Vegetables - Plants - Fruits - Seeds - Bread - Herbs - Spices

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Veggies - Vegetables - Eat the Rainbow - Plants with Benefits

Vegetables Vegetable is a plant grown for food that can be eaten either raw or cooked, plays an important role in human nutrition, being mostly low in fat and carbohydrates, but high in vitamins, minerals and fiber. Many nutritionists encourage people to consume plenty of fruit and vegetables, five or more portions a day often being recommended. The original meaning of the word vegetable, still used in biology, was to describe all types of plant, as in the terms "vegetable kingdom" and "vegetable matter". We eat only a tiny fraction of the 300,000 plants available. Protein.

List of Leaf Vegetables (wiki) - List of Root Vegetables (PDF) - Protein - Flavones

Cruciferous Vegetables are vegetables of the family Brassicaceae (also called Cruciferae) with many genera, species, and cultivars being raised for food production such as cauliflower, cabbage, garden cress, bok choy, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and similar green leaf vegetables. The family takes its alternative name (Cruciferae, New Latin for "cross-bearing") from the shape of their flowers, whose four petals resemble a cross. Ten of the most common cruciferous vegetables eaten by people, known colloquially in North America as cole crops and in Britain and Ireland as "brassicas", are in a single species (Brassica oleracea); they are not distinguished from one another taxonomically, only by horticultural category of cultivar groups. Numerous other genera and species in the family are also edible. Cruciferous vegetables are one of the dominant food crops worldwide. They are high in vitamin C and soluble fiber and contain multiple nutrients and phytochemicals, which are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens. The name comes from Greek φυτόν (phyton), meaning 'plant'. Some phytochemicals have been used as poisons and others as traditional medicine. Cruciferous plants contain compounds called glucosinolate, which convert into isothiocyanates when eaten and chewed. All cruciferous veggies contain glucosinolates, but broccoli sprouts have an insane amount — about 10 to 100 times more than most cruciferous vegetables. Slforaphane is at it's highest level after 48 hours of sprouting.

Root Vegetables are underground plant parts eaten by humans as food. Although botany distinguishes true roots (such as taproots and tuberous roots) from non-roots (such as bulbs, corms, rhizomes, and tubers, although some contain both hypocotyl and taproot tissue), the term "root vegetable" is applied to all these types in agricultural and culinary usage. Root vegetables are generally storage organs, enlarged to store energy in the form of carbohydrates. They differ in the concentration and the balance among starches, sugars, and other types of carbohydrate. Of particular economic importance are those with a high carbohydrate concentration in the form of starch; starchy root vegetables are important staple foods, particularly in tropical regions, overshadowing cereals throughout much of Central Africa, West Africa and Oceania, where they are used directly or mashed to make fufu or poi. Many root vegetables keep well in root cellars, lasting several months. This is one way of storing food for use long after harvest, which is especially important in nontropical latitudes, where winter is traditionally a time of little to no harvesting. There are also season extension methods that can extend the harvest throughout the winter, mostly through the use of polytunnels.

Sweet Potato are not a type of yam, and yams are not a type of sweet potato. They are both tuberous root vegetables that come from a flowering plant, but they are not related and actually don't even have a lot in common. Batatas are white sweet potatoes native to South and Central America. Sweet potato is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae. Its large, starchy, sweet-tasting, tuberous roots are used as a root vegetable.

Parsnip is a root vegetable closely related to carrot and parsley, all belonging to the flowering plant family Apiaceae. It is a biennial plant usually grown as an annual. Its long taproot has cream-colored skin and flesh, and, left in the ground to mature, it becomes sweeter in flavor after winter frosts. In its first growing season, the plant has a rosette of pinnate, mid-green leaves. If unharvested, in its second growing season it produces a flowering stem topped by an umbel of small yellow flowers, later producing pale brown, flat, winged seeds. By this time, the stem has become woody and the tap root inedible.

Taro Root is a vegetable used in a variety of cuisines around the world. It has a mild, nutty taste, starchy texture, and nutrition benefits that make it a healthier alternative to other root vegetables like potatoes. Different varieties can be used interchangeably and bring the same nutritional benefits to your meal. It is the most widely cultivated species of several plants in the family Araceae that are used as vegetables for their corms, leaves, and petioles. Taro corms are a food staple in African, Oceanic, and South Asian cultures (similar to yams), and taro is believed to have been one of the earliest cultivated plants.

Glycoalkaloids are a family of chemical compounds derived from alkaloids to which sugar groups are appended. Several are potentially toxic, most notably the poisons commonly found in the plant species Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade) and other plants in the genus Solanum, including potato.

Micro-Greens (vertical farming)

Photos of what People Eat around the World - School Lunches in other Countries.

Tomatoes are missing a flavor gene in about 93 percent of modern, domesticated varieties.

Perennial Vegetable are vegetables that are perennial, meaning the plants can live for more than two years. Some well known perennial vegetables from the temperate regions of the world include asparagus, artichoke and rhubarb. In the tropics, cassava and taro are grown as vegetables, and these plants can live many years. Some perennial plants are cultivated as annuals in order to minimise pest pressure (e.g., potato, Solanum tuberosum). Perennial vegetables are an integral part of many cultural diets around the world, particularly in tropical agriculture. In contrast, temperate Eurasian cultures have relied on annual cereals (oats, barley, wheat) as dietary staples since antiquity. Some examples of older temperate varieties include: seakale, skirret, sorrel, and Good King Henry.

Eat a varied mix of veggies that includes dark leafy greens, orange and yellow vegetables, and beans.

Growing your own Food - Preserving your Food

Adults Meeting Fruit and Vegetable Intake Recommendations — United States, 2013.

Eating about two servings daily of fruits and three servings daily of vegetables was associated with the greatest longevity.

New School Meal Regulations Increase Fruit Consumption and Do Not Increase Total Plate Waste.

Reducetarian Foundation is a nonprofit organization that promotes a "reducetarian" diet, where participants reduce the amount of meat (as well as eggs and dairy) they consume in order to improve their health, protect the environment, and spare farmed animals from cruelty.

School-Level Practices to Increase Availability of Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains, and Reduce Sodium in School Meals — United States, 2000, 2006, and 2014.

Potatoes and Tomatoes Account for Over Half of U.S. Vegetable Availability.

Potatoes, tomatoes, and lettuce make up close to 60 percent of U.S. vegetable and legume availability.

My City Kitchen teaches kids about food, food products and healthy eating habits.

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Adults Meeting Fruit and Vegetable Intake Recommendations — US, 2013.

Healthfulness of the U.S. Food Supply Little Improvement Despite Decades of Dietary Guidance.

Recommended Vegetables and Fruit 3 cups of vegetables a day.

Lowering the price of fruits and vegetables by 30 percent can save nearly 200,000 lives over 15 years. Lower prices for fruits and vegetables meant better health across the population, regardless of age, gender, race and ethnicity. Subsidies.

EPI|LIFESTYLE 2016 Scientific Sessions Epidemiology and Prevention | Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health. March 1 – 4, 2016 Hyatt Regency | Phoenix, AZ.

The International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT).

The U.S. currently spends close to $100 billion per year on food and farm programs.

The Healthy Incentives Pilot (HIP) (PDF) - HIP households spent more SNAP benefits on targeted fruits and vegetables than non-HIP households in participating supermarkets and superstores. - Subsidies.

2015 G A P Analysis (PDF) - The Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Challenge: How Federal Spending Falls Short of Addressing Public Health Needs.

Tomatoes and Health (wiki)

2013 Consumption Report (PDF)

Raw for 30 Days: Raw Food Life - Healthier Generation - Organic Food.

Vegan eating would slash food's global warming emissions and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by as much as $570 billion. By eating less meat and more fruit and vegetables, the world could prevent several million deaths per year by 2050, researchers said dietary shifts could produce savings of $700 billion to $1 trillion per year on healthcare costs.

Centella Asiatica is a herbaceous, frost-tender perennial plant in the flowering plant family Apiaceae. It is native to wetlands in Asia. It is used as a culinary vegetable and as a medicinal herb Gotu Kola.

Cornucopia was a symbol of abundance and nourishment, commonly a large horn-shaped container overflowing with produce, flowers, or nuts. Baskets or paniers of this form were traditionally used in western Asia and Europe to hold and carry newly harvested food products. The horn-shaped basket would be worn on the back or slung around the torso, leaving the harvester's hands free for picking.

Grow Your Own - Pick Your Own - Eat Your Own

Grow your own Fruits & Vegetables. Many fresh and nutritious fruits and vegetables can spring from a couple of packs of seeds. Use pots if you don’t have space for a garden. Try indoor pots or greenhouse growing for the cooler months. If you can’t eat all the food you have grown yourself, pass it along to friends, family or your local food bank. Even if you fail to harvest the complete crop at its peak, it can still be fed to the chickens or composted so it doesn’t really go to waste.

City Gardening - Vertical Gardens - Farming

Pick your own! Late summer or early fall is a great time to pick your own fruits and vegetables. This can be a fun and cheap way to buy in bulk and freeze, can, or dry for later.


Vegetarian is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter. Not a Carnivore.

Veganism is both the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals. A follower of either the diet or the philosophy is known as a vegan (pronounced VEE-gon).

VEGAN 2018 - The Film (youtube) - VEGAN 2017 - The Film (youtube) - A Billion Veg app helps find the best plant-based and cruelty-free options anywhere.

Plant Based News - The Vegan Pregnancy Guide - Raising a Child Vegan - Vegetarian Body Building

Raw Veganism is a diet that combines the concepts of veganism and raw foodism. It excludes all food and products of animal origin, as well as food cooked at a temperature above 48 °C (118 °F). A raw vegan diet includes raw vegetables and fruits, nuts and nut pastes, grain and legume sprouts, seeds, plant oils, sea vegetables, herbs, mushrooms, and fresh juices. There are many different versions of the diet, including fruitarianism, juicearianism, and sproutarianism.

Teeth of Meat Eaters and Plant Eaters Semi-Vegetarianism or flexitarian diet is one that is plant-based with the occasional inclusion of meat. Adoption of the flexitarian diet would "save lives, feed 10 billion people and all without causing catastrophic damage to the planet," when compared to the current western diet. Carnivore.

Pollotarian is someone who eats chicken or other poultry, but not meat from mammals, often for environmental, health or food justice reasons.

is someone who eats fish or other seafood, but not poultry or meat from mammals. Over-Fishing.

Pollo-pescetarian is someone who eats both poultry and fish/seafood, though no meat from mammals. Animals Eaten to Extinction.

Macrobiotic Diet is plant-based, and may include occasional fish or other seafood.

I'm not anti-meat or anti-dairy, I just want to be healthy and not poison the land, air and water. So being a vegetarian is the right thing to do and a good thing to do, and not just good for yourself, but good for the planet and good for everyone around you. And when you compare how much it takes to make just one pound of beef, a vegetarian diet wins again. Informed Consent.

Picky Eater is someone who is very selective about what they eat, without being stubborn.

Food Neophobia is an eating behavior trait in which a person refuses to taste and eat food items or foods they are not familiar with.

Raw Foodism is the dietary practice of eating only uncooked, unprocessed foods. Depending on the philosophy, or type of lifestyle and results desired, raw food diets may include a selection of fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, eggs, fish, meat and dairy products.

Keep Veggies Fresh - Vertical Gardens

Vegetarian Recipes - Vegetarian Times - Vegan Advocacy - Vegan Thickeners

Plant-Based Diet is a diet of any animal (including humans) based on foods derived from plants, including vegetables, whole grains, legumes and fruits, but with few or no animal products. The use of the phrase has changed over time, and examples can be found of the phrase "plant-based diet" being used to refer to vegan diets, which contain no food from animal sources, to vegetarian diets which include eggs and dairy but no meat, and to diets with varying amounts of animal-based foods, such as semi-vegetarian diets which contain small amounts of meat.

Proteins from Plants and Animals - Plant Based Protein that Looks like Meat and tastes like Meat.

Sustainable Diet are eating patterns based on looking at the impact that food consumption has on planetary resources and attempting to create healthy eating patterns that can promote the needs of the environment, society, and the economy. This growing body of research is recognised by a variety of international bodies such as the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Sustainability.

Ethical Eating refers to the moral consequences of food choices, both those made by humans for themselves and those made for food animals. Common concerns are damage to the environment, exploitive labor practices, food shortages for others, inhumane treatment of food animals, and the unintended effects of food policy. Ethical eating is a type of ethical consumerism.

Hunter-Gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by Foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species. Hunting and gathering was humanity's first and most successful adaptation, occupying at least 90 percent of human history. Following the invention of agriculture, hunter-gatherers who did not change have been displaced or conquered by farming or pastoralist groups in most parts of the world. Only a few contemporary societies are classified as hunter-gatherers, and many supplement their foraging activity with horticulture and/or keeping animals. 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC.

