Obesity - Over Eating - Diabetes - Weight Loss


"Eat to Live, Don't Live to Eat."  "Let Food Be Your Medicine and Medicine Be Your Food."

Previous SubjectNext Subject

obesity dangers Childhood Obesity now affects 1 in every 3 children in the U.S.. Scientific studies have shown that 80 percent of these obese children will grow up to be obese adults with serious health consequences which will lead to more heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure at a younger age. One study shows that the average three year old is failing to develop properly because of their inactive couch potato lifestyles. About 17 percent of boys and 16 percent of girls now in the United States, more than 9 million total, are overweight. 26 million people in America have diabetes, 79 million have pre-diabetes and 7 million don't even know that they already have the disease. Another study showed that the easiest way of increasing physical activity may be as simple as providing more active play time and providing relatively inexpensive toys, like balls, jump ropes, bikes and spending time at local playing fields. So encouraging children to run, bike, swim and other fun activities, while teaching them healthy habits such as regular exercise and selecting proper food choices, will not only benefit them, but future generations to come as well for they will certainly pass on this very important information too them. The risk of obesity doubled among students who skipped breakfast or ate breakfast inconsistently. Eat Breakfast Like a King, Lunch Like a Prince, and Dinner Like a Pauper, or eat your biggest meal early in the day, or eat one meal a day. Over Eating reduces Lifespan and promotes Diseases. "I'm on a See-Food Diet, when a See Food I eat it. Sometimes I feel like I live in the Garden of Eatin, which makes me want to potty all the time, potty all the time, potty all the time".

Fats - Carbs - Sugar - Salt - Inflammation - Metabolism - Moderation

Some 11 Million Deaths annually are Linked to Diet-Related Diseases like diabetes and heart diseases. That's 1 in 5 deaths.

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess Body Fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their Body Mass Index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 30 kg/m2, with the range 25–30 kg/m2 defined as overweight. Some East Asian countries use lower values. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. School Lunches.

African-Americans are 1.5 times as likely to be obese as white people, and they eat fewer vegetables than other racial groups. Soul Fire Farm is committed to ending racism and injustice in our food system.

High availability of fast-food restaurants across all US neighborhood types linked to higher rates of type 2 diabetes.

Overweight is having more Body Fat than is optimally healthy. Being overweight is common especially where food supplies are plentiful and lifestyles are sedentary. Excess weight has reached epidemic proportions globally, with more than 1 billion adults being either overweight or obese in 2003. In 2013 this increased to more than 2 billion. Increases have been observed across all age groups. A healthy body requires a minimum amount of fat for proper functioning of the hormonal, reproductive, and immune systems, as thermal insulation, as shock absorption for sensitive areas, and as energy for future use. But the accumulation of too much storage Fat can impair movement, flexibility, and alter appearance of the body. Inflammation.

Childhood Obesity Is Rising 'Shockingly Fast' — Even In Poor Countries. 200 million children under age 5, or 1 in 3 worldwide, are either undernourished or overweight. at least 340 million adolescents worldwide between ages 5-19, and 40 million children under age 5, have been classified as overweight. The most profound increase has been in the 5-19 age group, where the global rate of overweight increased from 10.3% in 2000 to 18.4% in 2018.

High Levels of Overweight and Obesity along with Under-Nutrition or Malnutrition.

Realizing that you're fat or over weight is not always apparent because it happens so gradual. It's only when you lose weight that you start to feel the differences. It's a change for the better in many ways.

"It's all right letting yourself go, as long as you can get yourself back." Mick Jagger

Fatest People on Earth Two Billion People Now Overweight and the U.S. is one of the Fattest Nations on Earth.

Someone has a Heart Attack every 24 seconds in America.

Sedentary Lifestyle - Metabolism - Sugar - Fats - Salt - Cholesterol - Carbohydrates - Over Eating - Inflammation

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is stealthily showing up in the livers of millions of Americans. Marked by the accumulation of an unhealthy amount of fat and scar tissue in the liver, NASH is quietly reaching epidemic proportions across the globe. Up to 80% of obese people have the disease. (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis).

Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity. The American Heart Association says 78 million adults and 13 million kids (or 28.5 percent of the country’s population) are obese as of 2016, an epidemic that spells some $190 billion per year in weight-related medical bills.

Obesity Rates have skyrocketed since the 1980's. The countries with the fastest obesity growth rates are the United States, Australia and England. The United States is the fattest nation among 33 countries with advanced economies with two-thirds of people in America are overweight or obese and about a third of adults, more than 72 million, are obese, which is roughly 30 pounds over a healthy weight. Obesity is a growing threat to public health because Obesity causes illnesses, reduces life expectancy, increases health care costs, increases the risk of heart disease, diabetes and several types of cancer and other diseases. Obesity cost the U.S. an estimated $147 billion in weight-related medical bills in 2008, according to a study by scientists. 

Obesity Maps

More than one-third (34.9% or 78.6 million) of U.S. adults are obese. (CDC)

Obesity Among Older Adults (PDF)

Processed Food - Meats

The estimated annual medical cost of obesity in the U.S. was $147 billion in 2008. (Fat Storm).

29 million people, 9 percent of the U.S. population, have diabetes.

Warning: Some Health Organizations receive money from the same corporations that are doing all the damage. So information is skewed at the expense of the consumer. Contradictions (Conflict of Interest).

Commodity Check-Off Program collects funds through a checkoff mechanism, sometimes called checkoff dollars, from producers of a particular agricultural commodity and uses these funds to promote and do research on that particular commodity. The organizations must promote their commodity in a generic way, without reference to a particular producer.

Most of the Fat you Lose is Breathed out as Carbon Dioxide. Losing 10 kilograms of Fat requires 29 kilograms of oxygen to be inhaled and that this metabolic process produces 28 kilograms of carbon dioxide and 11 kilograms of water. Exercise.

Intensive Lifestyle Intervention for Obesity consists of a reduced-calorie diet, increased physical activity, and behavior therapy. Principles, Practices, and Results. Treatment to lower blood sugar, reduce BP, and decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are powerfully effective in reducing the incidence of these devastating complications.

14 Genes that influence obesity and the three genes that help prevent obesity. Obesity is driven in large part by high-calorie diets laden with sugar and high-fructose corn syrup. Increasingly sedentary lifestyles play a big part as well. But our genes play an important role too, regulating fat storage and affecting how well our bodies burn food as fuel. So if we can identify the genes that convert excessive food into fat, we could seek to inactivate them with drugs and uncouple excessive eating from obesity.

Prader-Willi Syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a loss of function of specific genes on chromosome 15. In newborns, symptoms include weak muscles, poor feeding, and slow development. Beginning in childhood, those affected become constantly hungry, which often leads to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Mild to moderate intellectual impairment and behavioral problems are also typical of the disorder. Often, affected individuals have a narrow forehead, small hands and feet, short height, light skin and hair. Most are unable to have children.

Diabesity is used to refer to a form of diabetes which typically develops in later life and is associated with being obese.

Scientists discover 14 genes that cause obesity. Findings could decouple overeating from harmful health effects. Blocking the action of certain genes can help prevent obesity, which could also lead to people living longer and having better neuro-locomotory function. Anti-obesity therapies are urgently needed to reduce the burden of obesity in patients and the healthcare system. The best way to treat obesity is to eat a healthy, reduced-calorie diet and exercise regularly. To do this you should: eat a balanced, calorie-controlled diet as recommended by your GP or weight loss management health professional (such as a dietitian) join a local weight loss group.

Endocrinologist can diagnose and treat hormone problems and the complications that arise from them. Hormones regulate metabolism, respiration, growth, reproduction, sensory perception, and movement. Hormone imbalances are the underlying reason for a wide range of medical conditions. Endocrinology is the study of medicine that relates to the endocrine system, which is the system that controls hormones. Endocrinologists are specially trained physicians who diagnose diseases related to the glands. Endocrinologist treats patients with diabetes have too much sugar in their blood. Thyroid Disease. Patients with thyroid disease often have problems with their energy levels. Bone Disease. Obesity. Pituitary Gland. Hypertension. Lipid Disorders.



Over Weight People can have Lower Cognitive Abilities


Over weight people have a tendency to suffer more with depression and can also have a lower IQ.

Hippocampal lesions impair retention of discriminative responding based on energy state cues.

Central Adiposity Is Negatively Associated with Hippocampal-Dependent Relational Memory among Overweight and Obese Children.

Higher body mass index is associated with episodic memory deficits in young adults - ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Scientists detect gray matter changes in brains of teenagers with type 2 diabetes.

Not Enough Healthy Food also Impairs Cognitive Abilities.

Genetic brain disorder fixed in mice using precision epigenome editing. Using a targeted gene epigenome editing approach in the developing mouse brain, researchers reversed one gene mutation that leads to the genetic disorder WAGR syndrome, which causes intellectual disability and obesity in people. This specific editing was unique in that it changed the epigenome -- how the genes are regulated -- without changing the actual genetic code of the gene being regulated.

Alzheimer Disease - Diabetes

Not Enough Exercise Lowers Cognitive Abilities

Unhealthy Foods (processed food)

Obesity dulls the sense of taste. Obese mice had about 25 percent fewer taste buds than lean mice in study.

MRI reveals brain damage in obese teens. Researchers using MRI have found signs of damage that may be related to inflammation in the brains of obese adolescents, according to a new study.

Yale Rudd Center For Food Policy & Obesity

Lifestyle Medicine is a branch of medicine dealing with research, prevention and treatment of disorders caused by lifestyle factors such as nutrition, physical inactivity, and chronic stress. In the clinic, major barriers to lifestyle counseling are that physicians feel ill prepared and are skeptical about their patients' receptivity.


Weight Loss


Weight Loss refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue. Weight loss can either occur unintentionally due to malnourishment or an underlying disease or arise from a conscious effort to improve an actual or perceived overweight or obese state. "Unexplained" weight loss that is not caused by reduction in calorific intake or exercise is called cachexia and may be a symptom of a serious medical condition. Intentional weight loss is commonly referred to as slimming.

Weight Loss Counseling.
Weight Loss Specialists.
Weight Loss Management.

Garcinia Gummi-Gutta is a fruit that looks like a small pumpkin and is green to pale yellow in color. Although it has received considerable media attention purporting its effects on weight loss, there is liver toxicity associated with commercial preparations of the fruit extract with clinical evidence indicating it has no significant effect on weight loss.

Inflammation (swelling)

Weight Loss is more about the Food you eat and not just about how much you exercise.

You should at least produce electricity when you exercise.

Body Mass Index (measuring how much fat your body has)

Vitals (measuring regulatory systems in the body)

Eating pasta Al dente can lower the glycemic index for better blood sugar control. Eating smaller portions of pasta can help avoid creating a carbohydrate overload and a spike in high blood sugar. Buy pasta with a low glycemic index. Soaking your pasta in a bowl of water for an hour before dinner will reduce boiling pasta time to almost 1 minute. Cooking Tips.

Hypothyroidism is a common disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. It can cause a number of symptoms, such as poor ability to tolerate cold, a feeling of tiredness, and weight gain.

Dehydration Tricks you into Feeling Hungry. "Drinking a glass of water when hunger cravings hit, and then waiting 5 - 10 minutes, can help diminish your hungry feeling."

Drink 16 oz's of water before every single meal
, which makes you feel full. Previous studies have suggested that drinking water 20 to 30 minutes before a meal causes people to eat fewer calories later on, perhaps because they are not confusing hunger with thirst. Staying hydrated also means your body is not holding onto liquids since the water is constantly being replenished.

"Enjoy eating at least one good meal per day."

Avoid Processed Foods - Meats

Metabolism

Eating too much food or just eating the wrong foods is like slowly poisoning yourself. That's why it's so hard to imagine something that you need to live can actually be the reason you're dying, or the reason you're suffering from some diet related health issue, and you wonder why Nutrition Education is so extremely important. 

Flavor (food chemistry)

Calorie Density - Carbs

Eating behaviors are perpetuated by highly-processed, tasty food, especially those with a High Glycemic Index.

Addictions - Sugar

Foods that Curb Hunger
Energy Density and Low Calorie Foods.
Energy Density & Weight Loss: Feel Full on Fewer Calories.

Everyone should be provided with the highest quality food that supplies them with all the nutritional needs for a person to have a strong mind and body. If someone wants to supplement their diet or eat more, then they can, but just let them know that eating more then what the body and mind needs is not necessary, and eating more will actually do you more harm then good. Over eating, or eating low nutrient food once in a while can be fun, but just once in a while. The body is not made to consume more food then the body needs. So either you are forcing your body to store fat, or your forcing your body to be unnatural.

