Surviving Emergencies and Disasters
will always better then not
First Aid Tips
Having a well thought out plan
makes it a lot easier to make good decisions during an emergency,
especially in the mist of chaos. Having a plan also helps people to avoid being consumed by
, which could cause you to make costly mistakes and thus lower
your chances of surviving.
Disaster Distress Hotline:
is an internationally
recognized means for obtaining help. Distress signals are communicated
by transmitting radio signals
, displaying a visually observable item or
illumination, or making a sound audible
from a distance.
is the International Morse Code
Distress Signal. (...- - -...)
Dot Dot Dot, Dash Dash Dash, Dot Dot Dot.
is an emergency procedure
word used internationally as a
in voice procedure radio communications
Emergency Broadcast System
is a former emergency
in the United States. EBS replaced the previous CONELRAD system and was
used from 1963 to 1997, at which point it was replaced by the
Emergency Alert System
, which is a national warning system in the
United States put into place on January 1, 1997.
Informing the Public
is to warn or
to a sense
or call to a state of
. A warning serves to make you more alert to danger.
Condition of heightened
for action. Engaged in or accustomed to close
is a message
danger, potential harm, or risk
. Cautionary advice
about something imminent, especially imminent danger or other
unpleasantness. A notification of something, usually in advance.
is a type of sign which indicates a
, obstacle or condition requiring special
Some are traffic signs that indicate hazards on roads that may not be
readily apparent to a driver.
Red Flag Warning
is a label
attached to a product, or contained in a product's
warning the user about risks
associated with its use,
and may include restrictions by the manufacturer or seller on certain
uses. Most of them are placed to limit civil liability in lawsuits against
the item's manufacturer or seller. Many safe products intended for human
consumption may require warning labels due to the health risks associated
with using them. That sometimes results in labels which for some people
seem to state the obvious, like "Smoking
is any system of biological or technical nature
deployed by an individual or group to inform of a future
. Its purpose is to enable the deployer of the warning system to
prepare for the danger and act accordingly to mitigate or avoid it.
Warnings cannot be effective unless people react to them.
People are more likely
to ignore a system that regularly produces false warnings (the cry-wolf
, but reducing the number of false warnings generally also
increases the risk of not giving a warning when it is needed. Some
warnings are non-specific: for instance, the probability of an earthquake
of a certain magnitude in a certain area over the next decade. Such
warnings cannot be used to guide short-term precautions such as
evacuation. Opportunities to take long-term precautions, such as better
building codes and disaster preparedness, may be ignored.
is a device that signals a
warning of danger and the occurrence of some undesirable event. Warn or
arouse to a sense of danger or call to a state of preparedness. Fear
resulting from the awareness of danger.
gives an audible, visual or other form of alarm signal about a
problem or condition. Alarm devices are often outfitted with a siren.
Alarm devices include: Burglar alarms, designed to warn of burglaries;
this is often a silent alarm: the police or guards are warned without
indication to the burglar, which increases the chances of catching him or
her. Alarm clocks can beep, buzz or ring off as an alarm at a set time to
wake a person up or for other reminders. Distributed control systems
(DCS), found in nuclear power plants, refineries and chemical facilities
also generate alarms to direct the operator's attention to an important
event that he or she needs to address. Alarms in an operation and
maintenance (O&M) monitoring system, which informs the bad working state
of (a particular part of) the system under monitoring. First-out alarm.
Safety alarms, which go off if a dangerous condition occurs. Common public
safety alarms include: Civil defense siren also known as tornado sirens or
air raid sirens. Fire alarm systems. fire alarm notification appliance.
"Multiple-alarm fire", a locally specific measure of the severity of a
fire and the fire-department reaction required. Smoke detector. Car
alarms. Autodialer alarm, also known as community alarm. Personal alarm.
Video Alarm Verification System provides instant notifications upon the
detection of a possible threat verified through a video feed. Tocsin – a
historical alarm mechanism. Alarms have the capability of causing a
fight-or-flight response in humans; a person under this mindset will panic
and either flee the perceived danger or attempt to eliminate it, often
ignoring rational thought in either case. A person in such a state can be
characterised as "alarmed". With any kind of alarm, the need exists to
balance between on the one hand the danger of false alarms (called "false
positives") — the signal going off in the absence of a problem — and on
the other hand failing to signal an actual problem (called a "false
negative"). False alarms can waste resources expensively and can even be
dangerous. For example, false alarms of a fire can waste firefighter
manpower, making them unavailable for a real fire, and risk injury to
firefighters and others as the fire engines race to the alleged fire's
location. In addition, false alarms may acclimatise people to ignore alarm
signals, and thus possibly to ignore an actual emergency: Aesop's fable of
The Boy Who Cried Wolf exemplifies this problem.
is a message distributed by a child abduction alert system to
ask the public for help in finding abducted children. It originated in the
United States in 1996. AMBER is a backronym for America's Missing:
Broadcast Emergency Response. The alert was named after Amber Hagerman, a
9-year-old girl abducted and murdered in Arlington, Texas, in 1996.
Alternative regional alert names were once used; in Georgia, "Levi's Call"
(in memory of Levi Frady); in Hawaii, "Maile Amber Alert" (in memory of
Maile Gilbert); and Arkansas, "Morgan Nick Amber Alert" (in memory of
Morgan Nick) and Utah, "Rachael Alert" (in memory of Rachael Runyan). In
the United States, amber alerts are distributed via commercial and public
radio stations, Internet radio, satellite radio, television stations, text
messages, and cable TV by the Emergency Alert System and NOAA Weather
Radio (where they are termed "Child Abduction Emergency" or "Amber
Alerts"). The alerts are also issued via e-mail, electronic
traffic-condition signs, commercial electronic billboards, or through
wireless device SMS text messages. AMBER Alert has also teamed up with
Google, Bing, and Facebook to relay information regarding an AMBER Alert
to an ever-growing demographic: AMBER Alerts are automatically displayed
if citizens search or use map features on Google or Bing. With the Google
Child Alert (also called Google AMBER Alert in some countries), citizens
see an AMBER Alert if they search for related information in a particular
location where a child has recently been abducted and an alert was issued.
This is a component of the AMBER Alert system that is already active in
the US (there are also developments in Europe). Those interested in
subscribing to receive AMBER Alerts in their area via SMS messages can
visit Wireless Amber Alerts, which are offered by law as free messages. In
some states, the display scrollboards in front of lottery terminals are
also used. The decision to declare an AMBER Alert is made by each police
organization (in many cases, the state police or highway patrol) that
investigates each of the abductions. Public information in an AMBER Alert
usually consists of the name and description of the abductee, a
description of the suspected abductor, and a description and license plate
number of the abductor's vehicle if available.
Law enforcement must confirm that an abduction
has taken place. The child must be at risk of serious injury or death.
There must be sufficient descriptive information of child, captor, or
captor's vehicle to issue an alert. The child must be under 17 years of
a radio message sent to every officer in a police
force giving details of a suspected criminal or stolen vehicle. is a
broadcast issued from any American or Canadian law enforcement agency to
its personnel, or to other law enforcement agencies. It typically contains
information about a wanted suspect who is to be arrested or a person of
interest, for whom law enforcement officers are to look. They are usually
dangerous or missing persons. As used by American police, the term dates
to at least 1832. An all-points bulletin can also be known as a BOLO or
BOL, which stands for "be on (the) look-out". Such an alert may also be
called a lookout or ATL ("attempt to locate"). A similar, longer acronym
used by Australian law enforcement is KALOF or KLO4 (for "keep a look-out
for"). The United Kingdom uses a similar system known as the all-ports
warning or APW, which circulates a suspect's description to airports,
ports and international railway stations to detect an offender or suspect
leaving the country. Because of the great numbers of commuters at such
places, British police forces often prefer to contact specific airports,
ports or stations and circulate descriptions individually.
Dangerous Situations - Difficult - Challenging
is any event that is, or is expected to lead to, an unstable
and dangerous situation affecting an individual, group, community, or
whole society. "Most big catastrophes have a
chain of events
but very few people understand the events that took place that lead and
caused the catastrophe to happen, so catastrophes tend to repeat
themselves throughout history".
Crisis Training Manual
is an extremely dangerous situation
that threatens human
existence and survival
is a difficult situation or complex health system that
affects humans in one or more geographic areas (mainly occurred in natural
hazards), from a particular locality to encompass the entire planet.
Health crises generally have significant impacts on community health, loss
of life, and on the economy. They may result from disease, industrial
processes or poor policy. Its severity is often measured by the number of
people affected by its geographical extent, or the
or death of the pathogenic
process which it originates.
Ignorance is a Public Health Crisis
is a situation that poses an immediate risk
to health, life,
or environment. Most emergencies require urgent intervention to prevent
a worsening of the situation, although in some situations, mitigation
may not be possible and agencies may only be able to offer palliative
care for the aftermath. Emergency Management
- Rescue Equipment
- Medical Emergency
State of Emergency
alerts citizens to change their normal behavior
and orders government agencies to implement emergency plans.
is pressing importance requiring
speedy action. An urgent situation calling for prompt action. Compelling
turning point of a crisis or emergency. An abrupt change especially having
enough mass to sustain a chain reaction. Criticality is a
state of critical urgency.
is an event causing great and often sudden damage or
distress; a disaster, catastrophe, tragedy, cataclysm, adversity,
tribulation, affliction, misfortune, misadventure.
is an event resulting in great loss
and misfortune. Rescue
is a state
of extreme ruin
misfortune that may be impossible to remedy or correct.
is a state of misfortune or
affliction. A stroke of ill fortune or a calamitous event.
is something hard to endure that
causes or entails suffering
is something not easy and
requiring great physical or mental effort to accomplish or comprehend or
. A factor causing
in achieving a positive result or tending to
produce a negative result. A condition or state of affairs almost beyond
one's ability to deal with and requiring great effort to bear or overcome.
An effort that is inconvenient. Something hard to control.
is a demanding or stimulating
situation requiring full use of your abilities or resources. (demanding,
testing, difficult, hard, formidable, onerous, laborious, burdensome,
strenuous, grueling) Life Will Test You
- Challenge a Rule
is something difficult and tiring
to accomplish that demands considerable amount of strenuous mental effort,
physical effort and skill, sometimes to the point of exhaustion that tests
powers of endurance.Tough
something very difficult that severely tests your stamina or
. Something unfortunate
or hard to bear that makes great mental demands and makes something hard
to comprehend, solve or believe. A feeling physical discomfort or pain.
that requires more
than one solution because the problem is
many working parts and
. Several things will have to change in order to
effectively solve a complicated problem.
is psychological suffering
extreme physical pain
is a source of difficulty. An
angry disturbance. An event causing distress
pain. An effort that is inconvenient. A strong feeling of
is characterized by unrest, disorder or insubordination.
is a violent and needless
disturbance or widespread destruction.
is a wild uproar or a state of extreme confusion and
is an activity that is a malfunction, intrusion, or
unhappy and worried
mental state. A
or a violent agitation.
A noisy fight
. The act of
or someone; setting
something in motion.Disrupt
interfere in someone else's activity or to break from a normal routine. To
be thrown into disorder. Tuneout
is to temporally stop the
that someone is
experiencing, or to interfere in someone else's activity.
is to come between so as to be
hindrance or an obstacle. To get involved in a situation through force or
the threat of force so as to alter or hinder an action.
is a sudden
. The astonishment you feel when
something totally unexpected
happens to you. Attack by storm; attack
suddenly. A brief mental and physiological state, a startle response
experienced by animals and humans as the result of an unexpected event.
Surprise can have any valence; that is, it can be neutral/moderate,
pleasant, unpleasant, positive, or negative. Surprise can occur in varying
levels of intensity ranging from very-surprised, which may induce the
, or little-surprise that elicits a less intense
response to the stimuli. Unexpected
is something not expected
something that stands in the way and must be avoided
or dealt with successfully
obstruction is something that is in the way, something that you either go
around or you move it or remove it.
is something difficult to deal with in anticipation.
Something intimidating or discouraging through fear
is a situation fraught with
. Providing no ease, security or reassurance that would restore
state of danger involving risk
. A source of
and a possibility
of incurring loss or misfortune. Put in a dangerous, disadvantageous, or
a difficult position that poses a threat
is something which is
doomed. An impending debacle or an ongoing disaster.
is a situation marked for certain
death or people who are destined to die soon. A certainty of failure or
destruction. Marked by or promising bad fortune. Danger of the eternal
punishment of Hell. Society
. Doom and Gloom
sad and tragic events with a feeling or attitude that things are only
or total darkness or a dark or shadowy place. A lowness of spirits or a
state of melancholy depression
is death, destruction, or some
other terrible fate. Condemn to certain destruction or death.
When your Life is Turned Upside Down
it means that things are
inverted and mess up or in a state of disorder and confusion.
.Drastic Turn of Events
Turn of Events
is a sudden change
or alteration in a situation or
circumstance. After an unexpected turn of events, a new development or
in a situation has occurred.
All Hell Breaks Lose
disruptive situation, or a noisy confusing disorder that begins suddenly.
A sudden destructive argument, a disagreement, a violent conflict, or a
dispute or controversy, or quarrel or misunderstanding, or a wild
fight or squabble. God Forsaken
something miserable in appearance or circumstances. Something lacking any
merit or attraction. Something dismal, desolate and neglected.
is an annoying, frustrating or
catastrophic event. Trials can also mean the act of
something. A trial of
something to see if or how it works. Put to the test, as for its quality,
or give experimental use to. Trials
in law is the determination of a person's innocence or guilt by due
process of law.Tribulation
cause of great trouble or suffering.
is a relatively short period of time where everyone
will experience worldwide hardships, persecution, disasters, famine, war,
pain, and suffering, which will affect all of creation, and precede
judgment of all when the Second Coming takes place.
is an unpleasant feeling and suffering of a psychological,
non-physical origin. Mental suffering
or mental torment.
is unnecessary and unforeseen
trouble resulting from an unfortunate event.
or bad planning
is a transition of identity and self-confidence that
can occur in middle-aged individuals, typically 45–55 years old. The
phenomenon is described as a psychological crisis brought about by events
that highlight a person's growing age, inevitable mortality, and possibly
shortcomings of accomplishments in life. This may produce feelings of
intense depression, remorse, and high levels of anxiety, or the desire to
achieve youthfulness or make drastic changes to their current lifestyle or
feel the wish to change past decisions and events.