Pescetarianism is the practice of following a diet that includes fish or other seafood, but not the flesh of other animals. Most pescetarians maintain a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet with the addition of fish and shellfish.

Chemicals found in vegetables prevent colon cancer in mice. Chemicals produced by vegetables such as kale, cabbage and broccoli could help to maintain a healthy gut and prevent colon cancer. Indole-3-Carbinol, which is produced when we digest vegetables from the Brassica genus, which is a genus of plants in the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The members of the genus are informally known as cruciferous vegetables, cauliflower, cabbage, garden cress, bok choy, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and similar green leaf vegetables or mustard plants.

Isothiocyanate is the chemical group –N=C=S, formed by substituting the oxygen in the isocyanate group with a sulfur. Many natural isothiocyanates from plants are produced by enzymatic conversion of metabolites called glucosinolates. These natural isothiocyanates, such as allyl isothiocyanate, are also known as mustard oils. An artificial isothiocyanate, phenyl isothiocyanate, is used for amino acid sequencing in the Edman degradation.

Eating Leafy Greens could help Prevent Macular Degeneration. A new study has shown that eating vegetable nitrates, found mainly in green leafy vegetables and beetroot, could help reduce your risk of developing early-stage age-related macular degeneration. Modeling the HED experiments required tracking billions of ions and electrons interacting with one another and with the electric and magnetic fields that their motion created, in what are called 3D kinetic simulations. Researchers carried out these simulations on the Titan supercomputer at the DOE Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Salad is a dish consisting of a mixture of small pieces of food, usually vegetables or fruit. However, different varieties of salad may contain virtually any type of ready-to-eat food. Salads are typically served at room temperature or chilled, with notable exceptions such as south German potato salad which can be served warm. Garden salads use a base of leafy greens such as lettuce, arugula/rocket, kale or spinach; they are common enough that the word salad alone often refers specifically to garden salads. Other types include bean salad, tuna salad, fattoush, Greek salad (vegetable based, but without leafy greens), and sōmen salad (a noodle-based salad). The sauce used to flavor a salad is commonly called a salad dressing; most salad dressings are based on either a mixture of oil and vinegar or a fermented milk product like kefir.

Lettuce is an annual plant of the daisy family, Asteraceae. It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable, but sometimes for its stem and seeds. Lettuce is most often used for salads, although it is also seen in other kinds of food, such as soups, sandwiches and wraps; it can also be grilled. Lettuce is a good source of fiber, iron, folate, and vitamin C. Lettuce is also a good source of various other health-beneficial bioactive compounds. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown anti-inflammatory, cholesterol-lowering, and anti-diabetic activities attributed to the bioactive compounds in lettuce. Lettuce is a source of vitamin A, which plays a role in eye health. Vitamin A can reduce a person's risk of cataracts. Vitamin A also helps prevent macular degeneration. Water makes up over 95% of raw lettuce. As a result, eating lettuce hydrates the body. Although drinking liquids is necessary, water in foods can also significantly contribute to hydration. Lettuce is a source of vitamin K, which helps strengthen bones. Consuming adequate amounts of vitamin K can also reduce your risk of bone fracture.

Power Blend - kale, red chard, spinach, collard, frisee, mizuna.

Kale is one of certain cultivars of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) grown for their edible leaves, although some are used as ornamentals. Kale plants have green or purple leaves, and the central leaves do not form a head (as with headed cabbage). Kales are considered to be closer to wild cabbage than most of the many domesticated forms of Brassica oleracea. Raw kale is composed of 84% water, 9% carbohydrates, 4% protein, and 1% fat (table). In a 100 gram serving, raw kale provides 49 calories and a large amount of vitamin K at 3.7 times the Daily Value (DV) (table). It is a rich source (20% or more of the DV) of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6, folate, and manganese (see table "Kale, raw"). Kale is a good source (10–19% DV) of thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, vitamin E and several dietary minerals, including iron, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus (see table "Kale, raw"). Boiling raw kale diminishes most of these nutrients, while values for vitamins A, C, and K, and manganese remain substantial (see table "Kale, cooked").

Spinach is a leafy green flowering plant native to central and western Asia. It is of the order Caryophyllales, family Amaranthaceae, subfamily Chenopodioideae. Its leaves are a common edible vegetable consumed either fresh, or after storage using preservation techniques by canning, freezing, or dehydration. It may be eaten cooked or raw, and the taste differs considerably; the high oxalate content may be reduced by steaming. It is an annual plant (rarely biennial), growing as tall as 30 cm (1 ft). Spinach may overwinter in temperate regions. The leaves are alternate, simple, ovate to triangular, and very variable in size: 2–30 cm (1–12 in) long and 1–15 cm (0.4–5.9 in) broad, with larger leaves at the base of the plant and small leaves higher on the flowering stem. The flowers are inconspicuous, yellow-green, 3–4 mm (0.1–0.2 in) in diameter, and mature into a small, hard, dry, lumpy fruit cluster 5–10 mm (0.2–0.4 in) across containing several seeds. In 2017, world production of spinach was 27.9 million tonnes, with China alone accounting for 92% of the total. Raw spinach is 91% water, 4% carbohydrates, 3% protein, and contains negligible fat. In a 100 g (3.5 oz) serving providing only 23 calories, spinach has a high nutritional value, especially when fresh, frozen, steamed, or quickly boiled. It is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin K, magnesium, manganese, iron and folate. Spinach is a good source (10-19% of DV) of the B vitamins riboflavin and vitamin B6, vitamin E, calcium, potassium, and dietary fiber. Although spinach is touted as being high in iron and calcium content, and is often served and consumed in its raw form, raw spinach contains high levels of oxalates, which block absorption of calcium and iron in the stomach and small intestine. Spinach cooked in several changes of water has much lower levels of oxalates and is better digested and its nutrients absorbed more completely. Popeye.

Gynura Procumbens is an edible vine found in China, Southeast Asia, and Africa. The plant grows wild but is also cultivated as a vegetable or medicinal plant. Its young leaves are used for cooking, such as with meat and prawns in a vegetable soup. Gynura Procumbens is sometimes called "longevity spinach" or "longevity greens".

Chard is a green leafy vegetable. In the cultivars of the Flavescens-Group, the leaf stalks are large and often prepared separately from the leaf blade; the Cicla-Group is the leafy spinach beet. The leaf blade can be green or reddish in color; the leaf stalks are usually white, or a colorful yellow or red. Chard, like other green leafy vegetables, has highly nutritious leaves, In a 100-g serving, raw Swiss chard provides 19 kilocalories (79 kJ) of food energy and has rich content (> 19% of the Daily Value, DV) of vitamins A, K, and C, with 122%, 1038%, and 50%, respectively, of the DV. Also having significant content in raw chard are vitamin E and the dietary minerals, magnesium, manganese, iron, and potassium. Raw chard has low content of carbohydrates, protein, fat, and dietary fiber.

Collard plant refers to certain loose-leafed cultivars of Brassica oleracea, the same species as many common vegetables, including cabbage (Capitata Group) and broccoli (Botrytis Group). Collard is part of the Acephala Group of the species, which includes kale and spring greens. They are in the same cultivar group owing to their genetic similarity. The name "collard" comes from the word "colewort" (the wild cabbage plant). The plants are grown for their large, dark-colored, edible leaves and as a garden ornamental, mainly in Brazil, Portugal, the southern United States, many parts of Africa, the Balkans, northern Spain, and Kashmir. Collard greens have been eaten for at least 2000 years, with evidence showing that the ancient Greeks cultivated several types of collard, as well as kale. Raw collard greens are 90% water, 6% carbohydrates, 3% protein, and contain negligible fat (table). Like kale, collard greens contain substantial amounts of vitamin K (388% of the Daily Value, DV) in a 100 gram serving. Collard greens are rich sources (20% or more of DV) of vitamin A, vitamin C, and manganese, and moderate sources of calcium and vitamin B6. A 100 gram serving of cooked collard greens provides 33 calories.

Watercress or yellowcress is a species of aquatic flowering plant in the cabbage family Brassicaceae. Its botanical name is Nasturtium officinale. Watercress is a rapidly growing, perennial plant native to Europe and Asia. It is one of the oldest known leaf vegetables consumed by humans. Watercress and many of its relatives, such as garden cress, mustard, radish, and wasabi, are noteworthy for their piquant flavors. The hollow stems of watercress float in water. The leaf structure is pinnately compound. Small, white, and green flowers are produced in clusters and are frequently visited by insects, especially hoverflies, such as Eristalis flies. Watercress was eaten by early Native Americans. Some Native Americans used it to treat kidney illnesses and constipation, and it was thought by some to be an aphrodisiac. Ancient Romans thought eating it would cure mental illness. Twelfth-century mystic Hildegard of Bingen thought eating it steamed and drinking the water would cure jaundice or fever. Early African Americans used the plant as an abortifacient; it was believed to cause sterility as well. he new tips of watercress leaves can be eaten raw or cooked, although caution should be used when collecting these in the wild because of parasites such as giardia. Watercress is 95% water and has low contents of carbohydrates, protein, fat, and dietary fiber. A 100-gram serving of raw watercress provides 11 calories, is particularly rich in vitamin K (238% of the Daily Value, DV), and contains significant amounts of vitamin A, vitamin C, riboflavin, vitamin B6, calcium, and manganese (table).

Allium Tricoccum is a flowering plant species that is a North American species of wild onion widespread across eastern Canada and the eastern United States. It is commonly known as ramp, ramps, ramson, wild leek, wood leek, or wild garlic. Many of the common English names for this plant are also used for other Allium species, particularly the similar Allium ursinum, which is native to Europe and Asia. Allium tricoccum is a perennial growing from an ovoid-conical shaped bulb that is 2–6 cm long. Plants typically produce a cluster of 2–6 bulbs that give rise to broad, flat, smooth, light green leaves, that are 20–30 cm long including the narrow petioles, often with deep purple or burgundy tints on the lower stems. The bulbs are white and surrounded by brownish to grayish sheathing. Each cluster of bulbs gives rise to one flowering stem. The flowers are arranged into an umbel that has an erect scape that is typically 10–40 cm long. The inflorescence has two ovate bracts that enclose the flowers before they open and fall away at anthesis. The flowering stem is persistent after fruiting. The flowering most commonly occurs after the leaves have died back, unlike the similar Allium ursinum, in which leaves and flowers can be seen at the same time. Ramps grow in close groups strongly rooted just beneath the surface of the soil. Flowering occurs in June or July into August. The flowers have white, cream or yellowish tepals which are 4–7mm long. The stamens are about as tall as the tepals and the filaments of the stamens have widened bases and are inserted on the corolla. After flowering and fertilization green fruits are produced that are three-lobed and open by way of three valves. The seeds are round, black, and shiny. Medicinal use. The Cherokee also eat the plant as a spring tonic, for colds and for croup. They also use the warm juice for earaches. The Ojibwa use a decoction as a quick-acting emetic. The Iroquois also use a decoction of the root to treat worms in children, and they also use the decoction as a spring tonic to "clean you out". Some Native Americans also used juice from the crushed bulbs to treat insect stings. The inhabitants of Appalachia have long celebrated spring with the arrival of the ramp, believing it to be a tonic capable of warding off many winter ailments. Indeed, ramp's vitamin and mineral content did bolster the health of people who went without many green vegetables during the winter.

Endive is a leaf vegetable belonging to the genus Cichorium, which includes several similar, bitter, leafed vegetables. Species include Cichorium endivia (also called endive), Cichorium pumilum (also called wild endive), and Cichorium intybus (also called common chicory). Common chicory includes types such as radicchio, puntarelle, and Belgian endive. There is considerable confusion between Cichorium endivia and Cichorium intybus. Endive is rich in many vitamins and minerals, especially in folate and vitamins A and K, and is high in fiber. It also contains kaempferol. Frisée is not a lettuce, even though it’s often called “Frisée lettuce.” It is a leafy green related to endive and chicory.

