to a person
sudden illness or injury
, usually before regular
obtained. The key is to preserve life and prevent the condition from
worsening, and/or promote recovery
. It includes initial
serious condition prior to professional medical help
being available, such
as performing CPR
while awaiting an ambulance, as well as the complete
treatment of minor conditions, such as cuts,
Emergency Telephone Number
Emergency Medical Services
- Broken Bones
- FallingChest Pain
- Heart Attack
- Body Burden
Causes of Death
Safetyville USA: Children’s Safety & Health Education Programs
Apps for First Aid by American Red Cross
provides users with clear and
concise first aid and CPR instructions
to help in the event of an
Emergencies Mobile Apps
. This may be caused by
hits, weapons, and other causes
is injury that has the
potential to cause
In 2013, 4.8 million people died from injuries, up from 4.3 million in
1990. More than 30% of these deaths were transport-related injuries. In
2013, 367,000 children under the age of five died from injuries, down from
766,000 in 1990. Injuries are the cause of 9% of all deaths, and are the
sixth-leading cause of
death in the world
any injury that has the potential to cause
or death. There are many causes of major trauma, blunt and
penetrating, including falls, motor vehicle collisions, stabbing wounds,
and gunshot wounds. Depending on the severity of injury, quickness of
management and transportation to an appropriate medical facility (called a
trauma center) may be necessary to prevent loss of life or limb. The
initial assessment is critical, and involves a physical evaluation and
also may include the use of imaging tools to determine the types of
injuries accurately and to formulate a course of treatment. In 2002,
unintentional and intentional injuries were the fifth and seventh leading
causes of deaths worldwide, accounting for 6.23% and 2.84% of all deaths.
For research purposes the definition often is based on an
Injury Severity Score
(ISS) of greater than 15.
is someone who is
or injury. A sick
person who is confined to home or bed because of illness, disability or
Emergency Essentials Kits
Emergency essentials kits can help you
respond to natural disasters or other serious situations. Prepare for the unexpected by putting
together a bug out bag of items that could be useful if you needed to
evacuate your home. Pack enough to last 24 to 48 hours, and keep your
emergency essentials handy. Make sure your family members know where
to find the kit. Consider keeping one in your car as well.
survive for seventy-two hours. Survival Kits
- Rescue Equipment
Emergency Essentials Kit Includes:
Small, waterproof flashlight or
headlamp and extra batteries.
Water, 1 gallon a
person a day.
Food that won't spoil, including baby food, if needed.
Manual can opener for food.
Pet food and supplies, such as a leash, if
Small notepad and waterproof writing instrument.
Cellphone with solar charger.
Battery-powered or hand crank radio and a
weather radio with tone alert and extra batteries for both.
Plastic sheeting and duct tape for improvised shelter.
Wrench or pliers
to turn off utilities.
Medicine, a week's supply.
supplies or equipment, as needed.
Soap, toothbrush and other personal
Moist towelettes, garbage bags and plastic ties for personal
can help you respond effectively to common injuries and
. Keep at least one first-aid kit in your home and one in your
car. Store your kits someplace easy to get to and out of the reach of
young children. Make sure children old enough to understand the
purpose of the kits know where they're stored. You can buy
first-aid kits at many drugstores or assemble your own. You may want
to tailor your kit based on your activities and needs.
Bandage strips and "butterfly" bandages in assorted sizes.
Nonstick sterile bandages and roller gauze in assorted sizes.
Aluminum finger split.
Cotton balls and cotton-tipped swabs.
examination gloves, several pairs.
Petroleum jelly or other
Plastic bags, assorted sizes.
Safety pins in assorted sizes.
Scissors and tweezers.
Soap or hand sanitizer.
Antiseptic solution and towelettes.
Turkey baster or other bulb suction device for flushing wounds.
Syringe, medicine cup or spoon.
Aloe vera gel.
Antihistamine, such as
Pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol,
others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and aspirin.
aspirin to children).
Cough and cold medications.
Personal medications that don't need refrigeration.
epinephrine, if prescribed by your doctor.
Emergency phone numbers, including contact information for your family
doctor and pediatrician,
local emergency services
, emergency road
service providers, and the poison help line, which in the United
States is 800-222-1222.
Medical consent forms for each family member.
Medical history forms for each family member.
flashlight or headlamp and extra batteries.
notepad and waterproof writing instrument.
Emergency space blanket.
Cell phone with solar charger.
utility tools and essential outdoor gear and adventure survival kit,
without compromising valuable pack space and weight.
Bison Paracord Bracelet Interlaced Cobra Weave
. When untied it's 9 Feet
Long and takes at least 15 minutes to unwind. Breaking Strength is 550 Lbs. (550 Cord).
Super Easy Paracord Instructions
Bracelets have 2 or 3 Cords Fused Together so you might have 2 short
pieces of rope. Breaking Strength
may also vary.
Give your Kit a Checkup
: Check your first-aid kits regularly to be
sure the flashlight batteries work and to replace supplies that have
expired or been used up. Consider taking a first-aid course through the
American Red Cross. Contact your local chapter for information on
classes. Prepare children for medical emergencies in age-appropriate
ways. The American Red Cross offers a number of helpful resources,
including classes designed to help children understand and use first-aid techniques.
Your Personal Emergency Health Information
Emergency health information for you and your family
may be needed at a moment's notice. Make sure that key information is
up to date, accurate and handy — it may help you get the care you need
in a medical emergency. Nowadays, you may find it useful to store this
information in an online patient health record and share it with your
doctor and emergency contact person
. In fact, you may already have
access to a patient portal, which is an electronic health information
tool offered by many insurance companies, employers and health care
institutions. If you have children, it is important to handle their
emergency health information similarly. You may not be available to
provide needed information in an emergency. Include in your health
record, whether online or on paper, the following information:
name, age and sex.
Your medication names, doses and
Your medical equipment.
Your chronic medical conditions,
such as epilepsy.
Medical consent form.
Aspects of your health
history that could be helpful to emergency medical responders, including
allergies and immunization record. Phone numbers for professional
emergency contacts, such as your family doctor, local emergency services,
emergency road service providers, and the regional poison control center.
Phone numbers for a personal emergency contact
, such as a friend or a
family member who you've asked to serve in this role.
Power of Attorney
: Many people store their personal health information
online with the help of an app or a service. This method allows you to
access your information anywhere with a computer or a mobile device.
Some tools also help you share information with your doctors, family
or emergency contact person. The most important thing is to make sure
it can be made readily available in an emergency or if you're
unconscious. Two options for storing your information online include:
Free or subscription-based personal health record. A
(PHR) includes your most important health information. It's
like the electronic health record that your doctor may keep for you.
But with a PHR, you maintain it and determine who has access to it.
Patient portals. Many health care providers, insurance companies and
employers offer their clients or staff access to their electronic
health record via patient portals.
Other Storage Options
versions. If you choose to maintain your emergency health information on
paper, keep a number of print copies in handy places. For example, put
a copy in your purse, vehicle glove box, first aid kit and emergency
kit. You could even try making one small enough to fit in your wallet
or on an index card. Consider posting the index card on your
refrigerator door so emergency personnel can see it quickly if needed.
Portable digital device. Put the list on a cell phone, thumb drive or
other device that you keep with you.
Emergency Health Information for
You and your Family
: Medical consent forms for each family member. Phone numbers for
professional emergency contacts, such as your family doctor and
pediatrician, local emergency services, emergency road service providers,
and the regional poison control center. Phone numbers for a personal
emergency contact, such as a friend or a family member who you've
asked to serve in this role. Copy of insurance cards, Cash or traveler's
checks and change, Maps of the area, An extra set of car
keys and house keys.
Travel Check List
First Aid Tips
First Aid Index
Wilderness First Aid
Wilderness Medicine Schools
Freedom of the Hills Deck: 52 Playing Cards
Fever - Hot Head
over 98.6 F 37 C, hot forehead. Increase fluid
intake. Cool cloth. Aspirin. A fever is a rise in
It's usually a sign of infection
. The fever itself is generally
harmless and probably helpful. Fevers usually don't need treatment.
The average body temperature is 98.6 F (37 C). But normal body temperature
can range between 97 (36.1) and 99 (37.2) or more. Your body
temperature can vary depending on how active you are or the time of
day. Generally, older people have lower body temperatures than younger
people. The following thermometer readings generally indicate a fever:
Rectal, ear or temporal artery temperature of 100.4 (38 C) or higher.
temperature of 100 F (37.8 C) or higher.
temperature of 99 F
(37.2 C) or higher.Should I treat a fever?
When you or your child is
sick, the main goal is to relieve discomfort and promote rest.
Treating a fever neither shortens nor particularly prolongs the course
of an illness.Treating fever in a child
. Children with relatively
high fevers may not look or act particularly sick. Treating a fever
depends on the degree of discomfort. If your child is uncomfortable or
restless, these home care strategies may help:
Encourage your child to
drink fluids. Dress your child in lightweight clothing. If your
child feels chilled, use a light blanket until the chills end. Give
your child acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or ibuprofen (Advil, Children's
Motrin, others) as directed on the label.
Note these precautions:
Don't give aspirin to anyone age 18 or younger Don't give ibuprofen to
children under 6 months. Don't give acetaminophen to infants under 6
Treating fever in an adult:
Treat adults with a fever based on
how they look and feel. Adults with fevers of 103 F (39.4 C) or higher
will generally look and act sick. Use the same home care strategies as
listed for children. When to seek medical advice.
Get medical help for a fever if Your child is younger than 3 months and has a fever.
Your child is age 3 to 6 months and has a temperature up to 102 F (38.9 C)
and seems unusually irritable, lethargic or uncomfortable. Your
child is age 3 to 6 months and has a temperature higher than 102 F (38.9
C). Your child is age 6 to 24 months and has a temperature above 102 F
(38.9 C) that lasts longer than a day but shows no other symptoms.
Your child is 2 to 17 years and has a temperature up to 102 F (38.9 C) and
seems unusually irritable, lethargic or uncomfortable. Your child is
2 to 17 years and has a temperature above 102 F (38.9 C) that lasts
longer than three days or doesn't respond to medication. An adult has a
fever that doesn't respond to medication, is consistently 103 F (39.4
C) or higher, or lasts longer than three days.When to seek emergency
Seek emergency medical care if your child has a fever after being
left in a hot car or other such potentially dangerous situation and
shows any of these warning signs: Fever with no sweating. Severe
headache. Seizures. Stiff neck. Confusion. Repeated vomiting or
diarrhea. Irritability or significant discomfort. Any worrisome,
different or unusual symptoms.How to take a
: Always use a digital thermometer to check someone's temperature.
Various types are available, including: Digital thermometers, which
can be used in the rectum (rectal), mouth (oral) or armpit (axillary),
though an armpit reading is the least accurate. Digital ear thermometers
(tympanic membrane). Temporal artery thermometer, which measures the
temperature of the temporal artery in the forehead. Because of the
potential for mercury exposure or ingestion, glass mercury
thermometers have been phased out and are no longer recommended. No
matter which type of thermometer you use, take these precautions when
using it: Read the instructions that came with the thermometer.
Clean it before and after each use with rubbing alcohol or soap and
lukewarm water. Don't use the same thermometer for both oral and
rectal temperatures. Get two and label which is used where. Never
leave a child unattended while taking his or her temperature.
