Testing - Examinations - Assessments
can sometimes be ineffective, and some tests
. Verifying a persons memory ability
is not the same as
that a person understands
what they have
. We don't want a child's life to be ruined just because they
did not pass
a particular test. And we certainly don't want a child to be
either just because they did pass a test. Testing should only be a
. Testing should not be a form of
, or a
of worth, or be used to manipulate
or mislead someone
, in the same way
sometimes does. Ineffective testing
can sometimes create
who are unaware of their own
is why testing is much more than just a test. Testing should
knowledge or confirm the
of knowledge. Will this be on the Test?
show them the way
or determine the
of traveling. Someone who shows the way by
Something that offers basic information or
. A model,
standard or outline to follow
, adapt or make comparisons. Someone who can find paths through
unexplored territory. A structure or marking that serves to direct the
motion or positioning of something.
is to go
test or a selection process. Success in satisfying a test or requirement.
Accept or judge as acceptable.
into a specified
state or condition. Grant authorization or clearance for. Be superior or
better than some standard. Rewards
Passed with Flying Colors
is an idiom that means to excel and to be extremely
successful in achieving
something that was difficult.
With Flying Colours
is a nautical phrase with the colors of a ship
being its flags. A ship that enters a harbor with its flags fully unfurled
means that the ship has passed with flying colors and was victorious or
successful on its journey. A
vanquished ship or one that has been unsuccessful would strike its colors,
or take down its flags. The term flying colors has been in use since the
early 1700s to mean achieving some sort of triumph.
Students performed significantly better
to take than on tests
they were forced
Passing a test usually means only one thing, that you passed a
. So what does that mean? What does the test really
confirm? What are the benefits from that test? What did you
learn that was valuable from that test?
Students become intelligent not because they went to school or went to
college, it's because students did lot of work on their own and educated
themselves and did a lot of studying. Good grades come from students
studying and learning on their own. But good grades are not measurements
of intelligence. Good grades tell you that a student has the abilities to
be intelligent. But they have to study and do a lot of learning on their
I passed a lot of tests
in the schools that I attended, and I still walked
away knowing very little about myself and the world around me. If the
questions on the test don't matter, then getting a right or wrong answer
does not matter. So just getting the answers right does not say that the
knowledge is important, or does it guarantee that you will fully
understand the knowledge and information enough in order to use it
effectively and efficiently. Every school on the planet needs to teach
this as a fact, if they don't, then every student walks away with a false
sense of security, which could have some
can clearly see all around the world today in the form of wars, thousands
of crimes being committed, millions of people with diseases, hundreds of
social problems, and nonstop corruption, just to name a few.
is a form of learning, adapting
Surviving is to
Stay in Existence. Life will test you
but life is not
. If you don't learn how to pass the tests of life, then mistakes and failures will follow. So who failed?
Me or the teacher?
Now the test has begun...Measurable Impacts on Learning.
"Instead of failing because you got half the answers wrong, you should
instead be saying, I got half the answers correct, that means
I'm halfway there."If people
only learn things just to pass a test, then they have already failed the
. You should learn things because they are valuable, knowledge
that you will use in your life. If learning is only to pass a test, then
most people will stop learning because they believe there is no benefit,
like a test grade. Being good just for the reward
pass a test or do you study to learn? Testing should have a reason. It
should accurately measure a persons understanding of a subject, so they
can understand the knowledge well enough in order to apply it to a
particular real life
action. When you take a driving test you are proving that you know how to
drive safely and effectively. When you take a math test, you are proving
that you know how to use math effectively to solve real world problems and
make accurate predictions. If learning to pass a test does not give you
knowledge that you will use to benefit yourself and to benefit others,
then what's the incentive? What's the purpose? Why would I study? Testing
should be goal-directed.
There is way too much confusion about testing
and its true purpose. If the Test itself is flawed, then what's the value in passing the test?
People should never feel threatened by tests
or feel that their intelligence is being
judged. Testing should only be a
tool for learning
should never be used as a weapon for
Testing should only be a tool to encourage development, and not be used to
discourage development. Testing should only be a tool to measure progress,
and not be used to impede progress.
Testing should not just measure memory
is the act of
. Examination can also
be a set of questions or exercises that is used for evaluating skill or
knowledge, or the act of giving students or candidates a test using
to determine what they may
or what they
may have learned
Examination can also be a detailed
of your conscience
set of questions
helps to evaluate a certain skill level
that a person may have
about a particular subject or group of subjects.
Testing may include measuring
, etc.. Testing can
also be used to determine a
by using controlled
. Testing can also be used to
for the presence of a disease
an infection. Testing
be used in determining the presence of a substance or the
properties in a substance
is something or
someone tested and proved useful or correct. Tested and proved to be
reliable, tried and true, well-tried.
Put to the test, as for its quality, or give experimental use to
Examine someone's knowledge of something. Determine the presence or
properties of (a substance). Product Testing
is a conclusive test of the
success or value of something.
is an assessment intended to measure a
test-taker's knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or
classification in many other topics (e.g., beliefs). A test may be
administered verbally, on paper, on a computer, or in a confined area that
requires a test taker to physically perform a set of skills. Tests vary in
style, rigor and requirements.
is an educational course,
educational material, or a learning tool designed to increase students'
performance on standardized tests.
produces a test result
. A test can be considered a technical operation or
procedure that consists of determination of one or more characteristics of
a given product, process or service according to a specified procedure.
Often a test is part of an experiment. The test result can be qualitative
(yes/no), categorical, or quantitative (a measured value). It can be a
personal observation or the output of a precision measuring instrument.
Usually the test result is the dependent variable, the measured response
based on the particular conditions of the test or the level of the
independent variable. Some tests, however, may involve changing the
independent variable to determine the level at which a certain response
occurs: in this case, the test result is the independent
is to estimate or determine
of someone or something.
determination of a subject's
, worth and significance, using criteria
governed by a set of standards
and up to
date knowledge. It can assist an organization
project or any other intervention
or initiative to assess any aim, realisable concept/proposal, or any alternative, to help in
decision-making; or to ascertain the degree of achievement or value in
regard to the aim and objectives
and results of any such action that has
been completed. The primary purpose of evaluation, in addition to gaining
insight into prior or existing initiatives, is to enable reflection and
assist in the identification of future change
is to evaluate again or
evaluate differently, especially with regard to changes or
reexamine someone again in order to confirm that previous treatments are
having the desired effect. To observe or monitor someone again in order to
determine their current status and to determine any changes.