Mizuna is a cultivar of Brassica rapa var. niposinica. Possessing dark green serrated leaves, the taste of 'mizuna' has been described as a "piquant, mild peppery flavor...slightly spicy, but less so than arugula."[4] It is also used in stir-fries, soups, and nabemono (Japanese hot pots). Mizuna is small to medium in size, averaging 35-40 centimeters in height, and grows in bunches from a central stalk with long stems. is also known as Japanese mustard, shui cai (or "water greens"), California peppergrass, and many other names. A cross between arugula and mustard, mizuna also has a mild peppery taste. They have feathery serrated edges and have a glossy surface that make the green wonderfully decorative. Mizuna calories for 170g (1leaf) is 39Cal at 23Cal per 100g serving size, rich in Vitamin K and Molybdenum,

Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula NO−3. Organic compounds that contain the nitrate ester as a functional group (RONO2) are also called nitrates. The anion is the conjugate base of nitric acid, consisting of one central nitrogen atom surrounded by three identically bonded oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement. The nitrate ion carries a formal charge of −1. This results from a combination formal charge in which each of the three oxygens carries a −2⁄3 charge, whereas the nitrogen carries a +1 charge, all these adding up to formal charge of the polyatomic nitrate ion. This arrangement is commonly used as an example of resonance. Like the isoelectronic carbonate ion, the nitrate ion can be represented by resonance structures. Almost all inorganic nitrate salts are soluble in water at standard temperature and pressure. A common example of an inorganic nitrate salt is potassium nitrate (saltpeter). A rich source of inorganic nitrate in the human body comes from diets rich in leafy green foods, such as spinach and arugula. NO−3 (inorganic nitrate) is the viable active component within beetroot juice and other vegetables.

Sulforaphane is a compound within the isothiocyanate group of organosulfur compounds. It is obtained from cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cabbages. It is produced when the enzyme myrosinase transforms glucoraphanin, a glucosinolate, into sulforaphane upon damage to the plant (such as from chewing), which allows the two compounds to mix and react. Young sprouts of broccoli and cauliflower are particularly rich in glucoraphanin. Sulforaphane was identified in broccoli sprouts, which, of the cruciferous vegetables, have the highest concentration of sulforaphane. It is also found in Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, bok choy, kale, collards, Chinese broccoli, broccoli raab, kohlrabi, mustard, turnip, radish, arugula, and watercress. Sulforaphane can prevent DNA damage that leads to cancer. Sulforaphane seems to prevent inflammation that can lead to neurodegenerative diseases, Glucosinolate glucoraphanin, which helps improve blood pressure and kidney function. Nutrition Facts.

Sulforaphane and Its Effects on Cancer, Mortality, Aging, Brain and Behavior, Heart Disease & More - Rhonda Patrick
(youtube) - Found my Fitness.

Broccoli is an edible green plant in the cabbage family (family Brassicaceae, genus Brassica) whose large flowering head, stalk and small associated leaves are eaten as a vegetable. Health benefits of broccoli are cancer protective compounds, heart health, eye health, hormonal balance, immune system support, provides fiber, keeps you hydrated, enhances brain health, improves bone strength, improves skin health, aids digestion, reduces inflammation.

Broccoli consumption protects gut lining, reduces disease, in mice. Research has shown that increased consumption of the cruciferous vegetable decreases incidence of cancer and type 2 diabetes. In a recent study, researchers found that broccoli contains certain molecules that bind to a receptor within mice and help to protect the lining of the small intestine, thereby inhibiting the development of disease. The findings lend support to the idea that broccoli truly is a 'superfood.' Aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands, bind to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which is a type of protein called a transcription factor. This binding, they found, initiates a variety of activities that affect the functions of intestinal cells.

NFE2L2 is a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the NFE2L2 gene. Nrf2 is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein that regulates the expression of antioxidant proteins that protect against oxidative damage triggered by injury and inflammation. Several drugs that stimulate the NFE2L2 pathway are being studied for treatment of diseases that are caused by oxidative stress.

NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (quinone 1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NQO1 gene. This protein-coding gene is a member of the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone) family and encodes a 2-electron reductase (enzyme). This FAD-binding protein forms homodimers and performs two-electron reduction of quinones to hydroquinones and of other redox dyes. It has a preference for short-chain acceptor quinones, such as ubiquinone, benzoquinone, juglone and duroquinone. This gene has an important paralog NQO2. This protein is located in the cytosol. NQO1 enzyme expression can be induced by dioxin and inhibited by dicoumarol.

Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound. If this modification ends in mineral compounds like CO2, NH4+, or H2O, the biotransformation is called mineralisation. Biotransformation means chemical alteration of chemicals such as nutrients, amino acids, toxins, and drugs in the body. It is also needed to render non-polar compounds polar so that they are not reabsorbed in renal tubules and are excreted. Biotransformation of xenobiotics can dominate toxicokinetics and the metabolites may reach higher concentrations in organisms than their parent compounds.

Luteolin is most often found in leaves, but it is also seen in rinds, barks, clover blossom, and ragweed pollen. It has also been isolated from the aromatic flowering plant, Salvia tomentosa in the mint family, Lamiaceae. Dietary sources include celery, broccoli, green pepper, parsley, thyme, dandelion, perilla, chamomile tea, carrots, olive oil, peppermint, rosemary, navel oranges, and oregano. It can also be found in the seeds of the palm Aiphanes aculeata. reduces inflamation. Luteolin is a flavone, a type of flavonoid, with a yellow crystalline appearance.

Flavones are common in the food supply, mainly from spices, and red–purple fruits and vegetables.

Flavonoids are widely distributed in plants, fulfilling many functions. Flavonoids are the most important plant pigments for flower coloration, producing yellow or red/blue pigmentation in petals designed to attract pollinator animals. In higher plants, flavonoids are involved in UV filtration, symbiotic nitrogen fixation and floral pigmentation. They may also act as chemical messengers, physiological regulators, and cell cycle inhibitors. Flavonoids secreted by the root of their host plant help Rhizobia in the infection stage of their symbiotic relationship with legumes like peas, beans, clover, and soy. Rhizobia living in soil are able to sense the flavonoids and this triggers the secretion of Nod factors, which in turn are recognized by the host plant and can lead to root hair deformation and several cellular responses such as ion fluxes and the formation of a root nodule. In addition, some flavonoids have inhibitory activity against organisms that cause plant diseases, e.g. Fusarium oxysporum.

How black tea and other favorites may help your health later in life. The key is flavonoids, which are naturally occurring substances found in many common foods and beverages such as black and green tea, apples, nuts, citrus fruit, berries and more.

Antioxidant flavonols linked to slower memory decline. Fruits, vegetables, tea may be helpful. People who eat or drink more foods with antioxidant flavonols, which are found in several fruits and vegetables as well as tea and wine, may have a slower rate of memory decline, according to a new study.

Isoflavones are a type of naturally occurring isoflavonoids, many of which act as phytoestrogens in mammals. Isoflavones are produced almost exclusively by the members of the Fabaceae (i.e., Leguminosae, or bean) family.

Phenols - Polyphenols - Hyaluronic Acid (wiki) - Phytochemical - Phytonutrients

Anthocyanin are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, or blue. Food plants rich in anthocyanins include the blueberry, raspberry, black rice, and black soybean, among many others that are red, blue, purple, or black. Some of the colors of autumn leaves are derived from anthocyanins. Anthocyanins belong to a parent class of molecules called flavonoids synthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway. They occur in all tissues of higher plants, including leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits. Anthocyanins are derived from anthocyanidins by adding sugars. They are odorless and moderately astringent. Although approved to color foods and beverages in the European Union, anthocyanins are not approved for use as a food additive because they have not been verified as safe when used as food or supplement ingredients. There is no conclusive evidence anthocyanins have any effect on human biology or diseases.

Apigenin found in many plants, is a natural product belonging to the flavone class that is the aglycone of several naturally occurring glycosides. It is a yellow crystalline solid that has been used to dye wool. Apigenin may also stimulate adult neurogenesis, with at least one study claiming that apigenin "stimulate[s] adult neurogenesis in vivo and in vitro, by promoting neuronal differentiation" and may be useful "for stimulating adult neurogenesis and for the treatment of neurological diseases, disorders and injuries, by stimulating the generation of neuronal cells in the adult brain." While potentially promising, the study used rats and its effects have yet to be demonstrated in humans. Apigenin readily crosses the blood-brain barrier and has not demonstrated toxicity at high doses. It could thus prevent amyloid beta deposition and tau phosphorylation due to neuroinflammation, which are associated with Alzheimer's disease. Through effects on cell signaling, inflammation, cell cycle, and protease production, apigenin has demonstrated effectiveness against a wide range of cancer types, while not showing toxicity to normal cells. Apigenin is able to block the phosphorylation of certain proteins in pathways that, in the case of a cancer, are over expressed like NF-κB, PI3K, etc. These pathways can induce proliferation, migration and invasion if not regulated.

Fructo-oligosaccharides are made up of plant sugars linked in chains. They are taken from asparagus, Jerusalem artichokes, and soybeans, or produced in the laboratory. People use these sugars to make medicine. Fructo-oligosaccharides are used for constipation, traveler's diarrhea, and high cholesterol levels. Fructo-oligosaccharides is shorter than inulin and adding it to your diet has been shown to reduce markers of inflammation.

Plant Based Protein

Plant Based Protein is protein from eating plants like soy products such as tofu, tempeh, and edamame, which are among the richest sources of protein in a vegan diet. Other protein plant foods are Sprouted Whole Grain Bread, Chickpeas, Peanuts, Almonds, Spirulina, Quinoa, Buckwheat, Broccoli, Hemp Seeds and Lentils with about 18 grams of protein per cup. Athletes and World Champions who are Vegetarians - Vegetarian Bodybuilding.

Brain Food - Super Foods

Plant and Animal Proteins vary in the number of Amino Acids they contain. One of the main differences between plant and animal proteins involves their amino acid contents. Amino Acids are the Building Blocks of Protein. When the body digests the proteins in food, it breaks them down into amino acids. While animal proteins tend to contain a good balance of all the amino acids that we need, some plant proteins are low in certain amino acids. A person's body needs a balance of all 22 types of amino acids to function correctly. Most plant proteins are incomplete, which means that they are missing at least one of the essential amino acids. However, some plant-based foods, such as quinoa and buckwheat, are complete sources of protein. Soy beans and quinoa, are complete proteins, which means that they contain all nine essential amino acids that humans need. The following are examples of plant-based foods rich in protein: grains, lentils, nuts, beans, legumes, certain fruits, such as avocados, soy, hemp, rice, peas. Plant Based Protein that Looks like Meat and tastes like Meat.

Meat Substitutes List (wiki)

Plant-Based Protein - Plant Based

Memphis Meats - Beyond Meat - Vegan Cuts

Quorn is a brand of meat substitute products, or the company that makes them. All Quorn foods contain mycoprotein as an ingredient, which is a form of single-cell protein, also known as fungal protein, derived from fungi or derived from the Fusarium venenatum fungus for human consumption. In most Quorn products, the fungus culture is dried and mixed with egg albumen, which acts as a binder, and then is adjusted in texture and pressed into various forms. A vegan formulation also exists that uses potato protein as a binder instead of egg albumen.

Growing Edible Plant Cells for Protein

Bioreactor is a device or system that supports a biologically active environment in a vessel in which a chemical process is carried out which involves organisms or biochemically active substances derived from such organisms. This process can either be aerobic or anaerobic.

In Vitro Meat is meat grown in cell culture instead of inside animals.

Upside Foods is delicious meat made from animal cells.

Good Meat is real meat made without tearing down a forest or taking a life.

Meatable is cultured lab-grown meat that has the potential to use 96% less water and 99% less land than industrial farming. SuperMeat - Cultured.

Cellular Agriculture focuses on the production of agriculture products from cell cultures using a combination of biotechnology, tissue engineering, molecular biology, and synthetic biology to create and design new methods of producing Proteins, fats, and tissues that would otherwise come from traditional agriculture. Most of the industry is focused on animal products such as meat, milk, and eggs, produced in cell culture rather than raising and slaughtering farmed livestock. The most well known cellular agriculture concept is cultured meat.

Aerobic Organism is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.

Anaerobic Organism is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. Aerobic Exercise - Waste Energy.

Protein - Protein - Amino Acids

Proline is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

Impossible Foods is a company that develops plant-based substitutes for meat products. the company's stated aim is to give people the taste and nutritional benefits of meat without supposed negative health and certain environmental impacts associated with livestock products. The company researches animal products at the molecular level, then selects specific proteins and nutrients from plants to recreate the experience and nutrition of specific meat products. the Impossible Burger, which is made from material derived from plants. The company says that making it uses 95% less land and 74% less water, and it emits about 87% less greenhouse gas than making a ground beef burger patty from cows. The plant-based burger has more protein, less total fat, no cholesterol, and fewer calories than a similar-sized hamburger patty made with beef. It contains more sodium and more saturated fats than an unseasoned beef patty. Impossible Foods

Heme is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands. Many porphyrin-containing metalloproteins have heme as their prosthetic group; these are known as hemoproteins. Hemes are most commonly recognized as components of hemoglobin, the red pigment in blood, but are also found in a number of other biologically important hemoproteins such as myoglobin, cytochromes, catalases, heme peroxidase, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. The word heme is derived from Greek a?µa haima meaning "blood". Hemeprotein is a protein that contains a heme prosthetic group. They are very large class of metalloproteins. The heme group confers functionality, which can include oxygen carrying, oxygen reduction, electron transfer, and other processes. Heme is bound to the protein either covalently or noncovalently or both. Heme is the molecule that gives blood its red color and helps carry oxygen in living organisms. Heme is abundant in animal muscle tissue and is also found naturally in all living organisms. Plants, particularly nitrogen-fixing plants and legumes, also contain heme. The plant-based heme molecule is identical to the heme molecule found in meat. To produce heme protein from non-animal sources, Impossible Foods selected the leghemoglobin molecule found naturally in the roots of soy plants. To make it in large quantities, the company's scientists genetically engineered a yeast and used a fermentation process very similar to the brewing process used to make some types of beer. Leghemoglobin is an oxygen carrier and hemoprotein found in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants.

