity generation possible by maintaining a voltage imbalance from an electrical potential difference between the intracellular and extracellular space. The sodium-potassium pump simultaneously releases three Na ions away and influxes two K ions towards the intracellular space. This generates an electrical potential gradient from the uneven charge separation created. The process consumes metabolic energy in the form of ATP.

Bioluminescence - Photosynthesis

Electric Plants - Electric Universe - Lightning

Electrophysiology is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. It involves measurements of voltage changes or electric current or manipulations on a wide variety of scales from single ion channel proteins to whole organs like the heart. In neuroscience, it includes measurements of the electrical activity of neurons, and, in particular, action potential activity. Recordings of large-scale electric signals from the nervous system, such as electroencephalography, may also be referred to as electrophysiological recordings. They are useful for electrodiagnosis and monitoring.

Videos about Electricity - Westinghouse (youtube 1:52:20) - Electric Bacteria connect to form wires (youtube) - Way To Splice Wires Manly-Man Skills: The Lineman Splice (youtube) - Nikola Tesla (videos)



Waves


Sound Waves and Electromagnetic Waves differences Electromagnetic Waves different from Sound Waves. Sound waves require a material medium to be transmitted through and travel at the Speed of Sound, which is 343 meters per second (1,125 ft/s; 1,235 km/h; 767 mph; 667 kn), or a kilometre in 2.91 seconds or a mile in 4.69 seconds. Electromagnetic waves do not require a medium in order to be transmitted and they also travel much faster than sound at the Speed of Light, which is 3.0 * 108 meters per second (299,792,458 meters per second) or 186,000 miles per second or about 671 million miles per hour, in a vacuum. Anti-Gravity.

This speed and distance of a Electromagnetic wave decreases when passing through a medium. How far sound travels depends on the decibel level and the medium it travels through. Sound Creates Shapes.

Radio Waves - Receiver - Transmitter - Antenna - Physics (waves) - Sound Noise

Wave in physics is a movement up and down or back and forth. Move or swing back and forth. Move in a wavy pattern or with a rising and falling motion. The act of signaling by a movement of the hand. Wave in water is one of a series of ridges that moves across the surface of a liquid or across a large body of water.

Fading is deviation of the attenuation affecting a signal over certain propagation media. The fading may vary with time, geographical position or radio frequency, and is often modeled as a random process.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise. It is defined as the ratio of signal power to the noise power, often expressed in decibels. A ratio higher than 1:1 (greater than 0 dB) indicates more signal than noise. While SNR is commonly quoted for electrical signals, it can be applied to any form of signal (such as isotope levels in an ice core or biochemical signaling between cells).

Fourier Transform decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the amplitude (or loudness) of its constituent notes. The Fourier transform of a function of time itself is a complex-valued function of frequency, whose absolute value represents the amount of that frequency present in the original function, and whose complex argument is the phase offset of the basic sinusoid in that frequency.

Ultrasound are sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing. Ultrasound is no different from 'normal' (audible) sound in its physical properties, except in that humans cannot hear it. This limit varies from person to person and is approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz) in healthy, young adults. Ultrasound devices operate with frequencies from 20 kHz up to several gigahertz.

Sound - Voice - Music - Vacuum - Magnetics

Wave or Particle? Observation Flaws.

Harmonic WavesFrequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. It is also referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency. The period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example, if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second (that is, 60 seconds divided by 120 beats). Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the Rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio (Sound) signals, Radio Waves, Light and Brain Waves (meditation).

Very Low Frequency is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 kHz to 30 kHz and corresponding wavelengths from 100 to 10 kilometres, respectively.

Frequency of a wave refers to the number of waves that pass through a point in one second.
Period is the amount of time it takes one wave cycle to pass the given point.
Resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate with greater amplitude at some frequencies than at others.
Resonant Frequency of any given system is the frequency at which the maximum-amplitude oscillation occurs.

MIMO is a method for multiplying the capacity of a radio link using multiple transmit and receive antennas to exploit multipath propagation. At one time, in wireless the term "MIMO" referred to the use of multiple antennas at the transmitter and the receiver. In modern usage, "MIMO" specifically refers to a practical technique for sending and receiving more than one data signal simultaneously over the same radio channel by exploiting multipath propagation. MIMO is fundamentally different from smart antenna techniques developed to enhance the performance of a single data signal, such as beamforming and diversity.