105 Fahrenheit is 40.5 Celsius
104 Fahrenheit is 40.0 Celsius
103 Fahrenheit is 39.4 Celsius
102 Fahrenheit is 38.9
101 Fahrenheit is 38.3 Celsius
100 Fahrenheit is 37.7
Fahrenheit is 37.2 Celsius
98 Fahrenheit is 36.6 Celsius
Fahrenheit is 36.1 Celsius
96 Fahrenheit is 35.5 Celsius
(for infants): Turn on the digital thermometer and
dab petroleum jelly or another lubricant on the tip of the
thermometer. Lay the child on his or her stomach. Carefully insert
the tip 1/2 to 1 inch (1.3 to 2.5 centimeters) into the rectum. Hold
the thermometer and child still until the thermometer beep indicates it's
done. To avoid injury, don't let go of the thermometer while it's
inside the child. Remove the thermometer and read the number.
: Turn on the digital thermometer. Place the
thermometer tip under the tongue. Close the mouth around the
thermometer for the recommended amount of time or until the
thermometer beep indicates it's done. Remove the thermometer and read
the number.Armpit Temperature
: Turn on the digital thermometer.
Place the thermometer under the armpit, making sure it touches skin,
not clothing. Hold the thermometer tightly in place until you hear the
thermometer beep indicating it's done. Remove the thermometer and
read the number.Ear Temperature
: Turn on the digital
thermometer. Gently place it in the ear, no further than indicated by
the instructions that came with the device. Hold the thermometer
tightly in place until you hear the thermometer beep indicating it's
done. Remove the thermometer and read the number.
: Turn on the thermometer. Gently sweep it across the
forehead and read the number.
Bleeding - Losing Blood
heavily put pressure
on the wound with whatever is
available to stop or slow down the flow of
. Keep pressure on the
wound until help arrives.
How Apply a
Bleeding Control Kit
Most wounds that require closure should be stitched, stapled, or closed
with skin adhesives or liquid stitches within 6 to 8 hours after the
injury. Some wounds that require treatment can be closed as long as 24
hours after the injury.Suture
of catgut, silk or
wire used by surgeons to stitch tissues together.
is a medical device used to hold body tissues together after an injury or
surgery. Application generally involves using a needle with an attached
length of thread. A number of different shapes, sizes, and thread
materials have been developed over its millennia of history. Surgeons,
physicians, dentists, podiatrists, eye doctors, registered nurses and
other trained nursing personnel, medics, clinical pharmacists and
veterinarians typically engage in suturing. Surgical knots are used to
secure the sutures. Suturing Practice kit
includes all the essential suture tools in one package to help train and
perfect your suturing skills.Small Cuts:
Clean small cuts with soap
and clean cold water
and cover with clean bandage.
is a small medical dressing used for injuries not
serious enough to require a full-size bandage.
Squirtable Elastic Surgical Glue Seals Wounds in 60 Seconds
Soy Protein/Cellulose Nanofiber Scaffolds Mimicking Skin Extracellular
Matrix for Enhanced Wound Healing
E-Bandage generates electricity, speeds wound healing in Rats
Water-Resistant Electronic Skin with Self-Healing abilities created
The skin-like material is conductive, transparent, and can repair itself
either in air or when submerged in water. NUS scientists have taken
inspiration from underwater invertebrates like jellyfish to create an
electronic skin with similar functionality.
New Materials could drive Wound Healing
by harnessing natural healing
methods with new bioinspired
material that interacts with surrounding tissues to promote healing.
high-molecular weight (~440kDa) glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix
that binds to membrane-spanning receptor proteins called integrins.
Similar to integrins, fibronectin binds extracellular matrix components
such as collagen, fibrin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (e.g.
mediates a wide variety of cellular interactions with
the extracellular matrix
(ECM) and plays important roles in cell
adhesion, migration, growth and differentiation.
Injectable Bandage Created
. Injectable hydrogels are promising
materials for achieving hemostasis in case of internal injuries and
bleeding, as these biomaterials
can be introduced into a wound site using
minimally invasive approaches. An ideal injectable bandage should solidify
after injection in the wound area and promote a natural
In addition, the injectable bandage should initiate wound
. Commonly used thickening agent known as
kappa-carrageenan, obtained from seaweed, to design injectable hydrogels.
Hydrogels are a 3-D water swollen polymer network, similar to Jell-O,
simulating the structure of human tissues. When kappa-carrageenan is mixed
with clay-based nanoparticles, injectable gelatin is obtained. The charged
characteristics of clay-based nanoparticles provide hemostatic ability to
the hydrogels. Specifically, plasma protein and platelets form
adsorption on the gel surface and trigger a
Injectable bandages can show a prolonged release of therapeutics that can
be used to heal the wound.
Mobile bedside Bioprinter can Heal Wounds
and allows bi-layered skin
that is filled with a patient's own cells to be printed directly into a
wound. 3D Printed Body Parts
is a type of injury which happens
relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open
wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound).
In pathology, it specifically refers to a sharp injury which damages the
dermis of the skin
Minor Cuts and Scrapes
Minor cuts and scrapes usually don't require a trip to the emergency room.
These guidelines can help you care for such wounds: Wash your
. This helps avoid infection. Also put on disposable protective
gloves if they're available. Stop the bleeding. Minor cuts and scrapes
usually stop bleeding on their own. If not, apply gentle pressure
a sterile bandage or clean cloth and elevate the wound.
. Use clear clean water
to rinse the wound. Also clean around the wound
and a washcloth. Keep soap out of the wound, as it can cause
irritation. If dirt or debris remains in the wound after washing, use
tweezers cleaned with alcohol to remove the particles. If debris still
remains, see your doctor. Thorough cleaning reduces the risk of
infection and tetanus. There's no need to use
or an iodine-containing cleanser, which can be irritating to
tissue already injured. Apply an antibiotic. Apply a thin layer of an
cream or ointment (Neosporin
, Polysporin) to help keep the
surface moist. These products don't make the wound heal faster. But
they can discourage infection and help the body's natural healing
process. Certain ingredients in some ointments can cause a mild rash
in some people. If a rash appears, stop using the
. Cover the
wound. Bandages can help keep the wound clean and keep harmful bacteria out. If the injury is just a minor scrape, or scratch, leave it
uncovered. Change the dressing. Do this at least once a day or whenever
the bandage becomes wet or dirty. If the injured person is allergic to
the adhesive in tapes and bandages, switch to adhesive-free dressings
or sterile gauze held in place with paper tape, rolled gauze or a
loosely applied elastic bandage. These supplies generally are
available at pharmacies. After the wound has healed enough to make
infection unlikely, you can leave it uncovered, as exposure to the air
will speed healing. Get stitches for deep wounds
. A deep — all the
way through the skin — gaping or jagged wound with exposed fat or
muscle will need
. Adhesive strips or butterfly tape may hold
a minor cut together, but if you can't easily close the wound, see
your doctor as soon as possible. Proper closure within a few hours
minimizes scarring and reduces the risk of
. Watch for signs
of infection. See your doctor if the wound isn't healing or you notice
any redness, increasing pain, drainage, warmth or swelling. Get a
. If the injured person hasn't had a tetanus shot in the past
five years and the wound is deep or dirty, he or she may need a
booster shot, as soon as possible.
Topical antibiotic triggers unexpected antiviral response
which decreased the herpes virus and symptoms in infected mice.
are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of
sepsis, or putrefaction. Antiseptics are generally distinguished from
antibiotics by the latter's ability to be transported through the
lymphatic system to destroy bacteria
within the body, and from
disinfectants, which destroy microorganisms found on non-living objects.
Some antiseptics are true germicides, capable of destroying microbes (bacteriocidal),
while others are bacteriostatic and only prevent or inhibit their growth.
Antibacterials are antiseptics that have the proven ability to act against
bacteria. Microbicides which destroy virus particles are called viricides
is a chemical compound with the formula H2O2. In its pure
form, it is a pale blue, clear liquid, slightly more viscous than water.
Hydrogen peroxide is the simplest peroxide (a compound with an
oxygen–oxygen single bond). It is used as an oxidizer, bleaching agent and
. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide,
or "high-test peroxide", is a reactive oxygen species and has been used as
a propellant in rocketry. Its chemistry is dominated by the nature of its
unstable peroxide bond. Hydrogen peroxide is unstable and slowly
decomposes in the presence of base or a catalyst. Because of its
instability, hydrogen peroxide is typically stored with a stabilizer in a
weakly acidic solution. Hydrogen peroxide is found in biological systems
including the human body. Enzymes that use or decompose hydrogen peroxide
are classified as peroxidases.Puncture
A puncture wound doesn't usually cause excessive
Often the wound seems to close almost instantly. But this doesn't mean
treatment isn't necessary. A puncture wound — such as from stepping on a
nail — can be dangerous because of the risk of infection.
To take care of a puncture wound:
hands. This helps avoid infection. Stop the bleeding. Apply gentle
pressure with a bandage or clean cloth. Clean the wound. Rinse the wound
with clear water. If dirt or debris remains in the wound after washing,
use tweezers cleaned with alcohol to remove the particles. If debris still
remains, see a doctor. Clean the area around the wound with soap and a
washcloth. Apply an antibiotic. Apply a thin layer of an antibiotic cream
or ointment (Neosporin, Polysporin). Certain ingredients in some
ointments can cause a mild rash in some people. If a rash appears, stop
using the ointment. Cover the wound. Bandages can help keep the wound
clean and keep harmful bacteria out. Change the dressing. Do this at least
once a day or whenever the bandage becomes wet or dirty. Watch for signs
of infection. See a doctor if the wound isn't healing or you notice any
redness, increasing pain, drainage, warmth or swelling.
Get immediate medical help if the wound
Keeps bleeding after a few minutes of direct pressure. Is the result of an
animal or human bite
Is deep, dirty or caused by a
metal object. If the injured person hasn't had a tetanus shot in the past
five years and the wound is deep or dirty, your doctor may recommend a
booster. The injured person should have the booster shot within 48 hours
of the injury. If the wound was caused by a cat or a dog, try to confirm
that its rabies vaccination is up to date. If it was caused by a wild
animal, seek advice from your doctor about which animals are most likely
is the loss of blood to a degree sufficient to cause
death. Depending upon the age, health, and fitness level of the
individual, people can die from losing half to
two-thirds of their blood
; a loss of roughly one-third of the blood
volume is considered very serious. Even a single deep cut can warrant
suturing and hospitalization, especially if trauma, a vein or artery, or
another comorbidity is involved. The word originates from Latin. (bleed
and other things under the surface of the skin
You can usually
safely remove a small foreign object — such as a wood splinter,
fiberglass or glass — that's just under the surface of the skin: Wash your
hands and clean the area well with soap and water. Use tweezers cleaned
with rubbing alcohol to remove the object. A magnifying glass may help you
see better. If the object is under the surface of the skin, sterilize a
clean, sharp needle by wiping it with rubbing alcohol. Use the needle to
gently lift or break the skin over the object. Lift the tip of the object
out and grasp it with your tweezers. Squeeze the wound gently to allow
bleeding to wash out germs. Wash the area again and pat dry. Apply an
antibiotic ointment. Seek prompt medical help for a foreign object that
seems to be more deeply embedded in the skin or muscle. Follow these
precautions and steps first: Don't try to remove the object. Doing so
could cause further harm. If needed, control bleeding by pressing firmly
around the object to bring the edges of the wound together and by raising
the injury higher than the heart. Bandage the wound. First put a piece of
gauze over the object. Then, if it helps, put clean padding around the
object before binding the wound securely with a bandage or a piece of
clean cloth. Take care not to press too hard on the object.
In addition, seek medical help if:
object doesn't come out easily. The injury involves an eye. The wound
is deep or dirty and the injured person's last
was more than five years ago. The doctor may recommend a
Researchers turn open Wounds into Skin
. Technique to directly convert
the cells in an open wound into new skin cells. The approach relies on
reprogramming the cells to a stem-cell-like state and could be useful for
healing wounds and skin damage, countering the effects of aging and
helping us to better understand skin cancer.
