Trauma - Very Painful Experiences
is when you have a bad experience
that causes you to feel
that could last for days or sometimes years.
is an emotional wound
often having long-lasting effects, usually
from the exposure to violence
. Trauma is any physical damage to the body
that is caused by violence or by an accident or fracture. The memory
of a bad experience could cause you to relive those
moments, and at the same time, create
that seem to be uncontrollable and
unpredictable at times. You sometimes have feelings of distress and
disbelief and sometimes you're even be stricken with
or terror. PTSD
The after effects and the side effects that comes from having a bad
experiences can be overcome
, and will diminish
over time to eventually become only a bad memory. But you need to remember, what doesn't kill you doesn't necessarily make you stronger.
We need to learn how to control and conquer the
from time to time. Everyone goes through
. But you have to start the
process of learning and you have to put in the necessary time and effort. Some
have to exercise the mind and body regularly
and seek good guidance
. This takes a
commitment to learning.
is relating to a physical injury or a wound to the body,
or a psychologically painful experience.
is a type of
injury to the mind
that occurs as a
result of a severely distressing event
which may include observing or experiencing a life-threatening event and
being violated by people on whom you depend for your well-being. Trauma is often the result of an
overwhelming amount of stress
that exceeds one's ability to cope, or
integrate the emotions
involved with that experience. A traumatic event
involves one's experience, or
being overwhelmed that can be precipitated in weeks, years, or even
decades as the person struggles to
with the immediate circumstances,
eventually leading to serious, long-term negative consequences. However,
the definition of trauma differs among individuals by their
experiences. People will react to similar events differently. In other
words, not all people who experience
a potentially traumatic event will
actually become psychologically traumatized. This discrepancy in
can be attributed to protective factors some individuals may have that
enable them to cope with trauma. Some examples are mild exposure to stress
early in life, resilience characteristics, and active
seeking of help
Acute Stress Reaction
is a psychological condition arising in response
to a terrifying or traumatic event, or witnessing a traumatic event that
induces a strong emotional response within the individual.
One Though Leads to Another Thought
is the feeling of distress and
disbelief that you have when something bad happens
An unpleasant or disappointing surprise. To be stricken with disgust or
revulsion or stricken with
can also mean a reflex
response to the
passage of electric current
body. Brain Injury Trauma
is an overwhelming feeling of
is intense and profound
trauma upon someone and
subject a person to lasting shock as a result of an emotionally disturbing
experience or physical injury. It's estimated in 2018 that 1 Million Soldiers have
some form of PTSD
is a phrase often used to describe the blank,
unfocused gaze of combatants
become emotionally detached from the horrors around them. It is also
sometimes used more generally to describe the look of dissociation among
of other types of trauma.
the experience of unpleasantness
and aversion associated with the
perception of harm
threat of harm
in an individual. Suffering is the
basic element that makes up the negative valence of affective phenomena.
The opposite of suffering is pleasure, or
. Suffering is often categorized as physical or mental. It
may come in all degrees of
, from mild to intolerable. Factors of
duration and frequency of occurrence usually compound that of intensity.
Attitudes toward suffering may vary widely, in the sufferer or other
people, according to how much it is regarded as
avoidable or unavoidable
useful or useless, deserved or undeserved. Suffering occurs in the lives
of sentient beings in numerous manners, and often dramatically. As a
result, many fields of human activity are concerned with some aspects of
suffering. These aspects may include the nature of suffering, its
processes, its origin and causes, its meaning and significance, its
related personal, social, and cultural behaviors, its remedies,
management, and uses.
is an unpleasant feeling and suffering of a psychological,
non-physical origin. Mental suffering or mental torment.
"Life will always have a little pain a
little suffering. We just need to minimize it so that it's not so
traumatic and damaging to the human spirit".
is a mark left on the skin, or in the
mind, that was caused by an injury that did not
Primary Traumatic Stress
is a primary
stressor from an extreme event that was immediately experienced or
witnessed that contributed to a traumatic response.
emergency psychological care
assisting individuals in a crisis situation
to restore equilibrium to
functioning and to minimize the potential for
. Crisis can be defined as one’s perception or
experiencing of an event or situation as an intolerable difficulty that
exceeds the person’s current resources and
Trauma Informed Care
is a framework that involves understanding, recognizing, and
responding to the effects of all types of trauma. Trauma Informed Care
also emphasizes physical, psychological and
both consumers and
providers, and helps survivors rebuild a sense of
control and empowerment.