Antenna Array is a set of multiple connected antennas which work together as a single antenna, to transmit or receive radio waves. Array (matrix)

Sensor Array is a group of sensors, usually deployed in a certain geometry pattern, used for collecting and processing electromagnetic or acoustic signals. The advantage of using a sensor array over using a single sensor lies in the fact that an Array adds new dimensions to the observation, helping to estimate more parameters and improve the estimation performance.

Latency in audio refers to a short period of delay (usually measured in milliseconds) between when an audio signal enters and when it emerges from a system. Potential contributors to latency in an audio system include analog-to-digital conversion, buffering, digital signal processing, transmission time, digital-to-analog conversion and the speed of sound in the transmission medium. Latency can be a critical performance metric in professional audio including sound reinforcement systems, foldback systems, especially those using in-ear monitors, live radio and television. Excessive audio latency has the potential to degrade call quality in telecommunications applications. Low latency audio in computers is important for interactivity.

Latency in engineering is a time interval between the stimulation and response, or, from a more general point of view, a time delay between the cause and the effect of some physical change in the system being observed. Latency is physically a consequence of the limited velocity with which any physical interaction can propagate. The magnitude of this velocity is always less than or equal to the speed of light. Therefore, every physical system will experience some sort of latency, regardless of the nature of stimulation that it has been exposed to. The precise definition of latency depends on the system being observed and the nature of stimulation. In communications, the lower limit of latency is determined by the medium being used for communications. In reliable two-way communication systems, latency limits the maximum rate that information can be transmitted, as there is often a limit on the amount of information that is "in-flight" at any one moment. In the field of human–machine interaction, perceptible latency has a strong effect on user satisfaction and usability. Cell Phones.

Wave Impedance of an electromagnetic wave is the ratio of the transverse components of the electric and magnetic fields (the transverse components being those at right angles to the direction of propagation). For a transverse-electric-magnetic (TEM) plane wave traveling through a homogeneous medium, the wave impedance is everywhere equal to the intrinsic impedance of the medium. In particular, for a plane wave travelling through empty space, the wave impedance is equal to the impedance of free space. The symbol Z is used to represent it and it is expressed in units of ohms. The symbol η (eta) may be used instead of Z for wave impedance to avoid confusion with electrical impedance.

Extremely High Frequency is the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) designation for the band of radio frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum from 30 to 300 gigahertz (GHz). It lies between the super high frequency band, and the far infrared band which is also referred to as the terahertz gap. Radio Waves in this band have wavelengths from ten to one millimetre, giving it the name millimetre band or millimetre wave, sometimes abbreviated MMW or mmW.

Super High Frequency is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range between 3 and 30 gigahertz (GHz). This band of frequencies is also known as the centimetre band or centimetre wave as the wavelengths range from one to ten centimetres.

Physicists Generate Terahertz Waves with Spin Current Flow. Terahertz waves are often used in the checking of passengers and luggage at the airport. Terahertz (THz) waves lie in the electromagnetic spectrum between microwaves and infrared radiation. Since they are low in energy, there is no need for be concerned with their impact on human.

Microwaves - Electromagnetic Radiation - Alpha Theta Beta (brain waves)

How to Measure the Speed of Light with Marshmallows - Christmas Lectures with Neil Johnson (youtube)

Hertz is the unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second. As an SI unit, Hz can be prefixed; commonly used multiples are kHz (kilohertz, 10 to 3p Hz), MHz (megahertz, 10 to 6p Hz), GHz (gigahertz, 10 to 9p Hz) and THz (Terahertz, 10 to 12power Hz).

Cycles Per Second Hertz ComparisonCycle Per Second or CPS was a once-common English name for the unit of frequency now known as the hertz.

Sine Wave is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation. It is named after the function sine, of which it is the graph. It occurs often in pure and applied mathematics, as well as physics, engineering, signal processing and many other fields.

Wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats, and thus the inverse of the spatial frequency.