Trials and Tribulations
and events that will cause suffering. There will be difficult situations
and unpleasant experiences that you will have to contend with.
learn how to adapt
know how to be resilient
. These are
skills you will need to have.
is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society
involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses
and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or
society to cope using its own resources.
Disasters that can happen around your Home
is a major adverse event resulting from natural
processes of the Earth; examples include
volcanic eruptions, earthquakes
, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.
A natural disaster can cause loss of life or property damage, and
typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which
depends on the affected population's resilience, or ability to recover
and also on the infrastructure available. "Why do we call it a natural
disaster when there is nothing natural about it, everything is
cause and effect
, the US shattered its record in
disaster costs with $306 billion spent in climate and weather disasters.
- Global Catastrophic Risk
Global Nuclear War
When natural disasters strike locally, urban networks spread the damage
. Secondary economic impacts of cyclones can be three times
greater than local costs.
When disaster strikes
it's a good idea to have a well thought
out plan. Whether it's a natural disaster, financial disaster, health
problem, war, currency collapse, or what ever the problem, changes will
happen and sacrifices will have to be made. But this doesn't mean a
catastrophic end, death or suffering, or does it mean the
End of Days
. Or does this mean that we have to resort to violence,
looting and lose control, which will just make the situation worse.
Things will only get out of control if we let them. Life always has
Cycles, we always have new obstacles, new challenges and new beginnings. Fear,
and desperation can be overwhelming, but we have the
abilities to survive if we stick together and act logical.
List of Natural Disasters by Death Toll
List of Accidents and Disasters by Death Toll
Biggest Man Made Environmental Disasters Of History
25 Biggest Man Made Environmental Disasters in History
List of industrial Disasters
Risks to Civilization, Humans and Planet Earth
volunteers around the world
to aid in the aftermath of disaster and
(Feeding the Hungry - Housing the Homeless - Medial
(hot spots)You must stay calm and focus
on the plan and your responsibilities.
and worrying for they will only distract you and waste
precious time and energy. Don't ignore the children. Children must
continue to be educated and also be assured that these types of things
have happened throughout human history and that we have always found a way
to survive and recover. Use these moments to train and teach problem
solving. Children are our most reliable investment that humans have.
the leading humanitarian information source on global crises and
disasters. It is a specialized digital service of the UN Office for the
(OCHA). We provide reliable and timely
information, enabling humanitarian workers to make informed decisions and
to plan effective response. We collect and deliver key information,
including the latest reports, maps and infographics and videos from
trusted sources. ReliefWeb is also a valuable resource for job listings
and training programs, helping
new skills and discover exciting new career opportunities.
Beware of Disaster Criminals
- Vultures who prey on the less fortunate
and the elderly
who are vulnerable after a disaster. And sometimes it's the
who caused the disaster
to happen who are doing most of the victimizing.
These criminals also exploit weak governments
to force legislation and
pass laws that only benefit the wealthy and powerful. These
no shame. False Flag
- Land Grabs
- War Profiteers
centers on the
of national crises to push
through controversial policies while citizens are too emotionally and
by disasters or upheavals to mount an
describes a broad range of
, ranging from a severe, prolonged depression with high
bankruptcy rates and high unemployment (such as the
Great Depression of
), to a breakdown in normal commerce caused by hyperinflation
(such as in Weimar Germany in the 1920s), or even an economically caused
sharp rise in the death rate and perhaps even a decline in population
(such as in countries of the former USSR in the 1990s). Often economic
collapse is accompanied by social chaos, civil unrest and sometimes a
breakdown of law and order. An example of an economic collapse is the
Great Depression. Cost Analysis
How Federal Disaster Money Favors The Rich
. The federal government
spends billions of dollars annually helping communities rebuild and
prevent future damage. But an NPR investigation has found that across the
country, white Americans
and those with more wealth often
after a disaster than do minorities and those with less
wealth. Federal aid isn't necessarily allocated to those who need it most;
it's allocated according to cost-benefit calculations meant to minimize taxpayer risk.
Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act
Public Law 93-288, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq., and Related Authorities.
people and the provision of aid to people
are in distress or imminent danger
. The general field of search and rescue
includes many specialty sub-fields, typically determined by the type of
terrain the search is conducted over. These include mountain rescue;
ground search and rescue, including the use of search and rescue dogs;
urban search and rescue in cities
; combat search and rescue on the
battlefield and air-sea rescue over water.
International Search and Rescue Advisory Group
(INSARAG) is a UN
organization that promotes the exchange of information between national
urban search and rescue organizations. The duty to render
covered by Article 98 of the
from a dangerous
or distressing situation or to
harm or evil. The recovery or
loss or danger. An act of saving or being saved from danger or distress.
is to free or
something from danger or harm
. To keep from being
put aside for later use, or to save
or wasting it.
Rock n Rescue
rescue equipment technologies, ropes and ladders.
a mechanical device that is used to pull in (wind up) or let out (wind
out) or otherwise adjust the "tension" of a rope or wire rope (also called
"cable" or "wire cable"). In its simplest form it consists of a spool and
attached hand crank. In larger forms, winches stand at the heart of
machines as diverse as tow trucks, steam shovels and elevators. The spool
can also be called the winch drum. More elaborate designs have gear
assemblies and can be powered by electric, hydraulic, pneumatic or
internal combustion drives. Some may include a solenoid brake and/or a
mechanical brake or ratchet and pawl device that prevents it from
unwinding unless the pawl is retracted. Survival
COE Technologies for Law Enforcement and Emergency Response
Tools - Technology Description
Coastal Hazards Model
(ADCIRC) Couples rain and wind forecasts
with hydrologic, storm surge, and wave models to make pinpoint
coastal flooding predictions.
Hazard Mitigation Planning
Website Interactive website gives
practitioners step-by-step guidance for developing a
FEMA-approved local hazard mitigation plan.
Assistant for Randomized Monitoring Over Routes
end users to identify vulnerabilities and assets and develop
optimal patrol schedules.
Mobile Computing Applications Platform
situational awareness, and command and control for first
responders in major emergencies.
Real-time twitter analysis
for monitoring of events.
Visual Analytics Law Enforcement Toolkit
high-volume criminal, traffic and civil incidents.
Unmanned Port Security Vessel
(UPSV) Autonomously surveys the
seabed and is a sensor platform for other optical, chemical and
environmental sensors, including real-time video.
MAGELLO User-friendly, high-resolution atmospheric and ocean data
to identify movement of spills or toxic releases in rivers,
ocean and air.
Automated Virtual Agent for Truth Assessments in Real Time
(AVATAR) Uses artificial intelligence and non-invasive sensors
to flag anomalous behaviors for more investigation by trained
Apps for mass-casualty preparedness
Emergency Mass Casualty Planning Scenarios
(EMCAPS 2.0 )
Emergency Response Guidebook
Mobile Emergency Response Guide
Medical Surge Capacity application
Enables real-time collection, distribution and analysis of
bio-surveillance, veterinary, emergency response and business continuity
data in one format.
Global Terrorism Database
(GTD) others GTD is the world's
largest open-source database of (110,000) terrorist events from
and 1970–2012. It is the "go-to" source for terrorism
researchers and analysts. Hot Spots
Video Analytic Surveillance Transition
(VAST) finds anomalies in
surveillance video in near-real-time that detect threats such as
reverse- flow, piggy-back entry, threat gestures, and flash-mobs.
Preparation - Planning - Precautions - Coordinating Disaster Relief Efforts
Are you Prepared?
? You need a phone
call people for help and to offer services. You need to
locations of relief centers. You need to Setup
network operations center
. You need to Setup
. You need to setup website to help coordinate
volunteers and for people to list their needs, and to List items
already donated, and to list items that are needed, like tools,
supplies, food, water and so on. You need people to document everything. You need to
use all media outlets and communication tools available to
inform the public
that everyone has the necessary information.
Family Emergency Kit Checklist
(PDF) - Emergency Kits
Emergency Housing -
is to make ready or be ready
and suitable and equipped in advance
for a particular
or for some
use or event. To arrange by systematic planning and united effort. To
future role or function.
Create by training and
in preparation for a
particular role, function
, or profession.
is the cognitive process of
about what you will do in the event of
something happening. The activity of putting or setting in
order in advance of some act or purpose. Made ready or fit
or suitable beforehand. Activity leading to
or instruction in preparation for a particular
role, function, or profession. Equipped or prepared with necessary
. Arrange by systematic
and united effort. Create by training and
refers to a very
based set of
that are taken as
in the face of
potential disasters. These actions can include both physical
preparations (such as emergency supplies depots,
to survive earthquakes
and so on) and trainings for emergency
action. Preparedness is an important quality in achieving goals
in avoiding and
mitigating negative outcomes
. There are different
types of preparedness, such as public health preparedness and local
emergency preparedness or snow preparedness (i.e.: Snow Preparedness
Teams - SPT), but probably the most developed type is "Disaster
", defined by the UN as involving "forecasting
precautionary measures prior to an imminent threat when advance warnings
are possible". This includes not only natural
disasters, but all kinds of severe damage caused in a relatively
short period, including warfare. Preparedness is a major phase of
emergency management, and is particularly valued in areas of
competition such as sport and military science. Methods of
preparation include research
, education, practicing
Standby is being ready for emergency
use. Something that can be
relied on when
needed. A person waiting to secure a place on standby. One to be relied on
especially in emergencies. Readiness for
duty or immediate
deployment. One that is held in reserve ready for use. A favorite or
choice or resource. An actor able to replace a regular performer when
is being completely prepared or in condition for immediate action or use
or progress. Made suitable
and available for immediate use. Apprehending and responding with speed
and sensitivity. Poised for action. Make ready or suitable or equip in
advance for a particular purpose or for some use,
is to hold back or set aside, especially for future use. Give or assign a
resource to a particular person or cause. Something kept back or saved for
future use or for a special purpose incase of a
possible event, occurrence or result.
is something obtainable or accessible and ready for use or
is an action taken in
advance to protect against possible danger or
failure. Precautionary measures that are taken to ward off impending
danger, damage or injury. The trait of practicing caution in advance.
avoiding harm or danger. Awareness.
Fire Drill is practicing emergency procedures
and going through the
necessary actions that are needed to take that would allow you to get to
safety and also show you how to safely save others from a real fire.
Methods of practicing should show how a building would be evacuated in the
event of a fire or other emergencies. Usually, the building's existing
fire alarm system is activated and the building is evacuated as if a real
emergency had occurred. Generally, the evacuation is timed to ensure that
it is fast enough, and problems with the emergency system or evacuation
procedures are identified to be remedied.
Simulation is a method to determine
for areas, buildings, or vessels. It is based on the simulation of
crowd dynamics and pedestrian motion.
is the urgent
immediate egress or escape
of people away from an area that contains an
imminent threat, an ongoing threat or a hazard to lives or property.
Examples range from the small-scale evacuation of a building due to a
storm or fire to the large-scale evacuation of a city because of a flood,
bombardment or approaching weather system, especially a Tropical Cyclone.
In situations involving hazardous materials or possible contamination,
evacuees may be decontaminated prior to being transported out of the
List of Mass
Emergency Response Plans
you have an Evacuation Plan? (gov)Where can we find
each other if we get Lost or Separated
? How do we stay in contact?
Where can we meet if we get separated? What's the plan if we get separated
in a crowd? What's the plan if we get separated during an emergency?
Family Separation in an Emergency
. Family Meeting Place:
Designate a meeting place that your family will
immediately go to when disaster strikes
. The place you choose
should be outside your neighborhood in the event that it is not safe to
return to your home or stay in its surrounding areas. Each family member
should be capable of reciting the address of the meeting place or locating
it on their own if need be. Choose a long-distance
relative or close friend that your family will all contact if separated
Teach your household to use this number as a form of communicating and
letting one know that the other is safe. Lastly, don’t forget to talk with
your out-of-state contact to make them aware of the plan and ensure they
are comfortable with this role. Plan what to do in
case you are separated during an emergency
. Choose two places to
meet up: Right outside your home in case of a sudden emergency, such as a
fire Outside your neighborhood, in case you cannot return home or are
asked to evacuate. Choose an out-of-area emergency contact person. It may
be easier to text or call long distance if local phone lines are
overloaded or out of service. Everyone should carry
in writing and saved on their cell phones. Make sure places
where your children spend time also have these contact numbers, like at
school or daycare. Your plan should account for
family members who may live elsewhere during the year
, such as
members of the military on deployment or students away at college, or
those who travel frequently. How will you need to adapt your plan if they
are at home? What will you need to do differently if they are away?
Have your Identification
Bracelets have prepared customized information engraved on the inside
including a first and last name, home address, emergency contacts, severe
allergies or health restrictions, and a long distance
number to a
close friend or relative. Request that everyone wear the bracelet at all
times especially if your children are young or living with a disability.
Make cards for the whole family in case you are separated during an
emergency. Plan for the emergencies that are most
likely to happen where you live
. Be familiar with natural disaster
risks in your community. Consider how you will respond to emergencies that
can happen anywhere, such as home fires and floods. Consider how you will
respond to emergencies that are unique to your region, such as volcanoes,
tsunamis or tornadoes. Think about emergencies that may require your
family to shelter in place (such as a winter storm), vs. emergencies that
may require evacuation (such as a hurricane). Consult our emergency
resource library for tips on preparing for, responding to, and recovering
from specific disasters. Plan what to do if you
have to evacuate
. Decide where you would go and what route you
would take to get there, such as: A hotel/motel The home of friends or
relatives a safe distance away An evacuation shelter. Practice evacuating
your home twice a year. Grab your emergency kit
like you will in a real emergency, then drive your planned evacuation
route. Plot alternate routes on your map in case roads are impassable.
Make sure you have locations and maps saved on devices such as cell phones
and GPS units
and on paper. Plan ahead for your pets. Keep a phone list of
pet-friendly hotels/motels and animal shelters that are along your
evacuation routes. Remember, if it’s not safe for you to stay home, it’s
not safe for your pets either. Plan for everyone
in your home
. Some members of your household may need special
accommodation during an emergency, which means planning ahead is even more
crucial. Senior Citizens. People with Disabilities. Children. Pets. Plan
to let loved ones know you’re safe. If your community experiences a
disaster, be sure to register on the
American Red Cross Safe
and Well website to let your family and
friends know you are safe. Or, call 1-800-RED CROSS (1-800-733-2767) and
select the prompt for "Disaster" to register yourself and your family.
is a personalized,
practical plan that can help you avoid dangerous situations and
know the best way to react when you are in danger
This plan includes ways to remain safe while in the relationship, planning
to leave, or after you leave.
