Human Energy

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Humans are Energy Producing Machines. Harvesting Energy from Humans, but not like the Matrix.

Exercise Gyms should have exercise equipment that when used generates electricity. Every Home should have an exercise machine that generates electricity and stores that electrical energy in Batteries to run appliances. People can also educate themselves at the same time if they have monitors in front of them that provides free education and tutoring. You can also provide information and knowledge about exercising and nutrition and even connect them with a personal trainer. This way you can have another good reason to exercise, with one being that you're learning something new each time. Multitasking at its finest. And if you also let them see how much energy they produce this will also be another great incentive. Humans are the most effective, natural and renewable energy resource on the planet, we can also be repurposed. And with that many options and benefits, not even oil can compete with humans. We simply can produce more without all those negative side effects. Beat that big oil, or coal, or natural gas, or nuclear. The sun is our only true contender.

Energy Monitoring (tools)

Energy Harvesting is the process by which energy is derived from external sources (e.g., solar power, thermal energy, wind energy, salinity gradients, and kinetic energy, also known as ambient energy), captured, and stored for small, wireless autonomous devices, like those used in wearable electronics and wireless sensor networks.

Human Power is work or energy that is produced from the human body. It can also refer to the power (rate of work per time) of a human. Power comes primarily from muscles, but body heat is also used to do work like warming shelters, food, or other humans. Power to the People.

Researchers visualize bacteria motor in first step toward human-produced electrical energy. Humans, one day, may be able to produce their own electrical energy in the same way electric eels do. A rotational motor dubbed V1 that functions as part of a pump that moves sodium ions across the membrane as a part of healthy cellular processes. Energy conversion efficiency of rotary molecular motor is much higher than that of human-made motors.

Harvesting energy from the human knee. An energy harvester is attached to the wearer's knee and can generate 1.6 microwatts of power while the wearer walks without any increase in effort. The energy is enough to power small electronics like health monitoring equipment and GPS devices. The prototype weighs only 307 grams (0.68 pounds) and was tested on human subjects walking at speeds from 2 to 6.5 kilometers per hour (about 1 to 4 miles per hour). The researchers compared the wearers' breathing patterns with and without the device and determined that the energy required to walk was unchanged, meaning that the device is generating power at no cost to the human. Self-powered wearable devices can enable users to get rid of the inconvenient daily charge.

"Why would a human exercise if they're not going to produce any energy? If a human does some physical work, they should produce something, like energy. If you work out just to look good and feel good, then you're wasting the potential energy that you have created during your exercise, and you're doing it just to feel good about yourself and stroke your own ego. Use your good looks and good health for some benefit that can be used to perform some needed work. It's a bad investment when you use food and water only to do some physical work that produces almost nothing. Why have strength and endurance if you never use it to do something beneficial? You should at least learn something valuable during your exercise."

Exercise motions or Elliptical Trainers that could drive a generator and produce electricity, like Bicycle Dynamos. There is also Piezoelectric and Kinetic Energy that can be tapped for energy. Static Electricity can be in excess of 10,000 volts, but because of a low amperage it's harmless! And the person who is exercising and generating energy gets energy credits that can be used towards their energy bill. Not a bad incentive for a strong and healthy body.

Soccket - Challengers 101

Exercise machines can also be made to do other work like turn a mill, a mixer, a clothes washer, a sander or sharpener. They can also run equipment like grinders and water pumps

Maya Pedal - Pedal-Powered Machines (Bicimaquinas)

Monolift Playground Water Pumps

Roundabout Play Pump uses the energy of children at play to operate a water pump.

Perpetual Motion designs can help create the perfect Human Generator Machine that requires little effort.

Workout while you work, or Workout while you Learn and Educate Yourself - Treadmill Desk - Trek Desk - Sit or Stand Table - Posture - Floor Stand for all Best Tablet PCs - Alt Work computer chair with 4 positions. Prolonged Sitting Dangers - HOVR - Unconsciously Burn More Calories at Work.

Two great ideas, but these Human actions don't produce energy, Why? Russian government offers free metro tickets in Moscow in exchange for 30 up-downs in under two minutes (youtube) - 30 Squats (youtube).

Health Stations give free rides to passengers who perform 10 squats.

Can a Human generate 0.7 horsepower? Kinetic energy (limb motion), strain energy (muscle force), and thermal energy (body heat) are three main forms of energy that can be harvested from the human body.