Zenneck Wave is an inhomogeneous or non-uniform electromagnetic plane wave incident at the complex Brewster angle onto a planar or spherical boundary interface between two homogeneous media having different dielectric constants. The Zenneck wave propagates parallel to the interface and decays exponentially vertical to it, a property known as evanescence. It exists under the condition that the permittivity of one of the materials forming the interface is negative, while the other one is positive, as for example the interface between air and a lossy conducting medium such as the terrestrial transmission line, below the plasma frequency. Arising from original analysis by Arnold Sommerfeld and Jonathan Zenneck of the problem of wave propagation over a lossy earth, it exists as an exact solution to Maxwell's equations. (Zenneck surface wave or Sommerfeld-Zenneck surface wave).

Surface Wave surface wave is a mechanical wave that propagates along the interface between differing media. A common example is gravity waves along the surface of liquids, such as ocean waves. Gravity waves can also occur within liquids, at the interface between two fluids with different densities. Elastic surface waves can travel along the surface of solids, such as Rayleigh or Love waves. Electromagnetic waves can also propagate as "surface waves" in that they can be guided along a refractive index gradient or along an interface between two media having different dielectric constants. In radio transmission, a ground wave is a guided wave that propagates close to the surface of the Earth.

Mechanical Wave is a wave that is an oscillation of matter, and therefore transfers energy through a medium. While waves can move over long distances, the movement of the medium of transmission—the material—is limited. Therefore, the oscillating material does not move far from its initial equilibrium position. Mechanical waves transport energy. This energy propagates in the same direction as the wave. Any kind of wave (mechanical or electromagnetic) has a certain energy. Mechanical waves can be produced only in media which possess elasticity and inertia. A mechanical wave requires an initial energy input. Once this initial energy is added, the wave travels through the medium until all its energy is transferred. In contrast, electromagnetic waves require no medium, but can still travel through one. One important property of mechanical waves is that their amplitudes are measured in an unusual way, displacement divided by (reduced) wavelength. When this gets comparable to unity, significant nonlinear effects such as harmonic generation may occur, and, if large enough, may result in chaotic effects. For example, waves on the surface of a body of water break when this dimensionless amplitude exceeds 1, resulting in a foam on the surface and turbulent mixing. Some of the most common examples of mechanical waves are water waves, sound waves, and seismic waves. There are three types of mechanical waves: transverse waves, longitudinal waves, and surface waves.

Transverse Wave is a moving wave that consists of oscillations occurring perpendicular (right angled) to the direction of energy transfer (or the propagation of the wave). If a transverse wave is moving in the positive x-direction, its oscillations are in up and down directions that lie in the y–z plane. Light is an example of a transverse wave, while sound is a longitudinal wave. A ripple in a pond and a wave on a string are easily visualized as transverse waves.

Longitudinal Wave are waves in which the displacement of the medium is in the same direction as, or the opposite direction to, the direction of propagation of the wave. Mechanical longitudinal waves are also called compressional or compression waves, because they produce compression and rarefaction when traveling through a medium, and pressure waves, because they produce increases and decreases in pressure.

Seismic Wave are waves of energy that travel through the Earth's layers, and are a result of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, magma movement, large landslides and large man-made explosions that give out low-frequency acoustic energy. Many other natural and anthropogenic sources create low-amplitude waves commonly referred to as ambient vibrations. Seismic waves are studied by geophysicists called seismologists. Seismic wave fields are recorded by a seismometer, hydrophone (in water), or accelerometer. The propagation velocity of the waves depends on density and elasticity of the medium. Velocity tends to increase with depth and ranges from approximately 2 to 8 km/s in the Earth's crust, up to 13 km/s in the deep mantle. Earthquakes create distinct types of waves with different velocities; when reaching seismic observatories, their different travel times help scientists to locate the source of the hypocenter. In geophysics the refraction or reflection of seismic waves is used for research into the structure of the Earth's interior, and man-made vibrations are often generated to investigate shallow, subsurface structures