Drug researcher develops 'fat burning' molecule mitochondrial uncoupler, named BAM15, that decreases the body fat mass of mice without affecting food intake and muscle mass or increasing body temperature.

Protein FGFBP3 or BP3 for short might offer novel therapy to reverse disorders associated with metabolic syndrome, such as type 2 diabetes and fatty liver disease.



Food for Thought


Is overeating or starving yourself a form of violence against your body, a type of self-harming?

What are the differences between appetite, hunger and nutrition?

Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger. Appealing foods can stimulate appetite even when hunger is absent.

Hunger represents the physiological need to eat food. Satiety is the absence of hunger; it is the sensation of feeling full.

Is gluttony just an eating disorder or just another addiction?

Decadent Moments or moments of decadence? (perceived decay in standards, morals, dignity, religious faith, or skill).

Comfort Food is food which provides a nostalgic or sentimental value to the consumer, and is often characterized by its high caloric nature, high carbohydrate level, and simple preparation. The nostalgia may be specific to either the individual or a specific culture.

Remember, just because something is natural does not mean that it is safe.

It's a learned behavior, and when there is also the lack of knowledge, and the lack of awareness, and the lack of control, you end up with an addiction. You are no longer the captain of your own ship, and your ship is slowly sinking.

Smaller Plate Study found that using 10 inch diameter plates instead of the traditional 12 inch diameter plates decreased the amount of food people eat without having an effect on their perceived fullness or satisfaction.

Trim28 Haploinsufficiency Triggers Bi-stable Epigenetic Obesity.

Genetics and Epigenetics of Obesity.

Way Beyond Weight (youtube)

People who drink moderately, exercise, don't smoke, eat five servings of fruit and vegetables each day live on average 14 years longer than people who don't follow these healthy rules. That leaves more time to do those things that you have on that bucket list. Bucket List Ideas.



Inflammation - Swelling


Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators. The function of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, and to initiate tissue repair.

Swelling is a transient abnormal enlargement of a body part or area not caused by proliferation of cells. It is caused by accumulation of fluid in tissues It can occur throughout the body (generalized), or a specific part or organ can be affected (localized). Swelling is usually not dangerous and is a common reaction to a inflammation or a bruise.

Bloating - Over Eating - Food Allergies - Sleep Disorders - Congestion (mucus) - Inflammation Help

Hypertrophy is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells. It is distinguished from hyperplasia, in which the cells remain approximately the same size but increase in number.

Neuroinflammation is inflammation of the nervous tissue. It may be initiated in response to a variety of cues, including infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites, or autoimmunity.

Anti-Inflammatory is a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.

Scientists discover promising off-switch for inflammation. Itaconate is a molecule derived from glucose that acts as a powerful off-switch for macrophages, which are the cells in the immune system that lie at the heart of many inflammatory diseases including arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and heart disease.

Anti-inflammatory Diet refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.

Webmd - Inflammatory Diet - Diets - pH

Anti-Inflammatory Pyramid Info-Graph (image)

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection injures its own tissues and organs. Kills 300,000 a year in the U.S..

Infections - Immune System - Inflammation and the immune system

Hormones - Vagus Nerve

A new mechanism triggering cell death and inflammation: A left turn that kills. Researchers describe their discovery of a new mechanism that could contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. The scientists found that ZBP1, a protein best known for defending against incoming viruses, is activated by sensing an unusual form of cellular genetic material (Z-nucleic acids), leading to cell death and inflammation. Z-form nucleic acids are double-stranded DNA and RNA molecules with an unusual left-handed double helix structure, as opposed to the classical right-handed Watson-Crick double helix. Z-nucleic acids were discovered more than 40 years ago, but their biological function has remained poorly understood.

Reconceptualizing Major Depressive Disorder as an Infectious Disease.

Link between Inflammation and Mental Sluggishness or Brain Fog shown in new study. Inflammation appears to have a particular negative impact on the brain's readiness to reach and maintain an alert state. Brain Inflammation and Depression.

Lipedema is a chronic disorder of adipose tissue and lymphatic vessel dysfunction "described as a bilateral, symmetrical, flabby swelling of the legs that arises from deposition of adipose tissue starting at the hips and ending at the ankles, like riding breeches". In some cases, the upper arms can also accumulate distinct patterns of fatty tissue.

Autoantibodies and the Immune Hypothesis in Psychotic Brain Diseases: Challenges and Perspectives

Anti-Inflammatory Foods: Enzyme-rich foods, including wheatgrass, other grasses, banana and raw honey, Pineapple and Papaya, Cherries, Berries, including blueberries, blackberries, strawberries, raspberries, and cranberries, Green tea, Cacao, Walnuts, Seeds, including flax and chia, Avocados, Rhizomes, including turmeric, curcumin, and ginger root. The GAPS diet was derived from the Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD).

Microbes - Gut Bacteria

Every meal triggers inflammation. When we eat, we do not just take in nutrients – we also consume a significant quantity of bacteria. The body is faced with the challenge of simultaneously distributing the ingested glucose and fighting these bacteria. This triggers an inflammatory response that activates the immune systems of healthy individuals and has a protective effect, as doctors have proven for the first time. In overweight individuals, however, this inflammatory response fails so dramatically that it can lead to Diabetes.

Inflammatory molecules controlling capillary loss. A study discovered that three major proinflammatory mediators -- interlukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and thrombin -- individually and especially when combined, directly drive capillary loss known to occur in diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and malignant cancer. Using an innnovative 3-D cell model, the investigators also identified combinations of existing drugs that can block the regression of these tiny blood vessels. Capillaries, our body's tiniest and most abundant blood vessels, connect arteries with veins and exchange oxygen, nutrients and waste between the bloodstream and tissues throughout the body.

Cytokine Release Syndrome is a form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome that can be triggered by a variety of factors such as infections and certain drugs. It occurs when large numbers of white blood cells are activated and release inflammatory cytokines, which in turn activate yet more white blood cells. CRS is also an adverse effect of some monoclonal antibody drugs, as well as adoptive T-cell therapies. Severe cases have been called cytokine storms. When occurring as a result of drug administration, it is also known as an infusion reaction.

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children is a condition where different body parts can become inflamed, including the heart, lungs, kidneys, brain, skin, eyes, or gastrointestinal organs. Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome or systemic inflammatory syndrome in COVID19 (SISCoV), is a rare systemic illness involving persistent fever and extreme inflammation following exposure to SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19. It can rapidly lead to medical emergencies such as insufficient blood flow around the body (a condition known as shock). Failure of one or more organs can occur. A warning sign is unexplained persistent fever with severe symptoms following exposure to COVID-19. Prompt referral to paediatric specialists is essential, and families need to seek urgent medical assistance. Most affected children will need intensive care.

When they report that someone has died of covid-19, they don't say why or explain what was the underlying cause for death, because covid-19 is not the only reason why someone dies, there is always a vulnerability, so why was someone vulnerable. This type of under-reporting is disturbing and alarming. When someone does not tell you all the facts, they are lying to hide something or cover-up something.

Myocarditis is inflammation of the heart muscle, and pericarditis is inflammation of the outer lining of the heart. In both cases, the body's immune system causes inflammation in response to an infection or some other trigger. Inflammatory cardiomyopathy, is inflammation of the heart muscle. Symptoms can include shortness of breath, chest pain, decreased ability to exercise, and an irregular heartbeat. The duration of problems can vary from hours to months. Complications may include heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy or cardiac arrest. In 2013, about 1.5 million cases of acute myocarditis occurred. While people of all ages are affected, the young are most often affected. It is slightly more common in males than females. Most cases are mild. In 2015 cardiomyopathy, including myocarditis, resulted in 354,000 deaths up from 294,000 in 1990. The initial descriptions of the condition are from the mid-1800s. Myocarditis is most often due to a viral infection. Other causes include bacterial infections, certain medications, toxins and autoimmune disorders. A diagnosis may be supported by an electrocardiogram (ECG), increased troponin, heart MRI, and occasionally a heart biopsy. An ultrasound of the heart is important to rule out other potential causes such as heart valve problems. Treatment depends on both the severity and the cause. Medications such as ACE inhibitors, beta blockers, and diuretics are often used. A period of no exercise is typically recommended during recovery. Corticosteroids or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be useful in certain cases. In severe cases an implantable cardiac defibrillator or heart transplant may be recommended.

Nervous system puts the brakes on inflammation. Cells in the nervous system can 'put the brakes' on the immune response to infections in the gut and lungs to prevent excessive inflammation. There is a crosstalk between the nervous system and the immune system, and that plays an important role in regulating acute and chronic inflammation. Inflammatory response that is triggered by allergens or infections with parasites called helminths. Exposure to these agents causes a class of immune cells called group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) to release inflammatory molecules called cytokines that can promote increased mucus production and muscle contractions -- all of which help to expel the parasite or allergen from the body. ILC2s have receptors on their surface called β2 adrenergic receptors (β2AR) that interact with a chemical called norepinephrine that nerve cells release. These receptors give nerve cells the ability to interact with each other and influence the immune response. To determine the role of β2AR in communication between the two systems.

Evidence in mice that electroacupuncture reduces inflammation via specific neural pathways. Stimulating the nervous system using small electric current by acupuncture could tamp down systemic inflammation in the body, suggests new research in mice. Previous studies have shown direct vagal nerve stimulations in the neck region can help reduce inflammation, but these experimental approaches require invasive procedures.



Fats - Good Fats and Bad Fats - Types of Fats


Different Types of Fat Fat is a soft greasy substance occurring in organic tissue and consisting of a mixture of lipids and mostly triglycerides. A kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy and also cushions and insulates vital organs. Fat are one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrates and proteins. Fat molecules consist of primarily carbon and hydrogen atoms and are therefore hydrophobic and are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water. Examples include cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides. Fat can also mean excess bodily weight and having an over abundance of flesh or having a relatively large diameter.

Lipid is an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents; Lipids are essential structural component of living cells (along with proteins and carbohydrates). Lipid is any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives. They include many natural oils, waxes, and steroids.

Triglyceride are the main constituents of body fat in humans and other animals, as well as vegetable fat. They are also present in the blood to enable the bidirectional transference of adipose fat and blood glucose from the liver, and are a major component of human skin oils. In the human body, high levels of triglycerides in the bloodstream have been linked to atherosclerosis and, by extension, the risk of heart disease and stroke. However, the relative negative impact of raised levels of triglycerides compared to that of LDL:HDL ratios is as yet unknown. High LDL is not always bad. Triglyceride is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (tri- + glyceride). Triglycerides are the main constituents of body fat in humans and other animals, as well as vegetable fat.

Fatty Acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Most naturally occurring fatty acids have an unbranched chain of an even number of carbon atoms, from 4 to 28. Fatty acids are usually not found in organisms, but instead as three main classes of esters: triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters. In any of these forms, fatty acids are both important dietary sources of fuel for animals and they are important structural components for cells.

A typical young male adult stores about 60,000 to 100,000 calories of energy in body fat cells. Fat is stored inside the fat cell in the form of triaglycerol. Fat cells can increase both in size (hypertrophy) and in number (hyperplasia). The average size (weight) of an adult fat cell is about 0.6 micrograms, but they can vary in size from 0.2 micograms to 0.9 micrograms. An overweight person’s fat cells can be up to three times larger than a person with ideal body composition. When your body needs energy because you’re consuming fewer calories than you are burning (an energy deficit), then your body releases hormones and enzymes that signal your fat cells to release your fat reserves instead of keeping them in storage. When we lose fat the fat cell releases its contents (triaglycerol) into the bloodstream as free fatty acids (FFA’s), and they are transported through the blood to the tissues where the energy is needed. An important enzyme called lipoprotein lipase (LPL), then helps the FFA’s get inside the mitochondria of the muscle cell, where the FFA’s can be burned for Energy.

Good Fats and Bad Fats Saturated Fat is a type of fat, in which the fatty acids all have single bonds. A fat is made of two kinds of smaller molecules: monoglyceride and fatty acids. Fats are made of long chains of carbon (C) atoms. Some carbon atoms are linked by single bonds (-C-C-) and others are linked by double bonds (-C=C-). Double bonds can react with hydrogen to form single bonds. They are called saturated, because the second bond is broken up and each half of the bond is attached to (saturated with) a hydrogen atom. Most animal fats are saturated. The fats of plants and fish are generally unsaturated. Saturated fats tend to have higher melting points than their corresponding unsaturated fats, leading to the popular understanding that saturated fats tend to be solids at body temperatures, while unsaturated fats tend to be liquid oils. Good Fats.