Need for Trauma-Informed Care
Trauma Informed Classrooms
is an integrated network of specialized rehabilitation
programs dedicated to serving Veterans and Service Members with both
combat and civilian related Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and polytrauma.
Services available through PCS include: interdisciplinary evaluation and
treatment, development of a comprehensive plan of care, case management,
patient and family education and training, psychosocial support, and
application of advanced rehabilitation treatments and prosthetic
technologies. Polytrauma occurs when a person experiences injuries to
multiple body parts and organ systems often, but not always, as a result
of blast-related events. TBI frequently occurs in polytrauma in
combination with other disabling conditions, such as amputation, burns,
spinal cord injury, auditory and visual damage, spinal cord injury (SCI),
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other medical conditions. Due
to the severity and complexity of their injuries, Veterans and Service
Members with polytrauma require a high level of integration and
coordination of clinical care and other support services.
Stress on the young
can cause lifelong vulnerabilities causing
alterations in a specific brain reward region
programming, which increased the risk for depression and other psychiatric
syndromes. Developmental transcription factor
orthodenticle homeobox 2
(Otx2) was suppressed. While Otx2 levels
ultimately recovered by adulthood, the suppression had already set in
motion gene alterations that lasted into adulthood, indicating that early
life stress disrupts age-specific developmental programming orchestrated
by Otx2. Gene alterations refer to changes in the normal
of a particular gene. Genes provide
the instructions to make proteins, such as tyrosine kinases, that signal
and control how cells in the body function.
(reduce bad dreams)
is the use of theatre techniques to facilitate
personal growth and promote mental health. Dramatherapy is used in a wide
variety of settings, including hospitals, schools, mental health centers,
prisons, and businesses. Drama therapy, as a form of 'expressive therapy'
(also known as creative arts therapies'), exists in many forms and can be
applicable to individuals, couples, families, and various groups.
What is Drama Therapy
Group Dynamic Game
is an experiential education exercise
that helps people to learn about themselves, interpersonal relationships
and how groups function from a group dynamics or social psychological
point of view. Group dynamics can be understood as complex from an
interpersonal relationships point of view because it involves:
relationships between two people, relationships between a person and a
group and relationships between groups. Group-dynamic games are usually
designed for the specific purpose of furthering personal development,
character building, and teamwork via a group-dynamic milieu. The group
leader may sometimes also be the game leader, or between peers, the
leadership and game-rules can change. Some games require large spaces,
special objects and tools, quietness or many before-game and after-game
needs. When aged, frail or disabled people ("special needs") are involved,
existing games may need modification to be used. The use of group dynamic
activities has a history of application in conflict resolution, anger
management and team building and many other areas such as drug
rehabilitation and drama therapy.
is a method of training commonly used as
warm-up exercises for actors before a rehearsal or performance, in the
development of improvisational theatre, and as a lateral means to rehearse
dramatic material. They are also used in drama therapy to overcome anxiety
by simulating scenarios that would be fear-inducing in real life.
Mobile Psychiatric Services
Victims of Crimes
on Context diminishes memory of negative events, researchers report
Focusing on the neutral details
disturbing scene can weaken a person's later memories -- and negative
impressions -- of that scene.
Emotional Support Animal
is a type of animal that provides comfort to
help relieve a symptom or effect of a person's disability. Under U.S. law,
an emotional support animal is not a pet and is generally not restricted
by species. An emotional support animal differs from a service animal.
Service animals are trained to perform specific tasks such as helping a
blind person navigate, while no training is required for emotional support
animals and they need not be formally trained to perform any tasks to
mitigate mental illness. Any animal that provides support, well-being,
comfort, or aid, to an individual through companionship, unconditional
positive regard, and affection may be regarded as an emotional support
animal. In the U.S., people with mental health disabilities can be
exempted from certain federal housing and travel rules if they own an
emotional support animal. To receive that exemption, they must meet the
federal definition of disabled, and the animal must provide emotional
support that alleviates some symptom or effect of the disability. The
person must usually present a letter from a certified healthcare provider,
stating that the animal provides emotional support that alleviates one or
more of the symptoms or effects of the disability.
is therapy that uses contact with animals to
improve a patient's social, emotional, or cognitive functioning.
half of America's engineers have operated a train that killed someone on
the tracks. Afterward, many suffer nightmares, anxiety, PTSD or
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
is intense psychological stress caused by
unwanted, troublesome memories can cause brain structures such as the
amygdala, hippocampus and frontal cortex to become activated, as they process the memory.