Types of Tests
is an expert estimation of the quality, quantity,
characteristics of someone or something.
is the classification of
someone or something with respect to its
is to revise or renew one's
assessment. Reassessment is a new appraisal or evaluation.
is the process of documenting knowledge, skills,
attitudes, and beliefs. The systematic process
using empirical data
on the knowledge, skill, attitudes, and beliefs to
refine programs and improve student
. Assessment data can be
obtained from directly examining student work to assess the achievement of
or can be based on data from which one can make
inferences about learning. Assessment is often used interchangeably with
test, but not limited to tests. Assessment can focus on the individual
learner, the learning community (class, workshop, or other organized group
of learners), a course, an academic program, the institution, or the
educational system as a whole (also known as granularity). As a continuous
process, assessment establishes measurable and clear student
for learning, provisioning a sufficient amount of learning
opportunities to achieve these outcomes, implementing a systematic way of
gathering, analyzing and interpreting evidence to determine how well
student learning matches expectations, and using the collected information
to inform improvement in student learning. The final purpose of assessment
practices in education depends on the theoretical framework of the
practitioners and researchers, their assumptions and beliefs about the
nature of human mind, the
origin of knowledge
, and the
is a university entrance examination, which
is typically held towards the end of secondary school. After passing the
examination, a student receives a school leaving certificate
academic qualifications from second-level education. Depending on scores
or grades achieved, a student may then matriculate to university to take
up further studies.
is a specific type of examination that must
be completed by graduate students in some disciplines and courses of
study, and also by undergraduate students in some institutions and
departments. Unlike final examinations, comprehensive examinations are not
linked to any particular course, but rather test knowledge across one or
more general fields of study. Comprehensive examination is also known as
"comps". Graduate-level comprehensive examinations are sometimes also
known as preliminary examinations ("prelims"), general examinations
("generals"), qualifying examinations ("quals"), or as major field
or simply final, is a test given to students at the
end of a course of study or training. Although the term can be used in the
context of physical training, it most often occurs in the academic world.
Most high schools, colleges, and universities run final exams at the end
of a particular academic term, typically a quarter or semester, or more
traditionally at the end of a complete degree course.
is a practice in many schools and disciplines in which an
examiner poses questions to the student in spoken form. The student has to
answer the question in such a way as to demonstrate sufficient knowledge
of the subject to pass the exam. The oral exam also helps reduce (although
it does not eliminate) the risk of granting a degree to a candidate who
has had the thesis or dissertation ghostwritten by an expert.
originally called the Scholastic Aptitude Test
it was later called the
Scholastic Assessment Test
, then the SAT I:
Reasoning Test, then the SAT Reasoning Test, and now, simply the SAT. The
test is intended to assess students' readiness for college or an
is not an IQ Test
is a criterion-referenced test designed to
help determine whether a student has an accurate working knowledge of a
specific set of concepts
. Historically, concept inventories have been in
the form of multiple-choice tests in order to aid interpretability and
facilitate administration in large classes. Unlike a typical,
teacher-authored multiple-choice test, questions and response choices on
concept inventories are the subject of extensive research. The aims of the
research include ascertaining (a) the range of what individuals think a
particular question is asking and (b) the most common responses to the
questions. Concept inventories are evaluated to ensure
. In its final form, each question includes one correct answer
and several distractors. Ideally, a score on a criterion-referenced test
reflects the amount of content knowledge a student has mastered.
Criterion-referenced tests differ from norm-referenced tests in that (in
theory) the former is not used to compare an individual's score to the
scores of the group. Ordinarily, the purpose of a criterion-referenced
test is to ascertain whether a student mastered a predetermined amount of
content knowledge; upon obtaining a test score that is at or above a
cutoff score, the student can move on to study a body of content knowledge
that follows next in a learning sequence. In general, item difficulty
values ranging between 30% and 70% are best able to provide information
about student understanding. The distractors are incorrect or irrelevant
answers that are usually (but not always) based on students' commonly held
misconceptions. Test developers often research student misconceptions by
examining students' responses to open-ended essay questions and conducting
"think-aloud" interviews with students. The distractors chosen by students
help researchers understand student thinking and give instructors insights
into students' prior knowledge (and, sometimes, firmly held beliefs). This
foundation in research underlies instrument construction and design, and
plays a role in helping educators obtain clues about students' ideas,
scientific misconceptions, and didaskalogenic ("teacher-induced" or
"teaching-induced") confusions and conceptual lacunae that interfere with
is the evaluation of
performance by assigning a grade or a score. Assign a grade or a
rank to someone's work
according to one's evaluation. Scoring also means to gain points in a
game, sport or contest. Music Score
is a number or letter indicating
the perceived quality of a student's performance. To assign a rank or
someone. Grade as an Angle
is the measurement of "intellectual
accomplishments that are worthwhile, significant, and meaningful" as
contrasted to multiple choice standardized tests. Authentic assessment can
be devised by the teacher, or in collaboration with the student by
engaging student voice. When applying authentic assessment to student
learning and achievement, a teacher applies criteria related to
“construction of knowledge, disciplined inquiry, and the value of
achievement beyond the school.” Authentic assessment tends to focus on
contextualised tasks, enabling students to demonstrate their competency in
a more 'authentic' setting. Examples of authentic assessment categories
include: Performance of the skills, or demonstrating use of a particular
knowledge. Simulations and role plays, studio portfolios, strategically
refers to the use of educational assessments and
the analysis of data such as scores obtained from educational assessments
to infer the abilities and proficiencies of students. The approaches
overlap with those in psychometrics. Educational measurement is the
assigning of numerals to traits such as achievement, interest, attitudes,
aptitudes, intelligence and performance
Level of Measurement
is a classification that describes the nature of information within the
numbers assigned to variables. Psychologist Stanley Smith Stevens
developed the best known classification with four levels, or scales, of
measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. This framework of
distinguishing levels of measurement originated in psychology and is
widely criticized by scholars in other disciplines.
is not a good testing method.
is a form of an objective assessment
in which respondents are asked to
select the only correct answer out of the choices from a list. The
multiple choice format is most frequently used in educational testing, in
market research, and in elections, when a person chooses between multiple
candidates, parties, or policies.