Coordination Complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents. Many metal-containing compounds, especially those of transition metals, are coordination complexes. A coordination complex whose centre is a metal atom is called a metal complex.


Dietary Fiber is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants. It has two main components: Soluble fiber, which dissolves in water, is readily fermented in the colon into gases and physiologically active byproducts, and can be prebiotic and viscous. Insoluble fiber, which does not dissolve in water, is metabolically inert and provides bulking, or it can be prebiotic and metabolically ferment in the large intestine. Bulking fibers absorb water as they move through the digestive system, easing defecation. Dietary fibers can act by changing the nature of the contents of the gastrointestinal tract and by changing how other nutrients and chemicals are absorbed. Some types of soluble fiber absorb water to become a gelatinous, viscous substance which is fermented by bacteria in the digestive tract. Some types of insoluble fiber have bulking action and are not fermented. Lignin, a major dietary insoluble fiber source, may alter the rate and metabolism of soluble fibers. Other types of insoluble fiber, notably resistant starch, are fully fermented. Some but not all soluble plant fibers block intestinal mucosal adherence and translocation of potentially pathogenic bacteria and may therefore modulate intestinal inflammation, an effect that has been termed contrabiotic. Chemically, dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans, cellulose, and many other plant components such as resistant starch, resistant dextrins, inulin, lignin, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans, and oligosaccharides. A novel position has been adopted by the US Department of Agriculture to include functional fibers as isolated fiber sources that may be included in the diet. The term "fiber" is something of a misnomer, since many types of so-called dietary fiber are not actually fibrous. Food sources of dietary fiber are often divided according to whether they provide (predominantly) soluble or insoluble fiber. Plant foods contain both types of fiber in varying degrees, according to the plant's characteristics. Advantages of consuming fiber are the production of healthful compounds during the fermentation of soluble fiber, and insoluble fiber's ability (via its passive hygroscopic properties) to increase bulk, soften stool, and shorten transit time through the intestinal tract. A disadvantage of a diet high in fiber is the potential for significant intestinal gas production and bloating.

Microbes (gut health)

According to the U.S. government's dietary guidelines, you should be eating 14 grams of fiber for every 1,000 calories you take in daily. But only around 9% of women and 3% of men in the U.S. meet the fiber recommendations.

Non-Fermented Fiber are fibers that are not broken down by bacteria. They travel intact to the colon and can add bulk and weight to stool so it is easier to pass. These fibers can dissolve in water and form viscous gels. They can improve glycemic control and lower blood cholesterol concentration. In addition, they retain their water-holding/gel-forming capacity in the large intestine since they are resistant to fermentation. Foods that are good sources of non fermentable, non viscous fiber include whole wheat, whole grain cereals, broccoli, and other vegetables. This type of fiber is believed to decrease the risk of constipation and colon cancer, because it increases stool bulk and reduces transit time.

Biological Pigment are substances produced by living organisms that have a color resulting from selective color absorption. Biological pigments include plant pigments and flower pigments. Many biological structures, such as skin, eyes, feathers, fur and hair contain pigments such as melanin in specialized cells called chromatophores. Pigment color differs from structural color in that it is the same for all viewing angles, whereas structural color is the result of selective reflection or iridescence, usually because of multilayer structures. For example, butterfly wings typically contain structural color, although many butterflies have cells that contain pigment as well. The primary function of pigments in plants is photosynthesis, which uses the green pigment chlorophyll along with several red and yellow pigments that help to capture as much light energy as possible.

Chlorophyll is a term used for several closely related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants. Chlorophyll is essential in photosynthesis, allowing plants to absorb energy from light. Chlorophyll absorbs light most strongly in the blue portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, followed by the red portion. Health benefits are that it helps in normal blood clotting, wound healing, hormonal balance, deodorizing and detoxification of the body and promotes digestive health. It has healing effects on oxidation and inflammatory conditions such as arthritis and fibromyalgia.

Lutein is a xanthophyll and one of 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. Lutein is synthesized only by plants and like other xanthophylls is found in high quantities in green leafy vegetables such as spinach, kale and yellow carrots. In green plants, xanthophylls act to modulate light energy and serve as non-photochemical quenching agents to deal with triplet chlorophyll (an excited form of chlorophyll), which is overproduced at very high light levels, during photosynthesis. Xanthophyll are yellow pigments that occur widely in nature and form one of two major divisions of the carotenoid group; the other division is formed by the carotenes. Lutein is a type of organic pigment called a carotenoid. It is related to beta-carotene and vitamin A. Many people think of lutein as "the eye vitamin." Lutein is one of two major carotenoids found in the human eye (macula and retina). Lutein is a carotenoid with reported anti-inflammatory properties. A large body of evidence shows that lutein has several beneficial effects, especially on eye health. In particular, lutein is known to improve or even prevent age-related macular disease which is the leading cause of blindness and vision impairment.

Carotenoid are highly unsaturated with conjugated double bonds, which enables carotenoids to absorb light of various wavelengths. At the same time, the terminal groups regulate the polarity and properties within lipid membranes.

Seeds - Nuts - Legumes

Seeds Legumes is a plant or fruit/seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae). Legumes are grown agriculturally, primarily for their grain seed called pulse, for livestock forage and silage, and as soil-enhancing green manure. Well-known legumes include alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, lentils, lupin bean, mesquite, carob, soybeans, peanuts, and tamarind. A legume fruit is a simple dry fruit that develops from a simple carpel and usually dehisces (opens along a seam) on two sides. A common name for this type of fruit is a pod, although the term "pod" is also applied to a few other fruit types, such as that of vanilla (a capsule) and of radish (a silique). Legumes are notable in that most of them have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. For that reason, they play a key role in crop rotation. (beans, peas, lentils, soybeans).

The legume family tree. Massive molecular study uncovers clues to the evolution and diversification of essential plant family
The most comprehensive study of the family tree for legumes, the plant family that includes beans, soybeans, peanuts, and many other economically important crop plants, reveals a history of whole-genome duplications.

Aquafaba is the name for the viscous water in which legume seeds such as chickpeas have been cooked. Due to its ability to mimic functional properties of egg whites, aquafaba can be used as a direct replacement for egg whites in some recipes. Its composition makes it especially suitable for use by people with dietary, ethical, or religious reasons to avoid eggs.

Nut as a fruit is a fruit composed of a hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible. In a general context, however, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts, but in a botanical context, there is an additional requirement that the shell does not open to release the seed (indehiscent). The translation of "nut" in certain languages frequently requires paraphrases, as the word is ambiguous. Most seeds come from fruits that naturally free themselves from the shell, unlike nuts such as hazelnuts, chestnuts, and acorns, which have hard shell walls and originate from a compound ovary. The general and original usage of the term is less restrictive, and many nuts (in the culinary sense), such as almonds, pecans, pistachios, walnuts, and Brazil nuts, are not nuts in a botanical sense. Common usage of the term often refers to any hard-walled, edible kernel as a nut.

Culinary Nuts List (PDF) - Seeds that are Edible List (PDF)

Chia seeds, Hemp Seeds, Pomegranate Seeds, Flax Seeds, Pumpkin Seeds, apricot Seeds, Sesame Seeds, Sunflower Seeds, Cumin Seeds, Grape Seeds.

Seeds for Planting

Arnold says "No it's not a Tuber!", which are enlarged structures in some plant species used as storage organs for nutrients. They are used for the plant's perennation (survival of the winter or dry months), to provide energy and nutrients for regrowth during the next growing season, and as a means of asexual reproduction. Stem tubers form from thickened rhizomes (underground stems) or stolons (horizontal connections between organisms). Common plant species with stem tubers include potato and yam. Some sources also treat modified lateral roots (root tubers) under the definition; these are encountered in sweet potato, cassava, and dahlia.

Storage Organ is a part of a plant specifically modified for storage of energy (generally in the form of carbohydrates) or water. Storage organs often grow underground, where they are better protected from attack by herbivores. Plants that have an underground storage organ are called geophytes in the Raunkiær plant life-form classification system. Storage organs often, but not always, act as perennating organs which enable plants to survive adverse conditions (such as cold, excessive heat, lack of light or drought)

Aquafaba is the common name for the cooking liquid of beans and other legumes like chickpeas. Aquafaba can be used to replace egg whites in many sweet and savory recipes. Its unique mix of starches, proteins, and other soluble plant solids which have migrated from the seeds to the water during the cooking process gives aquafaba a wide spectrum of emulsifying, foaming, binding, gelatinizing and thickening properties. Recipes such as meringues, mayo, butter, cheeses, pavlovas, macarons, baked goods, and much, much more! Gum acts as a stabilizer, preventing emulsified sauces and salad dressings from separating.

Almonds are rich in nutrients such as iron, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin B and linoleic acid. A recent study showed that when people eat roughly a handful of almonds a day, they lowered their LDL cholesterol by 3%. Marcona almonds contain the same excellent health benefits as all almonds, including cholesterol-lowering monounsaturated fats. They are also an equally rich source of protein, antioxidants, iron, and calcium. Use Marcona almonds in salads, with cheeses, alongside fruit, and in desserts.

Lentil is an edible pulse It is a bushy annual plant of the legume family, known for its lens-shaped seeds. It is about 40 cm (16 in) tall, and the seeds grow in pods, usually with two seeds in each. Lentils - the answer to world hunger? | DW Documentary (youtube).

Lentil's Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,477 kJ (353 kcal)
Carbohydrates 63 g
Sugars 2 g
Dietary fiber 10.7 g
Fat 1 g
Protein 25 g
Vitamins %DV
Thiamine (B1) 76% Quantity 0.87 mg
Riboflavin (B2) 18% 0.211 mg
Niacin (B3) 17% 2.605 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5) 43% 2.14 mg
Vitamin B6 42% 0.54 mg
Folate (B9) 120% 479 μg
Vitamin C 5% 4.5 mg
Minerals %DV
Calcium 6% 56 mg
Iron 50% 6.5 mg
Magnesium 13% 47 mg
Phosphorus 40% 281 mg
Potassium 14% 677 mg
Sodium 0% 6 mg
Zinc 35% 3.3 mg
Other constituents
Water Quantity 8.3 g.

Phaseolus Vulgaris or the common bean, is a herbaceous annual plant grown worldwide for its edible dry seeds or green, unripe pods. Its leaf is also occasionally used as a vegetable and the straw as fodder. Its botanical classification, along with other Phaseolus species, is as a member of the legume family Fabaceae. Like most members of this family, common beans acquire the nitrogen they require through an association with rhizobia, which are nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

Unique Mexican black and pinto bean varieties are high in healthy compounds. Bean seeds also contain phenolic compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that promote health. A study explored the composition of seed coat extracts from black and pinto bean varieties unique to the Chiapas region of Southern Mexico.

Pinto Bean is a variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). In Spanish they are called frijoles pintos. It is the most popular bean by crop production in Northern Mexico and the Southwestern United States, and is most often eaten whole (sometimes in broth), or mashed and then refried. Either way, it is a common filling for burritos, tostadas, or tacos in Mexican cuisine, also as a side or as part of an entrée served with a side tortilla or sopaipilla in New Mexican cuisine.

Black Turtle Bean is a small, shiny variety of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) especially popular in Latin American cuisine, though it can also be found in the Cajun and Creole cuisines of south Louisiana. Like all varieties of the common bean, it is native to the Americas, but has been introduced around the world. It is also used in Indian cuisine, Tamil cuisine, where it is known as karuppu kaaramani and in Maharashtrian cuisine, where it is known as Kala Ghevada. It is widely used in Uttrakhand India also known as “Bhatt“. It is a rich source of iron and protein. The black turtle bean is often simply called the black bean (frijoles negros, zaragoza, judía negra, poroto negro, caraota negra, or habichuela negra in Spanish; and feijão preto in Portuguese), although this terminology can cause confusion with at least three other types of black beans.


Fruits Carbs Fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food. Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings.
(citrus fruit stays edible on the tree for a few months). Exotic Fruits (image)

Fruitarian is a diet that consists entirely or primarily of fruits in the botanical sense, and possibly nuts and seeds, without animal products.