Wind Wave are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, canals, puddles or ponds). They result from the wind blowing over an area of fluid surface. Waves in the oceans can travel thousands of miles before reaching land. Wind waves on Earth range in size from small ripples, to waves over 100 ft (30 m) high. When directly generated and affected by local winds, a wind wave system is called a wind sea. After the wind ceases to blow, wind waves are called swells. More generally, a swell consists of wind-generated waves that are not significantly affected by the local wind at that time. They have been generated elsewhere or some time ago. Wind waves in the ocean are called ocean surface waves. Wind waves have a certain amount of randomness: subsequent waves differ in height, duration, and shape with limited predictability. They can be described as a stochastic process, in combination with the physics governing their generation, growth, propagation, and decay—as well as governing the interdependence between flow quantities such as: the water surface movements, flow velocities and water pressure. The key statistics of wind waves (both seas and swells) in evolving sea states can be predicted with wind wave models. Although waves are usually considered in the water seas of Earth, the hydrocarbon seas of Titan may also have wind-driven waves.

Fundamental Frequency is defined as the lowest frequency of a periodic waveform. In music, the fundamental is the musical pitch of a note that is perceived as the lowest partial present.

Modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.

Phase in relation to waves is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle. A complete cycle is defined as the interval required for the waveform to return to its arbitrary initial value. The graph to the right shows how one cycle constitutes 360° of phase. The graph also shows how phase is sometimes expressed in radians, where one radian of phase equals approximately 57.3°.' Phase can also be an expression of relative displacement between two corresponding features (for example, peaks or zero crossings) of two waveforms having the same frequency. In sinusoidal functions or in waves, "phase" has two different, but closely related, meanings. One is the initial angle of a sinusoidal function at its origin and is sometimes called phase offset or phase difference. Another usage is the fraction of the wave cycle that has elapsed relative to the origin.

Phase Modulation is a modulation Pattern that encodes information as variations in the instantaneous phase of a carrier wave. The phase of a carrier signal is modulated to follow the changing voltage level (amplitude) of modulation signal. The peak amplitude and frequency of the carrier signal remain constant, but as the amplitude of the information signal changes, the phase of the carrier changes correspondingly. The analysis and the final result (modulated signal) are similar to those of frequency modulation. Phase modulation is widely used for transmitting radio waves and is an integral part of many digital transmission coding schemes that underlie a wide range of technologies like Wi-Fi, GSM and satellite television. Phase modulation is closely related to frequency modulation (FM); it is often used as an intermediate step to achieve FM. Mathematically both phase and frequency modulation can be considered a special case of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). PM is used for signal and waveform generation in digital synthesizers, such as the Yamaha DX7 to implement FM synthesis. A related type of sound synthesis called phase distortion is used in the Casio CZ synthesizers.

Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point. The word comes from Latin vibrationem ("shaking, brandishing"). The oscillations may be periodic, such as the motion of a pendulum—or random, such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road. PDF. Vibration is an oscillation of the parts of a fluid or an elastic solid whose equilibrium has been disturbed, or of an electromagnetic wave. Vibration can also be a person's emotional state, the atmosphere of a place, or the associations of an object, as communicated to and felt by others. A distinctive emotional aura experienced instinctively.

Good Vibrations: The Science of Sound (youtube)

Music for Plants - Life of Plants - Sonic Bloom (website)

Vibration WaveOscillation is the process of oscillating between states. A single complete execution of a periodically repeated phenomenon. Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. The term vibration is precisely used to describe mechanical oscillation. Familiar examples of oscillation include a swinging pendulum and alternating current power. PDF. Oscillation in physics is a regular periodic variation in value about a mean. Synchronicity.

Entrainment Injection Locking is the process whereby two interacting oscillating systems, which have different periods when they function independently, assume a common period. The two oscillators may fall into synchrony, but other phase relationships are also possible. The system with the greater frequency slows down, and the other speeds up.

Resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at a specific preferential frequency. Orbital Resonance.

Cycle
is an interval during which a recurring sequence of events occurs. Recur in repeating sequences. A periodically repeated sequence of events. Cause to go through a recurring sequence. The unit of frequency; one hertz has a periodic interval of one second. A single complete execution of a periodically repeated phenomenon

Amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period (such as time or spatial period). There are various definitions of amplitude, which are all functions of the magnitude of the difference between the variable's extreme values. In older texts the phase is sometimes called the amplitude. Patterns - Rate - Electromagnetic Spectrum.