Process of Elimination
is a method to identify an entity of
interest among several ones by excluding all other entities. In
educational testing, the process of elimination is process of deleting
options whereby the possibility of option being correct is close to zero
or significantly lower compared to other options. The process does not
guarantee success, even if only 1 option remains.
Open Book Exam
is a test that
allows you to bring the text or material you have been studying. Open book
exams allow you to take notes, texts or resource materials into an exam
situation. They test your ability to find and apply information and
knowledge, so are often used in subjects requiring direct reference to
written materials, like law statutes, statistics or acts of parliament. An
open book exam you are evaluated on understanding rather than recall and
is the determination of quantitative or qualitative value
related to a concrete situation and a recognized threat.
is he process of identifying, quantifying, and
prioritizing (or ranking) the vulnerabilities
in a system, i.e., IT, water
refers to the field in
psychology and education that is devoted to testing
assessment, and related activities. One part of the field is concerned
with the objective measurement of skills and knowledge, abilities,
attitudes, personality traits, and educational achievement.
is a process of gathering information about a
person within a psychiatric or mental health
service with the purpose of
making a diagnosis.
Mental Health Assessments
is an examination into a person's mental health
by a mental health professional
such as a psychologist.
is an instrument designed to measure unobserved
constructs, also known as latent variables. Psychological tests are
typically, but not necessarily, a series of tasks or problems that the
respondent has to solve. Psychological tests can strongly resemble
questionnaires, which are also designed to measure unobserved constructs,
but differ in that psychological tests ask for a respondent's maximum
performance whereas a questionnaire asks for the respondent's typical
performance. A useful psychological test must be both valid (i.e., there
is evidence to support the specified interpretation of the test results)
and reliable (i.e., internally consistent or give consistent results over
time, across raters, etc.).Psychological Assessment
crazy people testing normal people, how ironic.
is a process undertaken by
to learn about
the needs of users (and non-users).
are marketing assessments.
is the value calculated as the basis for determining the
amounts to be paid or assessed for tax or insurance purposes.
is an area of study within
that looks at the practices, technologies, and
process of using writing to assess performance and potential.
Our whole life depends on measuring things accurately, but if you are
not measuring the measurer, then you don't have true
especially when the most important equipment that's being used to measure
is the human brain. We know that we can
but when you're only using the one brain that you have, then that brain
needs to understand what it's looking at and measuring. If not, then all
you have is
is the best way to improve our measurements,
and thus understand our shared reality more accurately.
is a test conducted to determine if the
of a specification or contract are met. It may involve
chemical tests, physical tests, or performance tests.
(degrees) - Assessment Errors
in academics guideline, sometimes referred to as the
professor test, is meant to reflect consensus about the notability of
academics as measured by their academic achievements. For the purposes of
this guideline, an academic is someone engaged in scholarly research or
higher education, and academic notability refers to being known for such
is a test given to students at the end of a course of study or
is a research paper
written by students over an academic term, accounting for a large part of
a grade. Term papers are generally intended to describe an event, a
concept, or argue a point. A term paper is a written original work
discussing a topic in detail, usually several typed pages in length and is
often due at the end of a semester.
is the use of
forms of assessment such as educational assessment, health assessment,
psychiatric assessment, and psychological assessment. This may utilize an
online computer connected to a network. This definition embraces a wide
range of student activity ranging from the use of a word processor to
on-screen testing. Specific types of e-assessment include multiple choice,
online/electronic submission, computerized adaptive testing and
computerized classification testing. Different types of online assessments
contain elements of one or more of the following components, depending on
the assessment's purpose: formative, diagnostic, or summative. Instant and
detailed feedback may (or may not) be enabled. In education assessment,
large-scale examining bodies find the journey from traditional paper-based
exam assessment to fully electronic assessment a long one. Practical
considerations such as having the necessary IT hardware to enable large
numbers of student to sit an electronic examination at the same time, as
well as the need to ensure a stringent level of security (for example,
see: Academic Dishonesty) are among the concerns that need to resolved to
accomplish this transition.
is the process of documenting,
usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skill, attitudes, and beliefs. It
is a tool or method of obtaining information from tests or other sources
about the achievement or abilities of individuals.
Standards - Standardized
assessment that relies on the evaluation
of student understanding with
respect to agreed-upon standards
, also known as "outcomes
". The standards
set the criteria for the successful demonstration of the understanding of
a concept or skill.Educational Standards
are the learning goals
for what students should know and be able to do at each grade level.
Education standards, like Common Core are
not a curriculum
communities and educators choose their own curriculum
, which is a detailed
plan for day to day teaching.
Standards-Based Education Reform
since the 1980s has been
largely driven by the setting of
for what students
should know and be able to do. These
can then be used to guide
all other system components. The SBE (standards-based education) reform
movement calls for clear, measurable standards for all school students.
Rather than norm-referenced rankings, a standards-based system measures
each student against the concrete standard.
, assessments, and
professional development are aligned to the standards
learning assimilation standard)
Tonight with John Oliver: Standardized Testing
Reasons Why Standardized Tests Are Not Working
Standardized Tests in the United States
Most Teachers are
just following orders
school administrators. And school administrators are just following
. And standards are
designed by States and Governments. And States and Governments are
controlled by corporations, religious institutions and the wealthy. And
corporations, religious institutions and the wealthy are controlled by
are elements of declarative, procedural, schematic, and
strategic knowledge that, as a body, define the specific content of an
educational program. Standards are usually composed of statements that
express what a student knows. Learning standards have multiple uses in a
modern education ecosystem. They can be links to content, and they can be
part of a learning pathway or progression.
False Premise of National Education Standards
Problems with Testing
is a test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or
"standard", manner. Standardized tests are designed in such a way that the
questions, conditions for administering, scoring procedures, and
interpretations are consistent and are administered and scored in a
predetermined, standard manner.
Physical Fitness Test
is a test designed to measure
, agility, and
They are commonly employed in educational institutions as part of the
physical education curriculum, in medicine as part of diagnostic testing,
and as eligibility requirements in fields that focus on physical ability.
Physical Fitness Test
is a series of tests that helps your trainer determine your physical
fitness level and aids in developing your personalized program. The
results can identify your strengths and weaknesses in relation to your
physical fitness and help in setting attainable fitness goals. Test your
fitness levels with these six easy and quick tests which measure your
strength, fitness and endurance. Flexibility Test. Step Test for
endurance. Strength test - push up. Strength test - sit up. Target Heart
Rate Calculator. Body size calculator. Fitness
is the quality of being in good physical condition or in shape and
suitable or qualified for physical activities.