Fruitarianism is a subset of dietary veganism. 

80-10-10 Diet (youtube) - Freelea (youtube)

Fruit & Vegetable Differences

Paw Paw is the largest edible fruit indigenous to the U.S.

Breadfruit is a flowering tree in the mulberry and Jackfruit family (Moraceae) originating in the South Pacific and that was eventually spread to the rest of Oceania. It requires very limited care. Breadfruit trees grow to a height of 25 m (82 ft). The trees are monoecious, with male and female flowers growing on the same tree. Breadfruit is one of the highest-yielding food plants, with a single tree producing up to 200 or more grapefruit-sized fruits per season. Productivity varies between wet and dry areas. (50 to 150 fruits per year)  Breadfruit is 71% water, 27% carbohydrates, 1% protein and negligible in fat (20% vitamin C, (10-19% DV) of thiamin and potassium. Breadfruit can be eaten once cooked.

Morinda Citrifolia plant bears flowers and fruits all year round, reaches maturity in about 18 months, then yields between 4 and 8 kg (8.8 and 17.6 lb) of fruit every month throughout the year. It is tolerant of saline soils, drought conditions, and secondary soils. English common names include great morinda, Indian mulberry, noni, beach mulberry, and cheese fruit.

Cara Cara Navel Orange pack 20 per cent more Vitamin C and nearly 30 per cent more Vitamin A than a regular navel orange. They're also fat, cholesterol and sodium-free and a good source of fibre and folate.

Scientists has traced the evolutionary history of Florida's citrus crop up to 8 million years ago in the Himalayas of Southeast Asia. Analyzed 60 types of citrus whose genomes they sequenced.

Grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, jam, juice, jelly, grape seed extract, raisins, vinegar, and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit, generally occurring in clusters.

Trichosanthes Cucumerina is a tropical or subtropical vine, its variety T. cucumerina var. anguina raised for its strikingly long fruit, in Asia eaten immature as a vegetable much like the summer squash, and in Africa, the reddish pulp of its mature fruit is used as an economical substitute of tomato. Common names of the cultivated variety include snake gourd, serpent gourd, chichinda, and padwal (not to be confused with Trichosanthes dioica, the parwal, another gourd edible when immature).

Anthocyanin are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, or blue. Food plants rich in anthocyanins include the blueberry, raspberry, black rice, and black soybean, among many others that are red, blue, purple, or black. Some of the colors of autumn leaves are derived from anthocyanins.

Common Fig is the source of the fruit also called the fig and as such is an important crop in those areas where it is grown commercially. Native to the Middle East and western Asia, it has been sought out and cultivated since ancient times and is now widely grown throughout the world, both for its fruit and as an ornamental plant. The species has become naturalized in scattered locations in Asia and North America. Ficus carica is a gynodioecious (functionally dioecious), deciduous tree or large shrub, growing to a height of 7–10 metres (23–33 ft), with smooth white bark. Its fragrant leaves are 12–25 centimetres (4.7–9.8 in) long and 10–18 centimetres (3.9–7.1 in) across, and deeply lobed with three or five lobes. The complex inflorescence consists of a hollow fleshy structure called the syconium, which is lined with numerous unisexual flowers. The flowers themselves are not visible from outside the syconium, as they bloom inside the infructescence. Although commonly referred to as a fruit, the fig is actually the infructescence or scion of the tree, known as a false fruit or multiple fruit, in which the flowers and seeds are borne. It is a hollow-ended stem containing many flowers. The small orifice (ostiole) visible on the middle of the fruit is a narrow passage, which allows the specialized fig wasp Blastophaga psenes to enter the fruit and pollinate the flower, whereafter the fruit grows seeds. See Ficus: Fig fruit and reproduction system. The edible fruit consists of the mature syconium containing numerous one-seeded fruits (druplets). The fruit is 3–5 centimetres (1.2–2.0 in) long, with a green skin, sometimes ripening towards purple or brown. Ficus carica has milky sap (laticifer). The sap of the fig's green parts is an irritant to human skin. The common fig tree has been cultivated since ancient times and grows wild in dry and sunny areas, with deep and fresh soil; also in rocky areas, from sea level to 1,700 metres. It prefers relatively light free-draining soils, and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Unlike other fig species, Ficus carica does not always require pollination by a wasp or from another tree, but can be pollinated by the fig wasp, Blastophaga psenes to produce seeds. Fig wasps are not present to pollinate in colder countries like the United Kingdom. Figs can be eaten fresh or dried, and used in jam-making. Most commercial production is in dried or otherwise processed forms, since the ripe fruit does not transport well, and once picked does not keep well. The widely produced fig roll is a biscuit (cookie) with a filling made from figs.

Date Palm is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Although its place of origin is unknown because of long cultivation, it probably originated from the Fertile Crescent region straddling between Egypt and Mesopotamia. The species is widely cultivated across Northern Africa, The Middle East, The Horn of Africa and South Asia, and is naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. P. dactylifera is the type species of genus Phoenix, which contains 12–19 species of wild date palms, and is the major source of commercial production. Date trees typically reach about 21–23 metres (69–75 ft) in height, growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. Date fruits (dates) are oval-cylindrical, 3–7 cm (1.2–2.8 in) long, and about an inch (2.5 cm) in diameter, ranging from bright red to bright yellow in color, depending on variety. They are very sweet, containing about 75 percent of sugar when dried. Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East and the Indus Valley for thousands of years. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in Arabia from the 6th millennium BCE. The total annual world production of dates amounts to 8.5 million metric tons, countries of the Middle East and North Africa being the largest producers.

Dates and Figs aren't the same kind of food item from a botanical point of view. The date is the fruit of the date palm tree. Figs are edible vessels encasing hundreds of tiny fruits, informally known as the seeds. Like dates, figs grow on trees or shrub. The exterior of fresh dates are hairless and shiny, plump-looking and wrinkled. Dates are notoriously sticky. On the other hand, fresh figs are smooth, not sticky and lack the sheen of the date's skin. Both the fruits' skins are edible but some people opt to peel a fig's exterior or scoop out the interior flesh from halved figs.

Tomato is a Fruit. True fruits are developed from the ovary in the base of the flower, and contain the seeds of the plant (though cultivated forms may be seedless). Blueberries, raspberries, and oranges are true fruits, and so are many kinds of nut.

Fruit Preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often stored in glass jam jars.

Jelly refers exclusively to a clear or translucent fruit spread made from sweetened fruit (or vegetable) juice—thus differing from jam by excluding the fruit's flesh—and is set by using its naturally occurring pectin, whereas outside North America jelly more often refers to a gelatin-based dessert, though the term is also used to refer to clear jams such as blackcurrant and apple.

Jam typically contains both the juice and flesh of a fruit or vegetable, although one cookbook defines it as a cooked and jelled puree. The term "jam" refers to a product made of whole fruit cut into pieces or crushed, then heated with water and sugar to activate its pectin before being put into containers.

Purée is cooked food, usually vegetables, fruits or legumes, that has been ground, pressed, blended or sieved to the consistency of a creamy paste or liquid. Purées of specific foods are often known by specific names, e.g., applesauce or hummus.

Preserves are made from cooking whole fruit. Jam is made from cooking mashed fruit. Jelly is made from from cooking fruit juice. Fruit Butter is made from cooking strained fruit pulp. Fruit butter is a sweet spread made of fruit cooked to a paste, then lightly sweetened. It falls into the same category as jelly and jam. Apple butter and plum butter are common examples.

Drying Fruit - Food Preserving

Citrus Australasica is a thorny understorey shrub or small tree of lowland subtropical rainforest and rainforest in the coastal border region of Queensland and New South Wales, Australia. It has edible fruits which are under development as a commercial crop. According to the Swingle system it is not part of the genus Citrus, but in a related genus Microcitrus. This fruit isn't affected by Citrus Greening Disease which is a disease of citrus caused by a vector-transmitted pathogen. The causative agents are motile bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter spp.

Blending - Juicing

Juicer is a tool used to extract juice from fruits, herbs, leafy greens and other types of vegetables in a process called juicing. It crushes, grinds, and/or squeezes the juice out of the pulp. Fruit & Veggie Smoothies.

Blender is a kitchen and laboratory appliance used to mix, purée, or emulsify food and other substances. A stationary blender consists of a blender jar with a rotating metal blade at the bottom, powered by an electric motor in the base. Some powerful models can also crush ice. The newer immersion blender configuration has a motor on top connected by a shaft to a rotating blade at the bottom, which can be used with any container. Green and Tonic.

Food Processor similar to blenders in many forms. The primary difference is that food processors use interchangeable blades and disks (attachments) rather than a fixed blade. Also, their bowls are wider and shorter, a more proper shape for the solid or semi-solid foods usually worked in a food processor. Usually, little or no liquid is required in the operation of the food processor, unlike a blender, which requires a certain amount of liquid for the particles to move around the blade. Composting.

FreshStax: Smoothies That Do Good - Bare Salad & Smoothie

JUISIR is an innovative cold press juicer requiring no cleaning. Juicero juice packs could be squeezed by hand without using its high-tech machine. (company went bust).

Daily Harvest Ready-to-blend Healthy smoothies delivered to your door.

Ample Meal: Optimal Nutrition in 1 Minute - Conscious Cleanse - Vibrant Health On Demand

Sprouts - Micro-Greens - Vitamins

Porridge is a dish made by boiling ground, crushed, or chopped starchy plants - typically grain - in water and/or milk, often with flavorings. It is usually served hot in a bowl. It may be sweetened with sugar, honey etc. and served as a sweet dish, or mixed with spices, vegetables etc. to make a savoury dish.

Eat your Spinach in the form of a smoothie or juice -- this is the best way to obtain the antioxidant lutein, which is a xanthophyll and one of 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. Lutein is synthesized only by plants and like other xanthophylls is found in high quantities in green leafy vegetables such as spinach, kale and yellow carrots. In green plants, xanthophylls act to modulate light energy and serve as non-photochemical quenching agents to deal with triplet chlorophyll (an excited form of chlorophyll), which is overproduced at very high light levels, during photosynthesis. See xanthophyll cycle for this topic.

The world's smallest fruit picker controlled by artificial intelligence. Inspired by insects that suck nutrients directly from plant veins, physicists have studied whether valuable chemical substances can be harvested directly from the cells of plants. Using a harvester measuring only a few microns, they have now achieved a technological breakthrough. The goal of Kaare Hartvig Jensen, Associate Professor at DTU Physics, was to reduce the need for harvesting, transporting, and processing crops for the production of biofuels, pharmaceuticals, and other products. The new method of extracting the necessary substances, which are called plant metabolites, also eliminates the need for chemical and mechanical processes. Plant metabolites consist of a wide range of extremely important chemicals. Many, such as the malaria drug artemisinin, have remarkable therapeutic properties, while others, like natural rubber or biofuel from tree sap, have mechanical properties.Because most plant metabolites are isolated in individual cells, the method of extracting the metabolites is also important, since the procedure affects both product purity and yield. Usually the extraction involves grinding, centrifugation, and chemical treatment using solvents. This results in considerable pollution, which contributes to the high financial and environmental processing costs. "All the substances are produced and stored inside individual cells in the plant. That's where you have to go in if you want the pure material. When you harvest the whole plant or separate the fruit from the branches, you also harvest a whole lot of tissue that doesn't contain the substance you're interested in," explains Kaare Hartvig Jensen. "So there are two perspectives to it. If you want to extract the pure substances, you need to do it cell by cell. And when you can do that, as we've shown, you don't have to harvest the plant. Then you can put the little robot on and it can work without damaging the plant," says Kaare. The team is currently working with plants and leaves, but in the future this type of harvester may be used on a slightly larger scale. The hope is that this unique approach can create a new source of biomass and spark research into a new area of sustainable energy production. One thing the technology might be used for in the future is tapping energy from trees, which contain a lot of biofuel. "In the forests of northern Canada and Russia, there are spruce forests with around 740 billion trees that are completely untouched. That's about 25% of the total number of trees on the planet. By developing this technology, we can tap trees for sugar and make biofuel without chopping down or damaging the trees," explains Kaare. The cells in the fruit and leaves that the harvester looks for are 100 microns in diameter, and the tip of the needle is around 10 microns in diameter. The harvest is therefore happening on the scale of the width of a hair. Magnus Valdemar Paludan, the PhD student at DTU Physics who created the system of image analysis, image recognition, and robot control, explains. "It's all done with a microscope camera. To begin with, I manually marked pixels on the microscopy images showing the cells that the robot will harvest. That information can be used to train a computer to find similar cells in new images." Machine learning and a pre-existing neural network, GoogLeNet, are the building blocks of the technology. The network can already recognize macroscopic structures and can sift through an image and tell you if, for example, there's an elephant or a red pepper hiding in the photo. "We used a technique called transfer learning, where you use the existing neural network's ability to recognize different objects in an image. By showing the computer a number of new images with the manually marked cells, we succeeded in adjusting the network's parameters so it recognizes the microscopic metabolite-rich cells," says Magnus. "The harvester can then go in and take a picture of the leaf with the microscope camera, run it through the software, and recognize the cells it needs to harvest. Next, it can extract the chemicals automatically using a microrobot, while the rest of the plant remains undisturbed," explains Magnus.