Groundbreaking new Reusable Adhesive works Underwater
have introduced a new cutting-edge reusable adhesive that activates in
seconds, works underwater, and is strong enough to deadlift 11 pounds:
shape memory polymers (SMPs). Dry adhesives, such as those inspired by
gecko feet, are believed to be inadequate to achieve high adhesion to a
wet or submerged surface. This belief has been nullified because of our
SMP reversible dry adhesives.
is an adhesion product based upon the adaptations of geckos' feet that
allow them to climb sheer surfaces such as vertical glass. Synthetic
equivalents use carbon nanotubes as synthetic setae on reusable adhesive
are polymeric smart materials that have the
ability to return from a deformed state (temporary shape) to their
original (permanent) shape induced by an external stimulus (trigger), such
as temperature change.
according to the environment they are in. Such materials can be sensitive
to a number of factors, such as temperature, humidity, pH, the wavelength
or intensity of light or an electrical or magnetic field and can respond
in various ways, like altering colour or transparency, becoming conductive
or permeable to water or changing shape (shape memory polymers). Usually,
slight changes in the environment are sufficient to induce large changes
in the polymer's properties.
Skin flushed then changing to white
or greyish yellow. Blister my appear. Cold and numb.
. Do not
rub area. Quickly warm by immersing in tepid water 102-105F. If far from
warm shelter keep extremity cold during transport.
If an animal bites you or your child, follow these
guidelines: For minor wounds. If the bite barely breaks the skin and
there's no danger of rabies, treat it as a minor wound. Wash the wound
thoroughly with soap and water. Apply an antibiotic cream to prevent
infection and cover the bite with a clean bandage. For deep wounds.
If the animal bite creates a deep puncture of the skin or the skin is
badly torn and bleeding, apply pressure with a clean, dry cloth to stop
the bleeding and see your doctor. For infection. If you notice
signs of infection, such as swelling, redness, increased pain or
oozing, see your doctor immediately. For suspected rabies. If you
suspect the bite was caused by an animal that might carry rabies —
including any wild or domestic animal of unknown immunization status,
particularly bats — see your doctor immediately. Doctors recommend
getting a tetanus shot every 10 years. If your last one was more than
five years ago and your wound is deep or dirty, your doctor may
recommend a booster. Get the booster as soon as possible after the injury.
Domestic pets cause most animal bites. Dogs are more likely to bite than
cats. Cat bites, however, are more likely to cause infection because
they are usually puncture wounds and can't be thoroughly cleaned.
nonimmunized domestic animals
and wild animals carry the
risk of rabies. Rabies is more common in bats, raccoons, skunks and
foxes than in cats and dogs. Rabbits, squirrels and other rodents
rarely carry rabies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
recommends that children or adults exposed to bats, or who are
sleeping and discover bats present, seek medical advice, even if they
don't think they've been bitten. This is because bat bite marks can be
hard to see. Seek prompt attention if:
The wound is a deep puncture
or you're not sure how serious it is. The skin is badly torn and
bleeding significantly — first apply pressure with a bandage or clean
cloth to stop the bleeding. You notice increasing swelling, redness,
pain or oozing, which are warning signs of infection. You have
questions about your risk of rabies or about rabies prevention. If the
bite was caused by a cat or a dog, try to confirm that its rabies
vaccination is up to date. If the bite was caused by a wild animal,
seek advice from your doctor about which animals are most likely to
. Bats often carry rabies. And people have been infected
without obvious signs of a bite. This is why the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention recommends that people in contact with bats —
or even those who are sleeping and awaken to find a bat in the bedroom
— seek medical advice about rabies shots, even if they don't think
they've been bitten. You haven't had a tetanus shot in the past five
years and the wound is deep or dirty. You may need a booster shot.
: Most North American snakes
aren't dangerous to humans. Some exceptions include the rattlesnake, coral
snake, water moccasin and copperhead. Their bites can be life-threatening.
If you are bitten by a venomous snake, call 911 or your local emergency
number immediately, especially if the area changes color, begins to swell
or is painful. Many hospitals stock
, which may help you.
If possible, take these steps while waiting
for medical help:
Remain calm and move beyond the snake's striking
distance. Remove jewelry and tight clothing before you start to swell.
Position yourself, if possible, so that the bite is at or below the level
of your heart. Clean the wound, but don't flush it with water. Cover it
with a clean, dry dressing.
Don't use a tourniquet or apply ice. Don't cut the wound or attempt to
remove the venom. Don't drink caffeine or alcohol, which could speed the
rate at which your body absorbs venom. Don't try to capture the snake. Try
to remember its color and shape so that you can describe it, which will
help in your treatment. Venomous snakes in North America. Of the venomous
snakes found in North America, all but the coral snake have slit-like eyes
and are known as pit vipers. Their heads are triangular, with a depression
(pit) midway between the eye and nostril on either side of the head.
Other characteristics are unique to certain
Rattlesnakes rattle by shaking the rings at the
end of their tails. Water moccasins' mouths have a white, cottony
lining. Coral snakes have red, yellow and black rings along the length of
is the process by which venom is injected into some
animal by the bite (or sting) of a venomous animal. Many kinds of animals,
including mammals (e.g., the northern short-tailed shrew, Blarina
brevicauda), reptiles (e.g., the king cobra), spiders (e.g., black
widows), and insects (e.g., wasps, honey bees, ants and caterpillars),
employ venom for hunting and for self-defense. Most venoms are
administered by biting the skin of the victim, but some venoms are applied
externally, especially to sensitive tissues such as those that surround
the eyes. In some reptiles, such as the Gila monster, venom in the saliva
enters prey through bites of grooved teeth, but many animals have
specialized organs such as hollow teeth (fangs) and tubular stingers that
penetrate the prey's skin after which muscles attached to the attacker's
venom reservoir forcibly squirt venom deep within the victim's body
tissue. Death may occur as a result of bites or stings.
also known as antivenin, venom antiserum and antivenom
immunoglobulin, is a medication made from antibodies which is used to
treat certain venomous bites and stings. They are only recommended if
there is significant toxicity or a high risk of toxicity. The specific
antivenom needed depends on the species involved. It is given by
: pain and redness at site of sting
or bite. Possible allergic reactions such as shock or difficulty
breathing. Apply cold compresses to bites and
. Calamine lotion
may be soothing. Call Doctor if
are present, such as
rash, wheezing or trouble breathing.
Biotraps Ultimate Mosquito Killer
: Most tick bites cause only minor injury. But some ticks
may transmit bacteria that cause illnesses, such as Lyme disease or Rocky
Mountain spotted fever. To take care of a tick bite. Remove the tick
promptly and carefully. Use tweezers to grasp the tick near its head or
mouth and pull gently to remove the whole tick without crushing it. Other
methods — such as applying petroleum jelly, fingernail polish, rubbing
alcohol or a hot match — aren't recommended. If possible, seal the tick in
a container. Put the container in a freezer. Your doctor may want to see
the tick if you develop signs or symptoms of illness after a tick bite.
Wash your hands with soap and water. Also wash the area around the tick
bite. Call 911 or your local emergency number
if you develop:
A severe headache, Difficulty breathing, Paralysis,
Contact your doctor if you aren't able to
completely remove the tick. The longer the tick remains attached to your
skin, the greater your risk of getting a disease from it. The rash gets
bigger. A small red bump may appear at the site of the tick bite. This is
normal. But if it develops into a larger rash, perhaps with a bull's-eye
pattern, it may indicate Lyme disease. Also consult your doctor if signs
and symptoms disappear because you may still be at risk of the disease.
Your risk of contracting a disease from a tick bite depends on where you
live or travel to, how much time you spend outside in woody and grassy
areas, and how well you protect yourself. You develop flu-like signs and
symptoms. Fever, chills, fatigue, body aches and a headache may accompany
the rash. You think the bite site is infected. Signs and symptoms include
redness or oozing. If possible, bring the tick with you to your doctor's
Tips to Avoid TicksPoison Ivey
: Clean every place on your skin with a washcloth and soap that you think
came in contact with
, Oak or Sumac. You don't get poison Ivey because you
touched the leaves, you get it because you did not thoroughly clean
yourself with a washcloth and soap within 2 to 8 hours after contact.
Remember that Urushiol
is hard to get off your skin, just like grease is, except that
visible like greese, so cleaning
skin is not easy. But if you clean all the possible places with a
washcloth and soap, you should be fine, and also be itchy and scratchy free.
Broken Bone - Fracture
A fracture is a broken bone
requires medical attention. If the broken
is the result of major
trauma or injury, call 911
or your local emergency number.
for emergency help if:
The person is unresponsive, isn't breathing or
isn't moving. Begin CPR if there's no breathing or heartbeat. There
is heavy bleeding. Even gentle pressure or movement causes pain. The
limb or joint appears deformed. The bone has pierced the skin. The
extremity of the injured arm or leg, such as a toe or finger, is numb or
bluish at the tip. You suspect a bone is broken in the neck, head
or back. Don't move the person except if necessary
to avoid further
injury. Immobilize the injured area
. Take these actions immediately while waiting for medical help:
Stop any bleeding. Apply pressure to the wound with a sterile bandage, a
clean cloth or a clean piece of clothing. Don't try to realign the bone or push a bone that's sticking out
. If you've been trained in how to splint and professional help
isn't readily available, apply a splint to the area above and below the
fracture sites. Padding the splints can help reduce discomfort.
Apply ice packs to limit swelling and help relieve pain. Don't apply ice
directly to the skin. Wrap the ice in a towel, piece of cloth or some
other material. Treat for shock. If the person feels faint or is
breathing in short, rapid breaths, lay the person down with the head
slightly lower than the trunk and, if possible, elevate the legs. Encourage the person to support the injury with their
hand, or use a cushion or items of clothing to prevent unnecessary
is damage or a break in the bone, but not
always severed. A Closed Fracture
is when the bone breaks but there is
puncture or open wound in the skin
. An open fracture or
is one in which the bone breaks through the skin
; it may then recede back
into the wound and not be visible through the skin. Treatment often
involves resetting the bone in place and immobilizing it in a cast or
splint to allow it time to heal. Sometimes, surgery or metal rods may be
needed to reset the bone. The natural process of healing a fracture starts
when the injured bone and surrounding tissues bleed, forming a fracture
hematoma. The blood coagulates to form a blood clot situated between the
broken fragments. Within a few days, blood vessels grow into the
jelly-like matrix of the blood clot. The new blood vessels bring
phagocytes to the area, which gradually remove the non-viable material.
The blood vessels also bring fibroblasts in the walls of the vessels and
these multiply and produce collagen fibres. In this way the blood clot is
replaced by a matrix of collagen. Collagen's rubbery consistency allows
bone fragments to move only a small amount unless severe or persistent
force is applied. At this stage, some of the fibroblasts begin to lay down
bone matrix in the form of collagen monomers. These monomers spontaneously
assemble to form the bone matrix, for which bone crystals (calcium
hydroxyapatite) are deposited in amongst, in the form of insoluble
crystals. This mineralization of the collagen matrix stiffens it and
transforms it into bone. In fact, bone is a mineralized collagen matrix;
if the mineral is dissolved out of bone, it becomes rubbery. Healing bone
callus on average, is sufficiently mineralized to show up on X-ray within
6 weeks in adults and less in children. This initial "woven" bone does not
have the strong mechanical properties of mature bone. By a process of
remodeling, the woven bone is replaced by mature "lamellar" bone. The
whole process may take up to 18 months, but in adults, the strength of the
healing bone is usually 80% of normal by 3 months after the injury.
is defined as “a rigid or flexible device that
maintains in position a displaced or movable part
also used to keep in place and protect an injured part” or as “a rigid or
flexible material used to protect, immobilize, or restrict motion in a
part.” Splints can be used for injuries that are not severe enough to
immobilize the entire injured structure of the body. For instance, a
splint can be used for certain fractures, soft tissue sprains, tendon
injuries, or injuries awaiting orthopedic treatment. A splint may be
static, not allowing motion, or dynamic, allowing controlled motion.