First Aid Tips
Hurricane Rehearsal of Concept Drill was organized by U.S. Army North,
the Army component of U.S. Northern Command, as part of its mission to
support civil authorities during disasters. Officials from the National
Guard Bureau, Army Reserve, the Federal Emergency Management Agency and
many others were present to lay out their respective courses of action in
the event of a hurricane response.
Communication in Communities
Prepper is a person who believes a catastrophic disaster or
emergency is likely to occur in the future and makes active preparations
for it, typically by stockpiling food, ammunition, and other supplies.
Preppers want peace of mind, they want insurance, they want to have
backup plan, and they want to survive
what most preppers don't do, is learn how to live
and learn how to give
Disaster Management Cycle
Minimizing the effects of disaster. Examples: building codes and
zoning; vulnerability analyses; public education.
- Planning how to respond. Examples: preparedness
plans; emergency exercises/training; warning systems.
- Efforts to minimize the hazards
created by a disaster. Examples: search and rescue; emergency relief.
- Returning the community to
normal. Examples: temporary housing; grants; medical care.
is the emergency control of situations that may
cause the sinking of a watercraft. Examples are: Rupture of a
pipe or hull especially below the waterline and damage from
grounding (running aground) or hard berthing against a wharf.
Temporary fixing of bomb or explosive damage.
Back Up Plan
Defense Production Act of 1950
requires businesses to sign contracts
or fulfill orders deemed necessary for national defense. It also allows
the president to designate materials to be prohibited from hoarding or
price gouging. The second section authorizes the President to establish
mechanisms (such as regulations, orders or agencies) to allocate
materials, services and facilities to promote national defense. The third
section authorizes the President to control the civilian economy so that
scarce and/or critical materials necessary to the national defense effort
are available for defense needs. The Act also authorizes the President to
requisition property, force industry to expand production and the supply
of basic resources, impose wage and price controls, settle labor disputes,
control consumer and real estate credit, establish contractual priorities,
and allocate raw materials towards national defense. In 2011, under
President Barack Obama, the law was invoked to force telecommunications
companies, under criminal penalties, to provide detailed information to
the Commerce Department's Bureau of Industry and Security on the use of
foreign-manufactured hardware and software in the companies' networks, as
part of efforts to combat Chinese cyberespionage. On March 18, 2020,
President Trump invoked the Defense Production Act in response to the
. Although President Trump invoked
the DPA, he indicated that he would not make immediate use of DPA
authority, writing, "Hopefully there will be no need", and indicating that
he would do so in a "worst-case scenario".
Manufacturing Readiness Level
is a measure developed by the United States Department of Defense (DOD) to
assess the maturity of manufacturing readiness, similar to how
(TRL) are used for technology readiness. They can be used
in general industry assessments, or for more specific application in
assessing capabilities of possible suppliers. The Government
Accountability Office has described it as best practice for improving
acquisition outcomes. The United States Department of Defense adopted the
usage of MRLs in 2005, but the GAO continued to note inconsistent
application across DOD components. In 2011, consideration of manufacturing
readiness and related processes of potential contractors and
subcontractors was made mandatory as part of the source selection process
in major acquisition programs. MRLs are quantitative measures used to
assess the maturity of a given technology, component or system from a
manufacturing perspective. They are used to provide decision makers at all
levels with a common understanding of the relative maturity and attendant
risks associated with manufacturing technologies, products, and processes
being considered. Manufacturing risk identification and management must
begin at the earliest stages of technology development, and continue
vigorously throughout each stage of a program’s life-cycles. Manufacturing
Readiness Level definitions were developed by a joint DOD/industry working
group under the sponsorship of the Joint Defense Manufacturing Technology
Panel (JDMTP). The intent was to create a measurement scale that would
serve the same purpose for manufacturing readiness as Technology Readiness
Levels serve for technology readiness – to provide a common metric and
vocabulary for assessing and discussing manufacturing maturity, risk and
readiness. MRLs were designed with a numbering system to be roughly
congruent with comparable levels of TRLs for synergy and ease of
understanding and use.
Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication: Lessons from the Elk River Spill
Effective government saves lives in cyclones, other disasters
Emergency Risk Communication
or CERC has 6 Principles to teach
effective communication before, during, and after an emergency. 1.
Be First - 2. Be Right - 3. Be Credible - 4. Express Empathy - 5. Promote
Action - 6. Show Respect.
Military Exercise War Game
- False Alarms
involves a set of policies and
enable the recovery or continuation
of vital technology
infrastructure and systems following a natural or human-induced
disaster. Disaster recovery focuses on the IT or technology systems
supporting critical business functions, as opposed to business
continuity, which involves keeping all essential aspects of a
business functioning despite significant disruptive events. Disaster
recovery is therefore a subset of business continuity.
Disaster Recovery Plan
is a documented process or set of
and protect a business IT infrastructure in
the event of a disaster. Such a plan, ordinarily documented in
written form, specifies procedures an organization is to follow in
the event of a disaster. It is "a comprehensive statement of
consistent actions to be taken before, during and after a disaster".
The disaster could be natural, environmental or man-made. Man-made
disasters could be intentional (for example, an act of a terrorist)
or unintentional (that is, accidental, such as the breakage of a
man-made dam). Given organizations' increasing dependency on
information technology to run their operations, a disaster recovery
plan, sometimes erroneously called a Continuity of Operations Plan
(COOP), is increasingly associated with the recovery of information
technology data, assets, and facilities.
Emergency Preparedness Plans - Is your City, Town or Government
Continuity of Government
is the principle of establishing
defined procedures that allow a government to continue its essential
operations in case of nuclear war or other catastrophic event.
is the fundamental cycle of intelligence
processing in a civilian or military intelligence agency or in law
enforcement as a closed path consisting of repeating nodes. The
stages of the intelligence cycle include the issuance of
requirements by decision makers, collection, processing, analysis,
and publication of intelligence. The circuit is completed when
decision makers provide feedback and revised requirements. The
intelligence cycle is also called the Intelligence Process by the
U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and the uniformed services The
intelligence cycle is an effective way of processing information and
turning it into relevant and actionable intelligence.
is a standardized approach to the command, control, and
coordination of emergency response
common hierarchy within which responders from multiple agencies can be
effective and also meet the needs of a jurisdiction to cope with incidents
of any kind or complexity (i.e. it expands or contracts as needed). The
Incident Command System (ICS) is a management system designed to enable
effective and efficient domestic incident management by integrating a
combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and
communications operating within a common organizational structure. ICS
allows personnel from a wide variety of agencies to meld rapidly into a
common management structure with common terminology. Provide logistical
and administrative support to operational staff. Be cost effective by
avoiding duplication of efforts, and continuing overhead. Provide a
unified, centrally authorized emergency organization. Weaknesses in
incident management were often due to: Lack of accountability, including
unclear chain of command and supervision. Poor communication due to both
inefficient uses of available communications systems and conflicting codes
and terminology. Lack of an orderly, systematic planning process. No
predefined methods to integrate inter-agency requirements into the
management structure and planning process effectively. Freelancing by
individuals within the first responding team without the direction from
team leader (IC) and those with specialized skills during an incident
without coordination with other first responders. Lack of knowledge with
common terminology during an incident.
National Incident Management System
is a standardized approach to
incident management to facilitate coordination between all responders
(including all levels of government with public, private, and
is any place that is used to provide centralized
command for some purpose. Teams of communications people who monitor and
listen to the media and the public, respond to inquiries, and synthesize
opinions to determine the best course of action. A command center enables
an organization to function as designed, to perform day-to-day operations
regardless of what is happening around it, in a manner in which no one
realizes it is there but everyone knows who is in charge when there is
trouble. a command center is a source of leadership and guidance to ensure
that service and order is maintained.
is a room serving as a central space where a large
physical facility or physically dispersed service can be monitored and
controlled. A control room will often be part of a larger command center.
Control rooms are usually equipped with elaborate fire suppression and
security systems to safeguard their contents and occupants, and to ensure
continued operation in emergencies. In hazardous environments, the control
room may also serve as an area of refuge for personnel trapped onsite. The
rooms are typically crammed with equipment, mounted in multi-function rack
mount cabinets to allow updating. The dense concentration of equipment
often requires special electrical uninterruptible power supply (UPS) feeds
and air conditioning. Since the control equipment is intended to control
other items in the surrounding facility, these (often fire-resistance
rated) service rooms require many penetrations for cables. Due to routine
equipment updates these penetrations are subject to frequent changes, so
that a control room maintenance program must include vigilant firestop
maintenance for code compliance. Due to the nature of the sensitive
equipment inside control room cabinets, it is useful to ensure the use of
"T-rated" firestops, that are massive and thick enough to resist heat
transmission to the inside of the control room. It is also common to place
control rooms under positive pressure ventilation to prevent smoke or
toxic gases from entering. If used, gaseous fire suppressants must occupy
the space that is to be protected for a minimum period of time to be sure
a fire can be completely extinguished. Openings in such spaces must,
therefore, be kept to a minimum to prevent the escape of the suppression
gas. A mobile control room is designated as particularly in high risk
facilities, such as a nuclear power station or a petrochemical facility.It
can provided a guaranteed life support for the anticipated safety control.
White House Situation Room
is a conference room and intelligence
management center in the basement of the West Wing of the White House.
It is run by the National Security Council staff for the use of the
President of the United States and their advisors (including the
National Security Advisor, the Homeland Security Advisor and the White
House Chief of Staff) to monitor and deal with crises at home and abroad
and to conduct secure communications with outside (often overseas)
persons. The Situation Room is equipped with secure, advanced
communications equipment for the President to maintain command and
control of U.S. forces around the world.
is the creation of plans through which
communities reduce vulnerability to hazards and cope with disasters.
Disaster management does not avert or eliminate the threats;
instead, it focuses on creating plans to decrease the effect of
disasters. Failure to create a plan could lead to human mortality,
lost revenue, and damage to assets. Events covered by disaster
management include acts of terrorism, industrial sabotage, fire,
natural disasters (such as earthquakes, hurricanes, etc.), public
disorder, industrial accidents, and communication failures.
National Intelligence Emergency Management
National Intelligence Strategy
Association of Emergency Managers
Business Support Systems
are the components that a telecommunications
service provider uses to run its business operations towards customers.
Together with operations support systems, they are used to support various
services. BSS and OSS have their own data and
Business Process Framework
is an operating model framework for telecom
service providers in the
industry. The model describes the required business
processes of service providers, and defines key elements and how they
should interact. The Business Process Framework (eTOM) is a standard
maintained by the TM Forum, an association for service providers and their
suppliers in the telecommunications and entertainment industries.
for Business & Home Safety
75w DC AC Power Inverter for Car Emergency Power
National Emergency Training Center library
The National Emergency
Training Center’s (NETC) library provides information and resources on
fire, emergency management and other all-hazards subjects. With our
collection of more than 208,000 books, reports, audiovisual materials and
indexed articles, the library supports National Fire Academy and Emergency
Management Institute student and faculty research, classroom lectures, and
development of course materials.
- Medical Kits
Driving on Flooded Streets
Network Operations Center
is one or more locations from which network
monitoring and control, or
, is exercised over a computer, telecommunication or
FIGHT. Surviving an Active Shooter Event
- Civi Guard
focuses on preparing equipment and
procedures for use when a disaster occurs. This equipment and these
procedures can be used to reduce vulnerability to disaster, to
mitigate the impacts of a disaster or to respond more efficiently in
Preparedness Tips for Storms and Power Outages
Winter Power Outage Tips
Hurricane Safety Tips
Weather Information Websites
Emergency Supplies, Food and Water Tips from FEMA
International Search and Rescue Advisory Group
is a network of
disaster-prone and disaster-responding countries and organizations
dedicated to urban search and rescue (USAR) and operational field
coordination. It aims to establish standards and classification for
international USAR teams as well as methodology for international response
coordination in the aftermath of earthquakes and collapsed structure
disasters. The INSARAG Secretariat is located in the United Nations Office
for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). Search and Rescue
& Rescue Task Force
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
designed to strengthen the UN's response to complex emergencies and
natural disasters. Earlier UN organizations with similar tasks were the
Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA), and its predecessor, the Office
of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator (UNDRO). In 1998, due to
reorganization, DHA merged into OCHA and was designed to be the UN focal
point on major disasters. It is a sitting observer of the political debate
United Nations Development Group. After merging with the DHA, its mandate
was expanded to encompass the coordination of humanitarian response,
policy development and humanitarian advocacy.
Emergency Medical Services
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Learned - FEMA
The International Association for Disaster Preparedness and Response
DERA Online Emergency Operations Center
Disaster Center Resources
Syrian Civil War
are officially known as Syria Civil
Defense, is a volunteer civil defense organization that currently
operates in parts of rebel-controlled Syria. The White Helmets should not
be confused with the Syrian Civil Defense Forces which have been a member
of the ICDO (International Civil Defense Organization) since 1972.
White Helmets website
or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens
of a state from military attacks and natural
. It uses the principles of emergency operations: prevention,
mitigation, preparation, response, or emergency evacuation and recovery.
Programs of this sort were initially discussed at least as early as the
1920s and were implemented in some countries during the 1930s as the
threat of war and aerial bombardment grew. It became widespread after the
threat of nuclear weapons was realized.
United States Civil Defense
refers to the use of civil defense in the
history of the United States, which is the organized non-military effort
to prepare Americans for military attack. Over the last twenty years, the
term and practice of civil defense have fallen into disuse and have been
replaced by emergency management and homeland security.
Emergency Social Services
is a component of the Provincial
Emergency Program of the Province of British Columbia. ESS are those
services required to preserve the well-being of people affected by
an emergency or disaster. Teams are established in local
municipalities and assemble together for meetings and contingency
Doomsday Drill Includes Local Agencies
are measures that eliminate or reduce the impacts and
risks of hazards through proactive measures taken before an
emergency or disaster occurs.
To act in such a way as to
cause an offense to seem less serious. The action of lessening in
severity or intensity.