Super Foods - Healthy Foods

Super Foods Superfood is a term used to describe foods with more health benefits then average food. But just like all labels, Buyer Beware. Just because something is said to be better for you this does not mean that it will be better for you. Do your research and experiment with different foods as if you were a scientist. Know your baseline. And remember that everyone has their own particular needs. Recipes.

Super Grains Resources - Super Foods RX - Revolution Foods

Quinoa (wiki) - Salvia Hispanica (wiki) - Chia Seeds

Moringa has more protein than yogurt, more calcium than milk, more B vitamins than peanuts, more potassium than bananas, and more vitamin A than carrots? May also help reduce urges and certain addictions?

Aronia (chokeberries) (wiki)
Mung Bean (wiki)
Turmeric (wiki)
Maple Syrup (wiki)
Eragrostis Teff (wiki)
Amaranth (wiki)
Alfalfa (wiki)
Morinda Citrifolia Noni (wiki)
Acai (wiki)

Coconut Oil (wiki)

Hemp Protein - Brain Foods

Blue Corn Rio Grande Blue Corn is several closely related varieties of flint corn grown in Mexico, the Southwestern United States, and the Southeastern United States. Blue corn tortillas contain 20% more protein than their white corn counterparts. They also have less starch and a lower glycemic index (GI). Blue corn is botanically identical to yellow corn but with one important difference. Its deep blue-purple color is the result of its rich anthocyanin content. Blue corn is also known as Hopi maize, Yoeme Blue, Tarahumara Maiz Azul, and Rio Grande. The six major types of maize are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, popcorn, flour corn, and sweet corn.

Anthocyanin are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, blue or black. Food plants rich in anthocyanins include the blueberry, raspberry, black rice, and black soybean, among many others that are red, blue, purple, or black. Some of the colors of autumn leaves are derived from anthocyanins. Anthocyanins belong to a parent class of molecules called flavonoids synthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway.

Apple Cider Vinegar is a vinegar made from fermented apple juice, and used in salad dressings, marinades, vinaigrettes, food preservatives, and chutneys. It is made by crushing apples, then squeezing out the juice. Bacteria and yeast are added to the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation process, which converts the sugars to alcohol. In a second fermentation step, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria (Acetobacter species). Acetic acid and malic acid combine to give vinegar its sour taste. Apple cider vinegar has no medicinal or nutritional value. Fermentation.

Spirulina is a biomass of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can be consumed by humans and other animals. The two species are Arthrospira platensis and A. maxima. Cultivated worldwide, Arthrospira is used as a dietary supplement or whole food. It is also used as a feed supplement in the aquaculture, aquarium, and poultry industries.

Pumpkin Seed or Pepita is the edible seed of a pumpkin or certain other cultivars of squash. The seeds are nutrient-rich, with especially high content of protein, dietary fiber and numerous micronutrients. The word can refer either to the hulled kernel or unhulled whole seed, and most commonly refers to the roasted end product.

Oat is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals). While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed. Oats are a nutrient-rich food associated with lower blood cholesterol when consumed regularly

Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum). Wheat Germ.

Wheat Triticum spp is the world’s most important food crop. Production is based almost entirely on two species. Athanasios Tsivelikas in the wheat regeneration plot at ICARDA in Marchouch, Morocco. Credit: Shawn Landersz T. aestivum, common or bread wheat, accounts for about 95% of world production and T. turgidum ssp. durum, macaroni or durum wheat, accounts for the other 5%. The remaining cultivated species are largely historical relics, though they can be locally important and are making a comeback in some places. Wheat is the world’s most widely grown crop with a global production of over 600 million tons produced from about 210 million hectares in many different countries in Europe, Asia, North Africa and the Americas. The area sown to wheat has doubled over the past 50 years and production per hectare has almost tripled. This increase in production is due in part to the efforts of national, regional and international breeding programs to release improved cultivars. Wheat is also the world’s most widely traded food grain, with about 105 million tons or about 18% of world production traded each year. Cultivation and domestication of wheat began around 12,000 years BP in the area known as the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East. From there, wheat spread widely through Europe and Asia and then to the Americas. Types Cultivated wheat species belong to three ploidy groups with chromosome numbers of 2n = 2x = 14 (T. monococcum), 28 (T. turgidum and T. timopheevii), and 42 (T. aestivum and T. zhukovskyi). Other classifications divide wheats into hulled and free-threshing, and spring and winter types. Khorasan Kamut Wheat (wiki).

Farro is a food composed of the grains of certain wheat species, sold dried, and prepared by cooking in water until soft. People eat it plain, and often use it as an ingredient in salads, soups, and other dishes. Farro 101 - Everything You Need To Know (youtube) Cyanogen Glucosides helps lower cholesterol and helps boost immune system.

Black Rice (wiki) - Wild Rice (wiki)

How Much Arsenic in Rice?

Arsenic is cancer causing. Brown Rice has more arsenic than White Rice. So White Rice is Healthier than Brown Rice.

Pytic Acid - Fats - Oxidative Stress.

Sprouted Brown Rice is Healthier. White rice is like white flour, the germ has been removed, so it does not sprout.

Sprouted: Why is Sprouted Grain Healthier? Enzymes are released during the sprouting process, which break down proteins and carbohydrates. This process helps make sprouted grain food low glycemic and easier to digest. Traditional grain breads are harder to digest, and the body loses a good portion of the nutrients because it is unable to digest them. Sprouting grains and seeds before baking produces living, nutrient-rich food. The flour made from these grains provides more protein, vitamins and minerals than refined flours. Sprouting also neutralizes phytic acid, a substance present in grains, which inhibits absorption of nutrients.

Malting Process converts raw grain into malt. The malt is mainly used for brewing or whisky making, but can also be used to make malt vinegar or malt extract. Various grains are used for malting; the most common are barley, sorghum, wheat and rye. There are a number of different types of equipment that can be used to produce the malt. A traditional floor malting germinates the grains in a thin layer on a solid floor, and the grain is manually raked and turned to keep the grains loose and aerated. In a modern malt house the process is more automated, and the grain is germinated on a floor that is slotted to allow air to be forced through the grain bed. Large mechanical turners e.g. Saladin box, keep the much thicker bed loose with higher productivity and better energy efficiency.

Refined Grains refers to grain products consisting of grains or grain flours that have been significantly modified from their natural composition. The modification process generally involves the mechanical removal of bran and germ, either through grinding or selective sifting. Further refining includes mixing, bleaching, and brominating; additionally, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron are often added back in to nutritionally enrich the product. Because the added nutrients represent a fraction of the nutrients removed, refined grains are considered nutritionally inferior to whole grains. However, for some grains the removal of fiber coupled with fine grinding results in a slightly higher availability of grain energy for use by the body. Furthermore, in the special case of maize, the process of nixtamalization (a chemical form of refinement) yields a considerable improvement in the bioavailability of niacin, thereby preventing pellagra in diets consisting largely of maize products. Refined Grain (image).

Whole Grain is a grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm. As part of a general healthy diet, consumption of whole grains is associated with lower risk of several diseases. Whole grains are a source of carbohydrates, multiple nutrients and dietary fiber. Cereals proteins have low quality, due to deficiencies in essential amino acids, mainly lysine. In contrast, the proteins of the pseudocereals have a high nutritional value. In a small part of the general population, gluten – proteins found in wheat and related grains – can trigger coeliac disease, non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia and dermatitis herpetiformis.

Grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption. A grain crop is a grain-producing Plant. The two main types of commercial grain crops are cereals and legumes. After being harvested, dry grains are more durable than other staple foods, such as starchy fruits (plantains, breadfruit, etc.) and tubers (sweet potatoes, cassava, and more). This durability has made grains well suited to industrial agriculture, since they can be mechanically harvested, transported by rail or ship, stored for long periods in silos, and milled for flour or pressed for oil. Thus, major global commodity markets exist for canola, maize, rice, soybeans, wheat, and other grains but not for tubers, vegetables, or other crops. Plants.

Cereal is any of the edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit, called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran. Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop and are therefore staple crops. Edible grains from other plant families, such as buckwheat (Polygonaceae), quinoa (Amaranthaceae) and chia (Lamiaceae), are referred to as pseudocereals. In their natural, unprocessed, whole grain form, cereals are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, oils, and protein. When processed by the removal of the bran, and germ, the remaining endosperm is mostly carbohydrate. In some developing countries, grain in the form of rice, wheat, millet, or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance. In developed countries, cereal consumption is moderate and varied but still substantial. The word cereal is derived from Ceres, the Roman goddess of harvest and agriculture. Dry Land Farming (drought).

Pasta is a type of food typically made from an unleavened dough of durum wheat flour (semolina) mixed with water or eggs, and formed into sheets or various shapes, then cooked by boiling or baking. Rice flour, or legumes such as beans or lentils, are sometimes used in place of wheat flour to yield a different taste and texture, or as a gluten-free alternative. Pasta is a staple food of Italian cuisine. Pastas are divided into two broad categories: dried (pasta secca) and fresh (pasta fresca). Most dried pasta is produced commercially via an extrusion process, although it can be produced at home. Fresh pasta is traditionally produced by hand, sometimes with the aid of simple machines. Fresh pastas available in grocery stores are produced commercially by large-scale machines. Both dried and fresh pastas come in a number of shapes and varieties, with 310 specific forms known by over 1300 documented names. In Italy, the names of specific pasta shapes or types often vary by locale. For example, the pasta form cavatelli is known by 28 different names depending upon the town and region. Common forms of pasta include long and short shapes, tubes, flat shapes or sheets, miniature shapes for soup, those meant to be filled or stuffed, and specialty or decorative shapes. As a category in Italian cuisine, both fresh and dried pastas are classically used in one of three kinds of prepared dishes: as pasta asciutta (or pastasciutta), cooked pasta is plated and served with a complementary side sauce or condiment; a second classification of pasta dishes is pasta in brodo, in which the pasta is part of a soup-type dish. A third category is pasta al forno, in which the pasta is incorporated into a dish that is subsequently baked in the oven. Pasta dishes are generally simple, but individual dishes vary in preparation. Some pasta dishes are served as a small first course or for light lunches, such as pasta salads. Other dishes may be portioned larger and used for dinner. Pasta sauces similarly may vary in taste, color and texture. In terms of nutrition, cooked plain pasta is 31% carbohydrates (mostly starch), 6% protein, and low in fat, with moderate amounts of manganese, but pasta generally has low micronutrient content. Pasta may be enriched or fortified, or made from whole grains.

Millets are a highly varied group of small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food. Most species generally referred to as millets belong to the tribe Paniceae, but some millets also belong to various other taxa. Millets are important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa (especially in India, Mali, Nigeria, and Niger), with 97% of millet production in developing countries. This crop is favored due to its productivity and short growing season under dry, high-temperature conditions. Millets are indigenous to many parts of the world. The most widely grown millets are sorghum and pearl millets, which are important crops in India and parts of Africa. Finger millet, proso millet, and foxtail millet are also important crop species. Millets may have been consumed by humans for about 7,000 years and potentially had "a pivotal role in the rise of multi-crop agriculture and settled farming societies.


Sourdough Bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking. Throughout recorded history it has been popular around the world and is one of the oldest artificial foods, having been of importance since the dawn of agriculture. Proportions of types of flour and other ingredients vary widely, as do modes of preparation. As a result, types, shapes, sizes, and textures of breads differ around the world. Bread may be leavened by processes such as reliance on naturally occurring sourdough microbes, chemicals, industrially produced yeast, or high-pressure aeration. Some bread is cooked before it can leaven, including for traditional or religious reasons. Non-cereal ingredients such as fruits, nuts and fats may be included. Commercial bread commonly contains additives to improve flavor, texture, color, shelf life, and ease of manufacturing. Bread is served in various forms with any meal of the day. It is eaten as a snack, and used as an ingredient in other culinary preparations, such as sandwiches, and fried items coated in bread crumbs to prevent sticking. It forms the bland main component of bread pudding, as well as of stuffings designed to fill cavities or retain juices that otherwise might drip out. Bread has a social and emotional significance beyond its importance as nourishment. It plays essential roles in religious rituals and secular culture. Its prominence in daily life is reflected in language, where it appears in proverbs, colloquial expressions ("He stole the bread from my mouth"), in prayer ("Give us this day our daily bread") and in the etymology of words, such as "companion" (from Latin com "with" + panis "bread").