Splints can also be used to relieve pain in damaged joints. Splints are
quick and easy to apply and do not require a plastering technique. Splints
are often made out of some kind of flexible material and a firm pole-like
structure for stability. They often buckle or Velcro together.
How to Splint Arm Bone Fracture
How to Splint a Broken Arm
Inappropriate Fracture Splints
A dislocation is an injury in which the
ends of your bones are forced from their normal positions
. The cause
is usually trauma resulting from a fall, an auto accident, or a
collision during contact or high-speed sports. Dislocation usually
involves the body's larger joints. In adults, the most common site of
the injury is the shoulder. In children, it's the elbow. Your thumb and
fingers also are vulnerable if forcibly bent the wrong way. The
injury will temporarily deform and immobilize your joint and may result in
sudden and severe pain and swelling. A dislocation requires prompt
medical attention to return your bones to their proper positions.
If you believe you have dislocated a joint:
Don't delay medical care.
Get medical help immediately. Don't move the joint until you receive
help. Splint the affected joint into its fixed position. Don't try to
or force it back into place
unless you know exactly what you're doing. If not done correctly you can damage
the joint and its surrounding muscles, ligaments, nerves or blood
vessels. Treatment for joint dislocation is usually by closed reduction,
that is, skilled
to return the bones to their normal position.
should be done only by trained people, because it can cause
injury to soft tissue around the dislocation. Put ice on the injured joint. This can help reduce swelling by
controlling internal bleeding and the buildup of fluids in and around
the injured joint.
Dislocations Of The
Finger - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
that replaces missing bone in order to repair bone
fractures that are extremely complex, pose a significant health risk to
the patient, or fail to heal properly. Bone generally has the ability to
regenerate completely but requires a very small fracture space or some
sort of scaffold to do so. Bone grafts may be autologous (bone harvested
from the patient’s own body, often from the iliac crest), allograft
(cadaveric bone usually obtained from a bone bank), or synthetic (often
made of hydroxyapatite or other naturally occurring and biocompatible
substances) with similar mechanical properties to bone. Most bone
grafts are expected to be reabsorbed and replaced as the natural bone
heals over a few months’ time. The principles involved in successful bone
grafts include osteoconduction (guiding the reparative growth of the
natural bone), osteoinduction (encouraging undifferentiated cells to
become active osteoblasts), and
(living bone cells in the
graft material contribute to bone remodeling). Osteogenesis only occurs
with autograft tissue and allograft cellular bone matrices.
Roughly 100,000 broken bones every year in the
more than 2 million bone grafts are performed around
the world annually in attempts to treat these challenging injuries.
Maxim Bez and
devised a two-step gene therapy method coupled with
FDA-approved ultrasound and microbubbles that completely healed nonunion
fractures in pigs within eight weeks of treatment. First, researchers
placed a collagen scaffold at the site of the break to provide a welcoming
niche for bone progenitor cells. Next, they injected microbubbles mixed
with genetic material for a bone growth factor. Pulses of sound from an
ultrasound wand promoted uptake of the growth factor DNA by
, which stimulated
Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy
uses electromagnetic fields in an
attempt to heal non-union fractures and depression. By 2007 the FDA had
cleared several such stimulation devices.
Thermoresponsive Polydiolcitrate-gelatin Scaffold
and delivery system
mediates effective bone formation from BMP9-transduced mesenchymal
New Material Regrows Bone
: Get the person to rest. An ice
pack is ice or frozen vegetables wrapped in something such as a tea
towel. Applying it to the injury will reduce the swelling and pain.
is an acute or chronic soft
tissue injury that occurs to a muscle
tendon, or both (contractile components). The equivalent injury to a
is a sprain.
is damage to one or more
in a joint, often caused by
trauma or the joint being taken beyond its functional range of motion. The
severity of sprain ranges from a minor injury which resolves in a few days
to a major rupture of one or more ligaments requiring surgical fixation
and a period of immobilization. Sprains can occur in any joint but are
most common in the ankle and wrist.
is a region of injured tissue or skin in which blood
capillaries have been ruptured; a bruise. Blood or bleeding under the skin
due to trauma of any kind; typically black and blue at first, with color
changes as healing progresses.
is a type of hematoma of tissue, the most common cause being capillaries
damaged by trauma, causing localized bleeding that extravasates into the
surrounding interstitial tissues. Most bruises are not very deep under the
skin so that the bleeding causes a visible discoloration. Bruise is also
known as a contusion. A bruise forms when a blow breaks blood
vessels near your skin's surface, allowing a small amount of blood to
leak into the tissues under your skin. The trapped blood may cause a
bruise that at first looks like a black-and-blue mark and then changes
color as it heals. If your skin isn't broken, you don't need a bandage.
But you can enhance bruise healing with these simple techniques:
Elevate the injured area. Apply an ice pack wrapped in a towel or a
cloth dampened with cold water. Do this for about 10 minutes. Repeat
several times a day for a day or two after the injury as needed.
Rest the bruised area, if possible. Consider acetaminophen (Tylenol,
others) for pain relief, or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) for
pain relief and to reduce swelling. Consult your doctor if you:
Notice very painful swelling in the bruised area/ Are still experiencing
pain three days after a seemingly minor injury. Have frequent, large or
painful bruises, particularly if your bruises appear on your trunk,
back or face, or seem to develop for no known reasons Have easy
bruising and a history of significant bleeding, such as during a
surgical procedure. Notice a lump (hematoma) form over the bruise. Are
experiencing abnormal bleeding elsewhere, such as from your nose or gums
or in urine or stool. Suddenly begin bruising, but have no history
of bruising. Have a family history of easy bruising or bleeding. These
signs and symptoms may indicate a more serious problem, such as a
blood-clotting problem or blood-related disease.
Falling - Hitting the ground Hard
the second leading cause
of accidental death worldwide
and is a major cause of personal injury,
especially for the elderly. Falls in older adults are an important class
of preventable injuries. Builders, electricians, miners, and painters are
occupations with high rates of fall injuries. About 226 million cases of a
significant accidental falls occurred in 2015. These resulted in 527,000
deaths. The height at which 50% of children die from a fall is between
four and five story heights (around 12 to 15 metres or 40 to 50 feet)
above the ground.
where falls occur and activities being undertaken
Falls — 384 out of 991 total deaths in construction in CY 2016 (38.7%)
Falls from Height in the Construction Industry: A Critical Review of the
Occupational Ladder Fall Injuries — United States, 2011
Falling from High Places.
It is estimated
that the human body reaches 99% of its low level
after falling 573 m
(1,880 ft) which takes 13 - 14 sec. This is 188-201 km/h (117 - 125 mph)
at normal atmospheric pressure in a random posture, but up to 298 km/h
(185 mph) in a head down position. It's not the falling that's fatal, it's
the deceleration at the end that kills you, or the impact with the ground.
Something like water or concrete does this on a sub-meter distance.
is any motion of a body where gravity is the only force acting
upon it. In the context of general relativity, where gravitation is
reduced to a space-time curvature, a body in free fall has no force acting
on it. If you’re falling from an airplane
you will usually have about 1-3 minutes before impact.
Steering yourself to the landing spot
have the ability to travel horizontally a good distance (up to a couple of
miles or three kilometers). To steer yourself to the landing spot. From
the arch position face down, you can direct your flight forward by pulling
your arms slightly back at the shoulders (so that they are not extended
forward as much) and straightening (extending) your legs. You can move
backward by extending your arms and bending your knees as though you are
trying to touch the back of your head with your heels. Right turns may be
accomplished while staying in the arch position by twisting your upper
body slightly to the right (dipping your right shoulder), and left turns
are performed by dipping the left shoulder.
Use the correct landing technique
to relax your body, keep your knees bent, and fall feet first. Fall
forward, rather than backward, and protect your head with your arms in
case you bounce. If you are in an arch position, get your body vertical
well before you hit the ground so that you don’t get caught in some other
position at impact (as a guide, keep in mind that at 1,000 feet, depending
on your velocity
, you have about 6-10
seconds before impact).
Highest Fall Survived without parachute
. Vesna Vulović (Yugoslavia, b.
3 January 1950; d. 23 December 2016) was 23 and working as a Jugoslavenski
Aerotransport hostess when she survived a fall from 10,160 m (33,333 ft)
over Srbská Kamenice, Czechoslovakia (now Czech Republic), on 26 January
1972. According to the official accident report, an explosion tore the
DC-9 she was working aboard to pieces in mid-air. Vulović was the only
survivor. She was in hospital for 16 months after emerging from a
27 day coma
many bones broken
Centrifuge Study of Pilot Tolerance to Acceleration and the Effects of
Acceleration on Pilot Performance
Human responses to aerospace environment related to acceleration,
vibration, sound, and noise
Study of impact tolerance through free-fall investigations. Final report
Eyes - Removing something in your Eyes
If you get a foreign object in your eye
: Wash your hands with soap and water.
Try to flush the object out of your eye
with a gentle stream of clean,
warm water. Use an eyecup or a small, clean drinking glass positioned with
its rim resting on the bone at the base of your eye socket. Another way
to flush a foreign object from your eye is to get into a shower and aim a
gentle stream of lukewarm water on your forehead over the affected eye
while holding your eyelid open. If you're wearing contact lenses, it's
best to remove the lens before or while you're irrigating the surface of
the eye with water. Sometimes a foreign body can be embedded on the
undersurface of the lens.
To help someone else
Wash your hands with
soap and water
. Seat the person in a well-lighted area. Gently
examine the eye to find the object. Pull the lower lid down and ask the
person to look up. Then hold the upper lid while the person looks down.
If the object is floating in the tear film on the surface of the eye, try
using a medicine dropper filled with clean, warm water to flush it out. Or
tilt the head back and irrigate the surface of the eye with clean water
from a drinking glass or a gentle stream of tap water.
Don't try to remove an object that's embedded in the eye. Don't rub the eye.
Don't try to remove a large object that appears to be embedded in the eye
or is sticking out between the lids.
Get immediate medical help if
You can't remove the object with simple irrigation. The object is embedded in the eye. The person with the
object in the eye is experiencing abnormal vision. Pain, redness or the
sensation of an object in the eye persists after the object is removed.
Chemical Splashes into your Eye
If a chemical splashes into your eye, take these steps immediately. Flush your eye with water.
Use clean, lukewarm tap water for at least 20 minutes. Use whichever
of these approaches is quickest: Get into the shower and aim a gentle
stream of water on your forehead over your affected eye. Or direct the
stream on the bridge of your nose if both eyes are affected. Hold the
lids of your affected eye or eyes open. Put your head down and turn it
to the side. Then hold the lids of your affected eye open under a
gently running faucet. If you have access to a work site eye-rinse
station, use it. Young children may do best if they lie down in the
bathtub or lean back over a sink. Pour a gentle stream of water on the
forehead over the affected eye or on the bridge of the nose to flush
both eyes. Wash your hands with soap and water. Thoroughly rinse your
hands to be sure no chemical or soap is left on them. Remove
contact lenses. If they don't come out during the flush, then take them out.
Don't rub the eye — this may cause further damage.
Don't put anything except water or contact lens saline rinse in the eye.
And don't use
unless emergency personnel tell you to do so.