Hazard Mitigation Planning
is the effort to reduce loss of life
and property by lessening the impact of disasters. It is most
effective when implemented under a comprehensive, long-term
mitigation plan. State, tribal, and local governments engage in
hazard mitigation planning to identify risks and vulnerabilities
associated with natural disasters, and develop long-term strategies
for protecting people and property from future hazard events.
Mitigation plans are key to breaking the cycle of disaster damage,
reconstruction, and repeated damage.
Developing Hazard Mitigation Plans enables State,
Tribal, and local
Increase education and awareness around
threats, hazards, and vulnerabilities; Build partnerships for
risk reduction involving government, organizations, businesses, and
the public; Identify long-term, broadly-supported strategies for
risk reduction; Align risk reduction with other state, tribal, or
community objectives; Identify implementation approaches that
focus resources on the greatest risks and vulnerabilities; and
Communicate priorities to potential sources of funding.
Moreover, a FEMA-approved hazard mitigation plan is a condition for
receiving certain types of non-emergency disaster assistance,
including funding for mitigation projects. Ultimately, hazard
mitigation planning enables action to reduce loss of life and
property, lessening the impact of disasters.
is a nationally applicable standardized methodology
that contains models
for estimating potential losses from earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, and
tsunamis. Hazus uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology to
estimate physical, economic, and social impacts of
. It graphically illustrates the limits of identified
high-risk locations due to earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, and tsunamis.
Users can then visualize the spatial relationships between populations and
other more permanently fixed geographic assets or resources for the
specific hazard being modeled, a crucial function in the pre-disaster
planning process. Users can download the
Hazus Software for Free
from the FEMA Flood Map Service Center (MSC).
A new study shows natural disasters have caused more than $7 trillion and left
over eight million people dead over the past century. (many more deaths then what is reported).
Stockpile - Beefing Up Supplies
Strategic National Stockpile
is the nation’s largest supply of
life-saving pharmaceuticals and medical supplies for use in a public
health emergency severe enough to cause local supplies to run out
state, local, tribal, and territorial responders request federal
assistance to support their response efforts, the stockpile ensures that
the right medicines and supplies get to those who need them most during an
. Organized for scalable response to a variety of public health
threats, this repository contains enough supplies to respond to multiple
large-scale emergencies simultaneously.
has large quantities of
medicine and medical supplies to protect the American public if
there is a public health emergency
is something kept back or
saved for future use
. A storage pile accumulated for future use. To
hand in an emergency
is an amount of something available
for use. Supply Chain
- Aid Assistance
Stockpiling is Not the
saving things for an emergency. There's a big difference between
Why are people
paper towels, toilet paper
sanitizer? Because most people are
. There is no rational reason to hoard, unless you are a
to cause people to panic
by buying large amounts of products. People need to respect
quantity limits so that everyone can
There are people who actually need certain things to do their job and also
provide services that keeps everyone safe. There’s no need to hoard stuff
when a particular product is unlikely to suffer from a shortage. Media people
, and people are easily influenced by
and people can easily over-react
, which could cause
supply and demand
problems, shortages and
occurs when consumers
buy unusually large amounts of a product
in anticipation of, or after, a disaster or perceived disaster, or in
anticipation of a large price increase or shortage. Panic buying is a type
of herd behavior. It is of interest in consumer behavior theory, the broad
field of economic study dealing with explanations for "collective action
such as fads and fashions, stock market movements, runs on nondurable
goods, buying sprees, hoarding, and banking panics." Panic buying can lead
to genuine shortages regardless of whether the risk of a shortage is real
or perceived; the latter scenario is an example of self-fulfilling
in social psychology is when humans place a higher value on
an object that is scarce, and a lower value on those that are in
abundance. if a product is sold out, or inventory is extremely low, humans
interpret that to mean the product must be good since everyone else
appears to be buying it. If someone has already committed themselves to
something, then find out they cannot have it, it makes the person want the
item more. Scarcity principle
in which a limited supply of a good, coupled with a high
demand for that good, results in a mismatch between the desired supply and
Food Preserving - Food Ready to Eat - Food on
is a self-contained, individual field ration in
lightweight packaging. MREs replaced the canned MCI, or Meal, Combat,
Individual rations, in 1981. 1200 Calories (5020.8 kJ). They are intended
to be eaten for a maximum of 21 days. General contents may include: Main
course (entree). Side dish. Dessert or snack (often commercial candy,
fortified pastry, or Soldier Fuel Bar.). Crackers or bread. Spread of
cheese, peanut butter, or jelly. Powdered beverage mix: fruit flavored
drink, cocoa, instant coffee or tea, sport drink, or dairy shake. Utensils
(usually just a plastic spoon). Flameless ration heater (FRH). Beverage
mixing bag. Accessory pack: Xylitol chewing gum. Water-resistant
matchbook. Napkin / toilet paper. Moist towelette. Seasonings, including
salt, pepper, sugar, creamer, and/or Tabasco sauce. Freeze dried coffee
Space Travel Food
MRE - Meals Ready to Eat
New Earth MRE
is a canned or pre-packaged meal, easily prepared and eaten,
using canned, pre-cooked or freeze-dried foods, powdered beverage mixes
and concentrated food bars, as well as for long shelf life.
Meal, Combat, Individual Ration
was the name of canned wet combat
rations from 1958 to 1980, when it was replaced by the Meal, Ready-to-Eat
was a freeze-dried
was fresh, refrigerated, or frozen foods.
was prepared in field kitchens and served in the field, using canned or
was an individual canned, pre-cooked, and prepared wet ration.
provided three separately boxed meal units: breakfast, dinner (lunch) and
supper (dinner). Caloric and vitamin content were judged as inadequate.
How to Make Fire by Rubbing Sticks
1 Years worth of Freeze-Dried and Dehydrated
is a place for people to live temporarily when they
cannot live in their previous residence, similar to homeless shelters. The
main difference is that an emergency
typically specializes in
people fleeing a specific type of situation, such as natural or man-made
disasters, domestic violence, or victims of sexual abuse. A more minor
difference is that people staying in
more likely to stay all day, except for work, school, or errands, while
shelters usually expect
people to stay elsewhere during the day, returning only to sleep or eat.
Emergency shelters sometimes facilitate support groups, and/or provide
meals. Post-disaster emergency shelter is often provided by organizations
or governmental emergency management departments, in response to natural
disasters, such as a flood or earthquake. They tend to use tents or other
temporary structures, or buildings normally used for another purpose, such
as a church or school. These settlements may be inhabited for the entire
duration of the reconstruction process and should be thought of more as
settlements than shelter, and need to be planned with respect to water /
sanitation, livelihoods. A newer category of emergency shelter is the
warming center. Warming centers typically open during particularly cold or
rainy nights. They are available to persons who decline to accept homeless
shelters, are not allowed to use homeless shelters, or are not homeless,
but have inadequate or malfunctioning heat in their homes.
are a type of homeless service agency which provide
temporary residence for homeless individuals and families. Shelters exist
to provide residents with safety and protection from exposure to the
weather while simultaneously reducing the environmental impact on the
community. They are similar to, but distinguishable from, various types of
emergency shelters, which are typically operated for specific
circumstances and populations—fleeing natural disasters or abusive social
circumstances. Extreme weather conditions create problems similar to
disaster management scenarios, and are handled with warming centers, which
typically operate for short durations during adverse weather.
Homeless Assistance Programs
Emergency Shelter Types
Building an Emergency Shelter with Whatever You
How To Build An A-Frame Shelter
How to Build an
fortified room that is installed in a private residence or business to
provide a safe shelter, or hiding place, for the inhabitants in the event
of a break in, home invasion, tornado, terror attack, or other threat.
Safe rooms usually contain communications equipment, so that law
enforcement authorities can be contacted. a room in a house or other
building that is invulnerable to attack or intrusion, and from which
security operations can be directed.
is a type of underground bunker designed to protect the occupants from
violent severe weather, particularly tornadoes. They are most frequently
seen in the Midwest ("Tornado Alley") and Southeastern United States where
tornadoes are generally frequent and the low water table permits
storm door is a type of door that is installed in front of an exterior
access door to protect it from bad weather and allow ventilation. Storm
doors generally have interchangeable glass panels and window screen panels
to provide visibility and prevent flying insects from entering the home.
are windows that are mounted outside or inside of the
main glass windows of a house
Storm windows can be made of glass, rigid plastic panels, or flexible
plastic sheets; and may be permanently or temporarily mounted. They
function similarly to insulated glazing. The term may also refer to a
small openable flap found in the side window on light aircraft. On modern
houses they serve on existing windows in order to improve their thermal
insulation and soundproofing. Aside from insulation, storm windows provide
an additional measure of protection for homes against damages to costly
glass panes during inclement weather such as hail. On older houses, storm
windows were installed in autumn when window screens were removed. Later
units combined the storm and screen pieces. Similarly, storm doors (also
called "screen doors") allow similar energy savings with less efficient
primary doors – and allow a screen for summer ventilation.
is a defensive military
fortification designed to protect people and valued materials from falling
bombs or other attacks. Bunkers are mostly underground, in contrast to
blockhouses which are mostly above ground. They were used extensively in
World War I, World War II, and the Cold War for weapons facilities,
command and control centers, and storage facilities. Bunkers can also be
used as protection from tornadoes.
is a structure designed to provide protection against the effects of a
Explored the World’s Largest Doomsday Community (575 underground bunkers)
(youtube) - We spent 24 hours exploring 575 underground bunkers in the
middle of South Dakota being converted into the worlds largest prepper
is a place
where people can go to protect themselves
from blasts and explosions, like
those from bombs, or in hazardous worksites, such as on oil and gas
refineries or petrochemical facilities. It differs from a fallout shelter,
in that its main purpose is to protect from shock waves and overpressure
instead of from radioactive precipitation, as a fallout shelter does. It
is also possible for a shelter to protect from both blasts and fallout.
is an enclosed
space specially designed to protect occupants
from radioactive debris or
fallout resulting from a nuclear explosion
. Many such shelters were
constructed as civil defense measures during the Cold War. During a
nuclear explosion, matter vaporized in the resulting fireball is exposed
to neutrons from the explosion, absorbs them, and becomes radioactive.
When this material condenses in the rain, it forms dust and light sandy
materials that resemble ground pumice. The fallout emits alpha and beta
particles, as well as gamma rays. Much of this highly radioactive material
falls to earth, subjecting anything within the line of sight to radiation,
becoming a significant hazard. A fallout shelter is designed to allow its
occupants to minimize exposure to harmful fallout until radioactivity has
decayed to a safer level.
Infectious Disease Control - Virus Containment
the physical containment of pathogenic organisms
such as bacteria
Containment is usually done by isolation
and in biologically secure
or rooms, to prevent accidental infection
of workers or the release into the surrounding community
research or pandemics
. Laboratory context primary
containment is the first
in direct contact with
as well as protection
of personnel and the immediate laboratory
environment from exposure to infectious agents. Primary containment
requires using proper storage containers, good microbiological technique,
and the use of appropriate
such as biological safety cabinets.
is the protection of the environment external to the
laboratory from exposure to infectious materials
and is provided by a
combination of facility design
The term bio-containment was first used in 1985, but the concept stretches
back at least to the 1940s.
Positive Pressure Room
- Lock Down
are actions that people and
communities can take to help slow the spread of illnesses like
influenza. What you do personally
is to stay home when you are sick. Cover your coughs and sneezes
tissue. Wash your hands often with soap and water
What communities do
is implement social distancing
schools, workplaces, and at events. What everyone
to keep the environment germ-free is clean frequently
touched surfaces and objects like door knobs.
Community Mitigation Guidelines to Prevent Pandemic Influenza - United
the action of
reducing the severity, seriousness, or painfulness of something.
reduction of something harmful or the reduction of its harmful effects. It
may refer to measures taken to reduce the harmful effects of hazards that
remain a threat, or to manage harmful incidents that have already
. It is a stage or component of emergency
and of risk management
Critical Care Decontamination System
Personal Protective Equipment
COVID-19 Global Cases Map
(Johns Hopkins University) -
Take everyday preventive actions
Wash your hands
and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after blowing your nose,
coughing, or sneezing, or touching things in a public place. If soap and water
are not available, use a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60%
alcohol. To the extent possible, avoid touching
high-touch surfaces in public
places – elevator buttons, door
handles, handrails, handshaking with people, etc. Use a tissue or your
sleeve to cover your hand or finger if you must touch something. Wash your
hands after touching surfaces in public places.
Avoid touching your face
, nose, eyes, etc.
Clean and disinfect your home
to remove germs: practice routine
cleaning of frequently touched surfaces (for example: tables, doorknobs,
light switches, handles, desks, toilets, faucets, sinks & cell phones).
, especially in poorly ventilated
spaces. Your risk of exposure to respiratory viruses like COVID-19 may
increase in crowded, closed-in settings with little air circulation if
there are people in the crowd who are sick. Avoid all non-essential travel
including plane trips, and especially avoid embarking on cruise ships.
Stay home when you are sick
What to do if You are Sick
Call Your Doctor
Nebraska and the Next Pandemic Apr 19, 2017
is the process of identification of persons who may
have come into contact with an infected person ("contacts") and subsequent
collection of further information about these contacts. By tracing the
contacts of infected individuals,
them for infection, treating the
infected and tracing their contacts in turn, public health aims to reduce
infections in the population. Diseases for which contact tracing is
commonly performed for include tuberculosis, vaccine-preventable
infections like measles, sexually transmitted infections (including HIV),
blood-borne infections, some serious bacterial infections, and novel
infections (e.g. SARS-CoV
The goals of contact tracing are
: To interrupt ongoing transmission
and reduce spread of an infection. To alert contacts to the possibility of
infection and offer preventive counseling or prophylactic care. To offer
, counseling and treatment to already infected individuals. If
the infection is treatable, to help prevent reinfection of the originally
infected patient. To learn about the epidemiology of a disease in a
particular population. Contact tracing has been a pillar of communicable
disease control in public health for decades. The eradication of smallpox,
for example, was achieved not by universal immunization, but by exhaustive
contact tracing to find all infected persons. This was followed by
isolation of infected individuals and immunization of the surrounding
community and contacts at-risk of contracting smallpox. In cases of
diseases of uncertain infectious potential, contact tracing is also
sometimes performed to learn about disease characteristics, including
infectiousness. Contact tracing is not always the most efficient method of
addressing infectious disease. In areas of high disease prevalence,
screening or focused
may be more cost-effective. Partner
notification, also called partner care, is a subset of contact tracing
aimed specifically at informing sexual partners of an infected person and
addressing their health needs.
are mobile software applications designed to aid
in response to the 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic,
i.e. the process of identifying persons ("contacts") who may have been in
contact with an infected individual. Numerous applications were developed
or proposed, with official government support in some territories and
jurisdictions. Several frameworks for building contact tracing apps have
been developed. Privacy concerns have been raised, especially about
systems that are based on tracking the geographical location of app users.