Electronics Testing Equipment


Power Supply is an electronic device that supplies electric energy to an electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert electric current from a source to the correct voltage, current, and frequency to power the load. As a result, power supplies are sometimes referred to as electric power converters. Some power supplies are separate standalone pieces of equipment, while others are built into the load appliances that they power. Examples of the latter include power supplies found in desktop computers and consumer electronics devices. Other functions that power supplies may perform include limiting the current drawn by the load to safe levels, shutting off the current in the event of an electrical fault, power conditioning to prevent electronic noise or voltage surges on the input from reaching the load, power-factor correction, and storing energy so it can continue to power the load in the event of a temporary interruption in the source power (uninterruptible power supply).

Switched-Mode Power Supply is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently. Like other power supplies, an SMPS transfers power from a DC or AC source (often mains power) to DC loads, such as a personal computer, while converting voltage and current characteristics. Unlike a linear power supply, the pass transistor of a switching-mode supply continually switches between low-dissipation, full-on and full-off states, and spends very little time in the high dissipation transitions, which minimizes wasted energy. Ideally, a switched-mode power supply dissipates no power. Voltage regulation is achieved by varying the ratio of on-to-off time. In contrast, a linear power supply regulates the output voltage by continually dissipating power in the pass transistor. This higher power conversion efficiency is an important advantage of a switched-mode power supply. Switched-mode power supplies may also be substantially smaller and lighter than a linear supply due to the smaller transformer size and weight. Switching regulators are used as replacements for linear regulators when higher efficiency, smaller size or lighter weight are required. They are, however, more complicated; their switching currents can cause electrical noise problems if not carefully suppressed, and simple designs may have a poor power factor.

Electric Power Conversion is converting electric energy from one form to another such as converting between AC and DC; or changing the voltage or frequency; or some combination of these. A power converter is an electrical or electro-mechanical device for converting electrical energy. This could be as simple as a transformer to change the voltage of AC power, but also includes far more complex systems. The term can also refer to a class of electrical machinery that is used to convert one frequency of alternating current into another frequency. Power conversion systems often incorporate redundancy and voltage regulation. One way of classifying power conversion systems is according to whether the input and output are alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC).

Inverter - Voltage Regulator - Transformers - Continuity Test

Oscilloscope is a type of electronic test instrument that allows you to see voltage over time and make an observation of constantly varying signal voltages, usually as a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time. Other signals (such as sound or vibration) can be converted to voltages and displayed. Picotech.

Multimeter is an electronic measuring instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit. A typical multimeter can measure voltage, current, and resistance. Analog multimeters use a microammeter with a moving pointer to display readings. Digital multimeters (DMM, DVOM) have a numeric display, and may also show a graphical bar representing the measured value. Digital multimeters are now far more common due to their cost and precision, but analog multimeters are still preferable in some cases, for example when monitoring a rapidly varying value. Continuity.

How to Use a Multimeter for Beginners - How to Measure Voltage, Resistance, Continuity and Amps (youtube)

Connect the multimeter's probes to the main body of the meter. Red goes in the positive receptacle, marked with "Volt." Black goes in the negative or ground terminal, marked with "COM."

The Best Multimeter Tutorial in The World (How to use & Experiments) (youtube).

How to Test an Outlet With a Multi-Meter (youtube) - Black wire or Hot wire connects to gold screw on plug (small slot). White wire or Neutral wire connects to silver screw on plug. (tall slot). Copper wire or ground wire connects to the green screw. Wear rubber soul shoes when working with wires.

Transducer is a device that converts one form of energy to another. Usually a transducer converts a signal in one form of energy to a signal in another. Transducers are often employed at the boundaries of automation, measurement, and control systems, where electrical signals are converted to and from other physical quantities (energy, force, torque, light, motion, position, etc.). The process of converting one form of energy to another is known as transduction. Inverter.

Electronic Test Equipment is used to create signals and capture responses from electronic devices under test or DUTs. In this way, the proper operation of the DUT can be proven or faults in the device can be traced. Use of electronic test equipment is essential to any serious work on electronics systems. Practical electronics engineering and assembly requires the use of many different kinds of electronic test equipment ranging from the very simple and inexpensive (such as a test light consisting of just a light bulb and a test lead) to extremely complex and sophisticated such as automatic test equipment (ATE). ATE often includes many of these instruments in real and simulated forms. Generally, more advanced test gear is necessary when developing circuits and systems than is needed when doing production testing or when troubleshooting existing production units in the field. Electronic Noise.