Toast - Storage Tips - Food Safety

Staple Food is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well. The staple food of a specific society may be eaten as often as every day or every meal, and most people live on a diet based on just a small number of staples.

Why Bread is Bad - Bad Breads - Obesity - Sandwich's making you Stupid - Carbohydrates

Healthy Breads (webmd) - Healthiest Bread - List of Breads (wiki)

Flatbread is a bread made with flour, water and salt, and then thoroughly rolled into flattened dough. Many flatbreads are unleavened—although some are slightly leavened, such as pita bread. Pinwheel Sandwiches or Bread Roll Sandwich.  List of Sandwiches (wiki).

Does growing food Hydroponically or Aeroponically reduce Heavy Metals and Toxins absorbed by food when it is grown in Soil? How Much Arsenic is in your Rice?

Dough is a thick, malleable, sometimes elastic, paste made out of any grains, leguminous or chestnut crops. Dough is typically made by mixing flour with a small amount of water and/or other liquid, and sometimes includes flour yeast or other leavening agents as well as other ingredients such as various fats or flavorings. The process of making and shaping dough is a precursor to making a wide variety of foodstuffs, particularly breads and bread-based items, but also including biscuits, cakes, cookies, dumplings, flatbreads, noodles, pasta, pastry, pizza, piecrusts, and similar items. Doughs are made from a wide variety of flours, commonly wheat but also flours made from maize, rice, rye, legumes, almonds, and other cereals and crops used around the world. Yeast - Carbohydrates.

Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods. Cereal flour is the main ingredient of bread, which is a staple food for most cultures. Wheat flour is one of the most important ingredients in Oceanic, European, South American, North American, Middle Eastern, North Indian and North African cultures, and is the defining ingredient in their styles of breads and pastries. Wheat is the most common base for flour. Corn flour has been important in Mesoamerican cuisine since ancient times and remains a staple in the Americas. Rye flour is a constituent of bread in central Europe. Cereal flour consists either of the endosperm, germ, and bran together (whole-grain flour) or of the endosperm alone (refined flour). Meal is either differentiable from flour as having slightly coarser particle size (degree of comminution) or is synonymous with flour; the word is used both ways. For example, the word cornmeal often connotes a grittier texture whereas corn flour connotes fine powder, although there is no codified dividing line. Carbohydrates.

Pastry Types Pastry is a dough of flour, water and shortening (solid fats, including butter) that may be savoury or sweetened. Sweetened pastries are often described as bakers' confectionery. The word "pastries" suggests many kinds of baked products made from ingredients such as flour, sugar, milk, butter, shortening, baking powder, and eggs. Small tarts and other sweet baked products are called pastries. Common pastry dishes include pies, tarts, quiches, croissants, and pasties.

Danish Pastry is a multilayered, laminated sweet pastry in the viennoiserie tradition. The concept was brought to Denmark by Austrian bakers, and has since developed into a Danish specialty. Like other viennoiserie pastries, such as croissants, it is a variant of puff pastry made of laminated yeast-leavened dough that creates a layered texture.

Puff Pastry is a flaky light pastry made from a laminated dough composed of dough (détrempe) and butter or other solid fat (beurrage). The butter is put inside the dough (or vice versa), making a paton which is repeatedly folded and rolled out before baking. The gaps that form between the layers left by the fat melting are pushed (leavened) by the water turning into steam during the baking process.


Herbs by name Herbs are any plants used for food, flavoring, medicine, or fragrances for their savory or aromatic properties. Culinary use typically distinguishes herbs from spices. Herbs refer to the leafy green or flowering parts of a plant (either fresh or dried), while Spices are produced from other parts of the plant (usually dried), including seeds, berries, bark, roots and fruits. In botanical English, the word "herb" is also used as a synonym of "herbaceous plant". Herbs have a variety of uses including culinary, medicinal, and in some cases, spiritual. General usage of the term "herb" differs between culinary herbs and medicinal herbs. In medicinal or spiritual use any of the parts of the plant might be considered "herbs", including leaves, roots, flowers, seeds, root bark, inner bark (and cambium), resin and pericarp.

Both herbs and spices come from plants, but herbs are the fresh part of the plant while spice is the dried root, dried stalk, seed or dried fruit of the plant and is almost always dried not fresh.

Seasoning is the process of adding salt, herbs, or spices to food to enhance the flavor.

Ingredient is a food that is a component of a mixture in cooking or a component of a mixture or compound. Any of the foods or substances that are combined to make a particular dish. An abstract part of something.

Herbalism (Holistic Medicine) - Brain Food - Spices

Culinary Herbs and Spices List (wiki)

Herbarium is a collection of preserved plant specimens and associated data used for scientific study.

Plant Taxonomy is the science that finds, identifies, describes, classifies, and names plants. Thus making it one of the main branches of taxonomy (the science that finds, describes, classifies, and names living things).

Botanical Garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation, preservation and display of a wide range of plants labeled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment.

List of Botanical Gardens (wiki) - Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (wiki).

Chinese Medicine Database
Chinese Medicinal Herb Farm
Blue Ridge Center
Local Herbs
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Dr Sebi: (youtube)
Herbal Jedi (youtube) - Yarrow Willard
Medicinal Herbal Root Teas - Tea Knowledge

Growing Herbs Info-Graph (image)

Ocimum Tenuiflorum is commonly known as holy basil, tulasi (sometimes spelled thulasi) or tulsi, is an aromatic perennial plant in the family Lamiaceae. It is native to the Indian subcontinent and widespread as a cultivated plant throughout the Southeast Asian tropics. Tulasi is cultivated for religious and traditional medicine purposes, and for its essential oil. It is widely used as a herbal tea, commonly used in Ayurveda, and has a place within the Vaishnava tradition of Hinduism, in which devotees perform worship involving holy basil plants or leaves. The variety of Ocimum tenuiflorum used in Thai cuisine is referred to as Thai holy basil; it is not to be confused with Thai basil, which is a variety of Ocimum basilicum.

Mint is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae (mint family). It is estimated that 13 to 18 species exist, and the exact distinction between species is still unclear. Hybridization between some of the species occurs naturally. Many other hybrids, as well as numerous cultivars, are known. Mints are aromatic, almost exclusively perennial herbs. Mint was originally used as a medicinal herb to treat stomach ache and chest pains. There are several uses in traditional medicine and preliminary research for possible use in treating irritable bowel syndrome. Mint oil is also used as an environmentally friendly insecticide for its ability to kill some common pests such as wasps, hornets, ants, and cockroaches. (You can harvest one mint plant two or three times in one growing season. You can also just pick the leaves as you need them. You can start harvesting mint leaves once the plants have multiple stems that are about 6 to 8 inches long).

Alkaloid is any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds of plant origin that have pronounced physiological actions on humans. They include many drugs (morphine, quinine) and poisons (atropine, strychnine). Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Alkaloid-containing plants have been used by humans since ancient times for therapeutic and recreational purposes. Extracts from plants containing toxic alkaloids, such as aconitine and tubocurarine, were used since antiquity for poisoning arrows."True alkaloids" contain nitrogen in the heterocycle and originate from amino acids.

How to Dry Herbs (youtube) - Some Herbs can be air dried.

Never Use an Oven or Dehydrator to Dry Herbs Again With This Century Old Method (youtube)

Mint drying using paper towels or other absorbent towels. Carefully remove the leaves from the stems when the mint is dry. Place the leaves on a cookie sheet in a single layer. Warm them in the oven at 180 F or 80 C for two hours, then check them to see if they've dried out completely. Method #2 Wrap Mint Leaves With A Damp Paper Towel. Lay mint leaves on a damp paper towel. If you find the paper towel is too wet, just gently wring out the water. Wrap up the leaves with the paper towel and place it into plastic bag. Place the plastic bag in your fridge. Storing, Drying & Freezing Mint. Wrap the mint leaves gently in a dampened paper towel. Place the mint in a plastic bag, not sealing all the way so that air can circulate. Do not wrap tightly; trapped moisture will cause the herbs to mold.

Carob is a flowering evergreen tree or shrub in the Caesalpinioideae sub-family of the legume family, Fabaceae. It is widely cultivated for its edible fruit pods, and as an ornamental tree in gardens and landscapes. The carob tree is native to the Mediterranean region and the Middle East. Portugal is the largest producer of carob, followed by Italy and Morocco. Carob contains chemicals and fiber. These compounds might cause weight loss, reduce blood sugar and insulin levels, and lower cholesterol levels. Carob can be used for digestion problems including diarrhea, heartburn, and the intestine's inability to properly absorb certain nutrients from food. These absorption disorders include celiac disease and sprue. Other uses of carob include treatment of obesity, vomiting during pregnancy, and high cholesterol. It is gluten-free, caffeine-free, theobromine free, and high in fibre, calcium, iron, antioxidants and protein. a collagen supportive ingredient for vegetarians. the anti-inflammatory effect of carob leaves and OFI-cladodes could be attributed to their polyphenols which might alleviate inflammation severity associated with obesity and colitis. Tamarind and carob powder mixture improved Liver functions, kidney functions, serum glucose levels, and lipid profile in rats. Unlike chocolate, carob contains no oxalates. Oxalate consumption can lead to kidney stones. your doctor may require you to limit oxalate-containing foods, including chocolate.

Chicory or Cichorium intybus is a somewhat woody, perennial herbaceous plant of the family Asteraceae, usually with bright blue flowers, rarely white or pink. Native to the Old World, it has been introduced to North America and Australia. Many varieties are cultivated for salad leaves, chicons (blanched buds), or roots (var. sativum), which are baked, ground, and used as a coffee substitute and food additive. In the 21st century, inulin, an extract from chicory root, has been used in food manufacturing as a sweetener and source of dietary fiber. Chicory is grown as a forage crop for livestock. "Chicory" is also the common name in the United States for curly endive (Cichorium endivia); these two closely related species are often confused. Raw chicory leaves are 92% water, 5% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and contain negligible fat (table). In a 100 gram (3½ oz) reference amount, raw chicory leaves provide 23 calories (96 J) and significant amounts (more than 20% of the Daily Value) of vitamin K, vitamin A, vitamin C, some B vitamins, and manganese. Vitamin E and calcium are present in moderate amounts. Raw endive is 94% water and has low nutrient content. Fresh chicory root is composed of 68% inulin by dry weight. Inulin is a type of fiber known as a fructan or fructooligosaccharide, a carbohydrate made from a short chain of fructose molecules that your body doesn’t digest. It acts as a prebiotic, meaning that it feeds the beneficial bacteria in your gut. These helpful bacteria play a role in reducing inflammation, fighting harmful bacteria, and improving mineral absorption. May improve blood sugar control. inulin, which promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria involved in carbohydrate metabolism — which breaks down carbs into sugars — and sensitivity to insulin, the hormone that helps absorb sugar from the blood.

Holistic Natural Medicine

Holistic Herbs have been used for thousands of years, so all medicine was herbal medicine or traditional medicine. Herbal medicine is not alternative medicine, it's the original medicine. Pharmaceuticals are alternative or artificial medicines, and much of it is based on the same plants in herbal medicine. Herbalists have over 2,000 plants to choose from to treat people.

Self-Medication is a type of self-administered treatment in which an individual uses a substance or any external origin of influence to treat physical conditions, or to treat psychological conditions. The substances most widely used in self-medication are herbs, spices, dietary supplements, healthy food, exercise and some over-the-counter drugs, which can be used to treat common health issues at home. These things do not require a doctor's prescription to obtain but do require personal research. In some countries, can be available in supermarkets or health food stores.

Personalized Medicine - Let Food Be Your Medicine and Medicine Be Your Food

Zoopharmacognosy is a behavior in which non-human animals self-medicate by selecting and ingesting or topically applying plants, soils and insects with medicinal properties, to prevent or reduce the harmful effects of pathogens, toxins, and even other animals. The term derives from Greek roots zoo ("animal"), pharmacon ("drug, medicine"), and gnosy ("knowing"). Animals that Self-Medicate.

When people say that there's no research to back up a particular claim, or that there is no validated feedback, or say that something is pseudoscience, what they should also immediately say is "just because there is research, this does not guarantee that the research is not biased or corrupted, becuase that is fact. Many pharmaceutical drugs have had so called research, but that product ended up killing people and harming people. So if you really want to inform people of reality, tell them truth, which is, "you better do your research and you better not believe any research until you determine the accuracy of that research. Safety is everyone's responsibility. This is why people need to learn how to learn, and then learn how to understand themselves more effectively, and understand the world around them more fully. For every 100,000 people who die from complications from pharmaceutical drugs, only 3 people die from natural remedies.