Polyunsaturated Fat are fats in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon–carbon double bonds. Polyunsaturated fat can be found mostly in nuts, seeds, fish, seed oils, and oysters. "Unsaturated" refers to the fact that the molecules contain less than the maximum amount of hydrogen (if there were no double bonds). These materials exist as cis or trans isomers depending on the geometry of the double bond. Saturated fats have hydrocarbon chains which can be most readily aligned. The hydrocarbon chains in trans fats align more readily than those in cis fats, but less well than those in saturated fats. In general, this means that the melting points of fats increase from cis to trans unsaturated and then to saturated. Fat Chemical Structure. Oxidative Stress.

Visceral Fat is body fat that is stored within the abdominal cavity and is therefore stored around a number of important internal organs such as the liver, pancreas, heart and intestines. 80% of visceral fat in the body can be traced back to a single cell in the embryo called WT1 Fat Around The Heart May Increase Risk Of Heart Attacks.

Adipose Tissue or body fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes. In addition to adipocytes, adipose tissue contains the stromal vascular fraction of cells including preadipocytes, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and a variety of immune cells such as adipose tissue macrophage. Body Mass Index.

Ectopic Fat is excess fat that is stored in tissues and organs such as the liver, skeletal muscle, heart, and pancreas. Fat is normally stored in adipose tissue. Ectopic fat can interfere with cellular functions and hence organ function and is associated with insulin resistance.

Brown Fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat). BAT is found in almost all mammals. Classification of brown fat refers to two distinct cell populations with similar functions. The first shares a common embryological origin with muscle cells, found in larger "classic" deposits. The second develops from white adipocytes that are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. These adipocytes are found interspersed in white adipose tissue and are also named 'beige' or 'brite'. Molecule that gives energy-burning brown fat its identity could lead to drugs for Obesity. A protein Estrogen-related receptor gamma, found in brown fat, but not typical white fat, is key to how the energy-burning brown fat cells function.

White Adipose Tissue is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals. The other kind of adipose tissue is brown adipose tissue. In healthy, non-overweight humans, white adipose tissue composes as much as 20% of the body weight in men and 25% of the body weight in women. Its cells contain a single large fat droplet, which forces the nucleus to be squeezed into a thin rim at the periphery. They have receptors for insulin, sexual hormones, norepinephrine, and glucocorticoids. White adipose tissue is used as a store of energy. Upon release of insulin from the pancreas, white adipose cells' insulin receptors cause a dephosphorylation cascade that lead to the inactivation of hormone-sensitive lipase. It was previously thought that upon release of glucagon from the pancreas, glucagon receptors cause a phosphorylation cascade that activates hormone-sensitive lipase, causing the breakdown of the stored fat to fatty acids, which are exported into the blood and bound to albumin, and glycerol, which is exported into the blood freely. There is actually no evidence at present that glucagon has any effect on lipolysis in white adipose tissue. Glucagon is now thought to act exclusively on the liver to trigger glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. The trigger for this process in white adipose tissue is instead now thought to be adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), adrenaline and noradrenaline. Fatty acids are taken up by muscle and cardiac tissue as a fuel source, and glycerol is taken up by the liver for gluconeogenesis. White adipose tissue also acts as a thermal insulator, helping to maintain body temperature. The hormone leptin is primarily manufactured in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue, which also produces another hormone, asprosin, which is a protein hormone produced by mammals in their fatty (white adipose) tissues that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood stream.

Subcutaneous Tissue is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates. The types of cells found in the hypodermis are fibroblasts, adipose cells, and macrophages. The hypodermis is derived from the mesoderm, but unlike the dermis, it is not derived from the dermatome region of the mesoderm. In arthropods, the hypodermis is an epidermal layer of cells that secretes the chitinous cuticle. The term also refers to a layer of cells lying immediately below the epidermis of plants.

Abdominal Obesity is when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health. There is a strong correlation between central obesity and cardiovascular disease. Abdominal obesity is not confined only to the elderly and obese subjects. Abdominal obesity has been linked to Alzheimer's disease as well as other metabolic and vascular diseases.

Lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly whose primary purpose is to transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. or also known as Fat) molecules in water, as in blood or extracellular fluid. They have a single-layer phospholipid and cholesterol outer shell, with the hydrophilic portions oriented outward toward the surrounding water and lipophilic portions of each molecule oriented inwards toward the lipids molecules within the particles. Apolipoproteins are embedded in the membrane, both stabilising the complex and giving it functional identity determining its fate. Thus the complex serves to emulsify the fats. Many enzymes, transporters, structural proteins, antigens, adhesions, and toxins are lipoproteins. Examples include the plasma lipoprotein particles classified as HDL, LDL, IDL, VLDL and ULDL (a.k.a. chylomicrons) lipoproteins, according to density / size (an inverse relationship), compared with the surrounding plasma water. These complex protein capsules enable fats to be carried in all extracellular water, including the blood stream (an example of emulsification), subgroups of which are primary drivers / modulators of atherosclerosis, the transmembrane proteins of mitochondrion, chloroplast, and bacterial lipoproteins. Proteolipids are a different kind of protein-lipid combination that are insoluble in water. Proteolipids are abundant in brain tissue, and are also present in many other animal and plant tissues.

Adenosine Triphosphate is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.

Adiponectin is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene. It is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.

Adipocyte are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.

Cryolipolysis is a medical treatment used to destroy fat cells.

Mesothelium Membrane is a membrane composed of simple squamous epithelium that forms the lining of several body cavities.

Smen is salted fermented butter.

Skin Patch Dissolves “Love Handles” in Mice. Medicated skin patch that can turn energy-storing white fat into energy-burning brown fat locally while raising the body’s overall metabolism. The patch could be used to burn off pockets of unwanted fat such as “love handles” and treat metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes.

Ghee is the complete distillation of butter, a slow, careful process that removes all moisture and lactose, making it a perfect choice for those with a lactose allergy. Ghee has been used for centuries as a digestive aid, for energy, sexual vitality, skin and eye health and as a lubricant for the joints.

Clarified Butter is milk fat rendered from butter to separate the milk solids and water from the butterfat. Typically, it is produced by melting butter and allowing the components to separate by density. The water evaporates, some solids float to the surface and are skimmed off, and the remainder of the milk solids sink to the bottom and are left behind when the butter fat (which would then be on top) is poured off. This butter fat is the clarified butter.

Butter is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat (in commercial products) which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed. It is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk. Butter is made from churning milk or cream. The churning process separates the butterfat (the solids) from the buttermilk (the liquid). The butter we most often buy is made from cow's milk, although other varieties, made from the milk of sheep, goat, yak, or buffalo, are also available.

Buttermilk the liquid left behind after churning butter out of cultured cream. This type of buttermilk is now specifically referred to as traditional buttermilk.

Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization.

Churning is the process of shaking up cream or whole milk to make butter, usually using a butter churn. In Europe from the Middle Ages until the Industrial Revolution, a churn was usually as simple as a barrel with a plunger in it, moved by hand. These have mostly been replaced by mechanical churns.

Differences between Male and Female Fat Tissue, and Health. Researchers found that the abdominal fat on female mice had more blood vessels than the fat on male mice, and that this protected the health of the female mice as they gained fat from eating a high-fat diet.

Mechanism of Free Fatty Acid Re-Esterification in Human Adipocytes in vitro. Within adipose tissue, free fatty acids liberated by lipolysis may be re-esterified into newly synthesized triacylglycerol. We hypothesized that re-esterification may occur via an extracellular route, such that free fatty acids arising from lipolysis must leave the adipocyte and be taken up again before they can be re-esterified. We simultaneously measured rates of lipolysis, acylglycerol synthesis, and free fatty acid re-esterification in human adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes in vitro, utilizing a dual-isotopic technique. We manipulated incubations to increase mixing of released free fatty acids with the incubation medium. Such manipulations should decrease the probability that released free fatty acids would be taken up and re-esterified. We found that re-esterification was decreased in isolated adipocytes compared to fragments of tissue, in shaken compared to unshaken incubations, and in low adipocyte concentrations compared to high adipocyte concentrations. Rates of acylglycerol synthesis and lipolysis were unaltered by these manipulations, indicating that changes in free fatty acid re-esterification are not secondary to effects on these processes. The results are consistent with an extracellular route for free fatty acid re-esterification. Such a mechanism suggests that adipose tissue blood flow may play an important role in the regulation of free fatty acid release from adipose tissue.

De Novo Lipogenesis in Humans: Metabolic and Regulatory aspects. The enzymatic pathway for converting dietary carbohydrate (CHO) into fat, or de novo lipogenesis (DNL), is present in humans, whereas the capacity to convert fats into CHO does not exist. Here, the quantitative importance of DNL in humans is reviewed, focusing on the response to increased intake of dietary CHO. Eucaloric replacement of dietary fat by CHO does not induce hepatic DNL to any substantial degree. Similarly, addition of CHO to a mixed diet does not increase hepatic DNL to quantitatively important levels, as long as CHO energy intake remains less than total energy expenditure (TEE). Instead, dietary CHO replaces fat in the whole-body fuel mixture, even in the post-absorptive state. Body fat is thereby accrued, but the pathway of DNL is not traversed; instead, a coordinated set of metabolic adaptations, including resistance of hepatic glucose production to suppression by insulin, occurs that allows CHO oxidation to increase and match CHO intake. Only when CHO energy intake exceeds TEE does DNL in liver or adipose tissue contribute significantly to the whole-body energy economy. It is concluded that DNL is not the pathway of first resort for added dietary CHO, in humans. Under most dietary conditions, the two major macronutrient energy sources (CHO and fat) are therefore not interconvertible currencies; CHO and fat have independent, though interacting, economies and independent regulation. The metabolic mechanisms and physiologic implications of the functional block between CHO and fat in humans are discussed, but require further investigation.

Cholesterol - Body Mass Index - Metabolism

Lipolysis is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids. Predominantly occurring in adipose tissue, lipolysis is used to mobilize stored energy during fasting or exercise. Lipolysis is directly induced in adipocytes by glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, growth hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and cortisol.



Over Eating - Binging


There are many foods that humans eat that have healing properties. But it's not just what you eat and drink that's important, it's how much quantity or the amount or dosage that you consume, because some foods cannot be consumed everyday. And you also have to know when is the best time to consume certain foods and know which foods to eat together and separate. Once you understand these rules and understand the benefits that comes from these choices and actions, then it will become natural to you. Like when after you learn how to ride a bike or drive a car, you just do it as if you always knew how. Once you learn a valuable skill, you never have to learn it again. The only time you need to learn something again is when something changes, and there is a new and better way of doing something that requires a new set of skills and knowledge.

You have to know your own personal limits and sensitivities for certain foods and herbs. So you have to do your own research and do a lot of reading before experimenting. Because things that can benefit you can also hurt you if you misuse them or eat too much. And Over Eating is not always about feeding hunger. Sometimes our body and our mind can give off signals that are not always accurate.

Addictions - Compulsion

Over Eating reduces lifespan and promotes diseases. Eating moderately and healthy extends your life and increases your chances of living healthy without diseases. If you over do anything, you are going to have problems, and you might not notice the problems until it's too late, long after the damage is done. So pay attention and be aware of any changes. The key is to never stop learning.

Leptin - Fasting

Did you know that it can take up to 20 minutes for the brain to recognize that your stomach is full? If you drink a full glass of water 10 minutes before each meal; your brain will realize you are full within 10 minutes instead of the usual 20 minutes.

Your brain rewards you twice when you eat, first when the food is ingested and again when the food reaches the stomach.

I'm not always aware of how much I eat, drink or how much I pleasure myself. So Awareness is extremely important.

Ingestive Behaviors and Satiety Signals are influenced by physiological regulatory mechanisms; these mechanisms exist to control and establish homeostasis within the human body. Disruptions in these ingestive regulatory mechanisms can result in eating disorders such as obesity, anorexia, and bulimia. Livia.

Intuitive Eating is a person who makes good food choices and understands hunger and fullness and enjoys the pleasure of eating.

Intuitive is a natural tendency to do something that is obtained through intuition rather than from reasoning or observation.

Intuition is a vague idea that something might be the case or knowing something without the use of rational processes.

Instinctive is pattern of behavior and judgment in response to specific stimuli that is not based on rational conscious thought.