Less intrusive alternatives include the use of Bluetooth signals to log a
user's proximity to other cellphones. On 10 April 2020, Google and Apple
jointly announced that they would integrate functionality to support such
Bluetooth-based apps directly into their Android and iOS operating
is the presence of a constituent, impurity, or some
other undesirable element that spoils, corrupts, infects, makes unfit, or
makes inferior a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace,
process by which bacteria or other microorganisms are unintentionally
transferred from one substance or object to another, with harmful effect.
Shopping in COVID-19 Pandemic – UPDATED PSA!!!
(youtube) - This is the
most current video for New CDC data, safe takeout food practices, and an
updated practice for safe grocery shopping/handling.
prevention of large-scale loss of biological integrity, focusing both on
ecology and human health. These prevention mechanisms include conduction
of regular reviews of the biosafety in laboratory settings, as well as
strict guidelines to follow. Biosafety is used to protect from harmful
incidents. Many laboratories handling biohazards employ an ongoing
risk management assessment
and enforcement process for
biosafety. Failures to follow such
can lead to increased risk of exposure to biohazards or
pathogens. Human error and poor technique contribute to unnecessary
exposure and compromise the best safeguards set into place for protection.
is a set of biocontainment precautions required to isolate
dangerous biological agents in an enclosed laboratory facility. At the
lowest level of biosafety, precautions may consist of regular hand-washing
and minimal protective equipment. At higher biosafety levels, precautions
may include airflow systems, multiple containment rooms, sealed
containers, positive pressure personnel suits, established protocols for
all procedures, extensive personnel training, and high levels of security
to control access to the facility.
Aeromedical Isolation Team
was a military rapid response team with
worldwide airlift capability designed to safely evacuate and manage
contagious patients under high-level (BSL-4) bio-containment conditions.
Infectious Disease Emergency Preparedness Plan (IDEPP)
Emergency Containment Plan to Respond to a Virus Infection
Control of Viral Infections and Diseases
against viral illnesses
includes the use of
vaccines or antibody-containing preparations to provide immune protection
against a specific disease. Active Prophylaxis
). Active immunization involves
administering a virus preparation that stimulates the body's immune system
to produce its own specific immunity. Viral vaccines now available for use
include the following types: (1) attenuated live viruses; (2) killed
viruses; (3) recombinant produced antigens. A vaccinee is a person who has
been vaccinated. Immune Response to Vaccines
Vaccination evokes an antibody response and stimulates T lymphocytes.
Vaccine effectiveness is assessed in terms of percentage of recipients
protected and the duration and degree of protection. Most effective viral
vaccines protect more than 90 percent of recipients and produce fairly
durable immunity. Passive Prophylaxis
Passive immunity is conferred by administering antibodies formed in
another host. Human immunoglobulins remain a mainstay of passive
prophylaxis (and occasionally therapy) for viral illnesses; they are
usually used to protect individuals who have been exposed to a disease and
cannot be protected by vaccination. Sanitation and
. Many viral diseases are controlled by reducing
exposure to the virus by (1) eliminating nonhuman reservoirs, (2)
eliminating the vector, and (3) improving sanitation.
. There are three
types of antiviral agents: (1) virucidal agents, which directly inactivate
viruses, (2) antiviral agents, which inhibit viral replication, and (3)
immunomodulators, which boost the host immune response.
. Virus-infected cells and cells
induced with other agents, e.g., double-stranded polynucleotides, can
secrete proteins called interferons, which protect normal cells from viral
infection. Therapeutic administration of interferon alpha has proven
effective for several human viral illnesses.
are molecules produced by cells which modify the
biological responses of the same or other cells.
is a biological substance that poses a threat to the
health of living organisms, primarily humans. This could include a sample
of a microorganism, virus or toxin that can adversely affect human health.
A biohazard could also be a substance harmful to other animals.
is any kind of waste containing infectious (or
potentially infectious) materials. It may also include waste associated
with the generation of biomedical waste that visually appears to be of
medical or laboratory origin (e.g., packaging, unused bandages, infusion
kits, etc.), as well research laboratory waste containing biomolecules or
organisms that are mainly restricted from environmental release. As
detailed below, discarded sharps are considered biomedical waste whether
they are contaminated or not, due to the possibility of being contaminated
with blood and their propensity to cause injury when not properly
contained and disposed of. Biomedical waste is a type of biowaste.
Biomedical waste may be solid or liquid. Examples of infectious waste
include discarded blood, sharps, unwanted microbiological cultures and
stocks, identifiable body parts (including those as a result of
amputation), other human or animal tissue, used bandages and dressings,
discarded gloves, other medical supplies that may have been in contact
with blood and body fluids, and laboratory waste that exhibits the
characteristics described above. Waste sharps include potentially
contaminated used (and unused discarded) needles, scalpels, lancets and
other devices capable of penetrating skin. Biomedical waste is generated
from biological and medical sources and activities, such as the diagnosis,
prevention, or treatment of diseases. Common generators (or producers) of
biomedical waste include hospitals, health clinics, nursing homes,
emergency medical services, medical research laboratories, offices of
physicians, dentists, and veterinarians, home health care, and morgues or
funeral homes. In healthcare facilities (i.e., hospitals, clinics,
doctor's offices, veterinary hospitals and clinical laboratories), waste
with these characteristics may alternatively be called medical or clinical
waste. Biomedical waste is distinct from normal trash or general waste,
and differs from other types of hazardous waste, such as chemical,
radioactive, universal or industrial waste. Medical facilities generate
waste hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials. While such wastes are
normally not infectious, they require proper disposal. Some wastes are
considered multihazardous, such as tissue samples preserved in formalin.
Hazardous waste is waste that has substantial or
potential threats to public health or the environment. Characteristic
hazardous wastes are materials that are known or tested to exhibit one or
more of the following hazardous traits: Ignitability, Reactivity,
Corrosivity, Toxicity. Listed hazardous wastes are materials specifically
listed by regulatory authorities as hazardous wastes which are from
non-specific sources, specific sources, or discarded chemical products.
Hazardous wastes may be found in different physical states such as
gaseous, liquids, or solids. A hazardous waste is a special type of waste
because it cannot be disposed of by common means like other by-products of
our everyday lives. Depending on the physical state of the waste,
treatment and solidification processes might be required.
is something that has potential to pose a severe threat
to public health and safety.
High Containment Pathogen Preparation in the Intensive Care Unit
World Health OrganizationGeneva2004Laboratory biosafety manualThird
. Sequences of steps of the safety procedure for the
containment of pathogenic organisms.
Biosafety in the laboratory 3rd revised edition, May 2004
Guidelines for Safe Work Practices in Human and Animal Medical Diagnostic
CIDRAP - Center for
Infectious Disease Research and Policy
- Academic Health Center,
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
Global Health Security
finds gaps in preparedness for
Even high-income countries are found lacking and score only in the average
range of preparedness
Disease Outbreak News
Health Travel Alerts
Air Quality Reports
Earth Observatory Map
disease data from all potential reporting health care workers. Health
authorities do not stimulate reporting by reminding health care workers to
report disease nor providing feedback to individual health workers.
Passive surveillance is the most common type of surveillance in
humanitarian emergencies. Most surveillance for communicable diseases is
passive. The surveillance coordinator may provide training to health
workers in how to complete the surveillance forms, and may even send
someone to periodically collect forms from health facilities. But little
attention is given to individual health workers who report the
information. The data requested of each health worker is minimal.
Nonetheless, passive surveillance is often incomplete because there are
few incentives for health workers to report.
stimulus to health care workers in the form of individual feedback or
other incentives. Often reporting frequency by individual health workers
is monitored; health workers who consistently fail to report or complete
the forms incorrectly are provided specific feedback to improve their
performance. There may also be incentives provided for complete reporting.
Active surveillance requires substantially more time and resources and is
therefore less commonly used in emergencies. But it is often more complete
than passive surveillance. It is often used if an outbreak has begun or is
suspected to keep close track of the number of cases. Community health
workers may be asked to do active case finding in the community in order
to detect those patients who may not come to health facilities for
selects, either randomly or intentionally, a small group of health workers
from whom to gather data from instead of attempting to gather surveillance
data from all health care workers. These health workers then receive
greater attention from health authorities than would be possible with
also requires more time and resources, but can
often produce more detailed data on cases of illness because the health
care workers have agreed to participate and may receive incentives. It may
be the best type of surveillance if more intensive investigation of each
case is necessary to collect the necessary data. For example,
in the United States collects nasopharyngeal swabs from
each patient at selected sites to identify the type of influenza virus.
Collection of such data from all health workers would not be possible. A
sentinel surveillance system
is used when high-quality data are needed
about a particular disease that cannot be obtained through a passive
system. Selected reporting units, with a high probability of seeing cases
of the disease in question, good laboratory facilities and experienced
well-qualified staff, identify and notify on certain diseases. Whereas
most passive surveillance systems receive data from as many health workers
or health facilities as possible, a sentinel system deliberately involves
only a limited network of carefully selected reporting sites. For example,
a network of large hospitals might be used to collect high-quality data on
various diseases and their causative organisms, such as invasive bacterial
disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, meningococcus or
pneumococcus. Data collected in a well-designed sentinel system can be
used to signal trends, identify outbreaks and monitor the burden of
disease in a community, providing a rapid, economical alternative to other
surveillance methods. Because sentinel surveillance is conducted only in
selected locations, however, it may not be as effective for detecting rare
diseases or diseases that occur outside the catchment areas of the
sentinel sites. The following criteria should be considered in selecting a
sentinel health facility (usually a general or infectious disease
hospital) : It should be willing to participate. It serves a relatively
large population that has easy access to it. It has medical staff
sufficiently specialized to diagnoze, treat and report cases of the
disease under surveillance. It has a high-quality diagnostic laboratory.
U.S. Influenza Surveillance System: Purpose and Methods
. Find out when
and where influenza activity is occurring; Determine what influenza
viruses are circulating; Detect changes in influenza viruses; and Measure
the impact influenza is having on outpatient illness, hospitalizations and
deaths. It is important to maintain a comprehensive system for influenza
surveillance for the following reasons: Influenza viruses are constantly
changing (referred to as antigenic drift), and thus ongoing data
collection and characterization of the viruses are required; Influenza
viruses can also undergo an abrupt, major change (referred to as antigenic
shift) that results in a virus that is different than currently
circulating influenza viruses; surveillance of viruses will detect these
changes and inform the public health response;Vaccines must be
administered annually and are updated regularly based on surveillance
findings; Treatment for influenza is guided by laboratory surveillance for
antiviral resistance; and Influenza surveillance and targeted research
studies are used to monitor the impact of influenza on different segments
of the population (e.g. age groups, underlying medical conditions).
Social Distancing - Isolation - Quarantine
infection control actions taken by public health officials to stop or slow
down the spread of a highly
disease. The objective of social
distancing is to reduce the probability of contact between persons
carrying an infection, and others who are not infected, so as to minimize
, morbidity and ultimately, mortality.
is most effective when the infection can be transmitted via
droplet contact (coughing or sneezing); direct physical contact, including
sexual contact; indirect physical contact (e.g. by touching a contaminated
surface such as a fomite); or airborne transmission (if the microorganism
can survive in the air for long periods).Social distancing may be less
effective in cases where the infection is transmitted primarily via
contaminated water or food or by vectors such as mosquitoes or other
insects, and less frequently from person to person. Drawbacks of social
distancing can include loneliness
, reduced productivity, and the loss of
other benefits associated with human interaction. It can also make it more
difficult for a community to monitor the health of its members. One of the
earliest references to social distancing dates to the seventh century BC
in the Book of Leviticus, 13:46: "And the leper in whom the plague is...he
shall dwell alone; [outside] the camp shall his habitation be."
Historically, leper colonies and lazarettos were established as a means of
preventing the spread of leprosy and other contagious diseases through
social distancing, until transmission was understood and effective
treatments were invented.
global lockdowns resulting In horrifying surge in
Living Alone Skills
(introverts) - Isolation Dangers
Shelter in Place
is to seek safety within the building one already
occupies, rather than to evacuate the area or seek a community emergency
shelter. The American Red Cross says the warning is issued when "chemical,
biological, or radiological contaminants may be released accidentally or
intentionally into the environment" and residents should "select a small,
interior room, with no or few windows, taking refuge there.
in health care represents one of several measures that can
be taken to implement infection control: the prevention of
diseases from being spread from a patient to other patients, health care
workers, and visitors, or from outsiders to a particular patient (reverse
isolation). Various forms of isolation exist, in some of which contact
procedures are modified, and others in which the patient is kept away from
all others. In a system devised, and periodically revised, by the U.S.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), various levels of
patient isolation comprise application of one or more formally described
"precaution". Isolation is most commonly used when a patient is known to
have a contagious (transmissible from person-to-person) viral or bacterial
illness. Special equipment is used in the management of patients in the
various forms of isolation. These most commonly include items of personal
protective equipment (gowns, masks, and gloves) and engineering controls
(positive pressure rooms, negative pressure rooms, laminar air flow
equipment, and various mechanical and structural barriers). Dedicated
isolation wards may be pre-built into hospitals, or isolation units may be
temporarily designated in facilities in the midst of an epidemic
is an effective precautionary measure to protect those
around you, like your family, friends, colleagues from contracting a
virus. It means taking simple, common-sense steps to
avoid close contact
with other people as much
as possible, like you would with the seasonal flu virus. We know it’s a
stressful time, but taking these measures will help protect you, your
family. As much as possible, you should limit your contact with people
other than the family members/companions you travelled with. You should
avoid having visitors to your home
, but it
is okay for friends, family or delivery drivers to drop off food and
supplies. If you are in a home where the others who live with you haven’t
travelled or been in close contact with a confirmed case of COVID-19, you
should minimise close contact with them by avoiding situations where you
have face-to-face contact closer than 2 metres for
more than 15 minutes
. The other household residents do not need to
self-isolate provided these precautions are followed. You should
dishes, drinking glasses, cups,
eating utensils, towels, pillows or other items with other people in your
home. After using these items, you should wash them thoroughly with soap
and water, place them in the dishwasher for cleaning or wash them in your
washing machine. Staying at home and self-isolating presents its own
challenges, but there are things you can do to make the 14 days easier. If
you are self-isolating after travelling internationally, plan ahead and
think about what you need to be able to stay at home for the full 14 days
before your return to your home country. Talk to your employer, friends
and family to ask for their help to access the things you will need. Talk
to your employer to see if you can work from home
during this time. Where possible, ask friends or family to drop off
anything you need or order supplies online
Make sure any deliveries are left outside your home for you to collect.