Eliptical Exercise Machine Stand or SitElliptical Trainer is a stationary exercise machine used to simulate stair climbing, walking, or running without causing excessive pressure to the joints, hence decreasing the risk of impact injuries. For this reason, people with some injuries can use an elliptical to stay fit, as the low impact affects them little. Elliptical trainers offer a non-impact cardiovascular workout that can vary from light to high intensity based on the speed of the exercise and the resistance preference set by the user. The one on right can exercise standing or sit down recumbent style.

Stationary Bicycle is also known as exercise bicycle, exercise bike, spinning bike, spinbike, or exercycle, which is a device with saddle, pedals, and some form of handlebars arranged as on a bicycle, but used as exercise equipment rather than transportation. A stationary bicycle is usually a special-purpose exercise machine resembling a bicycle without true wheels, but it is also possible to adapt an ordinary bicycle for stationary exercise by placing it on bicycle rollers or a trainer. Rollers and trainers are often used by racing cyclists to warm up before racing, or to train on their own machines indoors.

We could even use Multiple Stationary Bikes or Elliptical Machines to Drive One Big Generator
, a group effort.

One Hour on an Exercise Bike produces One Days worth of Electricity.

During the Pandemic in 2020, bicycle shops were deemed essential businesses that could stay open, according to tracking by the League of American Bicyclists. Bike sales in March were up by 50% over last year, according to the market research firm the NPD Group. Including stationary exercise bikes, sales grew by 31% in the first quarter of the year over the same time last year. Many bike products have since been granted exclusions to tariffs, but the exclusions are set to expire in August and September.

Bike-Powered Charger - Bike Powered Generator

Rerev - Retrofitting Gym Equipment to make alternative energy in a safe, fun, carbon-neutral and healthy manner. The kinetic motion of aerobic exercise is captured in an efficient and cost effective way to convert otherwise wasted energy into productive renewable energy that feeds back into the building’s electrical system.

Bike Generator (instructables)
Bicycle Generator Power Pulley Dynamo (amazon)
Bicycle with Car Alternator 1 Crank = 40 Rotations (youtube)
Bicycle Generator Stand

Pedal Power Bicycle Generator with Power
Convertor and Battery (amazon)

Batteries (types) - Solar Power (sun energy)

Power Inverter is an electronic device or circuitry that changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC).

Biking Knowledge (bicycle lovers)

Make your own no welding pedal stand

Why do you need a Blocking Diode?

Limits: The world's smartest Cycling Power Meter.

Human Powered 2 Person Ferris Wheel (youtube)
Man-Powered Ferris Wheel (youtube)

The Human-Powered, Giant Theme Park Playground: Ai Pioppi in Italy (youtube) - Can also be converted to produce energy.

Fractional Horsepower Motor - Cow Mill

Swing Set that Generates Electricity (video) - Moradavaga

The Green Micro Gym - Zip Around Town In Style And Make Electricity At Home. Recharge Power Pack - Video.

Generators - Alternators

Alternator is an Electrical Generator that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current. For reasons of cost and simplicity, most alternators use a rotating Magnetic Field with a stationary armature. Occasionally, a linear alternator or a rotating armature with a stationary magnetic field is used. In principle, any AC electrical generator can be called an alternator, but usually the term refers to small rotating machines driven by automotive and other internal combustion engines. An alternator that uses a permanent magnet for its magnetic field is called a Magneto, which is an electrical generator that uses permanent magnets to produce periodic pulses of alternating current. Alternators in power stations driven by steam turbines are called turbo-alternators. Large 50 or 60 Hz three phase alternators in power plants generate most of the world's electric power, which is distributed by electric power grids. What's better an Alternator or a Generator? - Elliptical?

Engines (motors)

Micro Generation is the small-scale generation of heat and electric power by individuals, small businesses and communities to meet their own needs, as alternatives or supplements to traditional centralized grid-connected power.

Nano-Generators of Energy (thermoelectric)

Kinetic Energy creates Electricity by just walking.

Electrowetting is the modification of the wetting properties of a surface (which is typically hydrophobic) with an applied electric field.

Npower Peg Personal Energy Generator
440 Watt Regulated Pedal Power Bicycle Generator
Yogen Store

Think Biologic Dynamo bicycle hubs generate power while you ride so you can keep your light lit or your devices charged, also smartphone mounts for your bicycle.