Binge Eating Knowledge - Brain Food

Secretin-Activated Brown Fat Mediates Prandial Thermogenesis to Induce Satiation. Gut hormone and brown fat interact to tell the brain it's time to stop eating. Researchers have shown that so-called 'brown fat' interacts with the gut hormone secretin in mice to relay nutritional signals about fullness to the brain during a meal. The study bolsters our understanding of a long-suspected role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) -- a type of body fat known to generate heat when an animal is cold -- in the control of food intake. During a meal, signals encoded by gut hormones reach the brain via the blood or through nerves activated in the small intestine. Researchers found that higher levels of secretin in the subjects' blood corresponded to more metabolically active brown fat.

Secretin is a hormone that regulates water homeostasis throughout the body and influences the environment of the duodenum by regulating secretions in the stomach, pancreas, and liver. It is a peptide hormone produced in the S cells of the duodenum, which are located in the intestinal glands. In humans, the secretin peptide is encoded by the SCT gene. Secretin helps regulate the pH of the duodenum by (1) inhibiting the secretion of gastric acid from the parietal cells of the stomach and (2) stimulating the production of bicarbonate from the ductal cells of the pancreas. It also stimulates bile production by the liver; the bile emulsifies dietary fats in the duodenum so that pancreatic lipase can act upon them. Meanwhile, in concert with secretin's actions, the other main hormone simultaneously issued by the duodenum, cholecystokinin, is stimulating the gallbladder to contract, delivering its stored bile for the same reason. Prosecretin is a precursor to secretin, which is present in digestion. Secretin is stored in this unusable form, and is activated by gastric acid in the lower intestine to neutralize the pH and ensure no damage is done to the small intestine by the aforementioned acid. In 2007, secretin was discovered to play a role in osmoregulation by acting on the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and kidney.

Sensory cells lining the gut are similar to cells on the tongue and in the nose, relaying signals to the brain in less than 100 milliseconds. Appetite disorders and obesity to arthritis and depression, may get their start in the gut. When the researchers blocked the release of glutamate in the sensory gut cells, the messages were silenced.

Intestines modify their cellular structure in response to diet. Body organs such as the intestine and ovaries undergo structural changes in response to dietary nutrients that can have lasting impacts on metabolism, as well as cancer susceptibility.

Vagus Nerve is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs and digestive tract. The vagus nerves are paired; however, they are normally referred to in the singular. It is the longest nerve of the autonomic nervous system in the human body. The Vagus nerve also has a sympathetic function via the peripheral chemoreceptors. Peripheral chemoreceptors are activated primarily due to hypoxemia. When stimulated, these chemoreceptors relay impulses throughout the vagus nerves in order to enable a vasoconstrictor response and increase blood pressure. Cranial Nerves.

Vagus Nerve Stimulation is a medical treatment that involves delivering electrical impulses to the vagus nerve. It is used as an adjunctive treatment for certain types of intractable epilepsy and treatment-resistant depression.

Gut Branches of Vagus Nerve essential components of Brain's Reward and Motivation System.

Vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing part of the Vagus Nerve.

Enteric Nervous System

Researchers discover brain circuit linked to food impulsivity. Researchers focused on a subset of brain cells that produce a type of transmitter in the hypothalamus called melanin concentrating hormone (MCH). While previous research has shown that elevating MCH levels in the brain can increase food intake, this study is the first to show that MCH also plays a role in impulsive behavior, We found that when we activate the cells in the brain that produce MCH, animals become more impulsive in their behavior around food. Results indicated MCH doesn't affect how much the animals liked the food or how hard they were willing to work for the food. Rather, the circuit acted on the animals' inhibitory control, or their ability to stop themselves from trying to get the food."Activating this specific pathway of MCH neurons increased impulsive behavior without affecting normal eating for caloric need or motivation to consume delicious food.

Fatty meal interrupts gut's communication with the body, but why? If that second helping of prime rib stuns your gut into silence, is that good or bad? But cells that normally tell the brain and the rest of the body what's going on after a meal shut down completely for a few hours after a high-fat meal, a team of researchers discovered in zebrafish. Enteroendocrine cells normally produce at least 15 different hormones to send signals to the rest of the body. The finding could be a clue to insulin resistance that leads to Type 2 diabetes.

A Hunger Peptide that tells you when to eat. A neuropeptide associated with appetite is sent into the cerebrospinal fluid to connect with neurons responsible for alerting hunger. In cell-to-cell communication, the neurons are discretely passing notes to individual neurons or other cells. However, cerebrospinal fluid distributes a newsletter to many subscribers. The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system has been shown to modulate dopamine-related responses. This neuropeptide is generated by neurons in the brain's hunger center, the lateral hypothalamus, at the base of the brain just above the pituitary gland. A protein molecule, MCH stimulates appetite. It also can slow energy expenditure.

Rapid Binge-Like Eating and body weight gain driven by zona incerta GABA neuron activation. Patients receiving deep brain stimulation of the subthalamus, which includes the ZI, for the treatment of movement disorders can exhibit characteristics of binge eating. They found that stimulating ZI GABA neurons with axons extending into the paraventricular thalamus (PVT) prompted immediate binge-like eating, just two to three seconds after stimulation. Within ten minutes of continuous ZI GABA stimulation, mice rapidly consumed 35% of their daily high-fat food store, meant to be eaten over a 24-hour period.

Zona Incerta is a horizontally elongated region of gray matter in the subthalamus below the thalamus. Its connections project extensively over the brain from the cerebral cortex down into the spinal cord. Its function is unknown, though several potential functions related to "limbic–motor integration" have been proposed, such as controlling visceral activity and pain; gating sensory input and synchronizing cortical and subcortical brain rhythms. Its dysfunction may play a role in central pain syndrome. It has also been identified as a promising deep brain stimulation therapy target for treating Parkinson's disease.

Satiety is the state of being satisfactorily full and unable to take on more. Satisfy (a desire or an appetite) to the full. Supply (someone) with as much as or more of something than is desired or can be managed.

Sensory-Specific Satiety (gross yourself out)

Microbes in your gut produce 50% of dopamine and 90% of serotonin hormones. Your Gut can control your behavior.

Eating Triggers Endorphin Release in the Brain. Eating Stimulates Brain’s Endogenous Opioid System to signal pleasure and satiety.

You Have A Second Brain (youtube) - Digestion

Your stomach can hold up to 4 liters of volume, about 17 cups. If you know how much food you have eaten, then you will know when to stop. That is one of the reasons to count calories. And that is what awareness and mindful eating is important, because you can't always rely on your body to give you accurate information, but you can count on your brain if you learn enough. Eating attentively: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of food intake memory and awareness on eating.

Drink one glass of water 30 minutes before a meal to help aid digestion. Remember not to drink too soon or drink too much before or after a meal as the water will dilute the digestive juices. Drink water an hour after the meal to allow the body to absorb the nutrients. It takes 4 hours for food to liquefy into chyme, which is the pulpy acidic fluid that passes from the stomach to the small intestine, consisting of gastric juices and partly digested food. It takes from 5 minutes to a total of 120 minutes for water to be fully absorbed into your bloodstream from the time of drinking.

Leptin is a hormone made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. Leptin is opposed by the actions of the hormone ghrelin, the "hunger hormone". Both hormones act on receptors in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus to regulate appetite to achieve energy homeostasis. In obesity, a decreased sensitivity to leptin occurs, resulting in an inability to detect satiety despite high energy stores. Leptin hormone neural circuit and anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effects have found two mechanisms underlying leptin's inhibition of appetite. Meat.

Postingestive Feedback (PDF) - Emotions (body effects mind)

A destructive mechanism that blocks the brain from knowing when to stop eating. Leptin resistance was found when mice were fed a high-fat diet, they produce an enzyme named MMP-2 that clips receptors for the hormone leptin from the surface of neuronal cells in the hypothalamus. This blocks leptin from binding to its receptors. This in turn keeps the neurons from signaling that your stomach is full and you should stop eating.

Ghrelin the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal tract which functions as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system. Besides regulating appetite, ghrelin also plays a significant role in regulating the distribution and rate of use of energy. When the stomach is empty, ghrelin is secreted. When the stomach is stretched, secretion stops. It acts on hypothalamic brain cells both to increase hunger, and to increase gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motility to prepare the body for food intake.

Orexin also called hypocretin, is a Neuropeptide that regulates Arousal, Wakefulness, and Appetite.

Neurosecretory protein GL is an appetite control mechanism found in brain.

Neuropeptide Y Receptor are a class of G-protein coupled receptors which are activated by the closely related peptide hormones neuropeptide Y, peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide. These receptors are involved in the control of a diverse set of behavioral processes including appetite, circadian rhythm, and anxiety. Once you eat, you produce neuropeptide Y receptor, it activates the receptor, and then you don't feel hungry anymore and you stop eating. Upregulate this receptor with a small molecule can create this feeling of not being hungry so that you eat less.

Metabolism - Visceral Fat - Microbes

Lipocalin-2 Hormone found to switch off hunger could be used as a potential treatment for obesity.

Lipocalin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LCN2 gene. NGAL is involved in innate immunity by sequestering iron and preventing its use by bacteria, thus limiting their growth. It is expressed in neutrophils and in low levels in the kidney, prostate, and epithelia of the respiratory and alimentary tracts. NGAL is used as a biomarker of kidney injury.

Mitochondrial Disease is a group of disorders caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.

Agouti-Related Peptide is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by the AgRP/NPY neuron. Acts to increase appetite and decrease metabolism and energy expenditure.

Melanocortin 4 Receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MC4R gene. It encodes the MC4 protein, a G protein-coupled receptor that binds α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH). In murine models MC4 receptors have been found to be involved in feeding behaviour, the regulation of metabolism, sexual behaviour, and male erectile function. In 2008, MC4R mutations were reported to be associated with inherited human obesity. They were found in heterozygotes, suggesting an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. However, based on other research and observations, these mutations seem to have an incomplete penetrance and some degree of codominance. It has a prevalence of 1.0–2.5% in people with body mass indices greater than 30, making it the most commonly known genetic defect predisposing people to obesity.

Having certain Hereditary Vulnerabilities does not mean that you don't have any control over what you can do with your mind or your body. You have options and you can make better choices.

Gut Feelings - Anxiety

Starvation Response Famine Reaction in animals is a set of adaptive biochemical and physiological changes that reduce metabolism in response to a lack of food.

Hypothalamus (brain)

Nucleus Accumbens is the cognitive processing of motivation, pleasure, and reward and reinforcement learning, and hence has significant role in addiction. It plays a lesser role in fear, impulsivity, and the placebo effect. It is involved in the encoding of new motor programs as well.

Human Homeostasis is the property of a system in which a variable (for example, the concentration of a substance in solution, or its temperature) is actively regulated to remain very nearly constant. This regulation occurs inside a defined environment (mostly within a living organism's body).

Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of animals, including humans. It is popularly thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness.

Endocrine System (hormones)

Sleep Restriction enhances the daily rhythm of circulating levels of endocannabinoid 2-Arachidonoylglycerol. The daily rhythm of a particular endocannabinoid, known as 2-AG, is altered by a lack of sleep. Lack of sleep can also alter hunger and satiety hormones. Leptin satiety hormone, is a hormone made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. Leptin is opposed by the actions of the hormone ghrelin, the "hunger hormone". Ghrelin the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal tract. Besides regulating appetite, ghrelin also plays a significant role in regulating the distribution and rate of use of energy.


Don't Eat Beyond your Daily Energy Needs


Overeating is the excess food in relation to the energy that an organism expends (or expels via excretion), leading to weight gaining and often obesity. It may be regarded as an eating disorder.

Compulsive Overeating is a behavioral addiction that is characterized by the compulsive consumption of palatable (e.g., high fat and high sugar) foods – the types of food which markedly activate the reward system in humans and other animals – despite adverse consequences.

Gluttony is over-indulgence and over-consumption of food, drink, or wealth items to the point of extravagance or waste. To gulp down or swallow.

Consume is to eat or ingest moderately and to a degree that does not exceed the bounds of reason or moderation.

Moderation is avoiding extremes and excesses by lessening the severity or the intensity of an action. Balance.

Excesses is a quantity much larger than is needed. The state of being more than full and going beyond sufficient or permitted limits.

Indulgence is an inability to resist the gratification of whims and desires. A foolish or senseless behavior. Indulging is being excessive beyond normal limits. Bad Habit.

Crapulence is sickness caused by excessive eating or drinking. Excessive indulgence or intemperance.

Eating Disorders - Physiological Reaction

Junk Foods stimulate the reward system in the brain in the same way as abusive drugs like cocaine. For susceptible people, eating junk foods can lead to full-blown addiction, which shares the same biological basis as addiction to abusive drugs.
Frequent consumption of junk food may lead to dopamine tolerance. This means that you will have to eat even more junk food to avoid going into withdrawal.