Many companies are now offering a ‘contactless’
, where they notify you when they have delivered
your order but remain nearby to ensure you receive it. You can keep in
touch with friends and family
over the phone or internet, but don’t have
physical contact with anyone who isn’t isolating with you. Physical
exercise is good for your wellbeing. Look for online classes or courses to
help you take light exercise in your home. You can go outside, but you
need to limit your contact with others. It’s ok to go for a walk, run or
ride your bike, as long as you avoid people who aren’t self-isolating.
Don’t use public transport, taxis or similar transport methods during your
14-day period. You can use public transport after you arrive in New
Zealand for the sole purpose of returning to your home, but cannot use it
after that. You can use your own transport means (car, bike etc) whenever
you wish. You can live with others during your 14 days, but you need to
avoid close contact with them. This means you shouldn’t share beds, linen
is an order specifying a time during which certain
it refers to the time when individuals are required to return to and stay
in their homes. Such an order may be issued by public authorities but also
by the owner of a house to those living in the household. For instance, an
au pair is typically given a curfew, which regulates when they must return
to the host family's home in the evening.
is a restriction on the movement of people and goods which
is intended to prevent the spread of disease or pests. It is often used in
connection to disease and illness, preventing the movement of those who
may have been exposed to a communicable disease, but do not have a
confirmed medical diagnosis. The term is often used synonymously with
medical isolation, in which those confirmed to be infected with a
communicable disease are isolated from the healthy population. Quarantine
is a state, period, or place of isolation in which people or animals that
have arrived from elsewhere or been exposed to infectious or contagious
disease are placed. Number
Needed to Treat
Mobile Quarantine Facility
is a converted
NASA to quarantine astronauts
from Apollo lunar missions for the first few days after splashdown. The
MQF was on the aircraft carrier that picked up the capsule. Once the
aircraft carrier reached port, the MQF was flown to Houston, and the crew
served the remainder of the 21 days of quarantine
in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The
purpose of the quarantine was to prevent the spread of any contagions from
the Moon, though the existence of such contagions was considered unlikely.
It functioned by maintaining a lower pressure inside and filtering any air
is the imposition of direct military
civilian functions by a government, especially in response to a temporary
emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory.
Can be used to separate and restrict the movement of persons; it is a
'state of enforced isolation'. This is often used in connection to disease
and illness, such as those who may possibly
have been exposed to a communicable disease.
is an emergency protocol
that usually prevents people or
from leaving an area.
is the isolation and containment of infected people, as
well as those who were in close contact with the infected people.
Freedom to Assemble
The fucken lockdown
is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities
to their residence. Travel is usually restricted, if allowed at all. House
arrest is an alternative to being in a
while awaiting trial or after sentencing. While house arrest
can be applied to criminal cases when prison does not seem an appropriate
measure, the term is often applied to the use of house confinement as a
measure of repression by
dissidents. In these cases, the person under house arrest often does not
have access to any means of communication with people outside of the home;
if electronic communication is allowed, conversations may be monitored.
(also called home confinement, home detention, or, in modern times,
is the imprisonment of
, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file
charges, and thus no trial. The term is especially used for the
confinement "of enemy citizens in wartime or of
while it can simply mean imprisonment, it tends to refer to preventive
confinement rather than confinement after having been convicted of some
crime. Use of these terms is subject to debate and political
sensitivities. Interned persons may be held in prisons or in facilities
known as internment camps, also known as concentration camps. This
involves internment generally, as distinct from the subset, the Nazi
extermination camps, commonly referred to as
is any jail
in which the prisoners are trusted to serve their
sentences with minimal supervision and perimeter security and are often
not locked up in their prison cells. Prisoners may be permitted to take up
employment while serving their sentence. Mobile
Show More Americans Are Leaving Their Homes, Despite
Orders. Nation Saw Decline In Social Distancing In Late April. The data
provided was anonymized
, meaning the locations of exact devices were
hidden, with only general trends shown. What these metrics don't account
for is how people practice social distancing when they leave their homes.
A picnic in an empty park, for example, would be counted the same as a
trip to a crowded grocery store.
personnel can continue to work. All other people are ordered to work from
home. Citizens should stay home where possible. Essential businesses like
grocery stores, gas stations, pharmacies will remain open. Visits to
nursing homes are prohibited. Solitary walks and outdoor exercise are
permitted but all team sports are banned. Gatherings of more than 10
people at a time are prohibited. Residents are allowed to go to the
grocery store and run errands. Residents much stay at least six feet away
from one another at all times and wear masks
and also follow hygiene protocol
Say it don't spray it
. Schools will
close. Restaurants and bars can still deliver to homes. All
statewide must close their premises. Liquor and wine stores are classified
as essential and will remain open, as can pharmacies, grocery stores, and
restaurants and bars offering
only. Churches or other
religious series are allowed to continue if they meet outdoors, stream
online, or adhere to social distancing inside their facilities. Mass
transit and roadways are not affected. All roads remain open. Buses and
trains continue to operate but should be used only for essential travel.
Some States have Different Requirements
Vampire Bats practice social distancing while sick
. New research shows
that when vampire bats feel sick, they naturally socially distance
themselves from groupmates in their roost , with no public health guidance
required. Sick bats lead to marked change in colony social network.
of losing something of
. Risk is the amount of
that can be expected to occur during a given time period due to a specific
is the condition of being
, pain or loss.
is a source of danger with a
of incurring loss or misfortune
. Sometimes a hazard is an
unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that causes an
one way rather than another.
is an agent
which has the potential to cause harm
vulnerable target. A hazard is any agent that can cause harm or damage to
humans, property, or the environment. Risk is defined as the probability
that exposure to a hazard will lead to a negative consequence, or more
simply, a hazard poses no risk if there is no exposure to that hazard.
Hazards can be dormant or potential, with only a theoretical probability
of harm. An event that is caused by interaction with a hazard is called an
incident. The likely severity of the undesirable consequences of an
incident associated with a hazard, combined with the probability of this
occurring, constitute the associated risk. If there is no possibility of a
hazard contributing towards an incident, there is no risk. Hazards can be
classified as different types in several ways. One of these ways is by
specifying the origin of the hazard. One key concept in identifying a
hazard is the presence of stored energy that, when released, can cause
damage. Stored energy can occur in many forms: chemical, mechanical,
thermal, radioactive, electrical, etc. Another class of hazard does not
involve release of stored energy, rather it involves the presence of
hazardous situations. Examples include confined or limited egress spaces,
oxygen-depleted atmospheres, awkward positions, repetitive motions,
low-hanging or protruding objects, etc. Hazards may also be classified as
natural, anthropogenic, or technological. They may also be classified as
health or safety hazards
by the populations that may be affected, and the severity of the
associated risk. In most cases a hazard may affect a range of targets, and
have little or no effect on others. Identification of hazards assumes that
the potential targets are defined, and is the first step in performing a
risk assessment. Prepared
people to take more risks? Does having safety equipment cause people to
take more risks?Taking Risks is
Not the Problem
you take a
risk, it's when you take a risk, it's how you take a risk, it's where you
take a risk and how many times do you keep taking a particular risk?
or just trying to prove
yourself is not a good reason for taking a risk. And there are times when
people are not aware
that they are taking risks,
like with bad habits
happen when you have
calculated the risk and
with the benefits
pros and cons
Children take risks for different reasons
it's not so much a risk to them, it's more about exploring, learning,
testing their abilities and building skills. Kids feel indestructible,
invincible and immortal because they lack the experience of how
Kids want to have fun and they want to
describe the subconscious phenomenon whereby increased
and security in one's self-image or self-concept tends to make
that individual worry less about the
of subsequent immoral
behavior and, therefore, more likely to make immoral choices and act
immorally. In simple terms, self-licensing occurs when people allow
themselves to indulge after doing something positive first; for example,
drinking a diet soda with a greasy hamburger and fries can lead one to
subconsciously discount the negative attributes of the meal's high caloric
and cholesterol content. Risk Perception
occurs when someone increases their exposure to risk when
insured, especially when a person takes more risks because someone else
bears the cost of those risks. A moral hazard may occur where the actions
of one party may change to the detriment of another after a financial
transaction has taken place. A party makes a decision about how much risk
to take, while another party bears the costs if things go badly, and the
party isolated from risk behaves differently from how it would if it were
fully exposed to the risk. Moral hazard can occur under a type of
information asymmetry where the risk-taking party to a transaction knows
more about its intentions than the party paying the
risk. More broadly, moral hazard can occur when the party with more
information about its actions or intentions
has a tendency or incentive to
behave inappropriately from the perspective of the party with less
information. Moral hazard also arises in a principal-agent problem, where
one party, called an agent, acts on behalf of another party, called the
principal. The agent usually has more information about his or her actions
or intentions than the principal does, because the principal usually
cannot completely monitor the agent. The agent may have an incentive to
act inappropriately (from the viewpoint of the principal) if the interests
of the agent and the principal are not aligned. "Better
Safe than Sorry
" - "Risk has its own Reward" -
Playing it Safe
deciding not to take
. When the risk and danger is not worth the
, then playing it safe
may be a good idea. But even if you do play it safe, it may not stop you
from failing. Passivity
is the behavior of humans who, when exposed to
uncertainty, attempt to lower that uncertainty. It is the
of a person to agree to a
situation with an unknown payoff
than another situation with a more predictable payoff but possibly lower
expected payoff. For example, a risk-averse investor might choose to
put their money into a bank
with a low but guaranteed interest rate, rather than into a
stock that may have high expected returns, but also involves a chance of
losing value. Over
is a theory which suggests that people typically
adjust their behavior in response to the perceived level of risk
more careful where they sense greater risk and
less careful if they feel
. Although usually small in comparison to the
fundamental benefits of safety interventions, it may result in a lower net
benefit than expected. By way of example, it has been observed that
motorists drove faster when wearing seatbelts and closer to the vehicle in
front when the vehicles were fitted with anti-lock brakes. There is also
evidence that the risk compensation phenomenon could explain the failure
of condom distribution programs to reverse HIV prevalence and that condoms
may foster disinhibition
, with people engaging in risky sex both with and
without condoms. By contrast, shared space is a highway design method
which consciously aims to increase the level of perceived risk and
uncertainty, thereby slowing traffic and reducing the number of and
seriousness of injuries.
Altered behavior and brain activity among people wearing bike helmets
is the ratio
of the risk of an action to its
. Risk–benefit analysis is analysis that seeks to
quantify the risk and benefits and hence their ratio. Analyzing a risk can
be heavily dependent on the human factor. A certain level of risk in our
lives is accepted as necessary to achieve certain benefits. For example,
driving an automobile is a risk most people take daily, also since it is
mitigated by the controlling factor of their perception of their
individual ability to manage the risk-creating situation. When individuals
are exposed to involuntary risk (a risk over which they have no control),
they make risk aversion their primary goal. Under these circumstances
individuals require the probability of risk to be as much as one thousand
times smaller than for the same situation under their perceived control (a
notable example being the common bias in the perception of risk in flying
vs. driving). Pros and Cons
- Number Needed to Treat
is the difference between the risk of an outcome in the
exposed group and the unexposed group.
is the relative decrease in the risk of an adverse
event in the exposed group compared to an unexposed group.
Absolute risk reduction
is the absolute
difference in outcome rates between the control and treatment groups. The
absolute risk reduction does not involve an explicit comparison to the
control group as in the relative risk reduction and thus, does not
confound the effect size with the baseline risk.
is the determination of quantitative or
risk related to a well-defined situation and a recognized threat or hazard.
Probabilistic Risk Assessment
is a systematic and comprehensive methodology
to evaluate risks associated with a complex engineered technological entity.
is a variable associated with either increased or decreased risk
of the probability of an event occurring. Risk ratio is the ratio of
the probability of an outcome in an exposed group to the probability of an
outcome in an unexposed group. Relative risk is commonly used to present
the results of randomized controlled trials. This can be problematic, if
the relative risk is presented without the absolute measures, such as
absolute risk, or risk difference. In cases where the base rate of the
outcome is low, large or small values of relative risk may not translate
to significant effects, and the importance of the effects to the public
health can be overestimated. Equivalently, in cases where the base rate of
the outcome is high, values of the relative risk close to 1 may still
result in a significant effect, and their effects can be underestimated.
Thus, presentation of both absolute and relative measures is recommended.
Population Impact Measures
are biostatistical measures of risk and
benefit used in epidemiological and public health research. They are used
to describe the impact of health risks and benefits in a population, to
inform health policy.
the probability or chance of an event. It is usually used for the number
of events (such as a disease) that occurred in a group, divided by the
number of people in that group. Absolute risk is one of the most
understandable ways of communicating health risks to the general public.