Seek emergency medical assistance. After following the above steps, seek
emergency care by an eye specialist (ophthalmologist) or call 911 or
your local emergency number. Take the chemical container or the name
of the chemical with you to the emergency provider. If readily
available, wear sunglasses to help reduce sensitivity to light.
: Corneal Abrasion: A corneal abrasion is a superficial
scratch on the clear, protective "window" at the front of your eye
(cornea). Your cornea can be scratched by contact with dust, dirt,
sand, wood shavings, metal particles, contact lenses or even the edge
of a piece of paper. Corneal abrasions caused by plant matter (such as a
pine needle) usually require special attention as they can cause a
delayed inflammation inside the eye (iritis). Signs and symptoms of
corneal abrasion include:
Pain, A gritty feeling in the eye
Tearing, Redness, Sensitivity to the light, Headache. In case of
corneal abrasion, seek prompt medical attention. Left untreated, it
could become infected and result in a corneal ulcer.
Immediate steps you
can take for a corneal abrasion are to:
Rinse your eye with clean
water or a saline solution. You can use an eyecup or a small, clean
drinking glass positioned with its rim resting on the bone at the base
of your eye socket. If you have quick access to a work site eye-rinse
station, use it. Rinsing the eye may wash out a foreign object. Blink
several times. This may remove small particles. Pull the upper eyelid
over the lower eyelid. This may cause your eye to tear, which may help
wash out the particle. Or it may cause the lashes of your lower eyelid
to brush away an object from under your upper eyelid.
Use the following
pointers to avoid making the injury worse:
Don't try to remove an
object that is embedded in your eyeball or makes it difficult to close
your eye. Don't rub your eye after an injury. Don't touch your
eyeball with cotton swabs, tweezers or other instruments. If you use
contact lenses, don't wear them while your eye is healing. Most corneal
abrasions heal in a day or two.
: A black eye is caused by bleeding
under the skin around the eye. Most injuries that cause a black eye
aren't serious. But a black eye may indicate a more serious injury,
such as an internal injury to the eye or a fracture of the thin bones
around the eye. You may have a skull fracture if you have double vision,
bruising around both eyes (raccoon eyes) or bleeding from the nose.
To take care of a black eye:
Apply a cold compress soon after the
injury. Using gentle pressure, place a cold pack or a cloth filled
with ice to the area around your eye. Take care not to press on the
eye itself. Apply cold as soon as possible after the injury to reduce
swelling. Repeat several times a day for a day or two. Look for blood.
If you see it in the white or colored parts of the eye, seek urgent
care by an eye specialist (ophthalmologist). Seek medical care
immediately if you have vision problems (double vision, blurring),
severe pain, bruising around both eyes, or bleeding in an eye or from
the nose. Apply warm-hot compresses. This may be helpful after a few
days when the swelling has stabilized. Repeat several times a day for
a day or two.
: Ask them to rest and
apply something cold to the injury (e.g. frozen vegetables wrapped in
a tea towel).Applying something cold to the injury will reduce
external swelling and pain. In addition to external swelling, when a
person suffers a blow to the head, the brain can be shaken inside the
skull. This may result in a more serious head injury (e.g.
), which may make them feel sick or drowsy.
: If a
foreign object becomes lodged in your nose: Don't probe at the
object with a cotton swab or other tool. Don't try to inhale the object
by forcefully breathing in. Instead, breathe through your mouth until the
object is removed. Blow out of your nose gently to try to free the
object, but don't blow hard or repeatedly. If only one nostril is
affected, close the opposite nostril by applying gentle pressure and then
blow out gently through the affected nostril. Gently remove the object
if it's visible and you can easily grasp it with tweezers. Don't try to
remove an object that isn't visible or easily grasped. Call for
emergency medical assistance or go to your local emergency room if these
methods fail.Nose Bleed
patient, tip head back and squeeze nostrils firmly together for 10
minutes. Apply ice packs to back of neck. Cold compresses to nose may
Object in the Ear: A foreign object in the
can cause pain and
hearing loss. Usually you know if an object is stuck in your ear, but
small children may not be aware of it. If an object becomes lodged in
the ear, follow these steps: Don't probe the ear with a tool. Don't
attempt to remove the foreign object by probing with a cotton swab,
matchstick or any other tool. To do so risks pushing the object
farther into the ear and damaging the fragile structures of the middle
ear. Remove the object if possible. If the object is clearly visible,
pliable and can be grasped easily with tweezers, gently remove it.
Try using gravity. Tilt the head to the affected side to try to dislodge
the object. Try using oil for an insect. If the foreign object is
an insect, tilt the person's head so that the ear with the offending
insect is upward. Try to float the insect out by pouring mineral oil,
olive oil or baby oil into the ear. The oil should be warm but not
hot. As you pour the oil, you can ease the entry of the oil by
straightening the ear canal. Pull the earlobe gently backward and
upward for an adult, backward and downward for a child. The insect should
suffocate and float out in the oil bath. Don't use oil to remove any
object other than an insect. Don't use this method for a child if ear
tubes are in place or if you think the eardrum may be perforated.
Signs of this are pain, bleeding or discharge from the ear. Try
washing the object out. Use a bulb ear syringe and warm water to irrigate
the object out of the canal, again provided no ear tubes are in place
and you don't suspect the eardrum is perforated. If these methods
fail or the person continues to experience pain in the ear, reduced
hearing or a sensation of something lodged in the ear, seek medical
are caused by a blockage of
the blood supply
. Part of the brain becomes damaged, and
this can affect people’s appearance, bodily functions, speech and
sight. Think F.A.S.T.
Face: is there weakness on one side of their
face? Arms: can they raise both arms? Speech: is their speech easily
understood? Time: to call 999. Cover person with light blanket. Turn to
side if vomiting. Give no stimulants, food or drink. Call Ambulance 911.
Some people who might be more susceptible to strokes might have a medical
alert device that can alert the appropriate authorities when it detects a
medical issue. There are many medical alert devices on the market, but
Advocate has several reviews
that can help narrow the choices down
is caused by a blockage of the
, and the pain will not ease with
rest. The person may have persistent, vice-like chest pain
, which may
spread to their arms, neck, jaw, back or stomach. A heart attack occurs when an artery that supplies oxygen
to your heart muscle becomes blocked. A heart attack may cause chest
pain that lasts 15 minutes or longer, or it can also be silent and
produce no signs or symptoms. Many people who experience a heart attack
have warning signs hours, days or weeks in advance. The earliest
warning sign of an attack may be ongoing episodes of chest pain that
start when you're physically active and are relieved by rest. Someone
having a heart attack may experience none, any or all of the following:
Uncomfortable pressure, fullness or squeezing pain in the center of the
chest lasting more than a few minutes. Pain spreading to the
shoulders, neck, jaw or arms. Lightheadedness, fainting, sweating,
nausea or shortness of breath. If you or someone else may be having a
Call 911 or emergency medical assistance
. Don't tough out
the symptoms of a heart attack for more than five minutes. If you
don't have access to emergency medical services, have a neighbor or
friend drive you to the nearest hospital. Drive yourself only as a
last resort, and realize that driving yourself puts you and others at
risk if your condition suddenly worsens. Chew a regular-strength
aspirin. Aspirin reduces blood clotting, which can help blood flow
through a narrowed artery that's caused a heart attack. However, don't
take aspirin if you are allergic to aspirin, have bleeding problems or
take another blood-thinning medication, or if your doctor previously
told you not to do so. Take nitroglycerin, if prescribed. If you
think you're having a heart attack and your doctor has previously
prescribed nitroglycerin for you, take it as directed. Don't take
anyone else's nitroglycerin. Begin CPR on the person having a heart
attack, if directed. If the person suspected of having a heart attack
is unconscious, a 911 dispatcher or another emergency medical
specialist may advise you to begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation
(CPR). If you haven't received CPR training, doctors recommend
skipping mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing and performing only chest
compressions (about 100 a minute). The dispatcher can instruct you in
the proper procedures until help arrives. If an automated external
defibrillator (AED) is available and the person's unconscious, begin
CPR while the device is retrieved and set up. Attach the device and
follow instructions that will be provided by the AED after it has
evaluated the person's condition.
Injectable gel helps heart muscle regenerate after heart attack
is a genetically inherited condition that is
characterized by abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and an
increased risk of sudden cardiac death.
is a sudden stop in effective blood flow due to the
failure of the heart to contract effectively. Symptoms include loss of
consciousness and abnormal or absent breathing. Some people may have chest
pain, shortness of breath, or nausea before this occurs. If not treated
within minutes, death usually occurs.
is the process of recording the electrical
activity of the heart
over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin. These
electrodes detect the tiny electrical changes on the skin that arise from
the heart muscle's electrophysiologic pattern of depolarizing and
repolarizing during each heartbeat. It is a very commonly performed cardiology test.
is a medical procedure by which an abnormally fast heart
rate (tachycardia) or other cardiac arrhythmia is converted to a normal
rhythm using electricity or drugs. Synchronized electrical cardioversion
uses a therapeutic dose of electric current to the heart at a specific
moment in the cardiac cycle, restoring the activity of the electrical
conduction system of the heart. (Defibrillation uses a therapeutic dose of
electric current to the heart at a random moment in the cardiac cycle, and
is the most effective resuscitation measure for cardiac arrest associated
with ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia.
Pharmacologic cardioversion, also called chemical cardioversion, uses
antiarrhythmia medication instead of an electrical shock.
is a portable electronic device that
automatically diagnoses the
life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias
ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient, and is
able to treat them through defibrillation, the application of electrical
therapy which stops the arrhythmia, allowing the heart to reestablish an
effective rhythm. With simple audio and visual commands, AEDs are designed
to be simple to use for the layperson, and the use of AEDs is taught in
many first aid, certified first responder, and basic life support (BLS)
level Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
is a treatment for life-threatening cardiac
dysrhythmias, specifically ventricular fibrillation (VF) and non-perfusing
ventricular tachycardia (VT). A defibrillator delivers a dose of electric
current (often called a countershock) to the heart. Although not fully
understood, this would depolarize a large amount of the heart muscle,
ending the dysrhythmia. Subsequently, the body's natural pacemaker in the
sinoatrial node of the heart is able to re-establish normal sinus rhythm.
Heart-Muscle Patches made with Human Cells improve Heart Attack Recovery
: Causes of chest pain can vary from minor problems, such as indigestion or
stress, to serious medical emergencies, such as a heart attack or
pulmonary embolism. The specific cause of chest pain can be difficult
to interpret. Finding the cause of your chest pain can be challenging,
especially if you've never had prior symptoms. Even doctors may have a
difficult time deciding if chest pain is a sign of a heart attack or
something less serious, such as indigestion. If you have
unexplained chest pain lasting more than a few minutes, it is better
to seek emergency medical assistance than to try and diagnose the cause
yourself. As with other sudden, unexplained pains, chest pain may be a
signal for you to get medical help. Use the following information to
help determine whether your chest pain is a medical emergency.
: Angina is chest pain or
discomfort caused by reduced blood flow to your heart muscle.
Typically the term "angina" is used when you've already been given the
diagnosis of heart disease related to atherosclerosis. Angina may be
stable or unstable: Stable angina — persistent, recurring chest
pain that usually occurs with exertion and is relatively predictable.
Unstable angina — sudden, new chest pain, or a change in the pattern of
previously stable angina, that may signal an impending heart attack.
Angina is relatively common, but can be hard to distinguish from other
types of chest pain, such as the pain or discomfort of indigestion.
If you are having angina with any of the following signs and symptoms, it
may indicate a more serious condition, such as a heart attack: Pain
in your arms, neck, jaw, shoulder or back accompanying chest pain.
Nausea. Fatigue. Shortness of breath. Anxiety. Sweating.