Emotional Triggers - Stress - Anxiety - Microbe Imbalance - Body Mind Connections - Drugs

Biological abnormalities such as hormonal irregularities or genetic mutations, may be associated with compulsive eating and food addiction.

Lack of Sleep can affect our mood, our appetite and our eating behaviors. abnormal levels of serotonin. Dopamine is a chemical involved in weight, feeding behaviors, reinforcement, and reward. Hypoglycemia Binge.

Eating Bad Food or eating too much food is like having Congenital Insensitivity. When children don't feel pain they injure themselves more often because they don't have pain to remind them that they are hurting themselves. So these people have to train themselves to avoid injury. This is the same for all ignorant behavior. You can't rely on pain or punishment to teach you the difference between right and wrong and good and bad. You have to learn, or you will damage yourself beyond repair.

Food Addiction Summit - Food Addiction

Addiction - Control

Eat your Biggest Meal Early in the Day - "Eat Breakfast Like a King, Lunch Like a Prince, and Dinner Like a Pauper”.

Over eating might just be about feeding your Anxiety.

I have just eaten, so why do I still feel hungry? You have to ask yourself, is the food have already eaten providing me with the necessary nutrition? How much nutrition do I need to perform the physical and mental activities that I will be doing in the near future? Once you know the answers to these questions, and have a good understanding of your mind and body, and you know what foods and liquids are the best choices for you, then when your body or mind is given you signals that cause you to overeat or eat the wrong foods for no reason, then you will know that you have to take control of your mind and body. This is one of the most important things you need to learn. When you are the captain of a ship you have a choice, sail into a storm or sail away from the storm. And there is a storm everyday. You have learn how to be aware of yourself and the world around you. Search for Techniques that work best for you and seek out the best information and knowledge that the world has to offer. Sometimes just Eating Slower and remembering to breath will help you to be more aware of how much food you are eating. Did you know that Fat Cells can sometimes absorb more calories then they need instead of serving the energy needs of the body? So you will be tricked into thinking that you need to eat more. This might be fine if you're going into hibernation, but humans don't hibernate. So you have to learn why your fat cells are doing this and also verify that your Insulin levels are where they should be? Insulin makes Fat.

How neurons reshape inside body fat to boost its calorie-burning capacity. Scientists have found that a hormone tells the brain to dramatically restructure neurons embedded in fat tissue. Their work widens our understanding of how the body regulates its energy consumption, and how obesity might be treated in the future. That signal is the hormone leptin, which is released by the fat cells themselves. In experiments with mice described on July 22 in the journal Nature, the researchers found that the normally bushy network of neural fibers within fat tissue shrinks in the absence of leptin and grows back when the hormone is given as a drug. These changes were shown to influence the animals' ability to burn the energy stored in fat.


When to Eat - What to Eat - How Much to Eat


How much food do you need to eat each day? Food needs depends on many factors, including your height, age, sex, general state of health, job, leisure time activities, genetics, body size, body composition, and what medications you may be on. How much food relates to your daily calorie intake requirement - consume more each day than you use up and you will usually put on weight, consume less and the opposite will happen. If your food contains a lot of fiber you can usually eat more calories than if you eat food with a very low fiber content. How much food you eat is also very closely linked to the types of foods you eat and your lifestyle. Some people claim that people who severely limit their daily calorie intake will live much longer. Previous studies found that half-starved roundworms live much longer than well-fed ones. Other animal studies have come up with similar findings. The Ete Plate can help you with measuring how much food you need.

Serving Size is the amount of food listed on a product’s food label and it varies from product to product.

Portion is how much food you choose to eat at one time. Dosage.

Health Documentaries - Food Label Meanings - Health Calculators

On the average men and women need about 56 and 46 grams of protein a day? 

Leftovers and taking food home is enjoying a good meal twice, plus it’s a lot healthier then over eating and it saves money and time too.  It's Healthier to Under Eat then it is to over eat. Eating a Little Less Food then you need and not eating till your full, is a lot healthier for you then eating too much food or eating more food then your body and mind needs. 

Eat food, mostly plants, but don't eat too much. Vegetables, Fruits and Seeds.

Hara Hachi Bu eat until you are 80 percent full. You will need to learn how to interpret the signals from your stomach.

Don't Eat when it's Time for a Meal; Eat when you Feel Hungry. In a 2012 study that mice consuming all of their calories within an eight-hour window were less likely to develop metabolic diseases like diabetes than those who ate whenever they pleased. Mice who skip feedings are leaner and live longer than their non-skipping counterparts. The fasting mice also have more robust brain cells than those who consume regular meals. Mattson, who skips breakfast and lunch most days, theorizes that caloric deprivation acts as a mild stress that helps cells build up their defenses—warding off damage from aging, environmental toxins, and other threats. Other research has shown that periodic fasting may also prevent heart disease.

Gastrointestinal Tract (digestion)

Palatability is the hedonic reward (i.e., pleasure) provided by foods or fluids that are agreeable to the "palate", which often varies relative to the homeostatic satisfaction of nutritional, water, or energy needs. The palatability of a food or fluid, unlike its flavor or taste, varies with the state of an individual: it is lower after consumption and higher when deprived. Palatability of foods, however, can be learned. It has increasingly been appreciated that this can create a hedonic hunger that is independent of homeostatic needs.

Taste and Flavor (food chemistry)

Is the lack of a certain nutrient causing your Anxiety?

"You need to learn to understand the difference between feeling hungry and starving, because it could save your life."

Eating Less Is Far More Important Than Exercising More

"What if you had a way to know if you had enough to eat today, and that you don't need to eat again until tomorrow?"

How much should my Baby be Eating

Intuitive Eating - Mindful Eating - Routines (good habits) - Live within your Means

"Don't lose the peace of years by seeking the rapture of moments."

Understand Food Cravings
Weight loss: Gain Control of Emotional Eating
Mood, Food, and Obesity

You don't need a mandometer or a hapi fork, you need knowledge, information, training and awareness. You need to be mindful when eating. Consume knowledge that teaches you to be a more mindful consumer.
 

Don't Eat too Fast - Eat Slower - Chew your Food


Slow Down you Eat too Fast. People who eat slower and chew their food more, end up eating less. Eat small meals instead of eating big meals, and eat slowly and chew your food effectively in order to conserve energy.

Chewing your Food - Benefits of Chewing your Food - Chew Tips

Mastication is the process by which food is crushed and ground by teeth. It is the first step of digestion, and it increases the surface area of foods to allow a more efficient break down by enzymes. During the mastication process, the food is positioned by the cheek and tongue between the teeth for grinding. The muscles of mastication move the jaws to bring the teeth into intermittent contact, repeatedly occluding and opening. As chewing continues, the food is made softer and warmer, and the enzymes in saliva begin to break down carbohydrates in the food. After chewing, the food (now called a bolus) is swallowed. It enters the esophagus and via peristalsis continues on to the stomach, where the next step of digestion occurs. Premastication is sometimes performed by human parents for infants who are unable to do so for themselves. The food is masticated in the mouth of the parent into a bolus and then transferred to the infant for consumption. (Some other animals also premasticate.) Cattle and some other animals, called ruminants, chew food more than once to extract more nutrients. After the first round of chewing, this food is called cud.

Moderation is being within reasonable or average limits and not being excessive or extreme. The action of lessening the severity or the intensity of something, like your temper. Being in control or keeping within normal limits. Sustainable.

Binge Eating is a pattern of disordered eating which consists of episodes of uncontrollable eating. It is sometimes a symptom of binge eating disorder or compulsive overeating disorder. During such binges, a person rapidly consumes an excessive quantity of food. A diagnosis of binge eating is associated with feelings of loss of control. Binge-eating disorder is a serious eating disorder in which you frequently consume unusually large amounts of food and feel unable to stop eating. Binge Eating Disorder (wiki).

Signs of Binge Eating: Consuming large amounts of food rapidly within a short period of time. Eating when you’re not hungry. Regularly eating alone or in secret. Feeling you are not in control of your eating patterns. Feeling depressed, ashamed, or disgusted with your eating habits.

Wolf it Down means to eat something really fast. To eat something greedily, ravenously, or voraciously; Speed eating. Wolves do not chew their food, so eating is fast and quick. Don't eat like a wolf.

Gorge is to overeat or eat immodestly; make a pig of oneself. A gorge can also mean a deep ravine or narrow pass.

Bite off More than you can Chew is try to do more than you can handle or deal with. Try to do too much. To take on or attempt more than one is capable of doing. Food Waste.

Your Eyes are Bigger than your Stomach means that you put more food on your plate than you can eat, or you eat more than your body can effectively process or digest. (the saying suggests that your eyes are creating an illusion that you can eat everything that you see. You're not paying attention to the facts).

You'll miss all the Flavors if you scarf your food down. Scarf is to eat very quickly and greedily. Gluttony.

Optimal directional volatile transport in Retronasal Olfaction.

Eating too fast may spell trouble in the form of indigestion, acid reflux, and more serious health issues like insulin resistance and diabetes. Speed eating also leads to weight gain, because we continue eating long before our stomachs realize they're full.

Tips:
Don't multitask or do things when you are eating. Pay attention to the taste, temperature, and texture of food. Synching up your mind with your mouth will help you get more pleasure from the food you're eating, giving you the chance to notice the unique flavor bursting from every bite. Take the time to sit down and eat your meal. Chew wisely and try and take at least 20 seconds to process each mouthful.

Take a pause before each bite, take a short breath, release all the tension in your body and then ask, do I need more? Every pause is a reminder that you are aware, you are in control, and you are not a victim of automatic behaviors that provide no useful benefit to you. You have better things to do then be a slave to impulse.

If you feel a little hungry, then that's OK, as long as you know that you have eaten enough, then you know it's a False Alarm. It's a misinterpretation of your bodies information, which you can easily ignore like a bad habit. And over time you will strengthen your control over your body and never be vulnerable to these false alarms. But you still need to be aware of any changes in your body that may be a sign that something is not right. Understanding early warning signs could save your life. 



Diabetes


Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time. Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst and increased appetite. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, damage to the nerves, damage to the eyes and cognitive impairment. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. There are three main types of diabetes mellitus.

Type 1 Diabetes previously known as juvenile diabetes, is a form of diabetes in which very little or no insulin is produced by the islets of Langerhans (containing beta cells) in the pancreas. Insulin is a hormone required for the body to use blood sugar. Before treatment this results in high blood sugar levels in the body. The classic symptoms are frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger, and weight loss. Additional symptoms may include blurry vision, tiredness, and poor wound healing. Symptoms typically develop over a short period of time, often a matter of weeks. Type 1 diabetes results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin due to loss of beta cells. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The loss of beta cells is caused by an autoimmune response. The cause of this autoimmune response is unknown. The cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors include having a family member with the condition. The underlying mechanism involves an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Diabetes is diagnosed by testing the level of sugar or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) in the blood. Type 1 diabetes can be distinguished from type 2 by testing for the presence of autoantibodies. There is no known way to prevent type 1 diabetes. Treatment with insulin is required for survival. Insulin therapy is usually given by injection just under the skin but can also be delivered by an insulin pump. A diabetic diet and exercise are important parts of management. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Complications of relatively rapid onset include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma. Long-term complications include heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers and damage to the eyes. Furthermore, complications may arise from low blood sugar caused by excessive dosing of insulin. Type 1 diabetes makes up an estimated 5–10% of all diabetes cases. The number of people affected globally is unknown, although it is estimated that about 80,000 children develop the disease each year. Within the United States the number of people affected is estimated at one to three million. Rates of disease vary widely, with approximately one new case per 100,000 per year in East Asia and Latin America and around 30 new cases per 100,000 per year in Scandinavia and Kuwait. It typically begins in children and young adults.

Type 2 Diabetes formerly known as adult-onset diabetes, is a form of diabetes that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin. Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss. Symptoms may also include increased hunger, feeling tired, and sores that do not heal. Often symptoms come on slowly. Long-term complications from high blood sugar include heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure, and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations. The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon. Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise. Some people are more genetically at risk than others. Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes. In type 1 diabetes there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin (A1C). Type 2 diabetes is largely preventable by staying a normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating properly. Treatment involves exercise and dietary changes. If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is typically recommended. Many people may eventually also require insulin injections. In those on insulin, routinely checking blood sugar levels is advised; however, this may not be needed in those taking pills. Bariatric surgery often improves diabetes in those who are obese. Rates of type 2 diabetes have increased markedly since 1960 in parallel with obesity. As of 2015 there were approximately 392 million people diagnosed with the disease compared to around 30 million in 1985. Typically it begins in middle or older age, although rates of type 2 diabetes are increasing in young people. Type 2 diabetes is associated with a ten-year-shorter life expectancy. Diabetes was one of the first diseases described. The importance of insulin in the disease was determined in the 1920s.

Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, nonketotic hyperosmolar coma, or death. Serious long-term complications include heart disease, stroke, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.

Type 1 DM
results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown.

Type 2 DM
begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The primary cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise.

Gestational diabetes
is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood-sugar levels.

Type 3c (Pancreatogenic) Diabetes is a form of diabetes that involves the exocrine and digestive functions of the pancreas. Out of all the diabetics, 5–10% may actually be type 3c diabetics. In 80% of people who suffer from this condition, chronic pancreatitis seems to be the cause. (also known as Pancreatogenic diabetes).

Diabetes by Country Diabetes and Diet (youtube)
Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)
Diabetes (org)

Hyperglycemia is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. Brain Food - Fats (good and bad).

Glucose is a simple sugar which is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates. Glucose supplies almost all the energy for the brain. Glucose is a ubiquitous fuel in biology. It is used as an energy source in organisms, from bacteria to humans, through either aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration (in bacteria), or fermentation. Molecular formula of glucose is C6H12O6. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. The reverse of the photosynthesis reaction, which releases this energy, is an important source of power for cellular respiration. Glucose is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen, for times when the organism will need it. Glucose is the human body's key source of energy, through aerobic respiration, providing about 3.75 kilocalories (16 kilojoules) of food energy per gram. Breakdown of carbohydrates (e.g., starch) yields mono- and disaccharides, most of which is glucose. Through glycolysis and later in the reactions of the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, glucose is oxidized to eventually form carbon dioxide and water, yielding energy mostly in the form of ATP. The insulin reaction, and other mechanisms, regulate the concentration of glucose in the blood. The physiological caloric value of glucose, depending on the source, is 16.2 kilojoules per gram and 15.7 kJ/g (3.74 kcal/g), respectively. The high availability of carbohydrates from plant biomass has led to a variety of methods during evolution, especially in microorganisms, to utilize the energy and carbon storage glucose. Differences exist in which end product can no longer be used for energy production. The presence of individual genes, and their gene products, the enzymes, determine which reactions are possible. The metabolic pathway of glycolysis is used by almost all living beings. An essential difference in the use of glycolysis is the recovery of NADPH as a reductant for anabolism that would otherwise have to be generated indirectly. Most dietary carbohydrates contain glucose, either as their only building block (as in the polysaccharides starch and glycogen), or together with another monosaccharide (as in the hetero-polysaccharides sucrose and lactose). Unbounded glucose is one of the main ingredients of honey. (Figs). Your body makes glucose but it mainly comes from foods rich in carbohydrates, like bread, potatoes, and fruit. As you eat, food travels down your esophagus to your stomach. There, acids and enzymes break it down into tiny pieces. During that process, glucose is released. Your body is designed to keep the level of glucose in your blood constant. Beta cells in your pancreas monitor your blood sugar level every few seconds. When your blood glucose rises after you eat, the beta cells release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin acts like a key, unlocking muscle, fat, and liver cells so glucose can get inside them. Most of the cells in your body use glucose along with amino acids (the building blocks of protein) and fats for energy. But it's the main source of fuel for your brain. Nerve cells and chemical messengers there need it to help them process information. Without it, your brain wouldn't be able to work well. After your body has used the energy it needs, the leftover glucose is stored in little bundles called glycogen in the liver and muscles. Your body can store enough to fuel you for about a day. After you haven't eaten for a few hours, your blood glucose level drops. Your pancreas stops churning out insulin. Alpha cells in the pancreas begin to produce a different hormone called glucagon. It signals the liver to break down stored glycogen and turn it back into glucose. That travels to your bloodstream to replenish your supply until you're able to eat again. Your liver can also make its own glucose using a combination of waste products, amino acids, and fats. BMI Index. Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6, which means that it is a molecule that is made of six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. It is the most important source of energy for cellular respiration. Glucose is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen.

Blood Sugar is the amount of glucose (sugar) present in the blood of a human or animal. The body naturally tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis.

Blood Sugar Level is the concentration of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals. Glucose is a simple sugar and approximately 4 grams of glucose are present in the blood of a 70-kilogram (150 lb) human at all times. The body tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis. Glucose is stored in skeletal muscle and liver cells in the form of glycogen; in fasted individuals, blood glucose is maintained at a constant level at the expense of glycogen stores in the liver and skeletal muscle. In humans, a blood glucose level of four grams, or about a teaspoon, is critical for normal function in a number of tissues, and the human brain consumes approximately 60% of blood glucose in fasted, sedentary individuals. A persistent elevation in blood glucose leads to glucose toxicity, which contributes to cell dysfunction and the pathology grouped together as complications of diabetes. Glucose can be transported from the intestines or liver to other tissues in the body via the bloodstream. Cellular glucose uptake is primarily regulated by insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas. Glucose levels are usually lowest in the morning, before the first meal of the day, and rise after meals for an hour or two by a few millimoles. Blood sugar levels outside the normal range may be an indicator of a medical condition. A persistently high level is referred to as hyperglycemia; low levels are referred to as hypoglycemia. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia from any of several causes, and is the most prominent disease related to failure of blood sugar regulation. There are different methods of testing and measuring blood sugar levels. The intake of alcohol causes an initial surge in blood sugar, and later tends to cause levels to fall. Also, certain drugs can increase or decrease glucose levels.

Glycogen is one form in which body fuel is stored; stored primarily in the liver and broken down into glucose when needed by the body. Glucose is a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms; an important source of physiological energy. Battery.

Cholesterol - Metabolic Syndrome

Pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. In humans, it is located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach. It is an endocrine gland producing several important Hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide which circulate in the blood. The pancreas is also a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. These enzymes help to further break down the Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids in the chyme.

Beta Cell are a type of cell found in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas. They make up 65–80% of the cells in the islets. The primary function of a beta cell is to store and release insulin. Insulin is a hormone that brings about effects which reduce blood glucose concentration. Beta cells can respond quickly to spikes in blood glucose concentrations by secreting some of their stored insulin while simultaneously producing more.

Hyperinsulinemia is a condition in which there are excess levels of insulin circulating in the blood relative to the level of glucose. While it is often mistaken for diabetes or hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinemia can result from a variety of metabolic diseases and conditions. While hyperinsulinemia is often seen in people with early stage type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is not the cause of the condition and is only one symptom of the disease. Type 1 diabetes only occurs when pancreatic beta-cell function is impaired. Hyperinsulinemia can be seen in a variety of conditions including diabetes mellitus type 2, in neonates and in drug induced hyperinsulinemia. It can also occur in congenital hyperinsulism, including nesidioblastosis.

Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells. In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both. Glucose production (and excretion into the blood) by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood. Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism.

Insulin Resistance is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin. The body produces insulin when glucose starts to be released into the bloodstream from the digestion of carbohydrates in the diet. Normally this insulin response triggers glucose being taken into body cells, to be used for energy, and inhibits the body from using fat for energy. The level of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. This reflects the healthy amount of insulin sensitivity. In contrast, when the body produces insulin under conditions of insulin resistance, the cells are resistant to the insulin and are unable to use it as effectively, leading to high blood sugar. Beta cells in the pancreas subsequently increase their production of insulin, further contributing to a high blood insulin level. This often remains undetected and can contribute to a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults.

Insulin makes Fat

Insulin Drives Fat Storage by Blocking Leptin. One of the other functions of insulin is that it makes the body synthesize fats out of glucose, then tells the fat cells to pick up as much fat as they can and store it. This is one of the reasons diabetics start gaining weight when they start shooting insulin.

Insulin in the brain influences dopamins levels. In the human brain, the hormone insulin also acts on the most important neurotransmitter for the reward system, dopamine. Insulin lowers the dopamine level in a specific region of the brain (striatum) that regulates reward processes and cognitive functions, among other things. This interaction can be an important driver of the brain's regulation of glucose metabolism and eating behavior.

Glycemic Load of food is a number that estimates how much the food will raise a person's blood glucose level after eating it. One unit of glycemic load approximates the effect of consuming one gram of glucose. Glycemic load accounts for how much carbohydrate is in the food and how much each gram of carbohydrate in the food raises blood glucose levels. Glycemic load is based on the glycemic index (GI), and is calculated by multiplying the grams of available carbohydrate in the food times the food's GI and then dividing by 100.

Glycemic Index is a number associated with a particular type of food that indicates the food's effect on a person's blood glucose (also called blood sugar) level. A value of 100 represents the standard, an equivalent amount of pure glucose. The GI represents the total rise in a person's blood sugar level following consumption of the food; it may or may not represent the rapidity of the rise in blood sugar. The steepness of the rise can be influenced by a number of other factors, such as the quantity of fat eaten with the food. The GI is useful for understanding how the body breaks down carbohydrates and only takes into account the available carbohydrate (total carbohydrate minus fiber) in a food. Although the food may contain fats and other components that contribute to the total rise in blood sugar, these effects are not reflected in the GI. The glycemic index is usually applied in the context of the quantity of the food and the amount of carbohydrate in the food that is actually consumed. A related measure, the glycemic load (GL), factors this in by multiplying the glycemic index of the food in question by the carbohydrate content of the actual serving. Watermelon has a high glycemic index, but a low glycemic load for the quantity typically consumed. Fructose, by contrast, has a low glycemic index, but can have a high glycemic load if a large quantity is consumed. GI tables are available that list many types of foods and their GIs. Some tables also include the serving size and the glycemic load of the food per serving. A practical limitation of the glycemic index is that it does not measure insulin production due to rises in blood sugar. As a result, two foods could have the same glycemic index, but produce different amounts of insulin. Likewise, two foods could have the same glycemic load, but cause different insulin responses. Furthermore, both the glycemic index and glycemic load measurements are defined by the carbohydrate content of food. For example, when eating steak, which has no carbohydrate content but provides a high protein intake, up to 50% of that protein can be converted to glucose when there is little to no carbohydrate consumed with it. But because it contains no carbohydrate itself, steak cannot have a glycemic index. For some food comparisons, the "insulin index" may be more useful.

High glycaemic index foods include refined starches, which are starches that have had the bran, hull and fiber removed from the grain during processing, and concentrated sugar, which cause a rapid rise and fall in blood sugar after consumption. Typically, blood sugar falls below fasting level within a few hours of a high glycaemic index meal, causing hunger and leading to overeating. Foods with a low glycaemic index, such as whole fruit, vegetables, legumes and minimally-processed grain, produce relatively little blood sugar fluctuation, and longer satiation. Food Addiction creates an intense activation of the Nucleus Accumbens, a critical brain area in the Dopaminergic, Mesolimbic system that mediates pleasure eating, reward and craving.

Obesity Rates by State U.S. Map Glycemic Index

C-Peptide Test

National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (wiki)

Diets - Salt - Sugar - Carbs - Vitals

Diabetes Now Kills More Than HIV, Tuberculosis And Malaria Combined. Every day 3,835 people are diagnosed with diabetes. That means they're much more likely to go blind. To die of a heart attack. To lose a limb.

Vascular complications arise when diabetes causes thickening and other damage to blood vessels, creating circulation problems throughout the body. This can lead to damage in the nerves and the feet, and in organs including the eyes, kidneys and heart, which may further damage the blood vessels.

One Drop Premium: A New Approach to Diabetes Glucose Meter
Insulog - The Smart Snap-on Insulin Tracker

Infusion of Islet Cells for 1 diabetes instead of insulin shots

Pain-Free Skin Patch responds to Sugar Levels for management of Type 2 Diabetes

3D Printed Glucose Biosensors created by WSU

Coenzyme Q10 Molecule could Prevent and Alleviate Pre-Diabetes.

Toward beta cell replacement for Diabetes.
Normoglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Pregnancy.

Annual Number (in Thousands) of New Cases of Diagnosed Diabetes
Among Adults Aged 18-79 Years, United States, 1980-2014

Obesity & Diabetes Explained: The Overflow Phenomenon (youtube)

Diabetes is the No. 1 Killer In Mexico. The disease claims nearly 80,000 lives each year, and forecasters say the health problem is expected to get worse in the decades to come. Diabetes costs the Mexican health care system billions of dollars each year. Pan American Health Organization.

Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 or IGF-1, also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene. It plays an important role in childhood growth and continues to have anabolic effects in adults. IGF-1 consists of 70 amino acids in a single chain with three intramolecular disulfide bridges. IGF-1 has a molecular weight of 7,649 Daltons. IGF-1 is produced primarily by the liver as an endocrine hormone as well as in target tissues in a paracrine/autocrine fashion. Production is stimulated by growth hormone (GH) and can be retarded by undernutrition, growth hormone insensitivity, lack of growth hormone receptors, or failures of the downstream signaling pathway post GH receptor including SHP2 and STAT5B. Its effects were termed "nonsuppressible insulin-like activity. Meat.

DAF-2 gene encodes for the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. DAF-2 is part of the first metabolic pathway discovered to regulate the rate of aging. DAF-2 is also known to regulate reproductive development, resistance to oxidative stress, thermotolerance, resistance to hypoxia, and resistance to bacterial pathogens. Mutations in DAF-2 have been shown by Cynthia Kenyon to double the lifespan of the worms. In a 2007 episode of WNYC’s Radiolab, Kenyon called DAF-2 "the grim reaper gene.

Conduction Slowing in Diabetic Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy. Mild demyelination may contribute more to the pathophysiology of nerve fiber injury in diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) than previously thought. We investigated the clinical and electrodiagnostic classifications of nerve injury in diabetic patients to detect evidence of conduction slowing in DSP. Electromagnetic Radiation - Mitochondria.

Randle Cycle is a metabolic process involving the competition of glucose and fatty acids for substrates. It is theorized to play a role in explaining type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance.

Lipogenesis is the process by which acetyl-CoA is converted to triglycerides (i.e., fat). Acetyl-CoA is an organic compound mainly used to transfer to other compounds the energy obtained by the breakdown of nutrients such as carbohydrates, fatty acids, and ethanol. Through the citric acid cycle, Acetyl-CoA is typically broken down to produce ATP, which is then consumed as a source of energy for many metabolic processes needed for survival or reproduction, such as protein synthesis or muscle contraction. Through lipogenesis, the energy contained in Acetyl-CoA can be efficiently stored for a long time in the form of fats, whenever the total available energy introduced with food is abundant and not all of it is immediately needed for metabolic processes.

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening problem that affects people with diabetes. It occurs when the body starts breaking down fat at a rate that is much too fast. The liver processes the fat into a fuel called ketones, which causes the blood to become acidic. A serious diabetes complication where the body produces excess blood acids (ketones). (DKA). Fasting.

Metformin is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in people who are overweight. It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. It is not associated with weight gain. It is taken by mouth. Metformin molecular mechanism is incompletely understood. Multiple potential mechanisms of action have been proposed: inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (complex I), activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), inhibition of glucagon-induced elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) with reduced activation of protein kinase A (PKA), inhibition of mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, and an effect on gut microbiota. Ultimately, it decreases gluconeogenesis (liver glucose production). It also has an insulin-sensitizing effect with multiple actions on tissues including the liver, skeletal muscle, endothelium, adipose tissue, and the ovary. The average patient with type 2 diabetes has three times the normal rate of gluconeogenesis; metformin treatment reduces this by over one-third. Activation of AMPK was required for metformin's inhibitory effect on liver glucose production.[98] AMPK is an enzyme that plays an important role in insulin signalling, whole body energy balance and the metabolism of glucose and fats. Metformin hydrochloride (1,1-dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride) is freely-soluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol, but almost insoluble in acetone, ether, or chloroform. The pKa of metformin is 12.4. Metformin has an oral bioavailability of 50–60% under fasting conditions, and is absorbed slowly.

Increased blood sugar levels may decrease benefits of aerobic exercise. Some benefits of aerobic exercise may be dampened by higher-than-normal blood sugar levels, a condition known as hyperglycemia. The scientists propose that high levels of blood sugar may prevent muscle remodeling in part by modifying the "extracellular matrix" proteins in the space between the muscle cells, where blood vessels are formed. Muscle tissue can remodel itself, which is one reason why exercise becomes easier when we do it regularly. Over time, aerobic exercise such as running or swimming can alter muscle fibers to become more efficient at using oxygen during exercise. We also grow new blood vessels to allow more oxygen to be delivered to the muscle, which helps to increase our aerobic fitness levels. The good news is, although our mouse models of hyperglycemia failed to improve aerobic fitness with training, they still achieved other important health benefits from the exercise including decreased fat mass and improved glucose metabolism. It is important to note that people with hyperglycemia also can benefit from other forms of exercise, such as strength training.



Carbs - Carbohydrates


Carbohydrates are essential to keeping an elevated Metabolism and Leptin is a primary reason for this. Leptin is a fat burning hormone that is directly related to carbohydrate intake and body fat levels (Romon et al, 1999). Leptin is a fat burning hormone that serves many functions, including the control of energy expenditure. All foods have carbohydrates, including fruits and vegetables. But it is the type of carbohydrate and the quality of the carbohydrate that ends up being that most important factor for health.

Carbohydrates is any food that is particularly rich in the complex carbohydrate starch (such as cereals, bread and pasta) or simple carbohydrates, such as sugar (found in candy, jams, and desserts). A biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water). A group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose.

Carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m could be different from n). Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA, has the empirical formula C5H10O4. Carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon; structurally it is more accurate to view them as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones.

Simple Carbohydrates are broken down quickly by the body to be used as energy. Simple carbohydrates are found in processed foods and refined sugars such as candy, table sugar, syrups, and soft drinks, and white flour, so it best to avoid these types of simple carbs. Refined carbs include sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juices, pastries, white bread, white pasta, white rice and others. Simple carbohydrates can also be found naturally in foods such as fruits, milk, and milk products.

Complex Carbohydrates are made up of sugar molecules that are strung together in long, complex chains. Complex carbohydrates are found in foods such as peas, beans, whole grains, and vegetables. Complex carbs pack in more nutrients than simple carbs. They're higher in fiber and digest more slowly. This also makes them more filling, which means they're a good option for weight control. They're also ideal for people with type 2 diabetes because they help manage blood sugar spikes after meals. Both simple and complex carbohydrates are turned to glucose (blood sugar) in the body and are used as energy. Complex Carbohydrates

Carbohydrate Metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown, and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms. Although humans consume a variety of carbohydrates, digestion breaks down complex carbohydrates into a few simple monomers for metabolism: Glucose, fructose, and galactose. Glucose constitutes about 80% of the products, and is the primary structure that is distributed to cells in the tissues, where it is broken down or stored as glycogen. In aerobic respiration, the main form of cellular respiration used by humans, glucose and oxygen are metabolized to release energy, with carbon dioxide and water as byproducts. Most of the fructose and galactose travel to the liver, where they can be converted to glucose. Some simple carbohydrates have their own enzymatic oxidation pathways, as do only a few of the more complex carbohydrates. The disaccharide lactose, for instance, requires the enzyme lactase to be broken into its monosaccharide components, Glucose and galactose.

Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria. The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body.

Fatty Acids are substrate for cholesterol, meaning that fatty acids must be available to create cholesterol which is eventually converted to testosterone. If fat intake is too low there will not be enough fatty acids available for optimal testosterone production. This will lead to lower testosterone levels. Low testosterone leads to greater muscle loss during prep, meaning a lower metabolic rate.

Reverse Diet is where you essentially add calories back into your diet slowly much the same way you cut them slowly in order to get lean. This will prevent copious amounts of adipose tissue from collecting within the first month or two after a show.

Starch is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as an energy store. It is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and is contained in large amounts in staple foods such as potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), rice, and cassava. Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odorless powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol. It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin. Depending on the plant, starch generally contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin by weight. Glycogen, the glucose store of animals, is a more branched version of amylopectin. In industry, starch is converted into sugars, for example by malting, and fermented to produce ethanol in the manufacture of beer, whisky and biofuel. It is processed to produce many of the sugars used in processed foods. Dissolving starch in warm water gives wheatpaste, which can be used as a thickening, stiffening or gluing agent. The biggest industrial non-food use of starch is as an adhesive in the papermaking process. Starch can be applied to parts of some garments before ironing, to stiffen them.

Slow Carbs like whole-grain breads and pastas, oats and brown rice are rich in fiber and take more time to digest, so they don't lead to the same quick rise in blood sugar that refined carbs can cause. Foods with a low glycemic index are considered slow carbs, which include most vegetables, whole grains, seeds, nuts, beans, peas and legumes. Slow carbs also tend to be higher in fiber, an important but often lacking nutrient. All non-starchy vegetables contain slow-release carbohydrates. Good examples of
non-starchy vegetables include spinach, kale, tomatoes, broccoli, cauliflower, cucumber, onions and asparagus. The healthiest carbohydrates come from fruits, vegetables, beans, legumes, and whole grains. Whole grains contain three components: the fiber-rich outer bran, the nutrient-rich central germ, and the starchy middle layer (endosperm).

Al dente describes pasta or rice that is cooked to be firm to the bite. Pasta that is cooked al dente has a lower glycemic index than pasta that is cooked soft.

Glycemic Index is a number from 0 to 100 assigned to a food, with pure glucose arbitrarily given the value of 100, which represents the relative rise in the blood glucose level two hours after consuming that food. The GI of a specific food depends primarily on the quantity and type of carbohydrate it contains; but also is affected by the type of carbohydrate, the amount of entrapment of the carbohydrate molecules within the food, the fat and protein content of the food, the amount of organic acids (or their salts) in the food, and whether it is cooked and if so how it is cooked. GI tables are available that list many types of foods with their GIs. A food is considered to have a low GI if it is 55 or less; high GI if 70 or more; and mid-range GI if 56 to 69. The GI is useful for understanding how the body breaks down carbohydrates and takes into account only the available carbohydrate (total carbohydrate minus fiber) in a food. Glycemic index does not predict an individual's glycemic response to a food, but can be used as a tool to assess the insulin response burden of a food, averaged across a studied population. Individual responses vary greatly. The glycemic index is usually applied in the context of the quantity of the food and the amount of carbohydrate in the food that is actually consumed. A related measure, the glycemic load (GL), factors this in by multiplying the glycemic index of the food in question by the carbohydrate content of the actual serving. A practical limitation of the glycemic index is that it does not measure insulin production due to rises in blood sugar. As a result, two foods could have the same glycemic index, but produce different amounts of insulin. Likewise, two foods could have the same glycemic load, but cause different insulin responses. Furthermore, both the glycemic index and glycemic load measurements are defined by the carbohydrate content of food. For example, when eating steak, which has no carbohydrate content but provides a high protein intake, up to 50% of that protein can be converted to glucose when there is little to no carbohydrate consumed with it.[6] But because it contains no carbohydrate itself, steak cannot have a glycemic index. For some food comparisons, the "insulin index" may be more useful.

Why people crave dessert after a big meal? Some evidence suggests that consuming sugar or other simple carbohydrates can enhance the absorption of the amino acid tryptophan found in some foods. The tryptophan then enables an increase in the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter associated with feelings of well-being. For some people, a heavy meal can result in a condition called postprandial (after a meal) or reactive hypoglycemia, a state of low blood sugar that's marked by hunger, weakness, sweating, shakiness, sleepiness, lightheadedness, anxiety or confusion, according to the National Institutes of Health. Consuming sweet foods is one way to counteract the symptoms of reactive hypoglycemia. The condition usually occurs one to four hours after a meal that's rich in carbohydrates.

Reactive Hypoglycemia is a term describing recurrent episodes of symptomatic hypoglycemia occurring within four hours after a high carbohydrate meal in people with and without diabetes. The term is not necessarily a diagnosis since it requires an evaluation to determine the cause of the hypoglycemia. The condition is related to homeostatic systems utilised by the body to control the blood sugar level. It is described as a sense of tiredness, lethargy, irritation, or hangover, although the effects can be lessened if a lot of physical activity is undertaken in the first few hours after food consumption. The alleged mechanism for the feeling of a crash is correlated with an abnormally rapid rise in blood glucose after eating. This normally leads to insulin secretion (known as an insulin spike), which in turn initiates rapid glucose uptake by tissues, either storing it as glycogen or utilizing it for energy production. The consequent fall in blood glucose is indicated as the reason for the "sugar crash". Another cause might be hysteresis effect of insulin action, i.e., the effect of insulin is still prominent even if both plasma glucose and insulin levels were already low, causing a plasma glucose level eventually much lower than the baseline level. Sugar crashes are not to be confused with the after-effects of consuming large amounts of protein, which produces fatigue akin to a sugar crash, but are instead the result of the body prioritizing the digestion of ingested food.

A High Carb Day once every 4-8 days can boost leptin levels since leptin is highly responsive to glucose metabolism. Higher carb days can lead to higher levels of the thyroid hormone t3 as well as even keep testosterone levels elevated, which will further fat loss efforts.