SunRaiden Solar Inverter Charger - Kickstarter
Kalisaya Portable Solar Generator
Portable Solar Panels

Paralleled or Series?

Bridge Rectifier is used for converting an alternating current (AC) input into a direct current (DC) output.

Diode Bridge is an arrangement of four (or more) diodes in a bridge circuit configuration that provides the same polarity of output for either polarity of input.

DIY Pedal Generator for Electric Bike or Trike (youtube)

Bicycle Generator (youtube) - Generator to Alternator Conversion (youtube) - Answers Yahoo


Transmission refers to a gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. (power transmission system).

Gear Train are gear teeth designed to ensure the pitch circles of engaging gears roll on each other without slipping, providing a smooth transmission of rotation from one gear to the next.

Epicyclic Gearing consists of two gears mounted so that the center of one gear revolves around the center of the other. A carrier connects the centers of the two gears and rotates to carry one gear, called the planet gear, around the other, called the sun gear. The planet and sun gears mesh so that their pitch circles roll without slip. A point on the pitch circle of the planet gear traces an epicycloid curve. In this simplified case, the sun gear is fixed and the planetary gear(s) roll around the sun gear.

Extreme Reduction - 11 Million to one Gearing (youtube)
Automatic Bicycle Transmission (IVT) (youtube) Ratching technology Infinitely Variable Transmission.
The D-Drive Infinitely Variable Geared Transmission (youtube)
NuVinci Bicycle CVT (youtube)
Evolutionary new bicycle transmission (youtube)
15 speed Cambiogear Bicycle Transmission (youtube)
New invention magnetic transmission system (youtube)

More Energy Sources

Without Electricity, you wouldn't be reading this page right now. And it's not because your computer wouldn't work. It's because your Brain wouldn't work.

Human Energy Fields

Aura is a field of subtle, luminous radiation surrounding a person or object like the halo or aureola.

Human Energy Field is a field of energy which surrounds and penetrates the body. The aura underlies and supports the functioning of the body. HEF.

Human body creates around 100 watts of heat energy when at rest. The energy requirement of an average man is 2,500 Calories per day, and one Calorie is 4184J. Therefore he emits about 10.5MJ/day or about 120W.

Human Magnetic Field - Physics

Spirit (soul) - Life Force

Etheric Body is the first or lowest layer in the "human energy field" or aura. It is said to be in immediate contact with the physical body, to sustain it and connect it with "higher" bodies.

Energy Meridian is a path through which the life-energy known as "qi" flows. Acupuncture - Acupressure.

Life Force, Energy (esotericism) or Qi is the flow of energy that sustains living beings.

Chakra is thought to be an energy point or node in the subtle body.

Prana is the Sanskrit word for "life force" or vital principle.

Orgone describes an esoteric energy or hypothetical universal life force.

Orgonite is a mixture of catalyzed fiberglass resin with metal shavings, particles or powders, poured into molds.

Extra Sensory Perception - Meditation Hertz - Wireless Energy

Bio-Magnetism is the phenomenon of magnetic fields produced by living organisms.

Bio-Electro-Magnetics (navigation)

L-Field is the name for the electromagnetic field of any organism.

Electrophysiology is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. It involves measurements of voltage change or electric current on a wide variety of scales from single ion channel proteins to whole organs like the heart. In neuroscience, it includes measurements of the electrical activity of neurons, and particularly action potential activity. Recordings of large-scale electric signals from the nervous system, such as electroencephalography, may also be referred to as electrophysiological recordings. They are useful for electrodiagnosis and monitoring.

Magnetometer measures the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or to measure the strength and, in some cases, the direction of the magnetic field at a point in space.

Kirlian Photography is a collection of photographic techniques used to capture the phenomenon of electrical coronal discharges. electrography", "electrophotography", "corona discharge photography" (CDP), "bioelectrography", "gas discharge visualization (GDV)","electrophotonic imaging (EPI)", and, in Russian literature, "Kirlianography".

Do humans pulsate from 0.3 to 30 Hz (Cycles Per Second, Hertz) with most of the activity in the range of 7-8 Hz ? Is it the same frequency range as brain waves? Cells.

In our nervous system does each nerve and muscle work by electrical conduction? CNS.

Can those tiny points of positive and negative electricity be measured by very sensitive electric instruments like EEG and EKG machines?