Memory and Trauma
is described by psychology as the ability
of an organism to store, retain, and subsequently retrieve information.
When an individual experiences a traumatic event, whether physically or
psychologically traumatic, his or her memory can be affected in many ways.
For example, trauma might affect his or her memory for that event, memory
of previous or subsequent events, or thoughts in general.
Emotion and Memory
can have a powerful effect on humans and
animals. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical
memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled
more often and with more clarity and detail than neutral events.
Don't be a prisoner of your own past
. Practice not living in fear of your own painful
memories. Your memories are not of the present moment and need not
influence your present time.
Manipulation of Specific Neurons Helps to Erase Bad Memories, Enhance Good
Extinguishing Fear Memories relies on an unusual change to DNA
Researchers have discovered a DNA modification
that enhances our ability to extinguish fear. The findings could help
guide the development of new treatments for fear-related anxiety
Understanding of How the Brain Encodes Fear Memory
. UC Riverside study
could lead to novel therapeutics aimed at reducing pathological fear in
PTSD. To survive in a dynamic environment, animals develop
adaptive fear responses
to dangerous situations, requiring coordinated neural activity in the
amygdala -- three brain areas connected to one another. A disruption of
this process leads to maladaptive generalized fear in PTSD, which affects
7 percent of the U.S. population. As much as 17 percent of hippocampal
neurons that projected to the amygdala or the mPFC were, in fact,
. The acquisition
(encoding) and retrieval of contextual fear memory requires coordinated
neural activity in the hippocampus,
and mPFC. The
hippocampus encodes context cues, the amygdala stores
between a context and an aversive event, and the mPFC signals whether a
defensive response is appropriate in the present context. Context is
broadly defined as the set of circumstances around an event. study
suggests that double-projecting hippocampal neurons can facilitate
synchronized neural activity in the mPFC and amygdala that is implicated
in learned fear. Multiple projections from single neurons appear to be a
general feature of the neural circuits in the brain and could promote
synchronized neural activity and long-term changes in the efficiency of
How does the Brain Link Events to Form a Memory
? The scientists
uncovered a surprising mechanism by which the hippocampus, a brain region
critical for memory, builds bridges across time: by firing off bursts of
activity that seem random, but in fact make up a complex pattern that,
over time, help the brain learn associations. By revealing the underlying
circuitry behind associative learning, the findings lay the foundation for
a better understanding of anxiety and trauma- and stressor-related
disorders, such as panic and post-traumatic stress disorders, in which a
seemingly neutral event can elicit a negative response.
Forgetting can use more Brain Power than Remembering
attention to the unwanted information through redirecting attention away
from unwanted experiences or suppressing the memory's retrieval. We may
want to discard memories that trigger maladaptive responses, such as
traumatic memories, so that we can respond to new experiences in more
adaptive ways. Memories are not static. They are dynamic constructions of
the brain that regularly get updated, modified and reorganized through
experience. When it comes to intentional forgetting, prior studies focused
on locating "hotspots" of activity in the brain's control structures, such
as the prefrontal cortex, and long-term memory structures, such as the
hippocampus. The latest study focuses, instead, on the sensory and
perceptual areas of the brain, specifically the ventral temporal cortex,
and the patterns of activity there that correspond to memory
representations of complex visual stimuli. findings not only confirmed
that humans have the ability to control what they forget, but that
successful intentional forgetting required "moderate levels" of brain
activity in these sensory and perceptual areas -- more activity than what
was required to remember.
in psychology is characterized as a mental process involving
the creation of a gap between an unpleasant or threatening cognition, and
other thoughts and feelings. By minimizing associative connections with
other thoughts, the threatening cognition is remembered less often and is
less likely to affect self-esteem or the self concept.