Dizziness. The severity, duration and type of angina can vary. If you
have new or changing chest pain, these new or different symptoms may
signal a more dangerous form of angina (unstable angina) or a heart
attack. If your angina gets worse or changes, seek medical attention
: Pulmonary embolism occurs when a
clot — usually from the veins of your leg or pelvis — lodges in a
pulmonary artery of your lung. The lung tissue served by the artery
doesn't get enough blood flow, causing tissue death. This makes it more
difficult for your lungs to provide oxygen to the rest of your body.
Signs and symptoms of pulmonary embolism may include
: Sudden, sharp
chest pain often accompanied by shortness of breath. Sudden, unexplained
shortness of breath, even without pain. Cough that may produce
blood-streaked sputum. Rapid heartbeat associated with shortness of
. Severe anxiety. Unexplained sweating. Pulmonary
embolism can be life-threatening. As with a suspected heart attack,
call 911 or emergency medical assistance immediately.
: An aortic dissection is a serious condition in which a tear
develops in the inner layer of the aorta, the large blood vessel
branching off the heart. Blood surges through this tear into the
middle layer of the aorta, causing the inner and middle layers to
separate (dissect). If the blood-filled channel ruptures through the
outside aortic wall, aortic dissection is usually fatal.
and Symptoms include
: Sudden severe chest or upper back pain, often
described as a tearing, ripping or shearing sensation, that radiates
to the neck or down the back. Loss of consciousness (fainting).
Shortness of breath. Sudden difficulty speaking, loss of vision,
weakness, or paralysis of one side of your body, such as having a
stroke. Sweating. Weak pulse in one arm compared with the other.
If you are experiencing any of these signs or symptoms, they could be
caused by an aortic dissection or some other serious condition. Seek
emergency medical assistance immediately.
: Frequent signs and symptoms of pneumonia are chest pain
accompanied by chills, fever and a cough that may produce bloody or
foul-smelling sputum. When pneumonia occurs with an inflammation of
the membranes that surround the lung (pleura), you may have
considerable chest discomfort when taking a breath or coughing. This
condition is called
. One sign of pleurisy is that the pain
is usually relieved temporarily by holding your breath or putting
pressure on the painful area of your chest. This isn't usually true of
a heart attack. If you've recently been diagnosed with pneumonia and
then start having symptoms of pleurisy, contact your doctor or seek
immediate medical attention to determine the cause of your chest pain.
Pleurisy alone isn't a medical emergency, but you shouldn't try to
make the diagnosis yourself. Chest wall Pain
: One of the most
common varieties of harmless chest pain is chest wall pain. One kind
of chest wall pain is costochondritis. It causes pain and tenderness in
and around the cartilage that connects your ribs to your breastbone
pressing on a few points along the
edge of your sternum often results in considerable tenderness in those
small areas. If the pressure of a finger causes similar chest pain,
it's unlikely that a serious condition, such as a heart attack, is the
cause of your chest pain.Other causes of Chest
Strained chest muscles from overuse or excessive
muscle bruising from minor injury. Short-term, sudden anxiety with rapid
breathing. Peptic ulcer disease. Pain from the
as esophageal reflux, peptic ulcer pain or gallbladder pain that may
feel similar to heart attack symptoms.
of the pericardium
(the fibrous sac surrounding the heart). Symptoms typically include sudden
onset of sharp chest pain. The pain may also be felt in the shoulders,
neck, or back. It is typically better sitting up and worse with lying down
or breathing deep. Other symptoms may include fever, weakness,
palpitations, and shortness of breath. Occasionally onset of
Reviving cells after a heart attack
. Researchers have unraveled
potential mechanisms behind the healing power of extracellular vesicles
and demonstrated their capacity to not only revive cells after a heart
attack but keep cells functioning while deprived of oxygen during a heart
attack. The researchers demonstrated this functionality in human tissue
using a heart-on-a-chip with embedded sensors that continuously tracked
the contractions of the tissue. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) -- nanometer
sized messengers that travel between cells to deliver cues and cargo.
Stomach - Belly - Abdominal Pain
is inflammation of the appendix. Symptoms commonly include right lower
abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and decreased appetite. However,
approximately 40% of people do not have these typical symptoms. Severe
complications of a ruptured appendix include widespread, painful
inflammation of the inner lining of the
is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
Common causes of pain in the abdomen include
irritable bowel syndrome
. About 10% of
people have a more serious underlying condition such as
, leaking or ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm,
. In a third of cases the exact cause
is unclear. Given that a variety of diseases can cause some form of
abdominal pain, a systematic approach to
of a person and the
formulation of a differential diagnosis remains important.
is the abnormal
exit of tissue or an organ, such as the bowel, through the wall of the
cavity in which it normally resides. Hernias come in a number of different
is a protrusion of abdominal-cavity contents through the
is a type of hernia in which abdominal organs (typically
the stomach) slip through the diaphragm into the middle compartment of the
chest. If you have a hiatal hernia, part of your stomach comes up through
your diaphragm in the hiatal opening. Hiatal hernias are caused by
weakened muscle tissues, which can be a result of an especially large
hiatus (muscle space), injury, or persistent pressure on surrounding
is a nerve that originates in the neck (C3-C5) and
passes down between the lung and heart to reach the diaphragm. It is
important for breathing, as it passes motor information to the diaphragm
and receives sensory information from it. There are two phrenic nerves, a
left and a right one. The phrenic nerve originates mainly from the 4th
cervical nerve, but also receives contributions from the 5th and 3rd
cervical nerves (C3-C5) in humans. Thus, the phrenic nerve receives
innervation from parts of both the cervical plexus and the brachial plexus
of nerves. The phrenic nerves contain motor, sensory, and sympathetic
nerve fibers. These nerves provide the only motor supply to the diaphragm
as well as sensation to the central tendon. In the thorax, each phrenic
nerve supplies the mediastinal pleura and pericardium. The phrenic nerve
controls the muscle of the diaphragm. It sends signals to your brain,
which allows you to breathe without thinking. If your phrenic nerve
becomes irritated or damaged, you may lose the ability to take automatic
is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that
extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity. The
separates the thoracic cavity, containing the heart and
lungs, from the abdominal cavity and performs an important function in
respiration: as the diaphragm contracts, the volume of the thoracic cavity
increases and air is drawn into the lungs. Your diaphragm can become
temporarily paralyzed if you’ve “had the wind knocked out of you” from a
direct hit to your abdomen. Right after the hit, you may have difficulty
breathing, as your diaphragm might struggle to fully expand and contract.
Other symptoms of temporary paralysis include: hiccups, tightness in the
chest, pain in the chest, pain in the stomach.
is a rare condition that can be misdiagnosed as a
spasm. A diaphragm flutter can also be caused by phrenic nerve irritation.
Other symptoms associated with diaphragm flutter include: chest tightness,
difficulty breathing, a feeling of pulses in the abdominal wall.
, or cramping
in the ribcage,
sometimes occur when you first begin exercise training or when that
training becomes more intense. For some people, drinking juice or eating
right before a workout can increase the possibility of side stiches. To
help Raise the arm corresponding to the side of the pain and place that
hand on the back of your head. Hold it for 30 to 60 seconds to allow knots
to loosen. You can even continue exercising while holding the stretch.
Choking - Can't Breathe - Not Breathing
Swallowing of Foreign Bodies
Dangerous when in air passages
Violently choking and coughing. Bluish facial discoloration. Breathing may
stop. If Victim cannot dislodge object. Administer
procedure. Hit on back
and hold children upside down. Choking occurs when a foreign object
becomes lodged in the throat or windpipe,
blocking the flow of air
adults, a piece of food often is the culprit. Young children often
swallow small objects. Because choking cuts off oxygen to the brain,
administer first aid as quickly as possible. The universal sign for
choking is hands clutched to the throat. If the person doesn't give
the signal, look for these indications:
Inability to talk. Difficulty
or noisy breathing. Inability to cough forcefully. Skin,
lips and nails turning blue or dusky. Loss of consciousness.
choking is occurring
, the Red Cross recommends a "five-and-five
to delivering first aid: Give 5 back blows. First, deliver
between the person's shoulder blades with the heel of your
hand. Give 5 abdominal thrusts. Perform five abdominal thrusts (also
known as the Heimlich maneuver
). Alternate between 5 blows and 5
thrusts until the blockage is dislodged. The American Heart Association
doesn't teach the back blow technique, only the abdominal thrust
procedures. It's OK not to use back blows, if you haven't learned the
technique. Both approaches are acceptable.
To perform abdominal thrusts
) on someone else
Stand behind the person. Wrap your
arms around the waist. Tip the person forward slightly. Make a fist
with one hand. Position it slightly above the person's navel. Grasp the
fist with the other hand. Press hard into the abdomen with a quick,
upward thrust — as if trying to lift the person up. Perform a total of
5 abdominal thrusts, if needed. If the blockage still isn't dislodged,
repeat the five-and-five cycle. If you're the only rescuer, perform
back blows and abdominal thrusts before calling 911 or your local
emergency number for help. If another person is available, have that
person call for help while you perform first aid. If the person becomes
unconscious, perform standard CPR with chest compressions and rescue
breaths. A modified version of the technique is sometimes taught for use
with pregnant or obese people. The rescuer places his or her hand in the
center of the chest to compress, rather than in the abdomen.
: First, if you're alone and choking, call 911 or your local emergency
number immediately. Then, although you'll be unable to effectively
deliver back blows to yourself, you can still perform abdominal
thrusts to dislodge the item. Place a fist slightly above your navel.
Grasp your fist with the other hand and bend over a hard surface — a
countertop or chair will do. Shove your fist inward and upward.
To clear the airway of a pregnant woman or obese person
: Position your
hands a little bit higher than with a normal
, at the
base of the breastbone, just above the joining of the lowest ribs.
Proceed as with the Heimlich maneuver, pressing hard into the chest, with
a quick thrust. Repeat until the food or other blockage is
dislodged or the person becomes unconscious.
To clear the
airway of an unconscious person
: Lower the person on his or her back
onto the floor. Clear the airway. If a blockage is visible at the back
of the throat or high in the throat, reach a finger into the mouth and
sweep out the cause of the blockage. Be careful not to push the food
or object deeper into the airway, which can happen easily in young
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
if the object
remains lodged and the person doesn't respond after you take the above
measures. The chest compressions used in CPR may dislodge the object.
Remember to recheck the mouth periodically.
To clear the airway of
a choking infant younger than age 1
: Assume a seated position and hold
the infant facedown on your forearm, which is resting on your thigh.
Thump the infant gently but firmly five times on the middle of the back
using the heel of your hand. The combination of gravity and the back
blows should release the blocking object. Hold the infant faceup on
your forearm with the head lower than the trunk if the above doesn't
work. Using two fingers placed at the center of the infant's
breastbone, give five quick chest compressions. Repeat the back blows
and chest thrusts if breathing doesn't resume. Call for emergency
medical help. Begin infant CPR if one of these techniques opens the
airway but the infant doesn't resume breathing. If the child is
older than age 1, give abdominal thrusts only. To prepare yourself for
these situations, learn the Heimlich maneuver and CPR in a certified
first-aid training course.Swallowed a Foreign Object
: If you swallow a foreign object, it will usually pass through your
digestive system uneventfully. But some objects can lodge in your
esophagus, the tube that connects your throat and stomach. If an
object is stuck in your esophagus, you may need to have it removed,
especially if it is: A pointed object, which should be removed as
quickly as possible to avoid further injury to the esophageal lining.