Multi-Stage Fitness Test
is a running test used to estimate an
athlete's aerobic capacity (VO2 max
the test, athletes must run from one line to another before a timed beep.
Athletes must continue running back and forth, each time reaching the line
before the next beep. Once one can no longer run, the test is over and the
number of laps is recorded. As the test continues, the time between beeps
gets shorter. (also known as the PACER test or PACER (Progressive Aerobic
Cardiovascular Endurance Run), the 20 m Shuttle Run Test (20 m SRT), or
the beep test).
Candidate Physical Ability Test
is the standard assessment for
measuring an individual's ability to handle the physical demands of being
CPAT is a timed test that measures how candidates handle eight separate
physical tasks or functions, designed to mirror tasks that firefights
would have to do on the job. During the test, candidates are required to
complete 8 separate tasks in a period of 10 minutes and 20 seconds. The
tasks are the following: Stair Climb (climbing stairs while carrying an
additional 25 lb. simulated hose pack). Hose Drag (stretching uncharged
hose lines, advancing lines). Equipment Carry (removing and carrying
equipment from fire apparatus to fire ground). Ladder Raise and Extension
(placing a ground ladder at the fire scene and extending the ladder to the
roof or a window). Forcible Entry (penetrating a locked door, breaching a
Search (crawling through dark unpredictable areas to search for
victims). Rescue Drag (removing a victim or partner from a burning
building). Ceiling Breach and Pull (locating a fire and checking for fire
extension). During the test, candidates are required wear a helmet, gloves
and a 50 lb weighted vest. This is designed to simulate the weight of a
firefighter's personal protective equipment. For the stair climb,
candidates are required to carry and additional 25 lb weight, which
simulates the carrying of a hose pack into a high rise fire. Candidates
are accompanied by a test proctor, who calls out directions for the test
events and scores the candidate's success. Each event of the CPAT must be
completed as directed. If a candidate fails any component of the test or
does not complete the test within the 10 minute and 20 second time limit,
they will fail the entire test.Complete
Health & Injury Prevention
is a police fitness test that are based on your ability to do a
specified number of sit ups in one minute. The more sit-ups you can do in
that period of time, the better your score. Push-ups or bench press:
Push-ups and bench-press exercises in a police fitness test measure the
strength of your arms and upper torso.
Army Physical Fitness Test
Air Force Fitness Assessment
is a plan of care that identifies the specific needs of
the client and how those needs will be addressed by the healthcare system.
(health assessments and examinations) - Heredity
is the gathering of information about a patient's
physiological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual status.
is a field of study concerned with the theory and
technique of psychological measurement.
are variables that are not directly observed but are
rather inferred (through a mathematical model) from other variables that
are observed (directly measured). Mathematical models that aim to explain
observed variables in terms of latent variables are called latent variable
models. Latent variable models are used in many disciplines, including
psychology, economics, engineering, medicine, physics, machine
learning/artificial intelligence, bioinformatics, natural language
processing, econometrics, management and the social sciences.
is a variable that can be observed and directly
is a procedure designed to test a person's ability to drive a
. A driving test generally consists of one or two parts: the
practical test, called a road test, used to assess a person's driving
ability under normal operating conditions, and/or a written or oral test
(theory test) to confirm a person's knowledge of driving and relevant
rules and laws
so that people would have to learn how to drive so
they would not destroy property or kill themselves or kill other people.
But we don't have a test and a license that says you know how to live a
healthy life. A person should know how to navigate life and not just know
how to navigate a vehicle. A person should know how to operate their body
and mind and not just know how to operate a vehicle.
the statistical process of determining comparable scores on different
forms of an exam. It can be accomplished using either classical test
theory or item response theory. In item response theory, equating is the
process of placing scores from two or more parallel test forms onto a
common score scale. The result is that scores from two different test
forms can be compared directly, or treated as though they came from the
same test form. When the tests are not parallel, the general process is
called linking. It is the process of equating the units and origins of two
scales on which the abilities of students have been estimated from results
on different tests. The process is analogous to equating degrees
Fahrenheit with degrees Celsius by converting measurements from one scale
to the other. The determination of comparable scores is a by-product of
equating that results from equating the scales obtained from test results.
is a scoring guide used to evaluate the quality of students'
constructed responses". Rubrics usually contain evaluative criteria,
quality definitions for those criteria at particular levels of
achievement, and a scoring strategy. They are often presented in table
format and can be used by teachers when marking, and by students when
planning their work.
Bias in Mental Testing
- IQ tests are Culturally Biased
History of the Race and Intelligence Controversy
historical development of a debate, concerning possible explanations of
group differences encountered in the study of race and intelligence. Since
the beginning of IQ testing around the time of World War I there have been
observed differences between average scores of different population
groups, but there has been no agreement about whether this is mainly due
to environmental and cultural factors, or mainly due to some genetic
factor, or even if the dichotomy between environmental and genetic factors
is the most effectual approach to the debate.
Cattell Culture Fair III
measure of cognitive abilities that
accurately estimated intelligence devoid of sociocultural and
Purdue Spatial Visualization Test: Visualization of Rotation
like most measures of spatial ability, the PSVT:R shows sex differences. A
meta-analysis of 40 studies found a Hedges's g of 0.57 in favor of
The Chitling Test
was designed to demonstrate differences in
understanding and culture between races, specifically between African
Americans and Whites. In determining how streetwise someone is, the
Chitling Test may have validity, but there have been no studies
demonstrating this. Furthermore, the Chitling Test has only proved valid
as far as face validity is concerned; no evidence has been brought to
light on the Chitling predicting performance.
Objective Structured Clinical Examination
Objective Structured Clinical Examination
is a modern type of
examination designed to test
clinical skill performance
and competence in
skills such as communication,
, medical procedures /
prescription, exercise prescription, joint mobilisation / manipulation
techniques, radiographic positioning, radiographic image evaluation and
interpretation of results. It is a hands-on, real-world approach to
learning that keeps you engaged, allows you to understand the key factors
that drive the medical decision-making process
, and challenges the
professional to be innovative and reveals their errors in case-handling
and provides an open space for improved decision making based on evidence
based practice for real world responsibilities.