Absolute Risk Reduction
is the change in the risk of an outcome of a given
treatment or activity in relation to a comparison treatment or activity. It is
the inverse of the
number needed to treat
are risks of very bad outcomes
or "high consequence
but of low
. They include the
risks of terrorist attack, biosecurity risks such as the invasion of
pests, and extreme natural disasters
Global Catastrophic Risk
is a hypothetical future event which could
damage human well-being on a global scale, even endangering or destroying
modern civilization. An event that could cause
permanently and drastically curtail humanity's potential is known as an
is mainly used in
Criticality Index allows you to identify tasks that are likely to cause
delays to the project. By monitoring tasks with a high Criticality Index a
project is less likely to be late. If a task has a 100% Criticality Index
it means that during the analysis no matter how the task durations varied,
the critical path always included the task. The task is therefore likely
to be key in completing the project on time. Conversely tasks with a low
or zero Criticality Index are much less likely to cause a delay in the
project finish date.
is the risk of default on a debt that may arise from a borrower
failing to make
. In the first resort, the risk is that of the lender
and includes lost principal and interest, disruption to cash flows, and
increased collection costs. The loss may be complete or partial. In an
efficient market, higher levels of credit risk will be associated with
higher borrowing costs. Because of this, measures of borrowing costs such
as yield spreads can be used to infer credit risk levels based on
assessments by market participants. Losses can arise in a number of
circumstances, for example: A consumer may fail to make a payment due on a
mortgage loan, credit card, line
, or other loan. A company is unable to repay asset-secured
fixed or floating charge debt. A business or consumer does not pay a trade
invoice when due. A business does not pay an employee's earned wages when
due. A business or government bond issuer does not make a payment on a
coupon or principal payment when due. An insolvent insurance company does
not pay a policy obligation. An insolvent bank won't return funds to a
depositor. A government grants bankruptcy protection to an insolvent
consumer or business. To reduce the lender's credit risk, the lender may
perform a credit check
on the prospective borrower, may require the borrower to take out
such as mortgage insurance, or seek security over some assets of the
borrower or a guarantee from a third party. The lender can also take out
insurance against the risk or on-sell the debt to another company. In
general, the higher the risk, the higher will be the interest rate that
the debtor will be asked to pay on the debt. Credit risk mainly arises
when borrowers are unable to pay due willingly or unwillingly. A credit
risk can be of the following types: Credit default risk – The risk of loss
arising from a debtor being unlikely to pay its loan obligations in full
or the debtor is more than 90 days past due on any material credit
obligation; default risk may impact all credit-sensitive transactions,
including loans, securities and derivatives. Concentration risk – The risk
associated with any single exposure or group of exposures with the
potential to produce large enough losses to threaten a bank's core
operations. It may arise in the form of single-name concentration or
industry concentration. Country risk – The risk of loss arising from a
sovereign state freezing foreign currency payments (transfer/conversion
risk) or when it defaults on its obligations (sovereign risk); this type
of risk is prominently associated with the country's macroeconomic
performance and its political stability.
is the financial risk associated with losses. That is,
it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or
the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference.
is a sign of some particular
. A signal of danger
or a problem can be
referred to as a red flag.
Red Flag Warning
- Fire Fighting
(security) - Preparedness
make something less severe or harsh
or lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or the extent of a bad
is a unit of risk defined as
one-in-a-million chance of death
. Micromorts can be used to measure
riskiness of various day-to-day activities. A microprobability is a
one-in-a million chance of some event; thus a micromort is the
microprobability of death. The micromort concept was introduced by
Ronald A. Howard who pioneered the modern practice of decision analysis.
Micromorts for future activities can only be rough assessments as specific
circumstances will always have an impact. However past historical rates of
events can be used to provide a ball-park, average figure.
is the identification, assessment, and
of risks followed by coordinated and economical application of
resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact
of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities.
Risk management’s objective is to assure uncertainty does not deflect the
endeavor from the business goals. (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of
uncertainty on objectives).
Ecological Risk Assessments
are used to support many types of actions,
including: regulation of
, industrial chemicals, and pesticides; or the
management of watersheds
by multiple chemical, physical, or
is "the risk of a change in value caused by the fact
that actual losses, incurred for inadequate or failed internal processes,
people and systems, or from external events (including legal risk), differ
from the expected losses".
Operational Risk Management
is defined as a continual cyclic
process which includes risk assessment, risk decision making, and
implementation of risk controls, which results in acceptance, mitigation,
or avoidance of risk. ORM is the oversight of operational risk, including
the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes
and systems; human factors; or external events.
is a deviation from intention
, expectation or desirability and
human actions that fail to achieve the desired goal. It has been cited as a
primary cause contributing factor in disasters and accidents.
error is generally seen as a major contributor to reliability and safety
of (complex) systems. Human error is one of the many contributing causes
of risk events. Focus
is used during risk assessment to define the various levels of risk as the
product of the harm probability categories and harm severity categories. This is
a simple mechanism to increase visibility of risks and assist management
Risk Management Tools
allow planners to explicitly address uncertainty by
identifying and generating metrics, parameterizing, prioritizing, and developing
responses, and tracking risk. These activities may be difficult to track without
tools and techniques, documentation
Health Impact Assessment
is defined as "a combination of
methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to
its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of
those effects within the population.
is the development of
of behavior or
recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organization, based on a
wide range of available information sources both overt and covert. Assessments
are developed in response to requirements declared by the leadership in order to
inform decision making.
is a risk so small or
unimportant or of so little consequence as to warrant little or no
so small as to be meaningless or insignificant and not worth considering.
Risk is not always Accurately Perceived or Understood in the Same Way by
People can interpret warnings differently.
systematic patterns of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment.
Some people wait for a visual confirmation and some people tend to base
their future decisions on what happened in the past. And some people just
pretend to know
things that they really don't fully understand.
refers to the
and opinions between
people facing threats to their
, economic or social well-being. The ultimate purpose of risk
communication is to enable people at risk to take
informed decisions to protect themselves and their loved ones
people underutilize diagnostic information when nondiagnostic information
is also present.
is useful in making a particular judgment.
Nondiagnostic information is knowledge that is
to the judgment being made.
When both kinds of information are present, people tend to underrely on
diagnostic information in making judgments. Thus, the presence of
nondiagnos-tic information weakens, or dilutes, the impact of diagnostic
information on judgment.
Information Deficit Model
or hostility to science and technology to a lack of understanding,
resulting from a lack of information. It is associated with a division
between experts who have the information and
not. The model implies that
should focus on improving the
transfer of information
from experts to
is the subjective judgment
that people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk. The
phrase is most commonly used in reference to natural hazards and threats
to the environment or health, such as nuclear power. Several theories have
been proposed to explain why different people make different estimates of
the dangerousness of risks. Three major families of theory have been
developed: psychology approaches (heuristics and cognitive),
anthropology/sociology approaches (cultural theory) and interdisciplinary
approaches (social amplification of risk framework).
Doom and Gloom
Public Awareness of Science
are terms relating to the attitudes,
behaviours, opinions, and activities that comprise the relations between
the general public or lay society
a whole to scientific knowledge and organisation. It is a comparatively
new approach to the task of exploring the multitude of relations and
linkages science, technology, and innovation have among the general
is the public communication of science-related
topics to non-experts
is a variety of activities by research institutes,
universities, and institutions such as science museums, aimed at promoting
public awareness (and understanding) of science and making informal
contributions to science education.
is an interpretation of science intended for a general
audience. While science journalism
focuses on recent scientific developments, popular science is more
evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, value or the
significance of something.
or destruction inflicted by the enemy that is
tolerable, but only to them and not the victims or the actual people who
suffer from the destruction.Acceptable Risk
to the level of human and property loss that can be tolerated by an
individual, household, group, organization, community, region, state, or
is the process of identifying,
quantifying, and prioritizing (or ranking) the
system. Examples of
for which vulnerability assessments are
performed include, but are not limited to, information technology
systems, energy supply systems, water supply systems
systems, and communication systems
. Such assessments may be
conducted on behalf of a range of different organizations, from
small businesses up to large regional
from the perspective of disaster management means assessing the
threats from potential hazards to the population and to
infrastructure. It may be conducted in the political, social,
economic or environmental fields. Vulnerability assessment has many
things in common with risk assessment. Assessments are typically
performed according to the following steps: Cataloging assets and
capabilities (resources) in a system. Assigning quantifiable value
(or at least rank order) and importance to those resources.
Identifying the vulnerabilities or potential threats to each
resource. Mitigating or eliminating the most serious vulnerabilities
for the most valuable resources.
refers to the
of a system or a unit to
withstand the effects of a hostile environment. A window of
vulnerability (WoV) is a time frame within which defensive measures
are diminished, compromised or lacking.
- Safe Sex
is is a
tendency to prefer
the complete elimination of a risk
in a sub-part even when alternative options produce a greater overall
reduction in risk. It often manifests in cases where decision makers
address problems concerning health, safety, and the environment. Its
effect on decision making has been observed in surveys presenting
hypothetical scenarios and certain real-world policies (e.g. war against
terrorism as opposed to reducing the risk of traffic accidents or gun
violence) have been interpreted as being influenced by it. Another example
involves a decision to reduce risk in one manager's area at the expense of
increased risk for the larger organization.
is the ratio
of the potential exposure to a
and the level at which no adverse effects are expected. If
the Hazard Quotient is calculated to be less than 1, then no adverse
health effects are expected as a result of exposure. If the Hazard
Quotient is greater than 1, then adverse health effects are possible. The
Hazard Quotient cannot be translated to a probability that adverse health
effects will occur, and is unlikely to be proportional to risk. It is
especially important to note that a Hazard Quotient exceeding 1 does not
necessarily mean that adverse effects will occur.
is the ratio
of the hazard rates corresponding to the conditions described by
two levels of an explanatory variable.
is any agent that can cause harm or damage to humans
, property, or the
comprises strategies or pathways used to determine
the credibility and seriousness of a potential threat, as well as the
likelihood that it will be carried out in the future. Threat assessment is
a violence prevention act that involves: Identifying the threats to commit
violent act, Determining seriousness of threat. Developing intervention
plans that protect potential victims and address underlying problem that
stimulated the threatening behaviour.
is one of three main ways to quantify how strongly the presence or absence of
property A is associated with the presence or absence of property B in a given
Advanced Measurement Approach
is when banks are allowed to develop their own
empirical model to quantify required capital for operational risk. (Bad Idea).
Hierarchy of Hazard Control
is a system used in industry to minimize or
eliminate exposure to hazards.
Margin of Error
expressing the amount of random sampling error in a survey's results.
states that if an action or policy
has a suspected risk of
causing harm to the public
, or to the environment, in the absence of
scientific consensus (that the action or policy is not harmful), the
burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those taking that action.
Process Safety Management
, promulgated by
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA). A process is any
activity or combination of activities including any use, storage,
manufacturing, handling or the on-site movement of highly hazardous
chemicals (HHCs) as defined by OSHA and the Environmental Protection
Hazard and Operability Study
is a structured and
examination of a complex planned or existing process or operation in order
to identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks to personnel or
equipment. The intention of performing a HAZOP is to review the design to
pick up design and engineering issues that may otherwise not have been
found. The technique is based on breaking the overall complex design of
into a number of simpler sections called 'nodes' which are
then individually reviewed. It is carried out by a suitably experienced
multi-disciplinary team (HAZOP) during a series of meetings. The HAZOP
technique is qualitative, and aims to stimulate the imagination of
participants to identify potential hazards and operability problems.
Structure and direction are given to the review process by applying
standardised guide-word prompts to the review of each node. The relevant
calls for team members to display 'intuition and
good judgement' and for the meetings to be held in 'a climate of positive
thinking and frank discussion'.
reduces the amount of
generated by a process, whether by industry, agriculture or consumers. In
contrast to most pollution control strategies, which seek to manage a
after it is emitted and
reduce its impact
upon the environment,
the pollution prevention approach seeks to increase the efficiency of a
process, thereby reducing the amount of pollution generated at its source.
Although there is wide agreement that source reduction is the preferred
strategy, some professionals also use the term pollution prevention to
include pollution reduction
. With increasing human population, pollution
has become a great concern. Pollution from human activities is a problem
that does not have to be inevitable. With a comprehensive pollution
prevention program, most pollution can be reduced, reused, or prevented.
The US Environmental Protection Agency works to introduce pollution
prevention programs to reduce and manage waste. Reducing and managing
pollution may decrease the number of
deaths and illnesses
aims to prevent a big play, like
a 25-yard or longer pass or run. The defense concedes short gains, such as
four to eight yards per play, as long as the clock keeps running.
Survival Tips - Wilderness Survival Knowledge - Preppers
are techniques that a person may use in order to
any type of
or built environment. These techniques are meant to
provide basic necessities
life which include water, food, and shelter. The skills also support
proper knowledge and interactions with animals and plants to promote the
sustaining of life over a period of time. Survival skills are often
associated with the need to survive in a disaster situation
skills are often basic ideas and abilities that ancients invented and used
themselves for thousands of years. Outdoor activities such as hiking,
backpacking, horseback riding, fishing, and hunting all require basic
wilderness survival skills, especially in handling emergency situations.
Bush-craft and primitive living are most often self-implemented, but
require many of the same skills.
Expecting the best but also being
prepared for the worse. It's all about increasing your chances and odds
for survival. After that it's about having clear
and doing your best to
. Survival Websites
is to continue to live or
exist through hardship
, danger or adversity.
is a state of surviving
and remaining alive. Rescue
is a popular term for wilderness
survival skills that include firecraft, tracking, hunting, fishing,
shelter-building, navigation by natural means, the use of tools such as
knives and axes, foraging, water sourcing, hand-carving wood, container
construction from natural materials, and rope and twine-making, among
is a competitive, co-ed
intercollegiate sport in the United States, Canada and elsewhere based on
various skills traditionally part of forestry educational and technical
is a movement of individuals or
groups (called survivalists or preppers) who are actively preparing for
emergencies, including possible disruptions in social or political order,
on scales from local to international. The words prepper and prep are
derived from the word prepare. Survivalists often acquire emergency
medical and self-defense training, stockpile food and water, prepare to
become self-sufficient, and build structures (e.g., a survival retreat or
an underground shelter) that may help them survive a catastrophe.
is defined as an individual's ability to
to life tasks in the
face of social disadvantage or other highly adverse conditions. Adversity
and stress can come in the shape of family or relationship problems,
health problems, or workplace and financial worries, among others.
is the ability to bounce back from a negative experience with
"competent functioning". Resilience is not a rare ability; in reality, it
is found in the average individual and it can be learned and developed by
virtually anyone. Resilience is a process, rather than a trait to be had.
It is a process of individuation through a
discovery of personal and unique abilities.
Handling Difficult Situations
- Over Reacting
is a branch of statistics for analyzing the
expected duration of time until one or more events happen, such as death
in biological organisms and failure in mechanical systems.
is a part of survival analysis. It is the percentage
of people in a study or treatment group still alive for a given period
of time after diagnosis. Survival rates are important for prognosis, but
because the rate is based on the population as a whole, an individual
prognosis may be different depending on newer treatments since the last
statistical analysis as well as the overall general health of the
Knowing how to
Fend for Yourself, or for others, is a skill that millions everyday have
is to manage without help from others. Defend oneself.