Metabolism


Metabolism is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes.

Be conscience of what you eat and how much you eat. Your body needs only a certain amount of Nutrition. Over eating will hurt you in the long run, and so will starving. You have to know your exact requirements of Nutrition and calories. And that depends on your Metabolism, the amount of physical activity that you have to do, and your personal needs for vitamins and minerals. Calorie Restrictive Diet or Calorie Restriction has benefits for some people but I would not recommend it until you talk to a Nutritionist and have a Doctor to a complete Blood Test and Physical Examination. Overeating or Diets both have risks so please educate yourself. Stamina.

Basal Metabolic Rate is the minimal rate of Energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/(h·kg)). Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met. These criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state (i.e., not actively digesting food). In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mammals. Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy expressed in calories that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest. Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth, brain and nerve function, and contraction of muscles. Basal metabolic rate affects the rate that a person burns calories and ultimately whether that individual maintains, gains, or loses weight. The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by several factors. BMR typically declines by 1–2% per decade after age 20, mostly due to loss of fat-free mass, although the variability between individuals is high.

The liver and muscles burn 26% of calories consumed, the brain uses 22 %, the heart uses 8%, and other body organs use the rest. Though exercise is extremely important, it's what you eat that will mostly determine your weight.

Metabolic Syndrome is a clustering of at least three of the five (unfold into nine combination) following medical conditions: abdominal (central) obesity (cf. TOFI), elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.

Chronic Diseases driven by Metabolic Dysfunction. New model suggests natural healing cycle becomes blocked by cellular miscommunication, allowing conditions like cancer, diabetes and some neurological disorders to persist; a small but dramatic autism trial offers evidence.

Metabolic Disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process. It can also be defined as inherited single gene anomaly, most of which are autosomal recessive.

Metallome In biochemistry, the metallome distribution of free metal ions in every one of cellular compartments. The term was defined in analogy with proteome as metallomics is the study of metallome: the "comprehensive analysis of the entirety of metal and metalloid species within a cell or tissue type". Therefore, metallomics can be considered a branch of metabolomics, even though the metals are not typically considered as metabolites. An alternative definition of "metallomes" as metalloproteins or any other metal-containing biomolecules, and "metallomics" as a study of such biomolecules.

Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites, the small molecule intermediates and products of metabolism. Specifically, metabolomics is the "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind", the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles. The metabolome represents the complete set of metabolites in a biological cell, tissue, organ or organism, which are the end products of cellular processes. mRNA gene expression data and proteomic analyses reveal the set of gene products being produced in the cell, data that represents one aspect of cellular function. Conversely, metabolic profiling can give an instantaneous snapshot of the physiology of that cell, and thus, metabolomics provides a direct "functional readout of the physiological state" of an organism. One of the challenges of systems biology and functional genomics is to integrate genomics, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic information to provide a better understanding of cellular biology.

Metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism. The term metabolite is usually restricted to small molecules. Metabolites have various functions, including fuel, structure, signaling, stimulatory and inhibitory effects on enzymes, catalytic activity of their own (usually as a cofactor to an enzyme), defense, and interactions with other organisms (e.g. pigments, odorants, and pheromones). A primary metabolite is directly involved in normal "growth", development, and reproduction. Ethylene is an example of a primary metabolite produced in large-scale by industrial microbiology. A secondary metabolite is not directly involved in those processes, but usually has an important ecological function. Examples include antibiotics and pigments such as resins and terpenes etc. Some antibiotics use primary metabolites as precursors, such as actinomycin which is created from the primary metabolite, tryptophan. Some sugars are metabolites, such as fructose or glucose, which are both present in the metabolic pathways.

Ketosis is a metabolic state in which most of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides most of the energy. Food Energy - Fasting.

Catabolism is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy, or used in other anabolic reactions.

Glucocorticoid regulation of glucose metabolism, synthesis in the adrenal cortex, and its steroidal structure.

Body Temperature - Awareness - Self-Control

Metabolic Adaptation - Body adapts to survive.

The human body is an amazing adaptive machine that will always strive for homeostasis. Whatever conditions the body is put in, it will strive to survive within that new norm. Once the body senses that fat loss is occurring it will begin to lower thyroid levels and diminish nervous system output in an effort to stop the weight loss. Once further calorie cuts are made and cardio is increased fat loss will resume again, but the body will further lower thyroid levels and nervous system output. It will also lower testosterone levels and raise cortisol levels, which will eventually lead to muscle loss. Since muscle is metabolically active tissue, meaning it requires calories simply to exist, the metabolism will drop even further.

Fat Loss should not be Rushed - When the body senses an extremely low intake of fat it will naturally try to hold on to body fat stores and fats are now at a premium. Taking in moderate amounts of fat will ensure that calories are low enough for fat loss, but the body does not perceive it as starvation.

Metabolism slows while losing fat - After a few more weeks, fat loss has pretty much stalled.

Specific Dynamic Action (SDA), also known as Thermic effect of food (TEF) or dietary induced thermogenesis (DIT), is the amount of energy expenditure above the resting metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for use and storage. Carbs increase cellular osmotic pressure (cellular hydration) and therefore cell volume.

Osmotic Pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane. It is also defined as the measure of the tendency of a solution to take in pure solvent (which belongs to the solution under discussion) by osmosis.

Mean Corpuscular Volume is a measure of the average volume of a red blood corpuscle (or red blood cell). The measure is attained by multiplying a volume of blood by the proportion of blood that is cellular (the hematocrit), and dividing that product by the number of erythrocytes (red blood cells) in that volume. The mean corpuscular volume is a part of a standard complete blood count.

When muscle cells are hydrated and have greater volume this sends signals to the body that it is in a fed state. The body, sensing it is in a fed state, then keeps the metabolic rate raised. Obviously if carbs are too high then fat loss cannot occur, but for continued fat loss carbs must remain in the diet.

Prevent Slowing Metabolism
Persistent metabolic adaptation 6 years after “The Biggest Loser” competition

Bright Light Alters Metabolism. Scientists found bright light exposure increased insulin resistance compared to dim light exposure in both the morning and the evening. In the evening, bright light also caused higher peak glucose (blood sugar) levels. Over time, excess blood glucose can result in increased body fat, weight gain and a higher risk for diabetes. Technology Addiction.

Metabolism is like a camp fire. You need to start off with a nice meal and just add a little food throughout the day every 3 to 4 hours to keep the metabolism burning. If you throw to much wood on the fire (over eat) you will suffocate the fire and thus slow down your metabolism. Also if you throw the wrong kind of wood on the fire, like Junk Food, you will also experience a slow metabolism. If you eat too little you may also risk having the fire burn out and most likely experience Fatigue. You may have to modify the amount of calories that you intake (wood) in order to match the amount of activity or no activity in that day. 150 pound person’s Basal Metabolic Rate would be 1500 Calories a day. Of course calorie intake varies from person to person so you must learn from experience and testing what is the best diet for you in order to maintain a healthy body that is full of energy.

Calorie is the approximate amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius at a pressure of one atmosphere.

A Metabolic Switch to Turn Off Obesity.

Little-known protein known as PGRMC2 appears to play important role in obesity and metabolic disease. The recently discovered protein is normally abundant in fat; without it, the body struggles to manage glucose and insulin.

Alpha/beta Hydrolase Fold is superfamily of hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function that share a common fold.

Protein - Water - Exercise

Fasting - Over Eating

Loss of a specific enzyme boosts fat metabolism and exercise endurance in mice. Blocking the activity of a fat-regulating enzyme in the muscles of mice leads to an increased capacity for endurance exercise, according to the results of a new study. Sugars and fats are the primary fuels that power every cell, tissue and organ. For most cells, sugar is the energy source of choice, but when nutrients are scarce, such as during starvation or extreme exertion, cells will switch to breaking down fats instead. Harvard Medical School researchers identified a critical role of the enzyme, prolyl hydroxylase 3 (PHD3), in sensing nutrient availability and regulating the ability of muscle cells to break down fats. When nutrients are abundant, PHD3 acts as a brake that inhibits unnecessary fat metabolism. This brake is released when fuel is low and more energy is needed, such as during exercise.

Can changing your mealtimes make you healthier? Altering the time at which you eat can affect your weight and metabolism. People who waited 12 hours without eating remained healthier and slimmer than those who ate the same number of calories, but spread out.

A few other things that help boost Metabolism. Staying active and not sitting for long periods, drinking green tea, drinking water, adding fresh lemon juice to your tea or water, and laughter.

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide is a cofactor central to metabolism. Found in all living cells, NAD is called a dinucleotide because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups. One nucleotide contains an adenine nucleobase and the other nicotinamide. NAD exists in two forms: an oxidized and reduced form, abbreviated as NAD+ and NADH (H for hydrogen) respectively. In metabolism, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is involved in redox reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. The cofactor is, therefore, found in two forms in cells: NAD+ is an oxidizing agent – it accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced. This reaction forms NADH, which can then be used as a reducing agent to donate electrons. These electron transfer reactions are the main function of NAD. However, it is also used in other cellular processes, most notably as a substrate of enzymes in adding or removing chemical groups to or from, respectively, proteins, in posttranslational modifications. Because of the importance of these functions, the enzymes involved in NAD metabolism are targets for drug discovery. In organisms, NAD can be synthesized from simple building-blocks (de novo) from either tryptophan or aspartic acid, each a case of an amino acid; alternatively, more complex components of the coenzymes are taken up from nutritive compounds such as niacin; similar compounds are produced by reactions that break down the structure of NAD, providing a salvage pathway that “recycles” them back into their respective active form. Some NAD is converted into the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP); its chemistry largely parallels that of NAD, though predominantly its role is as a cofactor in anabolic metabolism. The NAD+ chemical species’ superscripted addition sign reflects the formal charge on one of its nitrogen atoms; this species’ actually a singly charged anion — carrying a (negative) ionic charge of 1 — under conditions of physiological pH. NADH, in contrast, is a doubly charged anion, because of its two bridging phosphate groups.

Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Nicotinamide mononucleotide ("NMN" and "β-NMN") is a nucleotide derived from ribose and nicotinamide. Like nicotinamide riboside, NMN is a derivative of niacin, and humans have enzymes that can use NMN to generate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). In mice, NMN enters cells via the small intestines within 10 minutes converting to NAD+ through the Slc12a8 NMN transporter. Because NADH is a cofactor for processes inside mitochondria, for sirtuins, and for PARP, NMN has been studied in animal models as a potential neuroprotective and anti-aging agent. Dietary supplement companies have aggressively marketed NMN products claiming those benefits. Doses of up to 500 mg was shown safe in men in a recent human study at Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku, Tokyo Japan. Nicotinamide riboside (NR) kinase enzymes are essential for exogenously administered utilization of NR and NMN. Some research suggests when administered exogenously, NMN must be converted to NR in order to enter a cell and be re-phosphorylated back to NMN.

Ribose is a simple sugar and carbohydrate with molecular formula C5H10O5 and the linear-form composition H−(C=O)−(CHOH)4−H. The naturally-occurring form, d-ribose, is a component of the ribonucleotides from which RNA is built, and so this compound is necessary for coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes. It has a structural analog, deoxyribose, which is a similarly essential component of DNA. l-Ribose is an unnatural sugar that was first prepared by Emil Fischer and Oscar Piloty in 1891. It was not until 1909 that Phoebus Levene and Walter Jacobs recognised that d-ribose was a natural product, the enantiomer of Fischer and Piloty's product, and an essential component of nucleic acids. Fischer chose the name "ribose" as it is a partial rearrangement of the name of another sugar, arabinose, of which ribose is an epimer at the 2' carbon; both names also relate to gum arabic, from which arabinose was first isolated and from which they prepared l-ribose.

Riboside is any glycoside of ribose. Ribosides in the form of ribonucleosides and ribonucleotides play an important role in biochemistry.

AMP-Activated Protein Kinase is an enzyme (EC 2.7.11.31) that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis, largely to activate glucose and fatty acid uptake and oxidation when cellular energy is low. It belongs to a highly conserved eukaryotic protein family and its orthologues are SNF1 in yeast, and SnRK1 in plants. It consists of three proteins (subunits) that together make a functional enzyme, conserved from yeast to humans. It is expressed in a number of tissues, including the liver, brain, and skeletal muscle. In response to binding AMP and ADP, the net effect of AMPK activation is stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, stimulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake, inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis, inhibition of adipocyte lipogenesis, inhibition of adipocyte lipolysis, and modulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells. It should not be confused with cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (protein kinase A). (5' AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK or 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase).



Previous Subject Up Top Page Next Subject



The Thinker Man