An OSCE usually
comprises a circuit of short (the usual is 5–10 minutes although some use
up to 15 minute) stations, in which each candidate is examined on a
one-to-one basis with one or two impartial examiner(s) and either real or
simulated (actors or electronic patient simulators) patients. Each station
has a different examiner, as opposed to the traditional method of clinical
examinations where a candidate would be assigned to an examiner for the
entire examination. Candidates rotate through the stations, completing all
the stations on their circuit. In this way, all candidates take the same
stations. It is considered to be an improvement over traditional
examination methods because the stations can be standardized enabling
fairer peer comparison and complex procedures can be assessed without
endangering patients health.
As the name suggests, an OSCE is
designed to be
- all candidates are assessed using exactly the same
stations (although if real patients are used, their signs may vary
slightly) with the same marking scheme. In an OSCE, candidates get marks
for each step on the mark scheme that they perform correctly, which
therefore makes the assessment of clinical skills more objective,
rather than subjective, structured - stations in OSCEs have a very
specific task. Where simulated patients are used, detailed scripts are
provided to ensure that the information that they give is the same to all
candidates, including the emotions that the patient should use during the
consultation. Instructions are carefully written to ensure that the
candidate is given a very specific task to complete. The OSCE is carefully
structured to include parts from all elements of the curriculum as well as
a wide range of skills. A clinical examination - the OSCE is designed to
apply clinical and theoretical knowledge. Where theoretical knowledge
is required, for example, answering questions from the examiner at the end
of the station, then the questions are standardized and the candidate is
only asked questions that are on the mark sheet and if the candidate is
asked any others then there will be no marks for them.
Objective Structured Clinical Examination:
The Assessment of Choice
The Objective Structured Clinical Examination is a versatile
multipurpose evaluative tool that can be utilized to assess health care
professionals in a clinical setting. It assesses
, based on
objective testing through direct observation. It is precise, objective,
and reproducible allowing uniform testing of students for a wide range of
clinical skills. Unlike the traditional clinical exam, the OSCE could
evaluate areas most critical to performance of health care professionals
such as communication skills and ability to handle unpredictable patient
The OSCE is a versatile multipurpose evaluative tool that
can be utilized to evaluate health care professionals in a clinical
setting. It assesses competency, based on objective testing through direct
observation. It is comprised of several "stations" in which examinees are
expected to perform a variety of clinical tasks within a specified time
period against criteria formulated to the clinical skill, thus
demonstrating competency of skills and/or attitudes. The OSCE has been
used to evaluate those areas most critical to performance of health care
professionals, such as the ability to obtain/interpret data,
problem-solve, teach, communicate, and handle unpredictable patient
behavior, which are otherwise impossible in the traditional clinical
examination. Any attempt to evaluate these critical areas in the
old-fashioned clinical case examination will seem to be assessing theory
rather than simulating practical performance.
Advantages and Disadvantages of OSCE
Written examinations (essays and multiple choices) test cognitive
knowledge, which is only one aspect of the competency. Traditional
clinical examination basically tests a narrow range of clinical skills
under the observation of normally two examiners in a given clinical case.
The scope of traditional clinical exam is basically patient histories,
demonstration of physical examinations, and assessment of a narrow range
of technical skills. It has been shown to be largely unreliable in testing
students’ performance and has a wide margin of variability between one
examiner and the other. Data gathered by the National Board of Medical
Examinations in the USA (1960–1963), involving over 10,000 medical
students showed that the correlation of independent evaluations by two
examiners was less than 0.25.8 It has also been demonstrated that the luck
of the draw in selection of examiner and patient played a significant role
in the outcome of postgraduate examinations in psychiatry using the
Published findings of researchers on OSCE from
its inception in 1975 to 2004 has reported it to be reliable, valid and
objective with cost as its only major drawback. The OSCE however, covers
broader range like problem solving, communication skills, decision-making
and patient management abilities.
The advantages of OSCE apart from
its versatility and ever broadening scope are its objectivity,
reproducibility, and easy recall. All students get examined on
predetermined criteria on same or similar clinical scenario or tasks with
marks written down against those criteria thus enabling recall, teaching
audit and determination of standards. In a study from Harvard medical
school, students in second year were found to perform better on
interpersonal and technical skills than on interpretative or integrative
skills. This allows for review of teaching technique and curricula.
Performance is judged not by two or three examiners but by a team of
many examiners in-charge of the various stations of the examination. This
is to the advantage of both the examinee and the teaching standard of the
institution as the outcome of the examination is not affected by prejudice
and standards get determined by a lot more teachers each looking at a
particular issue in the training. OSCE takes much shorter time to
execute examining more students in any given time over a broader range of
However no examination method is flawless and the OSCE
has been criticized for using unreal subjects even though actual patients
can be used according to need. OSCE is more difficult to organize and
requires more materials and human resources. Advantages & Disadvantages
of OSCE.How is OSCE done?
OSCE’s basic structure is a circuit of assessment stations, where
examiners, using previously determined criteria assess range of practical
clinical skills on an objective-marking scheme.
Such stations could
involve several methods of testing, including use of multiple choice or
short precise answers, history taking, demonstration of clinical signs,
interpretation of clinical data, practical skills and counselling sessions
among others. Most OSCEs use "standardized patients (SP)" for
accomplishing clinical history, examination and counselling sessions.
Standardized patients are individuals who have been trained to exhibit
certain signs and symptoms of specific conditions under certain testing
conditions.The basic steps in
modelling an OSCE exam include:
Determination of the OSCE team. Skills to be assessed (CE Stations). Objective marking schemes.
Recruitment and training of the standardized patients. Logistics of the
examination process.The OSCE Team
: Examiners, marshals and timekeepers are required. Some stations could
be unmanned such as those for data or image interpretation but most
require an examiner to objectively assess candidate performance based on
the pre-set criteria. A reserve examiner who can step in at the last time
if required is a good practice. Examiners must be experienced and a
standard agreed upon at the outset. Examiners must be prepared to
dispense with personal preferences in the interests of objectivity and
reproducibility and must assess students according to the marking scheme.
Marshals and timekeepers are required for correct movement of candidates
and accurate time keeping. OSCE is expensive in terms of manpower requirement.
Skills Assessed in OSCEs
: The tasks
to be assessed should be of different types and of varying difficulties to
provide a mixed assessment circuit. The tasks in OSCE depend on the level
of students training. Early in undergraduate training correct technique of
history taking and demonstration of physical signs to arrive at a
conclusion may be all that is required.