A tiny watch- or calculator-type button battery, which can rapidly cause
nearby tissue injury and should be removed from the esophagus without
delay, If a person who has swallowed an object is coughing forcefully,
encourage him or her to continue coughing and do not interfere. If a
swallowed object blocks the airway and the person's condition worsens
— the cough becomes silent or breathing becomes more difficult — the
American Red Cross recommends the five-and-five approach to first aid:
Give 5 back blows. First, deliver five back blows between the person's
shoulder blades with the heel of your hand. Give 5 abdominal
thrusts. Perform five
(also known as the Heimlich
maneuver). Abdominal thrusts may injure infants
. Use chest compressions instead. Alternate between 5 back blows and 5 abdominal thrusts
until the blockage is dislodged. If you're the only rescuer,
perform back blows and abdominal thrusts before calling 911 or your
local emergency number for help. If another person is available, have
that person call for help while you perform first aid. If the person
becomes unconscious, help him or her to the ground and begin CPR.
After attempted rescue breaths, check the mouth for an object and if
visible remove it. Do not perform a blind finger sweep because this
could push an object farther into the airway. The American Heart
Association does not teach the back-blow technique, only the abdominal
thrust procedures. It's OK not to use back blows if you have not
learned the back-blow technique. Both approaches are acceptable.
: If you or your child inhales a foreign object, see
your doctor. If an inhaled foreign object causes choking, the American
Red Cross recommends the "five-and-five" approach to delivering first
Give 5 back blows. First, deliver five back blows between the
choking person's shoulder blades with the heel of your hand. Give 5
abdominal thrusts. Perform five abdominal thrusts (also known as the
Heimlich maneuver). Alternate between 5 blows and 5 thrusts until the
blockage is dislodged. If you're the only rescuer, perform back blows
and abdominal thrusts before calling 911 or your local emergency
number for help. If another person is available, have that person call
for help while you perform first aid. The American Heart Association
does not teach the back-blow technique, only the abdominal thrust
procedures. It's OK not to use back blows if you have not learned the
back-blow technique. Both approaches are acceptable.
Unresponsive and Breathing
: Check breathing by tilting their
head backwards and looking and feeling for breaths. When a person is
unresponsive their muscles relax and their tongue can block their
airway so they can no longer breathe. Tilting their head back opens
the airway by pulling the tongue forward. Looking at their chest to see if
it’s moving, and feeling for breaths on your cheek, will help you tell
if they’re breathing or not. Find out what to do if they are not
is a disease of
infants and young children
; harsh coughing and hoarseness and fever and
CPR - Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation
Unresponsive and Not Breathing
: Chest compressions help blood
continue pumping around the body. This keeps vital
organs, including the brain, alive. Many people call this CPR, which
stands for Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation
(image) - Infant CPR
or very young children.
First Aid & CPR Certification
CPR Training Schools
SafeNow CPR Infant CPR
CPR Ed Course
Training for first
Wilderness Medicine School
Wilderness First Responder
Outdoor Safety Courses
Redcross The Heimlich Maneuver
- Heart Attack
Emergency Services - Emergency Personal
or Emergency Medical Technician
, is a
Health Care Provider
medical services. EMTs are clinicians, trained to respond quickly to
regarding medical issues, traumatic injuries and
accident scenes. Under the British system and those that are influenced by
it, they are referred to as ambulance technicians (often shortened to
techs), while in the American system and its influenced countries, they
are referred to as emergency medical technicians.
Duty of Care
- Search and Rescue
is a healthcare professional
, predominantly in the
pre-hospital and out-of-hospital environment, and working mainly as part
of emergency medical services (EMS), such as on an ambulance. The scope of
practice of a paramedic will vary between countries, but generally
includes autonomous decision making around the emergency care of patients
In some countries 'Paramedic' is a protected title and accountable to a
professional regulatory body.
is a person with specialized training
who is among the first to arrive and
provide assistance at the scene of an emergency, such as an accident,
, or terrorist attack. First responders typically include
paramedics, emergency medical technicians, police officers, firefighters,
rescuers, and other trained members of organizations connected with this
type of work. A certified first responder is one who has received
certification to provide pre-hospital care in a certain jurisdiction, for
example, the Certified First Responder in France. A community first
responder is a person dispatched to attend medical emergencies until an
ambulance arrives. A wilderness first responder is trained to provide
pre-hospital care in remote settings and will therefore have skills in ad
hoc patient packaging and transport by non-motorized means.
is a vehicle for
of sick or injured people
to, from or between places of treatment for an illness or injury, and in
some instances will also provide out of hospital medical care to the
patient. The word is often associated with road going emergency ambulances
which form part of an emergency medical service, administering emergency
care to those with acute medical problems.
is a comprehensive term covering the use of
, airplane or
helicopter, to move patients to and from healthcare facilities and
accident scenes. Personnel provide comprehensive prehospital and emergency
and critical care to all types of patients during aeromedical evacuation
or rescue operations aboard helicopter and propeller aircraft or jet
aircraft. Hypersonic Aircraft
is a level of medical care which is used for victims of
life-threatening illnesses or injuries until they can be given full
medical care at a hospital. It can be provided by trained medical
personnel, including emergency
medical technicians, paramedics, and by
qualified bystanders. (BLS)
Advanced Cardiac Life Support
(ACLS) refers to a set of clinical interventions for the urgent treatment
of cardiac arrest, stroke and other life-threatening medical
, as well as the knowledge and
skills to deploy those interventions. Outside North America, Advanced Life
Support is used.
Pediatric Advanced Life Support
or PALS, is a 2-day (with an additional
self study day) American Heart Association training program. The goal of
the course is to aid the pediatric healthcare provider in developing the
knowledge and skills necessary to efficiently and effectively manage
critically ill infants and children, resulting in improved outcomes.
Professional healthcare providers use PALS during the stabilization and
transportation phases of a pediatric emergency, in or out of hospital.
Mobile Army Surgical Hospital
or MASH, refers to a United States Army
medical unit serving as a fully functional hospital in a combat area of
are military personnel who have been trained to at least
an EMT level (16 week course in the U.S. Army), and are responsible for
providing first aid and frontline trauma care on the battlefield. They are
also responsible for providing continuing medical care in the absence of a
readily available physician, including care for disease and battle
injuries. Combat medics are normally co-located with the combat troops
they serve in order to easily move with the troops and monitor ongoing
is the process of determining the priority of
' treatments based
on the severity of their condition. This rations patient treatment
efficiently when resources are insufficient for all to be treated
immediately. Those who are likely to live, regardless of what care they
receive; Those who are unlikely to live, regardless of what care they
receive; Those for whom immediate care might make a positive difference in
Emergency Medical Services
are a type of emergency service
dedicated to providing out-of-hospital acute medical care, transport
to definitive care, and other medical transport to patients with
illnesses and injuries which prevent the patient from transporting
are organizations which ensure public safety
and health by addressing different emergencies
Some of these agencies exist solely for addressing certain types of
emergencies whilst others deal with ad hoc emergencies as part of their
normal responsibilities. Many of these agencies engage in community
awareness and prevention programs to help the public avoid, detect, and
report emergencies effectively. The availability of emergency services
depends very heavily on location, and may in some cases also rely on the
recipient giving payment or holding suitable insurance or other surety for
receiving the service.
is an acute injury or illness that poses an
immediate risk to a person's life or long-term health, sometimes referred
to as a situation risking "life or limb". These emergencies may require
assistance from another person, who should ideally be suitably qualified
to do so, although some of these emergencies such as cardiovascular
(heart), respiratory, and gastrointestinal cannot be dealt with by the
victim themselves. Dependent on the severity of the emergency, and the
quality of any treatment given, it may require the involvement of multiple
levels of care, from first aiders through emergency medical technicians,
paramedics, emergency physicians and anesthesiologists. Any response to an
emergency medical situation will depend strongly on the situation, the
patient involved, and availability of resources to help them. It will also
vary depending on whether the emergency occurs whilst in hospital under
medical care, or outside medical care (for instance, in the street or
alone at home).
Intensive Care Unit
cater to patients with severe or life-threatening
illnesses and injuries, which
require constant care
close supervision from life support equipment and medication in order to
ensure normal bodily functions. They are staffed by highly trained
physicians, nurses and respiratory therapists who specialize in caring for
critically ill patients. ICUs
distinguished from general hospital wards by a higher staff-to-patient
ratio and to access to advanced medical resources and equipment that is
not routinely available elsewhere. Common conditions that are treated
within ICUs include acute (or adult) respiratory distress syndrome,
hypertension, metastases and other life-threatening conditions. Patients
may be referred directly from an emergency department or from a ward if
they rapidly deteriorate, or immediately after surgery if the surgery is
very invasive and the patient is at high risk of complications,
is an Emergency Medical Services (EMS) certification unique to
: Unconsciopus, pale or blue skin.
CPR and mouth to mouth resuscitation. Be extremely careful when moving
victims head or neck.
The environment is
cold. The person may be shivering, pale and
cold to touch
. They may
also be disorientated. Many instances of hypothermia occur inside when
there is cold weather and a lack of heating. Warm the person, giving
constant reassurance until help arrives. You can warm them by wrapping
them in a blanket and giving warm drinks and high-energy foods, such
as chocolate. Breathing
Seizures - Epilepsy
: Do not restrain them but use a blanket or clothing to
protect their head from injury. Let the seizure run its normal course.
After the seizure, help the person to rest on their side with their
head tilted back.Convulsions
: Strong jerking movements, stiff
body, difficulty breathing, bluish face, eyes rolled back, gritting of
teeth, frothy mouth. Loosen clothing and cover body.
: Help the person sit in a comfortable position and take their medication.
When someone has an asthma attack, the muscles in the airways narrow,
making it difficult for them to breathe. Using an inhaler relaxes the
muscles, allowing the air passages to expand and ease the person’s
breathing. A mild attack should ease within a few minutes. If it
doesn’t, or the inhaler has no effect, call 999.
: clammy skin,
, shallow breathing, sweating,
temporary unconsciousness. Place in Supine position with legs higher
than body. Loosen clothing. Apply cold cloths to face. Fainting
occurs when the blood supply to your brain is momentarily inadequate,
causing you to lose consciousness. This loss of consciousness is usually
brief. Fainting can have no medical significance, or the cause can be a
serious disorder. Therefore, treat loss of consciousness as a medical
emergency until the signs and symptoms are relieved and the cause is
known. Discuss recurrent fainting spells with your doctor.
Lie down or sit down. To reduce the chance of fainting
again, don't get up too quickly. Place your head between your knees
if you sit down. If someone else faints Position the person on his
or her back. If the person is breathing, restore blood flow to the
brain by raising the person's legs above heart level — about 12 inches
(30 centimeters) — if possible. Loosen belts, collars or other
constrictive clothing. To reduce the chance of fainting again, don't get
the person up too quickly. If the person doesn't regain consciousness
within one minute, call 911 or your local emergency number. Check
the person's airway to be sure it's clear. Watch for vomiting. Check
for signs of circulation (breathing, coughing or movement). If absent,
begin CPR. Call 911 or your local emergency number. Continue CPR until
help arrives or the person responds and begins to breathe. If the
person was injured in a fall associated with a faint, treat any bumps,
bruises or cuts appropriately. Control bleeding with direct pressure.
High Temperature. pale and clammy skin, or
hot and flushed skin. headache and weakness. Possible nausea. Apply
cold cloths to skin. Give balanced salt solution. Call doctor if
person is Confused.
: Give them something sweet
to eat or a non-diet drink. In diabetic
emergencies, blood sugar levels
can become too low; this can cause people to collapse. Giving them
something sugary will help raise their blood sugar levels and improve
their bodily function. Avoid giving them a diet drink, as it won’t
have any sugar in it and will not help them.
: Show you are
and calmly ask them how
you can help You must try to establish trust by showing them respect.
Be considerate of what is going on around them and what they need.