RF Probe is a device which allows electronic test equipment to measure Radio Frequency (RF) signal in an electronic circuit.

Science Tools and Equipment - Engineering Knowledge - LED's - Light

Amprobe AT-7030 Advanced Wire Tracer Kit traces wires in walls, ceilings, floors and corners. Locates breakers and fuses, Pinpoints shorts and opens.

Galvanometer is an electromechanical instrument used for detecting and indicating an electric current. A galvanometer works as an actuator, by producing a rotary deflection of a pointer, in response to electric current flowing through a coil in a constant magnetic field. Early galvanometers were not calibrated, but improved devices were used as measuring instruments, called ammeters, to measure the current flowing through an electric circuit.

Potentiometer is an instrument for measuring voltage or 'potential difference' by comparison of an unknown voltage with a known reference voltage. If a sensitive indicating instrument is used, very little current is drawn from the source of the unknown voltage. Since the reference voltage can be produced from an accurately calibrated voltage divider, a potentiometer can provide high precision in measurement.



Nikola Tesla


Nikola Tesla Nikola Tesla was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system. (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943). Nikola Tesla (youtube) - Wireless Energy.

Tesla Coil is an electrical resonant transformer circuit designed by inventor Nikola Tesla in 1891. It is used to produce high-voltage, low-current, high frequency alternating-current electricity. Tesla experimented with a number of different configurations consisting of two, or sometimes three, coupled resonant electric circuits. Tesla used these circuits to conduct innovative experiments in electrical lighting, phosphorescence, X-ray generation, high frequency alternating current phenomena, electrotherapy, and the transmission of electrical energy without wires. Tesla coil circuits were used commercially in sparkgap radio transmitters for wireless telegraphy until the 1920s, and in medical equipment such as electrotherapy and violet ray devices. Today, their main use is for entertainment and educational displays, although small coils are still used as leak detectors for high vacuum systems. Build a Tesla Coil - Tesla Tech.

The Lords Of Lightning - Two men + two Tesla coils + special suits = ELECTRICITY FIGHT! (youtube)
Lords of Lightning (website)

Plasma Globe is a clear glass container filled with a mixture of various noble gases with a high-voltage electrode in the center of the container. When voltage is applied, a plasma is formed within the container. Plasma filaments extend from the inner electrode to the outer glass insulator, giving the appearance of multiple constant beams of colored light. The plasma lamp was invented by Nikola Tesla, during his experimentation with high-frequency currents in an evacuated glass tube for the purpose of studying high voltage phenomena. Tesla called his invention an "inert gas discharge tube". The modern plasma lamp design was subsequently developed by Bill Parker, a student at MIT.

Corona Discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid such as air surrounding a conductor that is electrically charged. Spontaneous corona discharges occur naturally in high-voltage systems unless care is taken to limit the electric field strength. A corona will occur when the strength of the electric field (potential gradient) around a conductor is high enough to form a conductive region, but not high enough to cause electrical breakdown or arcing to nearby objects. It is often seen as a bluish (or other color) glow in the air adjacent to pointed metal conductors carrying high voltages, and emits light by the same property as a gas discharge lamp.

Glow Discharge is a plasma formed by the passage of electric current through a gas. It is often created by applying a voltage between two electrodes in a glass tube containing a low-pressure gas. When the voltage exceeds a value called the striking voltage, the gas ionization becomes self-sustaining, and the tube glows with a colored light. The color depends on the gas used. Glow discharges are used as a source of light in devices such as neon lights, fluorescent lamps, and plasma-screen televisions. Analyzing the light produced with spectroscopy can reveal information about the atomic interactions in the gas, so glow discharges are used in plasma physics and analytical chemistry. They are also used in the surface treatment technique called sputtering.