At the end of the training
however, testing a broader range of skills, may be required. This could
include formulation of a working diagnosis, data and image interpretation,
requesting and interpreting investigations, as well as communication
skills. Postgraduate medicine may involve more advanced issues like
decision taking, handling of complex management issues, counselling,
breaking bad news and practical management of emergency situations. There
is no hard or fast rules to the skills tested but are rather determined by
the aim of assessment. Complex stations for postgraduate student could
test varying skills including management problems, administrative skills,
handling unpredictable patient behaviour and data interpretation. These
assessments and many others are impossible in traditional clinical
examination.Objective marking scheme
: The marking scheme for the OSCE is decided
and objectively designed. It must be concise, well focused and unambiguous
aiming to reward actions that discriminate good performance from poor one.
The marking scheme must take cognizance of all possible performances and
provide scores according to the level of the student’s performance. It may
be necessary to read out clear instructions to the candidates on what
is required of them in that station. Alternatively, a written instruction
may be kept in the unmanned station.
It is good practice to perform
dummy run of the various stations, which enables exam designers to ensure
that the tasks can be completed in the time allocated and modify the tasks
if necessary. Candidates should be provided with answer booklets for the
answers to tasks on the unmanned stations, which should be handed over and
marked at the end of the examination.
Training of Standardized or Simulated Patient. Vu and Barrows defined
standardized patients as "real" or "simulated" patients who have been
coached to present a clinical problem. Standardized patients may be
professionally trained actors, volunteer simulators or even housewives who
have no acting experience. Their use encompasses undergraduate and
postgraduate learning, the monitoring of doctors’ performance and
standardization of clinical examinations. Simulation has been used for
instruction in industry and the military for much longer period, but the
first known effective use of simulated patients was by Barrows and
Abrahamson (1964), who used them to appraise students’ performance in
clinical neurology examinations.
SP candidates must be intelligent,
flexible, quick thinking, and reliable. Standardized patients’
understanding of the concept of the OSCE and the role given to them is
critical to the overall process.
An advantage of simulated patients
over real patients is that of allowing different candidates to be
presented with a similar challenge, thereby reducing an important source
of variability. They also have reliable availability and adaptability,
which enables the reproduction of a wide range of clinical phenomena
tailored to the student’s level of skill. In addition, they can simulate
scenarios that may be distressing for a real patient, such as bereavement
or terminal illness. Their use also removes the risk of injury or
litigation while using real patients for examination especially in
sensitive area of medicine like obstetrics and gynecology.
validity of the use of SP in clinical practice has been proved by both
direct and indirect means. In a double-blind study, simulated patients
were substituted for real patients in the individual patient assessment of
mock clinical examinations in psychiatry. Neither the examiners nor the
students could detect the presence of simulated patients among the real
patients. Indirect indicators of validity might include the fact that
simulators are rarely distinguished from real patients.
patients are however expensive in terms of the time it takes to train and
coach them in performing and understanding concepts, this could be very
difficult in some fields like pediatrics where problems in very young
children need to be simulated. The cost of paying professionals adds
to the expense. However, the time efficiency of OSCE and its versatility makes the cost worthwhile. Recruitment and training of the
SP is critical to the success of the OSCE. SP could be used not only for
history taking and counselling, but also for eliciting physical findings
that can be simulated, including aphasia, facial paralysis, hemiparetic
gait, and hyperactive deep tendon reflexes.
Logistics of the examination process
: Enough space is required for circuit running and to accommodate the
various stations, equipment and materials for the exam. The manned
stations should accommodate an examiner, a student and possibly the
standardised patient and also allow for enough privacy of discussion so
that the students performing other tasks are not distracted or disturbed.
A large clinic room completely cleared could be ideal and may have further
advantage of having clinic staff that will volunteer towards the execution
of the examination thereby reducing cost.
The stations should be
clearly marked and the direction of flow should also be unambiguous. It is
good practice to have test run involving all candidates for that circuit
so that they acquaint themselves to the direction of movement and the
sound of the bell.Conclusion
: The OSCE style of clinical assessment, given its obvious
advantages, especially in terms of objectivity, uniformity and versatility
of clinical scenarios that can be assessed, shows superiority over
traditional clinical assessment. It allows evaluation of clinical students
at varying levels of training within a relatively short period, over a
broad range of skills and issues. OSCE removes prejudice in examining
students and allows all to go through the same scope and criteria for
assessment. This has made it a worthwhile method in medical practice.
determining the needs or conditions to
meet for a new or altered product or project.
a qualitative or quantitative procedure that consists of determination of
one or more characteristics of a given product, process or service
according to a specified procedure. Often this is part of an experiment.
is a technique used in user-centered interaction
design to evaluate a product by testing it on users. This can be seen as
an irreplaceable usability practice, since it gives direct input on how
real users use the system. This is in contrast with usability inspection
methods where experts use different methods to evaluate a user interface
without involving users. Usability testing focuses on measuring a
human-made product's capacity to meet its intended purpose. Examples of
products that commonly benefit from usability testing are foods, consumer
products, web sites or web applications, computer interfaces, documents,
and devices. Usability testing measures the usability, or ease of use, of
a specific object or set of objects, whereas general human-computer
interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles.
is a test conducted to determine if the
requirements of a specification or contract
are met. It may involve
chemical tests, physical tests, or performance tests, which is an
assessment that requires an examinee to actually perform a task or
activity, rather than simply answering questions referring to specific
parts. The purpose is to ensure greater fidelity to what is being tested.
Testing Maturity Model
has five Levels. Level
1 – Initial:
At this level an organisation is using ad hoc methods
for testing, so results are not repeatable and there is no quality
standard. Level 2 – Definition:
level testing is defined as a process, so there might be test strategies,
test plans, test cases, based on requirements. Testing does not start
until products are completed, so the aim of testing is to compare products
against requirements. Level 3 – Integration:
At this level testing is integrated into a
software life cycle
e.g. the V-model. The need for testing is based on risk management, and
the testing is carried out with some independence from the development
area. Level 4 – Management:
At this level testing activities take place at all stages of the life
cycle, including reviews of requirements and designs. Quality criteria are
agreed for all products of an organisation (internal and external).