Stress Heightens Fear of Threats from the Past
. When older memories
are coupled with stress, individuals are likely to perceive danger in harmless circumstances.
Why are memories attached to emotions so strong
? Multiple neurons in
the brain must fire in synchrony to create persistent memories tied to
intense emotions, new research has found.
is an experience that causes someone to
recall a previous traumatic memory, although the trigger itself need not
be frightening or traumatic and can be indirectly or superficially
reminiscent of an earlier traumatic incident. Trauma triggers are related
to posttraumatic stress disorder
(PTSD), a condition in which people often
cannot control the recurrence of emotional or physical symptoms, or of
. Triggers can be subtle and difficult to anticipate, and
can sometimes exacerbate PTSD. A trauma trigger may also be referred to as
a trauma stimulus
or a trauma
which is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external
stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.
- Fight or Flight
is the thing that shifts our brain from higher functions and long term
planning to immediate threat response.
If you need
to warn people about words that are
perceived to be offensive
then you better include that in your message.
shows, Movies, Books, Magazines, News Papers and Music give Trigger
? They should. Just Like when we alarm people about
Side Effects. Consumers have a right to know
what kind of sh*t they're being fed, whether it's physical or
is a theorized psychological behavior in which people may
forget unwanted memories
consciously or unconsciously. It is not a defense mechanism, since these
are unconscious coping techniques used to reduce anxiety arising from
unacceptable or potentially harmful impulses. Defense mechanisms are not
to be confused with conscious coping strategies.
is an unconscious psychological mechanism that reduces
arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful stimuli.
is when an individual consciously
attempts to stop
thinking about a particular thought.
is the psychological attempt made by an individual to
direct one's own desires and
toward pleasurable instincts by excluding the desire from
one's consciousness and holding or subduing it in the
. It ensures that
what is unacceptable to the conscious mind, which would arouse
if recalled, is prevented from entering
Sometimes it's hard to run a way from a brain that you
have not yet learned how to control.
is a form of respondent conditioning
that involves the conditioning of an unwanted behavior or response to a
stimulus into a wanted behavior or response by the association of positive
actions with the stimulus
means to invest own conscious effort, to
and interpersonal problems
, in order to try to master, minimize or
tolerate stress and conflict.
is defined as an individual's ability to
to life tasks in the face of social disadvantage or
highly adverse conditions. Adversity and stress can come in the shape of
family or relationship problems, health problems, or workplace and
financial worries, among others. Resilience is one's ability to
from a negative experience with "competent functioning". Resilience
is not a rare ability; in reality, it is found in the average individual
and it can be learned and developed by virtually anyone. Resilience should
be considered a process, rather than a trait to be had. It is a process of
individuation through a structured system with gradual discovery of
personal and unique abilities.
refers to positive psychological change
experienced as a result
of adversity and other challenges in order to rise to a higher level of
functioning. These sets of circumstances represent significant challenges
to the adaptive resources of the individual, and pose significant
challenges to individuals' way of understanding the world and their place
in it. Posttraumatic growth is not about returning to the same life as it
was previously experienced before a period of traumatic suffering; but
rather it is about undergoing significant 'life-changing' psychological
shifts in thinking and relating to the world, that contribute to a
personal process of change, that is deeply meaningful.
primary role is the processing of memory, decision-making, and emotional
is a technique in behavior therapy used to
disorders. It involves the
exposure of the patient to the feared object or context without any
danger, in order to overcome their anxiety and/or distress. Procedurally
it is similar to the fear extinction paradigm in rodent work. Numerous
studies have demonstrated its effectiveness in the treatment of disorders
such as generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder,
obsessive-compulsive disorder, PTSD
, and specific phobias.
is defined as a decline in conditioned
non-reinforced exposure to a feared conditioned stimulus (CS). However,
there also is evidence to suggest that extinction is an “unlearning”
process corresponding to
depotentiation of potentiated synapses
Magnetic fields to alleviate Anxiety
. People suffering from a fear of
heights experience the anxiety also in
– even though they are aware that they are not
really in a dangerous situation. Brain
is defined as the diminished emotional responsiveness to a negative or
aversive stimulus after repeated exposure to it. It also occurs when an
emotional response is repeatedly evoked in situations in which the action
tendency that is associated with the emotion proves irrelevant or
unnecessary. Desensitization is a process primarily used to assist
individuals unlearn phobias and anxieties.