Does the human body generate between 10 and 100 Millivolts? - Electricity.

Does the average adult have enough energy stored in fat as a one-ton battery?

Endocochlear Potential is the positive voltage of 80-100mV seen in the cochlear endolymphatic spaces.Within the cochlea the EP varies in the magnitude all along its length. When a sound is presented, the endocochlear potential changes either positive or negative in the endolymph, depending on the stimulus. The change in the potential is called the summating potential.

Electromagnetics (EMP)

Do our cells have more negative potassium ions inside the cell and less positive sodium ions outside the cell? Our bodies are huge masses of atoms, so does this mean that we can generate electricity? Everything is made up of atoms, and atoms are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons have a positive charge, neutrons have a neutral charge, and electrons have a negative charge. When these charges are out of balance, an atom becomes either positively or negatively charged. The switch between one type of charge and the other allows electrons to flow from one atom to another. This flow of electrons, or a negative charge, is what we call electricity.

Luminescence - Chemical Energy

Biophoton are photons of light in the ultraviolet and low visible light range that are produced by a biological system. They are non-thermal in origin, and the emission of biophotons is technically a type of bioluminescence, though bioluminescence is generally reserved for higher luminance luciferin/luciferase systems. The term biophoton used in this narrow sense should not be confused with the broader field of biophotonics, which studies the general interaction of light with biological systems.

Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism. It is a form of chemiluminescence. Bioluminescence occurs widely in marine vertebrates and invertebrates, as well as in some fungi, microorganisms including some bioluminescent bacteria and terrestrial invertebrates such as fireflies. In some animals, the light is produced by symbiotic organisms such as Vibrio bacteria. Chemical Energy from Food - Waste Energy.

Electroluminescence is an optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon in which a material emits light in response to the passage of an electric current or to a strong electric field. This is distinct from black body light emission resulting from heat (incandescence), from a chemical reaction (chemiluminescence), sound (sonoluminescence), or other mechanical action (mechanoluminescence).

Aether - States of Matter - Lightning - Fire

Electroluminescent Paint and Multi-Channel Control Circuit (youtube).

Electrophysiology is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. It involves measurements of voltage changes or electric current or manipulations on a wide variety of scales from single ion channel proteins to whole organs like the heart. In neuroscience, it includes measurements of the electrical activity of neurons, and, in particular, action potential activity. Recordings of large-scale electric signals from the nervous system, such as electroencephalography, may also be referred to as electrophysiological recordings. They are useful for electrodiagnosis and monitoring.

Chemiluminescence is the emission of light (luminescence), as the result of a chemical reaction.

Luminescence is emission of light by a substance not resulting from heat; it is thus a form of cold-body radiation. It can be caused by chemical reactions, electrical energy, subatomic motions, or stress on a crystal.

Sonoluminescence is the emission of short bursts of light from imploding bubbles in a liquid when excited by sound.

Piezo-Luminescence is a form of luminescence created by pressure upon certain solids. This phenomenon is characterized by recombination processes involving electrons, holes and impurity ion centres. Some piezoelectric crystals give off a certain amount of piezoluminescence when under pressure, as in handheld cigarette lighters when the button is pressed.[citation needed] Irradiated salts, such as NaCl, KCl, KBr and polycrystalline chips of LiF (TLD-100), have been found to exhibit piezoluminescent properties. It has also been discovered that ferroelectric polymers exhibit piezoluminescence upon the application of stress. Piezo-Electric (kinetic)

Piezochromism describes the tendency of certain materials to change color with the application of pressure. This effect is particularly pronounced in plastics.

Dinoflagellate are Protists which are any eukaryotic organism that is not an animal, plant or fungus. The protists do not form a natural group, or clade, but are often grouped together for convenience, like algae or invertebrates. Dinoflagellata's are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata. Most are marine plankton, but they are common in freshwater habitats, as well. Their populations are distributed depending on temperature, salinity, or depth. Many dinoflagellates are known to be photosynthetic, but a large fraction of these are in fact mixotrophic, combining photosynthesis with ingestion of prey (phagotrophy). In terms of number of species, dinoflagellates form one of the largest groups of marine eukaryotes, although this group is substantially smaller than the diatoms. Some species are endosymbionts of marine animals and play an important part in the biology of coral reefs. Other dinoflagellates are unpigmented predators on other protozoa, and a few forms are parasitic (see for example Oodinium, Pfiesteria). Some dinoflagellates produce resting stages, called dinoflagellate cysts or dinocysts, as part of their lifecycles. Dinoflagellates are considered to be protists, with their own division, Dinoflagellata. About 1,555 species of free-living marine dinoflagellates are currently described. Another estimate suggests about 2,000 living species, of which more than 1,700 are marine (free-living, as well as benthic) and about 220 are from fresh water. The latest estimates suggest a total of 2,294 living dinoflagellate species, which includes marine, freshwater and parasitic dinoflagellates. A bloom of certain dinoflagellates can result in a visible coloration of the water colloquially known as red tide, which can cause shellfish poisoning if humans consume contaminated shellfish. Some dinoflagellates also exhibit bioluminescence—primarily emitting blue-green light.