Level 5 – Optimization:
At this level the
testing process itself is tested and improved at each iteration. This is
typically achieved with tool support, and also introduces aims such as
defect prevention through the life cycle, rather than defect detection (zero
). Each level from 2 upwards has a defined set of processes
and goals, which lead to practices and sub-practices.
a test with important consequences for the test taker. Passing has
important benefits, such as a high school diploma, a scholarship, or a
license to practice a profession. Failing has important disadvantages,
such as being forced to take remedial classes until the test can be
passed, not being allowed to drive a car, or not being able to find
is a family of protocols in which
one party presents a question ("challenge") and another party must provide
a valid answer ("response") to be
The simplest example of a challenge–response protocol is password
authentication, where the challenge is asking for the password and the
valid response is the correct password.
What does Passing a Test Really Mean?
Passing a driving test does not say that you will be a good
, it only says that you are allowed to drive a car.
Passing a math test does not say that you will count the things
that matter, it only says that you know how to count in a
Passing an English test doesn't mean that you will speak and
write valuable things, it only says that you can speak and write.
Passing a reading test does not say that you fully understand
all the text that you read, it only says that you understood
what was written on a particular test.
doesn't say that you will be a good lawyer,
or does it say that you will be an honest lawyer, it only says
that you can practice law.
Everyone needs to fully understand how ineffective some tests
are, and that some tests are even inaccurate and misleading.
Tests are dangerous because they could give a person a false
sense of accomplishment, they could also give a false sense of
security, and tests could also give some people a false sense of
importance and value. You are literally being coned and taken
for a fool. And the only way to stop this abuse, is to create
more accurate tests. Tests that are proven to work. So the test
itself must be certified, and certified in an open forum of
experts from around the world. We need a stamp of approval,
something that guarantees authenticity. Then we could start
accurately measuring intelligence and abilities, which is
Goal of BK101
Teaching to a Test
is the same thing as teaching
, it's the same thing as teaching someone's version
of reality, it's the same thing as teaching someone's personal
belief, that's not education, that's
, without any vision, without any
responsibility or accountability. It is simply wrong,
inaccurate, ineffective, inefficient, and f*cking criminal, and
you need to stop it.
Teaching to the Test
Stop forcing children to
produce answers for teachers and tests, because it disconnects children
from learning. Children should learn how to produce answers for
themselves, so that they understand that learning is their responsibility
and no one else's. You give them problems to solve, you give them the
tools and resources to locate needed information. Ask a question like how
long would the sound of your voice take to travel around the earth? And
see what they come up with and show them the answers they needed to know
in order to come up with answer. Don't force them to memorize, teach them
how to learn. Test them on how much they understand about themselves and
the world around them. Stop testing them for things that teachers force
students to memorize.
Mastering a subject has
become less about learning and more about performance. If you
ask most students what they think their role is in math
classrooms, they will tell you it is to get questions right.
Everyone should have the
answers to their questions, but everyone should also know how
the answers were calculated and figured out manually.
My child is an honor student is such a stupid saying
It would be better to say, "My child is Totally Awesome, and Smart" The
value of your child is not measured by schools, or grades. The value of a
child is measured by their abilities and the qualities they have learned
in their life. Life is the only true measurer of a person. It's what you
learned in life, and it's not just what you in
We need to use less
generalized words like "good job
", especially after five years
of age, when children get older you should speak in more
details, when they do something good you should say. "I like what
you did there and this is why I like it", instead of just saying
"good job." And also remind them that your opinion is only one
opinion, and not an expert opinion, unless of course you are an
expert, but even then, you should still encourage your child to
always get a second opinion, if they can.
Same thing for calling your kid smart,
tell them why you think
they are smart
, and that being smart doesn't mean they will stop
, it just means that the
of making mistakes
will be less, and that they will also have a better chance of
learning from from their mistakes, but only if they keep
It doesn't matter what school you come from
, what matters is
what you have learned so far? And what you plan to learn more
about now? And in the the future? And why? You must choose how
you want to benefit society, and don't let others make the
choice for you, because it may not be
what you want to do
The test has to have answers to real problems
, so that when
you get the answer right, you know how to solve a real problem,
and not just know how to solve a problem on paper, or on a
computer screen, which you will most likely forget about.
You need to be able to visualize something, you have to be
able to relate to something, if not, then you will most likely forget what
you have learned. This is one of the failures of testing, no one remembers
all the questions and answers on a test, or if the test was relevant to
their life or to their abilities.
Learning by Association
Counting the things That Matter
, if you're not ready, then you will do poorly.
But if the test was only a guide to see how much you know and
don't know, then the test would not be a do or die situation. A
student has the right to choose their own speed of learning, as
long as they are aware of top speeds, this way they can have
something to compare to, and not judged by, only compare.
What good is passing a test if
you just end up forgetting everything about the test later on?
You should remember a test. You should remember that day as
being a day that you learned something valuable, or at the
least, a day that you confirmed that you learned something
valuable, and you should always be able to remember what you
have learned...That is what testing should be. If it is not,
then you're mostly just wasting time, potential, energy and
resources. And the nerve that schools make people pay for that,
how f*cking dare you. So please step away from the child, you
have no right to teach.
Testing has sadly become a weapon of control
and manipulation and a
deceitful method of
. Testing is giving too many
people a false sense of accomplishment
, and worse, testing is
giving too many people a false sense of failure.
If we carefully examined the test
questions you will find that
most questions on tests do not measure understanding, or do they
measure intelligence, which proves that ignorant and corrupt
people should not create tests.
"If you're testing for the things that
don't matter then testing doesn't matter....in a way school
testing is almost criminal"
"Grades don't determine intelligence, they mostly determine
High-Stakes Tests a likely factor in STEM performance gap
gaps between male and female students increased or decreased based on
whether instructors emphasized or de-emphasized the
value of exams
School testing methods are more like a
then they are an actual
The test is more about confirming how ignorant you are. But not
to correct your ignorance, but to verify that the schools
ignorant teaching methods have succeeded in making students
mindless and unaware. Most of todays School
are filled with propaganda and should only be used
. They can also be used to show ignorant teaching
methods. So not a total waste of paper, but close.
Knowing the answer to a question on a test only confirms one
thing, and that is that you remembered the right answer at the right
moment. Knowing the answer to a question on a test doesn't confirm that
you understand what the answer means or does it confirm that the question
is even valid.
Admission Tests to Colleges
So what does a
really tell you? You can have low grades and still be
a great person, a great parent and even a great leader, and on
the other hand, you can have high grades and end up becoming a
criminal or a murderer. If you get a "B" then how does that
explain what part of the knowledge you didn't understand?