Gross yourself out
Calm Your Fear Reactions
1 Hour Break Everyday Stress Anxiety Relief Spray
Cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of post-traumatic stress
: a reviewSeparating your
emotions from your memories or thoughts
No Pain No Gain
is more about exercise, then it is about
. No pain no gain, no brain no sane.
Trials and Tribulations
experiences test our patience or endurance.
Not to say that
is necessary for Learning, It’s just that so far
humans do not know enough about how much suffering,
, Torment and
, and to what degree, is actually needed for learning.
This is because everyone reacts to suffering a little differently. Some
may become traumatized, some may become more cautious, some may become
more aggressive and some may even inflict on others what they have
experienced. Cautious people may become more aware of the danger while the
aggressive people become more aware of their limits in reference to their
abilities. So what reaction is more correct and the most logical? Just
experiencing something does not guarantee that you will understand it, or
learn from it, or benefit from it.
Could we correctly measure the difference between Physical Suffering (Pain
Mental Suffering (Trauma
What are the different types of suffering? Bullying
What are the lessons learned from each type of suffering?
be learned without
narrative in which a
, usually sent by a deity or deities, destroys civilization,
often in an act of divine retribution. Parallels are often drawn between
the flood waters of these myths and the primeval waters found in certain
creation myths, as the flood waters are described as a measure for the
cleansing of humanity, in preparation for rebirth. Most flood myths also
contain a culture hero, who "represents the human craving for life".
Risks to Civilization
. A global catastrophic risk is a
hypothetical future event that has the potential to damage human
well-being on a global scale. Some events could cripple or destroy modern
civilization. Any event that could cause human extinction or permanently
and drastically curtail humanity's potential is known as an existential
risk."A man who fears suffering is already suffering from what he fears."
"It's is not so much that what doesn't kill you makes you
stronger, it's learning about your strengths and your weaknesses
so that they become a blessing instead of a curse."
"You don't have to go through hell to get
to heaven, but you have to know what hell is in order to
"When the going gets tough, the tough get
going" is a
is the presence of different and opposing
emotions relating to a situation that has recently taken place or is in
the process of being unfolded. They may be accompanied at times by a
physical discomfort, especially when 'a functional disturbance has become
associated with an emotional conflict in childhood', and in particular by
tension headaches 'expressing a state of inner tension...[or] caused by an
Failures and Mistakes
Surviving a Crime
Animating Learning by Integrating and Validating Experience
Memories can become stronger when your senses are heightened
during a traumatic event.
How do you remember a relative or a friend who has died without
being sad or crying?
You have to learn how to remember people and events
without evoking sadness or pain.
Like when giving a
Tell the story in a better light as an observer,
scientifically and historically. Learn how to modify your
modify bad habits into good habits
Free the Mind
(2012, 1:20 min. Documentary)
experiments with meditation and yoga as a means of helping
soldiers with PTSD and children with ADHD.
is believed to be involved in consciousness and plays
a role in diverse functions, usually linked to emotion or the
regulation of the body's
. These functions include perception, motor
control, self-awareness, cognitive functioning, and
interpersonal experience. In relation to these, it is involved
You don't have to attach your emotions to your
Our memories can still be important and precious to us without
attaching our emotions to them. Replaying our past experiences
and memories without emotion can help us to understand our
experiences a lot better, which will allow us to enjoy new
memories and new experiences, with greater meaning. Valence
"Life is Difficult", but not always. The most important thing is to know
how to handle difficult situations in your life.
Skills and knowledge
need to be learned.
When I was young there were those
tragic days, I would pray that I would just wake up and find out
that it was all a bad dream. But the next day always came, and I
would wake up and realize that yesterday was real, and that
sleeping didn't make that tragedy go away. Those were some of
the toughest moments being a kid, realizing things didn't last
forever, including me.
And as the memories of those tragedies fade, sadly so does the
knowledge and the lessons learned. But it doesn't have to be
that way. Saving that lost knowledge may help save someone else
from having tragic moments in their life steal precious time
away from more important memories, important memories that they
will accumulate in their life time.
People shouldn’t have to fill in this missing information for
This is where knowledge and information becomes an incredible tool.
should at least know most of what
does to the human mind.
difference between suppressing and learning.