What Happens If to charge up a HUMAN with ONE MILLION VOLTS !?!! Will he get supernatural powers? (youtube)

Help to Republish Tesla's Secrets (Go Fund Me)

Man Solves Tesla’s Secret To Amplifying Power By Nearly 5000% (youtube)

Jim Murray (website)

Lenz's Law states that the current induced in a circuit due to a change or a motion in a magnetic field is so directed as
to oppose the change in flux and to exert a mechanical force opposing the motion.

Faraday's Law of Induction is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an Electromotive Force (EMF)—a phenomenon called electromagnetic induction. It is the fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators and solenoids, which is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix.

Electromagnetic Induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.

Dynaflux Alternator (website)

Induction Generator is a type of alternating current (AC) electrical generator that uses the principles of induction motors to produce power. Induction generators operate by mechanically turning their rotors faster than synchronous speed.


Elliptical Electric Rotor


Rotor is a moving component of an electromagnetic system in the electric motor, electric generator, or alternator. Its rotation is due to the interaction between the windings and magnetic fields which produces a torque around the rotor's axis.

Rotating Magnetic Field is a magnetic field that has moving polarities in which its opposite poles rotate about a central point or axis. Ideally the rotation changes direction at a constant angular rate. This is a key principle in the operation of the alternating-current motor. Rotating magnetic fields are often utilized for electromechanical applications such as induction motors and electric generators. However, they are also used in purely electrical applications such as induction regulators.

Electrical Reactance is the opposition of a circuit element to a change in current or voltage, due to that element's inductance or capacitance. A built-up electric field resists the change of voltage on the element, while a magnetic field resists the change of current. The notion of reactance is similar to electrical resistance, but it differs in several respects.

Gap-Power Overunity Device
GAP Power Magnetic Neutralization

Muammer Yildiz Magnet Motor with Downloadable Patent Info (youtube)

John Christie Magnetic Generator – How To Generate 7 Kilowatts For Free Using A Christie Generator. Magnetism can be converted into rotary motion and then electricity is the result of zero point technology.


Searl Effect Generator


Neodymium The Searl Effect, Free Energy Generator - Documentary (youtube - 28mins.)

Searl Solution - Levity Disk

Law of Squares (symmetry)

Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60. A yellow trivalent metallic element of the rare earth group; occurs in monazite and bastnasite in association with cerium and lanthanum and praseodymium. Neodymium is classed as a rare earth, it is a fairly common element, no rarer than cobalt, nickel, and copper, and is widely distributed in the Earth's crust. Most of the world's commercial neodymium is mined in China. Another important use of neodymium is as a component in the alloys used to make high-strength neodymium magnets—powerful permanent magnets. Neodymium is a metal is ferromagnetic. Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2.

When electric current flows through a coil, it produces electromagnetic waves that propagate in all directions. When the coil is placed inside a cylinder it reflects the waves.

Rolls-Royce | Permanent Magnet Technology (youtube)

The AZ-PM thruster is the latest in a range of Rolls-Royce propulsion products using its permanent magnet technology. This technology is based on electric drive where the motor is in the form of a ring round the propeller. The moving part of the ring is a rim around the propeller blades which carries a series of strong permanent magnets. The rotor, fitted within a series of magnets, turns within an outer ring which form the stator. When current is supplied to the motor from the variable frequency power supply the electromagnets are excited in a particular sequence and the resulting magnetic fields interact with the field from the rotor magnets creating a torque that turns the rotor and its propeller blades. At the centre of the thruster the propeller blades are joined to a hub, which has two functions; to carry the bearings taking propeller thrust and provide radial location of the rotor, and to improve the hydro-dynamic efficiency of the thruster. Loads are transferred to the stator through struts. Both rotor and stator are sealed against water ingress and operate fully submerged. Rolls-Royce PM technology is flexible, and is currently applied in this integrated propeller drive form to tunnel thrusters (TT-PM) and azimuth thrusters (AZ-PM). Other versions in which the PM rotor is arranged to turn an output shaft provide a high torque, low speed, drive for winches. Among the advantages of this PM thruster technology are high efficiency (at nominal speed) over the entire speed range, leading to low thermal losses and eliminating the need for separate cooling systems of the submerged motor. Thrusters are compact and robust, and require less space within the hull. They are simple, with far fewer components than geared thrusters and are also quieter, with reduced structure and airborne noise. Learn more about Permanent Magnet Thrusters.