Photosynthesis (solar power) - Electricity in Nature

Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence. Unlike fluorescence, phosphorescent material does not immediately re-emit the radiation it absorbs. The slower time scales of the re-emission are associated with "forbidden" energy state transitions in quantum mechanics. As these transitions occur very slowly in certain materials, absorbed radiation is re-emitted at a lower intensity for up to several hours after the original excitation. Everyday examples of phosphorescent materials are the Glow-in-the-Dark Toys, stickers, paint, and clock dials that glow after being charged with a bright light such as in any normal reading or room light that makes electrons go into a higher state of energy then the slowly go back to ground state. Typically, the glow slowly fades out, sometimes within a few minutes or up to a few hours in a dark room. The study of phosphorescent materials led to the discovery of radioactivity in 1896.

Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation. It is a form of luminescence. LED'S.

Photoluminescence is light emission from any form of matter after the absorption of photons (electromagnetic radiation). It is one of many forms of luminescence (light emission) and is initiated by photoexcitation (i.e. photons that excite electrons to a higher energy level in an atom), hence the prefix photo-. Following excitation various relaxation processes typically occur in which other photons are re-radiated. Time periods between absorption and emission may vary: ranging from short femtosecond-regime for emission involving free-carrier plasma in inorganic semiconductors up to milliseconds for Phosphorescence processes in molecular systems; and under special circumstances delay of emission may even span to minutes or hours. Observation of photoluminescence at a certain energy can be viewed as an indication that an electron populated an excited state associated with this transition energy. While this is generally true in atoms and similar systems, correlations and other more complex phenomena also act as sources for photoluminescence in many-body systems such as semiconductors. A theoretical approach to handle this is given by the semiconductor luminescence equations. Quantum Physics.

Luminosity Function describes the average spectral sensitivity of human visual perception of brightness. It is based on subjective judgements of which of a pair of different-colored lights is brighter, to describe relative sensitivity to light of different wavelengths. It should not be considered perfectly accurate in every case, but it is a very good representation of visual sensitivity of the human eye and it is valuable as a baseline for experimental purposes.

Inverted Fluorescence. Discovery of chromophores that emit light in the ultraviolet region when excited with visible light
Fluorescence usually entails the conversion of light at shorter wavelengths to light at longer wavelengths. Scientists have now discovered a chromophore system that goes the other way around. When excited by visible light, the fluorescent dyes emit light in the ultraviolet region. According to the study, such light upconversion systems could boost the light-dependent reactions for which efficiency is important, such as solar-powered water splitting.

Fusion (energy)

Glow in the Dark Roads and Sidewalks - Solar Powered Glow-in-the-Dark Sidewalks (youtube) - Cement

Luminescent wood could light up homes of the future. Researchers have developed a bio-based, luminescent, water-resistant wood film that could someday be used as cover panels for lamps, displays and laser devices.

Researchers light the way for organic glow-in-the-dark materials. Organic materials could soon be utilized for glow-in-the-dark products, which has the potential to diversify and expand the already US$400 million industry, thanks to new research.

Chemists get peek at novel fluorescence. Chemists find a second level of fluorescence in single-walled carbon nanotubes. The phenomenon may be useful in solar energy and optoelectronic applications. The reaction begins when light excites a solution containing a dye called rose bengal. Oxygen molecules dissolved in the solution capture energy from the dye, forming an energized form of O2. These then transfer their energy to nanotubes, where excitons -- quasiparticles made of electrons and electron holes -- are generated in their triplet state. With a bit of added thermal energy, those excitons get promoted to a higher energy singlet state that emits the observed fluorescence.