Grading on a Curve
Testing should not be for telling us how much
you know or how much you don’t know, but more importantly,
testing should be for telling us how much more knowledge you
need to learn. So a test should only be used as a guide and not
be used as a prerequisite or for a final conclusion. This is
because tests rarely confirm exactly how much knowledge a person
This is because the people who design tests are confused
about what the tests true intentions should be.
"Testing is a tool used in the learning process. That is why you need
answers in writing that explain how the information is being
understood. This way a teacher can learn from the students
answers, so they can continue to improve the teaching
methods and continue to improve the testing questions."
Testing should consist of real life scenarios,
scenarios that people would most likely encounter during their
life. This way they can practice problem solving, as well as
test their awareness and their focusing abilities. They can also
test their ability to predict outcomes, because predicting the
future is one of our greatest abilities. You can create some
tests in the same style as some
. Even though it's
not real, the knowledge and information a person will learn is
real. A Test should also have knowledge and information that can
be easily remembered, why else take a test if you're not going
to remember what you learned? Other testing would be a persons
understanding of symbols, languages, and their uses. People with
limited knowledge of symbols and language would have a modified
test, one that is still challenging but a little less complex.
Teachers need to be
tested a much as students, and the test for teachers needs to be
designed by the students.
So your first test will have to be for the people who design
tests. The results of this test must be made public so that all the
questions and answers that are given can be examined and understood. This
way a test can be created that has real purpose and meaning.
Tests need to be more like a lesson
that says that this information and knowledge is important.
is a software development
process that emerged from test-driven development (TDD). Behavior-driven
development combines the general techniques and principles of TDD with
ideas from domain-driven design and object-oriented analysis and design to
provide software development and management teams with shared tools and a
shared process to collaborate on software development.
Learning without memory is
impossible, but just remembering does not guarantee that you are actually Learning.
Connecticut Mastery Test
Education Assessment Fact Sheet
California High School Exit Exam
The National Center for Fair & Open Testing (FairTest)
Educational Records Bureau
is the only not-for-profit
educational services organization offering assessments for both admission
and achievement for independent and selective public schools for Pre
International Student Assessment
Programme for International Student Assessment
is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations of 15-year-old school
pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading. It
was first performed in 2000 and then repeated every three years. Its aim
is to provide comparable data with a view to enabling countries to improve
their education policies and outcomes. It measures problem solving and
cognition in daily life.
National Achievement Test
is a set of examinations taken in the Philippines by students in Years 6,
10, and 12. Students are given national standardised test, designed to
determine their academic levels, strength and weaknesses. Their knowledge
learnt throughout the year are divided into 5 categories; English,
Filipino, Math, Science and Araling Panlipunan (Social Studies in English)
and are tested for what they know. NAT examinations aim to: 1. provide
empirical information on the achievement level of pupils/students in
Grades Six, Ten, and Twelve to serve as guide for policy makers,
administrators, curriculum planners, supervisors, principals and teachers
in their respective courses of action. 2. identify and analyze variations
on achievement levels across the years by region, division, school and
other variables. 3. determine the rate of improvement in basic education
with respect to individual schools within certain time frames.
National Achievement Tests
National Assessment Resource
Assessment-Based Accountability System
relating to schools. A person who pays more attention to formal rules and
book learning than they merit or deserve.
"Public schools waste away their students' lives
Teaching to Tests
, not because they believe that's the best
way for students to learn, but because their credentials depend
on test scores".
"The Commodification of Learning"
"Imagine teaching to a test that only confirms
10% of the useful knowledge that a human needs.
What ignorant moron would do that? An ignorant moron who was
taught that same way of course."
for International Student Assessment
Learning Teaching and Assessment
Inspection and Review
Learning and Teaching
"We learn more by
looking for the answer to a question and not finding it than we
do from learning the answer itself."
Self Directed Learning
- What testing
should be like
Automated Essay Scoring
is the use of
to assign grades to essays written in an educational setting.
It is a method of educational assessment and an application of natural
language processing. Its objective is to classify a large set of textual
entities into a small number of discrete categories, corresponding to the
possible grades—for example, the numbers 1 to 6. Therefore, it can be
considered a problem of statistical classification.
The National Council
on Measurement in Education
is an organization serving
assessment professionals. These professionals work in evaluation, testing,
program evaluation, and, more generally, educational and psychological
measurement. Members come from universities, test development
organizations, and industry. A goal of the organization is to ensure that
assessment is carried out fairly. (NCME).
What is Assessed Curriculum
Entrance Examinations - AP
Testing Maturity Model
aim to be used in a similar way to
, that is to provide a framework for assessing the maturity of the
test processes in an organisation, and so providing targets on improving
A statement in Connecticut's
Mastery Test Mathematics Handbook
. This shows how
little some people know. Education will not improve when
ignorance is making decisions.
Connecticut Mastery Test
The State Board of Education
that the recent debate pitting the acquisition of
basic skills against the development of conceptual understanding argues a
false dichotomy. Rather, basic skills and conceptual understanding are
intertwined, and both are necessary before students can successfully apply
mathematics to the solution of problems. A strong mathematics program will
enable students to do each with ease. Unfortunately, not enough students
in Connecticut or in the nation are sufficiently developing the facility,
understanding, level of confidence and interest in mathematics to meet our
present and future societal needs. Therefore, we must fully engage in the
quest to provide every student with a strong mathematics program,
beginning in the earliest grades.
Instead of beliefs show some proof, facts and examples next
time. That's what's called "teaching" by the way.
does a person need in
order to be
When, Why and How Much advanced math should a student learn?
Besides, it's not how much Math you teach, but
how you teach it
Students are stressed out by tests mostly
because most tests are inadequate and irrelevant in measuring
useful intelligence or skills
. Students will only be
excited about test taking when we make tests relevant and accurate in
measuring their abilities and their awareness, things that are valuable to
them at this time in their life...An A or an F does not matter it the test
does not matter.
Performance can not be measured by test
. Real performance can only be accurately measured
by a persons actions in life that produce positive outcomes. A
test score can only be used as a guide, and not a determining
factor of worth. A college degree is only a piece of paper.
Positive actions in reality
are the only indicators of
Tests That Look Like Video Games
- Learning Games
The Blank is your mind..