Magnet Electric Generator (image)

Azimuth Thruster is a configuration of marine propellers placed in pods that can be rotated to any horizontal angle (azimuth), making a rudder unnecessary. These give ships better maneuverability than a fixed propeller and rudder system.


Zero Point Energy


Zero-Point Energy is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have; it is the energy of its ground state.

Binding Energy - Chemical Bonds - Atoms form Molecules to form a Low Energy State. Wave Function.

Ground State of a quantum-mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system. An excited state is any state with energy greater than the ground state. In quantum field theory, the ground state is usually called the vacuum state or the vacuum. If more than one ground state exists, they are said to be degenerate. Many systems have degenerate ground states. Degeneracy occurs whenever there exists a unitary operator that acts non-trivially on a ground state and commutes with the Hamiltonian of the system. According to the third law of thermodynamics, a system at absolute zero temperature exists in its ground state; thus, its entropy is determined by the degeneracy of the ground state. Many systems, such as a perfect crystal lattice, have a unique ground state and therefore have zero entropy at absolute zero. It is also possible for the highest excited state to have absolute zero temperature for systems that exhibit negative temperature. Time Crystal.

Hamiltonian in quantum mechanics is an operator corresponding to the sum of the kinetic energies plus the potential energies for all the particles in the system (this addition is the total energy of the system in most cases under analysis).

Energy-Plus-House produces more energy from renewable energy sources, over the course of a year, than it imports from external sources. This is achieved using a combination of microgeneration technology and low-energy building techniques, such as: passive solar building design, insulation and careful site selection and placement. A reduction of modern conveniences can also contribute to energy savings, however many energy-plus houses are almost indistinguishable from a traditional home, preferring instead to use highly energy-efficient appliances, fixtures, etc., throughout the house.

Free Energy (Tesla) (youtube) - Energy-Frequency-Vibration - 3,6,9

Race to Zero Point (youtube)

Kardashev Scale is a method of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement, based on the amount of energy a civilization is able to use for communication. The scale has three designated categories: Type I civilization—also called a planetary civilization—can use and store all of the energy which reaches its planet from its parent star. Type I technological level of a civilization can harness all the Energy that falls on a planet from its parent star (for Earth-Sun system, this value is close to 7x1017 watts), which is more than five orders of magnitude higher than the amount presently attained on earth (0.72), with energy consumption at ≈4×1019 erg/sec (4 × 1012 watts). The astronomer Guillermo A. Lemarchand stated this as a level near contemporary terrestrial civilization with an energy capability equivalent to the solar insolation on Earth, between 1016 and 1017 watts. Renewable Energy - Energy Harvesting. Type II civilization—also called a stellar civilization—can harness the total energy of its planet's parent star (the most popular hypothetical concept being the Dyson sphere—a device which would encompass the entire star and transfer its energy to the planet(s)). Type III civilization—also called a galactic civilization—can control energy on the scale of its entire host galaxy. The scale is hypothetical, and regards energy consumption on a cosmic scale. It was proposed in 1964 by the Soviet astronomer Nikolai Kardashev. Various extensions of the scale have since been proposed, including a wider range of power levels (types 0, IV and V) and the use of metrics other than pure power.

Vacuum Energy (1.4 volts / 90 milliamps)

Casimir Effect - Quantized Energy - Electrons

Resonant Inductive Coupling is the phenomenon that the coupling is enhanced when the secondary side of the loosely coupled coil resonates. The most basic resonant inductive coupling consists of one drive coil on the primary side and one resonance circuit on the secondary side.

Zero Point Batteries
Battery that Never Runs Out! The Mysteries of Zero Point Energy (youtube)
A "Forever" Energy Cell From the Zero Point (youtube) Quantum-Power.
Quotas Principle Pre Celestial Energy - Double Quantum Dot Resonance.
Virtual Particles in Electromagnetism (Marcus Reid)
How to Build Crystal Power Cells - Long Duration Power (youtube)

Bio-Batteries - Perpetual Motion

Mind over Matter, because Matter Matters.



Previous Subject Up Top Page Next Subject



The Thinker Man