Light Therapy

Luminophore is a chemical compound that has luminescent properties.

Fluorophore is a fluorescent chemical compound that can re-emit light upon light excitation. contain several combined aromatic groups, or planar or cyclic molecules with several pi bonds.

Phosphor is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.

Siphonophorae is an order of Hydrozoans, a class of marine organisms belonging to the phylum Cnidaria. According to the World Register of Marine Species, the order contains 175 species. Although a siphonophore may appear to be an individual organism, each specimen is in fact a colonial organism composed of medusoid and polypoid zooids that are morphologically and functionally specialized. Zooids are multicellular units that develop from a single fertilized egg and combine to create functional colonies able to reproduce, digest, float, maintain body positioning, and use jet propulsion to move. Most colonies are long, thin, transparent floaters living in the pelagic zone. Like other hydrozoans, some siphonophores emit light to attract and attack prey. While many sea animals produce blue and green bioluminescence, the siphonophore was only the second life form found to produce a red light (the first one being the scaleless dragonfish Chirostomias pliopterus).

Firefly or Lampyridae, are a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera, with more than 2,000 described species, many of which are light-emitting. They are soft-bodied beetles commonly called fireflies, glowworms, or lightning bugs for their conspicuous production of light, mainly during twilight, to attract mates. Light production in the Lampyridae originated as an honest warning signal that the larvae were distasteful; this was co-opted in evolution as a mating signal in the adults. In a further development, female fireflies of the genus Photuris mimic the flash pattern of Photinus species to trap their males as prey. Light production in fireflies is due to the chemical process of bioluminescence. This occurs in specialized light-emitting organs, usually on a female firefly's lower abdomen. The enzyme luciferase acts on the luciferin, in the presence of magnesium ions, ATP, and oxygen to produce light. Oxygen is supplied via an abdominal trachea or breathing tube. Gene coding for these substances has been inserted into many different organisms. Firefly luciferase is used in forensics, and the enzyme has medical uses – in particular, for detecting the presence of ATP or magnesium. Fireflies produce a "cold light", with no infrared or ultraviolet frequencies. The light may be yellow, green, or pale red, with wavelengths from 510 to 670 nanometers. Some species such as the dimly glowing "blue ghost" of the Eastern US may seem to emit blueish-white light from a distance and in low light conditions, but their glow is bright green when observed up close. Their perceived blue tint may be due to the Purkinje effect.

Luciferin is a generic term for the light-emitting compound found in organisms that generate bioluminescence. Luciferins typically undergo an enzyme-catalysed oxidation and the resulting excited state intermediate emits light upon decaying to its ground state. This may refer to molecules that are substrates for both luciferases and photoproteins, which are a type of enzyme, made of protein, from bioluminescent organisms. They add to the function of the luciferins whose usual light-producing reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme luciferase.

Firefly luminescence reveals pesticides. Luciferin synthesis and organophosphate detection by a luminescent enzymatic cascade. A luminescence reaction modeled on fireflies can detect contamination with organophosphates with high sensitivity, ease, and low cost. At the center of this technology is a new enzymatic method for the synthesis of analogues of luciferin, the substance that makes fireflies glow. As reported by a team of researchers, it could also be used in the field. A luminescence reaction modeled on fireflies can detect contamination with organophosphates with high sensitivity, ease, and low cost. At the center of this technology is a new enzymatic method for the synthesis of analogues of luciferin, the substance that makes fireflies glow. As reported by a team of researchers in the journal Angewandte Chemie, it could also be used in the field.

The Moon Europa Glows in the Dark. Scientists know the shine from Europa is caused by energetic electrons penetrating the surface, energizing the molecules underneath. When those molecules relax, they release energy as visible light. Europa's icy crust gives it an albedo — light reflectivity.

Europa is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet of all the 95 known moons of Jupiter. It is also the sixth-largest moon in the Solar System. Slightly smaller than Earth's Moon, Europa is primarily made of silicate rock and has a water-ice crust and probably an iron–nickel core. It has a very thin atmosphere, composed primarily of oxygen. Its white-beige surface is striated by light tan cracks and streaks, but craters are relatively few. Europa has the smoothest surface of any known solid object in the Solar System. The apparent youth and smoothness of the surface have led to the hypothesis that a water ocean exists beneath the surface, which could conceivably harbor extraterrestrial life.

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