Remember that they may have difficulty letting you know what they need.
For example, they may not speak English very well or be able to hear
: Pale and weak. Clammy skin. Perspiration on upper
lip or forehead. Pulse rate and breathing rate high. Lay down and raise
feet higher then body. Give no fluid if unconscious. Abdominal pain
: The person may have
, a headache and a high temperature. The person may also
complain of a stiff neck and be sensitive to light. At a later stage a
rash may form (that does not disappear when a glass is pressed against
it). Other symptoms include cold hands and feet, joint pain, drowsiness
and vomiting. A person with meningitis can have one or more symptoms,
and some symptoms occur later on as the infection develops. Do not
wait for all the symptoms to appear. A person with meningitis can
deteriorate very quickly. It is potentially very serious and needs
immediate attention. If they have a fever, you can use cold drinks to
cool the person.
Cool the Burn under cold
running water for at least ten minutes
. Cooling the burn will reduce
pain, swelling and the risk of scarring. The faster and longer a burn
is cooled, the less the impact of the injury. After the burn has been
cooled, cover it with cling film or a clean plastic bag. This helps
prevent infection by keeping the area clean. It’s an ideal covering
because it doesn’t stick to the burn and reduces pain by keeping air from
the skin’s surface. The burn may need urgent medical treatment. If
you’re in any doubt, seek medical advice and always call 999 if a
child has been burned.Minor Burns
: Cool the burn to help
soothe the pain. Hold the burned area under cool (not cold) running
water for 10 to 15 minutes or until the pain eases. Or apply a clean
towel dampened with cool tap water. Remove rings or other tight items
from the burned area. Try to do this quickly and gently, before the
area swells. Don't break small blisters (no bigger than your little
fingernail). If blisters break, gently clean the area with mild soap
and water, apply an antibiotic ointment, and cover it with a nonstick
gauze bandage. Apply moisturizer or aloe vera lotion or gel, which may
provide relief in some cases. If needed, take an over-the-counter
pain reliever, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), naproxen
sodium (Aleve) or acetaminophen (Tylenol, others). Consider a tetanus
shot. Make sure that your tetanus booster is up to date. Doctors
recommend people get a tetanus shot at least every 10 years. See your
doctor if you develop large blisters. Large blisters are best removed,
as they rarely will remain intact on their own. Also seek medical help if
the burn covers a large area of the body or if you notice signs of
infection, such as oozing from the wound and increased pain, redness
and swelling.Major Burns
: Call 911 or emergency medical help
for major burns. Until an emergency unit arrives, take these actions:
Protect the burned person from further harm. If you can do so safely, make
sure the person you're helping is not in contact with smoldering
materials or exposed to smoke or heat. But don't remove burned
clothing stuck to the skin. Check for signs of circulation. Look for
breathing, coughing or movement. Begin CPR if needed. Remove
jewelry, belts and other restrictive items, especially from around burned
areas and the neck. Burned areas swell rapidly. Don't immerse large
severe burns in cold water. Doing so could cause a serious loss of
body heat (hypothermia) or a drop in blood pressure and decreased blood
flow (shock). Elevate the burned area. Raise the wound above heart
level, if possible. Cover the area of the burn. Use a cool, moist,
bandage or a clean cloth. Is it a minor burn or a major burn? If
it's not clear what level of care is needed, try to judge the extent of
tissue damage, based on the following burn categories:
: A first-degree burn is the least serious type,
involving only the outer layer of skin. It may cause: Redness,
Swelling, Pain. You can usually treat a first-degree burn as a minor
burn. If it involves much of the hands, feet, face, groin, buttocks or
a major joint, seek emergency medical attention.
: A second-degree burn is more serious. It may cause: Red, white
or splotchy skin, Swelling, Pain, Blisters. If the second-degree burn is
no larger than 3 inches (7.6 centimeters) in diameter, treat it as a
minor burn. If the burned area is larger or covers the hands, feet,
face, groin, buttocks or a major joint, treat it as a major burn and
get medical help immediately.3rd-Degree Burns
: The most serious
burns involve all layers of the skin and underlying fat. Muscle and
even bone may be affected. Burned areas may be charred black or white. The
person may experience: Difficulty breathing, Carbon monoxide
poisoning, Other toxic effects, if smoke inhalation also occurred.First Aid Tips : How to
Treat Second and Third-Degree Burns
: Chemical burns can be caused by many substances,
such as strong acids, drain cleaners (lye), paint thinner and
gasoline. Usually, you are aware of the burn and its cause. But
sometimes you may not immediately recognize a burn caused by a milder
chemical. As with some sunburns, the pain and redness may develop hours
after the exposure. If you have an immediately recognized chemical
burn. Remove the chemical causing the burn while protecting yourself.
For dry chemicals, brush off any remaining material. Wear gloves or
use a towel or other suitable object, such as a brush. Remove
contaminated clothing or jewelry to prevent further burning. Rinse the
burn immediately. Run a gentle, steady stream of cool tap water over
the burn for 10 or more minutes. A shower may be an effective way to do
this. Always protect your eyes. Loosely apply a bandage or gauze.
If needed, take an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as ibuprofen
(Advil, Motrin IB, others), naproxen sodium (Aleve) or acetaminophen
(Tylenol, others). Consider a tetanus shot. Make sure that your tetanus
booster is up to date. Doctors recommend people get a tetanus shot at
least every 10 years. If you have a possible chemical burn Make sure
that any contaminated clothing or jewelry is no longer in contact with
your skin. Rinse the burn if you think some of the chemical is still on
your skin. Loosely apply a bandage or gauze. If needed, take an
over-the-counter pain reliever, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB,
others), naproxen sodium (Aleve) or acetaminophen (Tylenol, others).
Consider a tetanus shot. Make sure that your tetanus booster is up to
date. When to seek emergency care:
TThe person shows signs of
shock, such as fainting, pale complexion or very shallow breathing.
The chemical burn penetrated through the first layer of skin and the burn
covers an area more than 3 inches (about 8 centimeters) in diameter.
The chemical burn encircles a limb or involves the eyes, hands, feet,
face, groin or buttocks, or a major joint. If you're unsure whether
a substance is toxic, call Poison Help at 800-222-1222 in the United
States. If you seek emergency medical help, take the chemical
container or the name of the chemical with you to the emergency
: Electrical burns may be caused
by a number of sources of electricity
, such as lightning, stun guns
and contact with household current. You may treat minor electrical
burns as you would other minor burns. When to contact your doctor. A
person who has been injured by contact with electricity should be seen by
a doctor. Sometimes an electrical injury can cause damage to internal
tissues, usually in an arm or a leg. The damage may be worse than one
would expect from the burn on the skin. Caution:
Don't touch the
injured person if he or she is still in contact with the electrical
current. Call 911 or your local emergency number if the source of the
burn is a high-voltage wire or lightning. Don't get near high-voltage
wires until the power is turned off. Overhead power lines usually
aren't insulated. Stay at least 20 feet (about 6 meters) away —
farther if wires are jumping and sparking. Don't move a person with an
electrical injury unless the person is in immediate danger.
seek emergency care:
Call 911 or your local emergency number if the
injured person experiences: Severe burns, Confusion, Difficulty breathing,
Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias), Cardiac arrest, Muscle pain and
contractions, Seizures, Loss of consciousness.
these actions immediately while waiting for medical help:
Turn off the
source of electricity if possible. If not, move the source away from
both you and the injured person using a dry, nonconducting object made of cardboard, plastic or wood. Begin CPR if the person shows no signs
of circulation, such as breathing, coughing or movement. Try to
prevent the injured person from becoming chilled. Apply a bandage.
Cover any burned areas with a sterile gauze bandage, if available, or
a clean cloth. Don't use a blanket or towel, because loose fibers can
stick to the burnsElectrical Shock
: The danger from an
shock depends on the type of current, how high the voltage
is, how the current traveled through the body, the person's overall
health and how quickly the person is treated. An electrical shock may
cause burns, or it may leave no visible mark on the skin. In either
case, an electrical current passing through the body can cause internal
damage, cardiac arrest
or other injury. Under certain circumstances,
even a small amount of electricity can be fatal. A person who has been injured by contact with electricity
should be seen by a doctor. Caution:
Don't touch the injured
person if he or she is still in contact with the electrical current. Call 911 or your local emergency number if the source of the burn is a
high-voltage wire or lightning
. Don't get near high-voltage wires until
the power is turned off. Overhead power lines usually aren't
insulated. Stay at least 20 feet (about 6 meters) away — farther if
wires are jumping and sparking. Don't move a person with an electrical
injury unless he or she is in immediate danger. When to seek
Call 911 or your local emergency number if the injured
person experiences: Severe burns, Confusion, Difficulty breathing,
Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) Cardiac arrest, Muscle pain and
contractions, Seizures, Loss of consciousness. Take these actions
immediately while waiting for medical help:
Turn off the source of
electricity, if possible. If not, move the source away from you and
the person, using a dry, nonconducting object made of cardboard,
plastic or wood. Begin CPR if the person shows no signs of circulation,
such as breathing, coughing or movement. Try to prevent the injured
person from becoming chilled. Apply a bandage. Cover any burned areas
with a sterile gauze bandage, if available, or a clean cloth. Don't
use a blanket or towel, because loose fibers can stick to the burns.
: Redness. Mild swelling and pain. Possible
blisters. Apply cold cream or cold towels. Fever, chills and sickness
may accompany a severe burn and your Doctor should be called.
person from Sun
. Take a cool bath or shower, which may be soothing.
Or apply a clean towel dampened with cool tap water. Apply
moisturizer, aloe vera lotion or gel, or low-dose hydrocortisone cream, which may provide relief in some cases. Don't break small blisters
(no bigger than your little fingernail). If blisters break, gently
clean the area with mild soap and water, apply an antibiotic ointment,
and cover it with a nonstick gauze bandage.
: If a
blister isn't too painful, try to keep it intact. Unbroken skin over a
blister may provide a natural barrier to bacteria and decreases the risk
of infection. Cover it with an adhesive bandage. If you're allergic to
the adhesive used in some tape, use paper tape. Seek medical care
if the blister is painful or prevents you from walking or using one of
your hands. Consider taking the following self-care measures if medical
help is not available.
How to drain a blister:
blister-related pain, drain the fluid while leaving the overlying skin
intact. Here's how: Wash your hands and the blister with soap and warm
water. Swab the blister with iodine. Sterilize a clean, sharp needle
by wiping it with rubbing alcohol. Use the needle to puncture the
blister. Aim for several spots near the blister's edge. Let the fluid
drain, but leave the overlying skin in place. Apply an ointment
(Vaseline, Plastibase, other) to the blister and cover it with a
nonstick gauze bandage. If a rash appears, stop using the ointment.
Change the dressing every day. Apply more ointment and a bandage.
To prevent friction blisters on your feet, wear
shoes that fit well. It also helps to use moisture-wicking socks. Try
the various socks, shoes and insoles that are designed specifically to
help reduce blistering. You might also try attaching moleskin to the
inside of your shoe where it might rub or dusting the inside of your
socks with talcum powder. Gloves help prevent blisters on your hands.
is a small
pocket of body fluid (lymph, serum, plasma, blood, or pus) within the
upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction),
burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection. Most blisters are
filled with a clear fluid, either serum or plasma. However, blisters can
be filled with blood (known as "blood blisters") or with pus (for
instance, if they become infected).
is a type of graft
of skin. The transplanted tissue is called a skin graft. Skin grafting is
often used to treat: Extensive wounding or trauma, Burns, Areas of
extensive skin loss due to infection such as necrotizing fasciitis or
purpura fulminans, Specific surgeries that may require skin grafts for
healing to occur - most commonly removal of skin cancers.