Look After Yourself
- Provide for Oneself
is a shorthand term that refers to a manner of
responding to challenges that requires one to have the ability to think
fast, to adapt, and to improvise when getting a job done.
But of course when we
work together as a team
our survival rate increase tremendously.
Combining Efforts and Working Together
Having a good support system and a good
Network of Friends, Family and Neighbors
, people who understand that
combining efforts and working together will always be more beneficial
for everyone. And there's plenty of people, so it's just a matter of
bringing people together, like
Joining a Club
It's a good idea to have good connections
. Have a place to meet when
Safe and Well
File of Life Form
is a procedure in which two people, the "buddies",
operate together as a single unit so that they are able to monitor and
help each other. Collaboration
- Working Together
.Having multiple ways to communicate
It's good to be dependent on each other instead of just the government
and people in power. It might be better to clan together with friends,
family and colleagues. Make sure you set up your own personal network
that has connections to other networks. Trust is a must, criminals are
here now and they will be around later. Trusting the wrong people could
put you at risk. Know someone who has contacts with important
services like food distribution, water, energy and so on. Start locally
with friends, family, farms, water, energy and so on.
You have to
know where your food comes from
, your options and choices? How much
of your food depends on imports and exports? What shortages will you
expect when trade is disrupted? Do you understand how a
works? Can you make bread? Can you
? How much food can you grow? Hording and stock piling food
and supplies is Ok but how will you replenish your supplies?
know where your water comes from
? Options and choices? Do you know
what contaminants are in your drinking water or rivers? Do you have
access to water testing supplies? You have to know where your energy
comes from? Options and choices?Know your workforce
. Know who's
willing to work? What skills do people have? Do people know their
responsibilities? Make sure that the people who are providing needed
services are taken care of and will not be vulnerable to criminals or
corruption. When it comes to money, it is just one of many tools
that we have. So it is a good idea to know
for acquiring needed supplies.
will always be a convenient tool as long as we use it under
different rules that will not allow it to control and manipulate people
But we must beware that criminals will try to control
money again, they murdered Lincoln for the green backs and they murdered
Kennedy too because he also wanted a national currency that would be
controlled by the people, and not by criminal organizations, of course
that's another story.Share your plan with people you want in
. Let them know the ways that they can help and what
information you will need.
is a graph showing the number or proportion of individuals
surviving to each age for a given species or group (e.g. males or
females). Survivorship curves can be constructed for a given cohort (a
group of individuals of roughly the same age) based on a life table. There
are three generalized types of survivorship curves: Type I or convex
curves are characterized by high age-specific survival probability in
early and middle life, followed by a rapid decline in survival in later
life. They are typical of species that produce few offspring but care for
them well, including humans and many other large mammals. Type II or
diagonal curves are an intermediate between Types I and III, where roughly
constant mortality rate/survival probability is experienced regardless of
age. Some birds and some lizards follow this pattern. Type III or concave
curves have the greatest mortality (lowest age-specific survival) early in
life, with relatively low rates of death (high probability of survival)
for those surviving this bottleneck. This type of curve is characteristic
of species that produce a large number of offspring (see r/K selection
theory). This includes most marine invertebrates. For example, oysters
produce millions of eggs, but most larvae die from predation or other
causes; those that survive long enough to produce a hard shell live
relatively long. The number or proportion of organisms surviving to any
age is plotted on the y-axis (generally with a logarithmic scale starting
with 1000 individuals), while their age (often as a proportion of maximum
life span) is plotted on the x-axis. In mathematical statistics, the
survival function is one specific form of survivorship curve and plays a basic part in survival analysis.
- Survivor Library
- Midwest Native Skills Institute
Expert Survival Tips
- Simple Survival
is the fascinating world of Appalachian pioneer folk.
Weather Info Websites
Disasters Websites and Information
- Civi Guard
Severe Weather Warning
Specific Area Message
Encoding & NOAA Reception (amazon)
SAS Survival Guide App
(iOS, Android; $5.99)
first aid and extreme climate survival.
Travel Advice -
Survival Outdoor Skills
Tips on Survival
The National Preppers and Survivalists Expo
Wild Life Management
Steve Brill Foraging Wild Foods
Insects and Bugs
are enzymes that release fatty acids from the second
carbon group of glycerol. This particular phospholipase specifically
recognizes the sn-2 acyl bond of phospholipids and catalytically
hydrolyzes the bond releasing arachidonic acid and lysophosphatidic acid.
Upon downstream modification by cyclooxygenases, arachidonic acid is
modified into active compounds called eicosanoids. Eicosanoids include
prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are categorized as
is an inhibitor of the IIa, V, and X isoforms of secretory phospholipase
A2 (sPLA2). The molecule acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by disrupting
the first step of the arachidonic acid pathway of inflammation. From 2006
to 2012, varespladib was under active investigation by Anthera
Pharmaceuticals as a potential therapy for several inflammatory diseases,
including acute coronary syndrome and acute chest syndrome. The trial was
halted in March 2012 due to inadequate efficacy.
North American Society of Toxinology
Survival and Self Reliance
reflective insulating fabric that reflects up to 90% of a person’s body
heat back to the wearer, or can be flipped to reflect external heat
or Emergency Blanket
an especially low-weight, low-bulk blanket made of heat-reflective thin
plastic sheeting. They are used on the exterior surfaces of spacecraft for
thermal control as well as by people. Their design reduces the
person's body which would otherwise occur due to thermal radiation,
convection. Their compact size before unfurling and light weight makes
them ideal when space is at a premium. They may be included in first aid
kits and also in camping equipment. Lost campers and hikers have an
additional possible benefit: the metallic surface appearance flashes in
the sun, allowing use as an improvised distress beacon for searchers, and
also as a method of signalling over long distances to other people on the
same route as the person who owns the blanket.
are rectangular pieces of cloth that
are worn wrapped around the feet to avoid chafing, absorb sweat and
improve the foothold. Footwraps were worn with boots before socks became
widely available, and remained in use by armies in Eastern Europe until
the beginning of the 21st century.
Adventure Gloves, slim & light, cut resistance, water & oil
proof, breathable, anti-skidding.
Be Prepared to Survive
The Survival Mom Community
are not just knowing how
to survive in the woods by yourself, survival skills are more
about having extensive Knowledge and information about yourself
and the world around you. Knowing how to survive in the woods
is one thing, knowing how to survive in life is another. What
is the necessary information and knowledge that is needed to
survive in the 21st century? You have to ask yourself, is my
current school providing me with the necessary information and
knowledge that is needed to survive in the 21st century? Do you
know what questions to ask and when to ask them?
Basic Knowledge 101.com
Survival Films - Videos about Surviving
in which one or more characters make an effort at
. It often overlaps with
other film genres. It is a subgenre of the adventure film, along with
swashbuckler films, war films, and safari films. Survival films are darker
than most other adventure films which usually focus their storyline on a
single character, usually the protagonist. The films tend to be "located
primarily in a contemporary context" so film audiences are familiar with
the setting, meaning the characters' activities are less romanticized. In
a 1988 book, Thomas Sobchack compared the survival film to romance: "They
both emphasize the heroic triumph over obstacles
which threaten social order and the reaffirmation of predominant social
values such as fair play and respect for merit and cooperation." The
author said survival films "identify and isolate a microcosm of society",
such as the surviving group from the plane crash in The Flight of the
Phoenix (1965) or those on the overturned ocean liner in The Poseidon
Adventure (1972). Sobchack explained, "Most of the time in a survival film
is spent depicting the process whereby the group, cut off from the
securities and certainties of the ordinary support networks of civilized
life, forms itself into a functioning, effective unit." The group often
varies in types of characters, sometimes to the point of caricature. While
women have historically been stereotyped in such films, they "often play a
decisive role in the success or failure of the group".
Dooms Day Films
(Armageddon - Apocalypse) - Isolation
Wilderness Survival Tips : Wilderness Survival Techniques
- The Psychology of Survival
in the Siberian Wilderness for 70 Years
Psychology of Survival
Alone in Alaska
National Geographic: Live Free or Die
Man vs. Wild
Man, off the Grid
The Real Castaway
Outdoor Travel Movies
Travel Magazines - Travel Books
People: A Year in the Taiga (2012)
. From iconic filmmaker
Werner Herzog, Happy People: A Year in the Taiga journeys deep
into the Siberian wilderness, following veteran trappers through
the Taiga's four seasons to tell the incredible story of a
society untouched by modernity. Aired: 11/15/2012 |
1 hr. 34 min.
is a package of basic tools and supplies prepared in
advance as an aid to survival in an emergency. Civil and military
aircraft, lifeboats, and spacecraft are equipped with survival kits.
Survival kits, in a variety of sizes, contain supplies and tools to
provide a survivor with basic shelter against the elements, help him or
her to keep warm, meet basic health and first aid needs, provide food and
water, signal to rescuers, and assist in finding the way back to help.
Supplies in a survival kit normally contain a knife (often a Swiss army
knife or a multi-tool), matches, tinder, first aid kit, bandana, fish
hooks, sewing kit, and a flashlight. Civilians such as forestry workers,
surveyors, or bush pilots, who work in remote locations or in regions with
extreme climate conditions may also be equipped with survival kits.
Disaster supplies are also kept on hand by those who live in areas prone
to earthquakes or other natural disasters. For the average citizen to
practice disaster preparedness, some towns will have survival stores to
keep survival supplies in stock. The American Red Cross recommends an
emergency preparedness kit that is easy to carry and use in the event of
an emergency or disaster.
Life Rafts & Survival Gear
.Medical Supply Kits
is a portable kit that normally contains the items one
would require to survive for 72 hours when evacuating from a disaster,
although some kits are designed to last longer periods. Other names for
such a bag are a 72-hour kit, battle box, grab bag, go bag, GOOD bag (get
out of Dodge), INCH bag (I'm never coming home), personal emergency
relocation kit (PERK), or quick run bag (QRB). The focus is on evacuation,
rather than long-term survival, distinguishing the bug-out bag from a
survival kit, an aviation or a boating emergency kit, or a fixed-site
disaster supplies kit. The kits are also popular in the survivalism
Emergency Go Bag
Emergency Supply Kit
could include the following recommended items:
Water - one gallon of water per person per day for at least three days,
for drinking and sanitation.
Food - at least a three-day supply of
Battery-powered or hand crank radio and a NOAA
Weather Radio with tone alert.
First aid kit
Whistle to signal for help.
Dust mask to help filter
contaminated air and plastic sheeting and duct tape to
Moist towelettes, garbage bags and plastic ties for
Wrench or pliers to turn off utilities.
can opener for food.
Cell phone with chargers and a backup
battery.Additional Emergency Supplies:
the following items to your emergency supply kit based on your
medications such as pain relievers, anti-diarrhea medication, antacids
Glasses and contact lense solution.
bottles, diapers, wipes, diaper rash cream.
Pet food and extra water for
Cash or traveler's checks.
Important family documents such
as copies of insurance policies, identification and bank account
records saved electronically or in a waterproof, portable container.
Sleeping bag or warm blanket for each person.
Complete change of
clothing appropriate for your climate and sturdy shoes.
chlorine bleach and medicine dropper to disinfect water.
Matches in a waterproof container.
Feminine supplies and
personal hygiene items.
Mess kits, paper cups, plates, paper towels and
Paper and pencil.
Books, games, puzzles or other
activities for children.Maintaining Your Kit:
After assembling your kit remember to maintain it so it’s ready when
food in a cool, dry place.
Store boxed food in tightly closed plastic or
Replace expired items as needed.
Re-think your needs
every year and update your kit as your family’s needs change.
Kit Storage Locations:
Since you do not know where you will be when
an emergency occurs, prepare supplies
, work and vehicles.
Home: Keep this kit in a designated place and have it ready in case you
have to leave your home quickly. Make sure all family members know
where the kit is kept.
Work: Be prepared to shelter
at work for at
least 24 hours. Your work kit should include food, water and other
necessities like medicines, as well as comfortable walking shoes,
stored in a “grab and go” case.
Vehicle: In case you are stranded, keep
a kit of emergency supplies in your car.Scan all your
important documents, and save them on a flash drive:
You could also
save them onto a cloud server if you have an encryption service you trust.
These documents include:
The deed to your house.
Your will and/or trust.
Proof of insurance.
Social security cards.
A list of
personal contacts with their addresses and phone numbers.
Your pet’s paperwork for vaccinations and medical
First Aid Tips
First Aid Tips
First Aid Tips
First Aid Index
Poisoning Prevention First Aid
Wilderness First Aid
- Wild Med
Adventure Medical Kits
Katadyn Survivor 06 Desalinator
The Solar Still Water Purification Kit
Solar Pure Water
- Life Saver Water Bottle Filter Systems
- Water Knowledge
Emergency First Response
Wilderness Medicine Schools
Freedom of the Hills Deck: 52 Playing Cards
Being relative to particular
conditions, the average person can live for 3 minutes without air, 3 hours
in below freezing temperatures, 3 days without water and 3 weeks without food.
Falling through thin Ice into Freezing Water
Ten minutes of
meaningful movement. One hour before you become unconscious.
Slow your breath
Once your core body temperature
drops to 95
degrees Fahrenheit, you will be officially hypothermic.
Below 86 degrees, you
will probably be unconscious, but not necessarily lifeless.
People have been
successfully revived from frigid states as low as 56.7 degrees,
a temperature at which bodies exhibit
the clinical signs of death, including no pulse or breathing.
1-10-1 principle: ‘‘One
minute to get control of your breathing
How to Survive a
Fall Through Ice
(youtube) - Don't panic, control your breathing, make
your body Horizontal
by lifting your legs and
stretching out your arms out on the strongest area of ice, then start kicking your feet like
you're swimming, and then use your arms to
slowly pull yourself out of the water, and then crawl to safety.
Snow and Winter Survival
Mountain Survival Books
with Disaster- Molly Hatchet
I'm travelin' down the road
I'm flirtin' with disaster
I've got the pedal to the floor,
is running faster
I'm out of money, I'm out of hope,
It looks like
Well how much more can we take,
With all of this
We're flirtin' with disaster,
Ya'll know what I mean
And the way we run our lives,
It makes no sense to me
I don't know
about yourself or what you want to be, yeah
When we gamble with our
We choose our destiny
I'm travelin' down that lonesome road
Feel like I'm dragging a heavy load
Yeah I've tried to turn my head
Feels about the same most every day.