Understanding an experience is better then a
I see a lot of
people suffering, but they're not learning from that experience. So from this
evidence you could say that suffering is not the only factor
needed for learning. So ending suffering is logical. Even
knowing that you could never stop suffering 100%, but if it can
be proven that we could achieve stopping 99% of suffering, then
I believe we should do this.
"You don’t drown by falling
in the water. You drown by staying there."
One of the most
beautiful dreams a person could have is to be able to relive
your life without the all the struggles and tragedies. But if
this has to be my first experience with life then this is the
way I would want it. If you never experienced
how could you ever appreciate a beautiful and
pleasant life? The dangers of
.Asylum Seekers with Apathetic
Refugee children who sought asylum in Sweden had become apathetic.
They also became the object of great
media interest and extensive political debate and a state investigation. Various TV programs showed the
children suffered, however (apparently) of
, a failure of will. Similar condition seen in various
forms of poisoning with elemental bromine as the base. There are differing
views on the cause of the phenomenon. Today apathy is considered to be a
genuine response to depression, despair and stress originating in a
combination of the asylum process uncertainty and past violence and abuse
at home. When the phenomenon began to attract attention in the media
claimed, however, certain that it is not a question of a psychiatric
condition and that there is imitation, manipulation, malnutrition and
simulation behind apathy.
Pervasive Refusal Syndrome
is a rare but serious psychiatric disorder
in children, first described by Bryan Lask and his colleagues in 1991. As
late as 2011 included it in the psychiatric classification system. PRS is
characterized by a refusal to eat, drink, talk, walk or take care of
herself, and a strong resistance to the treatment. PRS is very rare and
its cause is unclear, but the disturbance severity makes it fatal. The
disorder often begins with a ' virus ' or the child feel ' pain ',
resulting in a need to consult a doctor or go to hospital. PRS starts
slowly, but the child worsens rapidly and becomes unwilling or not able to
do anything on their own. They refuse to let others take care of them, or
help them to eat, and very depressed. It is not guaranteed that the
recovery will take place, and it is a long and complicated process,
involving specialized care. But the patient is healthy happens very rarely
relapse. A family psychiatric history or environmental stress factors can
also play a role. Hospitalization is almost always necessary, and the
recovery period is long, about 12.8 months. During the recovery period,
the symptoms disappear in the reverse order in which they occurred. So
this means that if the hunger strike was the first symptom, it will
disappear eventually. 67% of cases show full recovery. (also known as
Pervasive arousal Withdrawal Syndrome (PAWS).
Pediatric PTSD-Related Subnetwork
Every node denotes a brain
region, and every line denotes a connection. Different-color nodes
represent different brain regions: purple, salience network; dark blue,
central executive network; blue, default mode network; yellow, visual
regions. ACC = anterior cingulate cortex, AG = angular gyrus, IFG =
inferior frontal gyrus, INS = insula, ITG = inferior temporal gyrus, L or
L. = left, LG = lingual gyrus, MOG = middle occipital gyrus, PUT =
putamen, R or R. = right, SFG = superior frontal gyrus, SPG = superior
parietal gyrus, THA = thalamus.
of North America
Certain traumatic moments could eat you alive from the inside.
And certain traumatic
events have a tendency to stay with you for a longer period of
time when compared to other experiences. People waste a lot of
time thinking about
We have to teach children early how to manage thoughts when
trying to understand why horrible things happen. A child needs
to learn from their experiences, and not suffer from them. We
can stop the suffering in two ways, learn to understand
suffering to minimize its damage internally, and two by
correcting the external causes of suffering. The source of the
suffering must be corrected, and the effects from suffering and
trauma must be known and understood so that they can be less
overwhelming, and less debilitating to our development..
One day you're going to wake up
and you will not know where
you are. And then someone is going to say to you, "you were in an
accident", and then you will say, "what kind of an accident?", and then
the person will answer and say, "life was the accident, and it looks like
you had a head on collision with life
", and you answer, "oh my god, will I
be OK?", and then the person answers, "that's up to you. Life sometimes
takes you by surprise and seems to come out of no where. So being prepared
is a good idea, and the only way to be prepared is to learn how to
prepare yourself with 21st Century Skills