Herbalism is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes. Plants have been the basis for medical treatments through much of human history, and such traditional medicine is still widely practiced today. Modern medicine makes use of many plant-derived compounds as the basis for evidence-based pharmaceutical drugs. Although phytotherapy may apply modern standards of effectiveness testing to herbs and medicines derived from natural sources, few high-quality clinical trials and standards for purity or dosage exist. The scope of herbal medicine is sometimes extended to include fungal and bee products, as well as minerals, shells and certain animal parts. The term, phytomedicine, may also refer to the science of pathology and damage to plants, the causes thereof, their manifestations, development, dissemination, methods for maintaining plant health, and measures used to control plant diseases and their causes. Herbal medicine is sometimes also used to refer to paraherbalism or phytotherapy, which is the alternative and pseudoscientific practice of using of extracts of plant or animal origin as supposed medicines or health-promoting agents. Phytotherapy differs from plant-derived medicines in standard pharmacology because it does not isolate and standardize the compounds from a given plant believed to be biologically active. It relies on the false belief that preserving the complexity of substances from a given plant with less processing is safer and potentially more effective.

Herbalist is a practitioner of herbalism and a dealer in medicinal herbs. Herbalists treat patients using plant-based remedies and other treatments. Responsibilities typically include undertaking patient consultations to diagnose illnesses and conditions, and to select appropriate remedies. Gaining information from patients about previous physical and medical history and symptoms.

Herbal Medicine is the study of pharmacognosy and the use of medicinal plants, which are a basis of traditional medicine.

Pharmacognosy is the study of medicinal plants and other natural substances as sources of drugs. The American Society of Pharmacognosy defines pharmacognosy as "the study of the physical, chemical, biochemical, and biological properties of drugs, drug substances, or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources".

Phytochemistry is the study of phytochemicals, which are chemicals derived from plants. Those studying phytochemistry strive to describe the structures of the large number of secondary metabolic compounds found in plants, the functions of these compounds in human and plant biology, and the biosynthesis of these compounds. Plants synthesize phytochemicals for many reasons, including to protect themselves against insect attacks and plant diseases. Phytochemicals in food plants are often active in human biology, and in many cases have health benefits. The compounds found in plants are of many kinds, but most are in four major biochemical classes, the alkaloids, glycosides, polyphenols, and terpenes. 

Holistic is the act of giving special importance or significance to something organic or to the functional relation between parts and the whole.

Chinese Medicine is a style of traditional Asian medicine informed by modern medicine but built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy. It is primarily used as a complementary alternative medicine approach. TCM is widely used in China and is becoming increasingly prevalent in Europe and North America.

Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent. Globalized and modernized practices derived from Ayurveda traditions are a type of alternative medicine. In countries beyond India, Ayurveda therapies and practices have been integrated in general wellness applications and in some cases in medical use. Vedic science may refer to a number of disciplines: ancient and modern, scientific, metaphysical, proto-scientific, found in or based in the Vedas. (astragalus root, rhodiola extract, milk thistle, diindolylmethane, bitter melon, aptogens. morning complete).

Ethnobotany is the study of a region's plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and people. An ethnobotanist thus strives to document the local customs involving the practical uses of local flora for many aspects of life, such as plants as medicines, foods, intoxicants and clothing. Richard Evans Schultes, often referred to as the "father of ethnobotany", explained the discipline in this way: Ethnobotany simply means investigating plants used by societies in various parts of the world. Since the time of Schultes, the field of ethnobotany has grown from simply acquiring ethnobotanical knowledge to that of applying it to a modern society, primarily in the form of pharmaceuticals. Intellectual property rights and benefit-sharing arrangements are important issues in ethnobotany. Ethnobotanists study how people from specific areas or cultures use indigenous plants. They do much of their work in the field, building relationships with local medical practitioners and studying the local plant life; however, they may also teach college-level courses and perform lab research.

Biopiracy describe a practice in which indigenous knowledge of nature, originating with indigenous peoples, is used by others for profit, without authorization or compensation to the indigenous people themselves.

Bioprospecting is the exploration of natural sources for small molecules, macromolecules and biochemical and genetic information that could be developed into commercially valuable products for the agricultural, aquaculture, bioremediation, cosmetics, nanotechnology, or pharmaceutical industries.

Ethnoscience has been defined as an attempt to reconstitute what serves as science for others, their practices of looking after themselves and their bodies, their botanical knowledge, but also their forms of classification, of making connections, etc..

Alternative Medicine is the attempt to achieve the healing effects of some pharmaceutical drugs by using natural remedies. This requires responsible investigation and caution because Medical Errors and Injuries happen often, just like they do with Conventional Medicine.

Integrative Medicine is healing-oriented medicine that takes account of the whole person, including all aspects of lifestyle. It emphasizes the therapeutic relationship between practitioner and patient, is informed by evidence, and makes use of all appropriate therapies using a set of products, practices, and theories that are believed or perceived by their users to have the healing effects of medicine.

Evidence-Based Practice

Functional Medicine is a form of alternative medicine which proponents say focuses on interactions between the environment and the gastrointestinal, endocrine, and immune systems. Functional Medicine addresses the underlying causes of disease, using a systems-oriented approach and engaging both patient and practitioner in a therapeutic partnership. It is an evolution in the practice of medicine that better addresses the healthcare needs of the 21st century.

Biomedicine or "medicine" is that part of medical science that applies principles of biology, physiology, molecular biology, biophysics, and other natural sciences to clinical practice, using scientific methods to establish the effectiveness of that practice.

Complementary Medicine is any of a range of medical therapies that fall beyond the scope of scientific medicine but may be used alongside it in the treatment of disease and ill health. Examples include acupuncture and osteopathy, which is a type of alternative medicine that emphasizes manual readjustments, myofascial release and other physical manipulation of muscle tissue and bones.

Myofascial Release is an alternative medicine therapy that claims to treat skeletal muscle immobility and pain by relaxing contracted muscles, improving blood and lymphatic circulation, and stimulating the stretch reflex in muscles.

Adaptogen a natural substance considered to help the body adapt to stress and to exert a normalizing effect upon bodily processes. A well-known example is ginseng. Substances are used in herbal medicine for the claimed stabilization of physiological processes and promotion of homeostasis.

Herbal Tonic is used to help restore, tone and invigorate systems in the body or to promote general health and well-being. An herbal tonic is a solution or other preparation made from a specially selected assortment of the kinds of plants known as herbs.

Tonic is a medicine that strengthens and invigorates. A medicinal substance taken to give a feeling of vigor or well-being. Relating to or producing normal tone or tonus in muscles or tissue.

Tincture is typically an extract of plant or animal material dissolved in ethanol (ethyl alcohol). Solvent concentrations of 25–60% are common, but may run as high as 90%. In chemistry, a tincture is a solution that has ethanol as its solvent. In herbal medicine, alcoholic tinctures are made with various ethanol concentrations, which should be at least 20% alcohol for preservation purposes. Laudanum is a tincture of opium containing approximately 10% powdered opium by weight (the equivalent of 1% morphine). Laudanum is prepared by dissolving extracts from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum Linnaeus) in alcohol (ethanol).

Medicinal Plants have been identified and used throughout human history. Plants make many chemical compounds that are for biological functions, including defense against insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals. At least 12,000 such compounds have been isolated so far; a number estimated to be less than 10% of the total. Chemical compounds in plants mediate their effect on the human body through processes identical to those already well understood for the chemical compounds in conventional drugs; thus herbal medicines do not differ greatly from conventional drugs in terms of how they work. This enables herbal medicines to have beneficial pharmacology, but also gives them the same potential as conventional pharmaceutical drugs to cause harmful side effects. Moreover, plant material comes with a variety of compounds which may have undesired effects, though these can be reduced by processing.

Medicinal Plant Database

Succulent Plant are plants with parts that are thickened, fleshy, and engorged, usually to retain water in arid climates or soil conditions. It is a characteristic that is not used scientifically for the definition of most families and genera of plants because it often can be used as an accurate characteristic only at the single species level. The word succulent comes from the Latin word sucus, meaning 'juice', or 'sap'. Succulent plants may store water in various structures, such as leaves and stems. The water content of some succulent organs can get up to 90-95%. Some definitions also include roots, thus geophytes that survive unfavorable periods by dying back to underground storage organs may be regarded as succulents. In horticultural use, the term succulent is sometimes used in a way that excludes plants that botanists would regard as succulents, such as cacti. Succulents are often grown as ornamental plants because of their striking and unusual appearance, as well as their ability to thrive with relatively minimal care. Many plant families have multiple succulents species found within them (more than 25 plant families). In some families, such as Aizoaceae, Cactaceae, and Crassulaceae, most species are succulents. The habitats of these water-preserving plants are often in areas with high temperatures and low rainfall, such as deserts. Succulents have the ability to thrive on limited water sources, such as mist and dew, which makes them equipped to survive in an ecosystem that contains scarce water sources. Succulents have been used throughout history to treat medical problems like cuts, burns, stomachaches, and more. Lots of them have medicinal properties, including aloe vera and yucca. Several parts of aloe vera plants have medical benefits, including the juice and gel.

Tracking down the formation of cardenolides in plants. Researchers identify the first enzymatic step in the biosynthesis of these plant steroids important in the medical treatment of heart disease. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena are investigating the previously largely unknown biosynthetic pathway that leads to the formation of cardenolides in plants. In a study published in the journal Nature Plants, they present two enzymes from the CYP87A family as key enzymes that catalyze the formation of pregnenolone, the precursor for the biosynthesis of plant steroids, in two different plant families. The discovery of such enzymes should help to develop platforms for the cheap and sustainable production of high quality steroid compounds for medical use. Plants produce many pharmaceutical compounds. The extraction of these natural products is still very complex and often not very sustainable. The Department of Natural Product Biosynthesis at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, led by Sarah O'Connor, aims to elucidate the biosynthetic pathways of important phytochemicals with medical relevance. "The discovery of enzymes such as CYP87A can help develop biological platforms for the sustainable production of high-value plant compounds by using other plants for their biosynthesis," says Sarah O'Connor.

Medicinal Chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs). Compounds used as medicines are most often organic compounds, which are often divided into the broad classes of small organic molecules (e.g., atorvastatin, fluticasone, clopidogrel) and "biologics" (infliximab, erythropoietin, insulin glargine), the latter of which are most often medicinal preparations of proteins (natural and recombinant antibodies, hormones, etc.). Inorganic and organometallic compounds are also useful as drugs (e.g., lithium and platinum-based agents such as lithium carbonate and cisplatin as well as gallium). In particular, medicinal chemistry in its most common practice—focusing on small organic molecules—encompasses synthetic organic chemistry and aspects of natural products and computational chemistry in close combination with chemical biology, enzymology and structural biology, together aiming at the discovery and development of new therapeutic agents. Practically speaking, it involves chemical aspects of identification, and then systematic, thorough synthetic alteration of new chemical entities to make them suitable for therapeutic use. It includes synthetic and computational aspects of the study of existing drugs and agents in development in relation to their bioactivities (biological activities and properties), i.e., understanding their structure-activity relationships (SAR). Pharmaceutical chemistry is focused on quality aspects of medicines and aims to assure fitness for purpose of medicinal products. At the biological interface, medicinal chemistry combines to form a set of highly interdisciplinary sciences, setting its organic, physical, and computational emphases alongside biological areas such as biochemistry, molecular biology, pharmacognosy and pharmacology, toxicology and veterinary and human medicine; these, with project management, statistics, and pharmaceutical business practices, systematically oversee altering identified chemical agents such that after pharmaceutical formulation, they are safe and efficacious, and therefore suitable for use in treatment of disease.

Psychedelics - Chemistry

Extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water. Extracts may be sold as tinctures, absolutes or in powder form. The aromatic principles of many spices, nuts, herbs, fruits, etc., and some flowers, are marketed as extracts, among the best known of true extracts being almond, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, lemon, nutmeg, orange, peppermint, pistachio, rose, spearmint, vanilla, violet, and wintergreen.

Homeopathy is a medical system based on the belief that the body can cure itself. Those who practice it use tiny amounts of natural substances, like plants and minerals. They believe these stimulate the healing process. A substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people. Large-scale studies have found homeopathy to be no more effective than a placebo, suggesting that any positive feelings that follow treatment are only due to the placebo effect and normal recovery from illness. Just One Drop Homeopathy.

Alternative Medicine Healer or Natural Medicine are practices claimed to have the healing effects of medicine but almost impossible to prove.

Alternative Medicine Types (wiki) - Placebos

Phytotherapy is a science-based medical practice and thus is distinguished from other, more traditional approaches, such as medical herbalism, which relies on an empirical appreciation of medicinal herbs and which is often linked to traditional knowledge.

Traditional Medicine comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines traditional medicine as "the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness".

Doctors Beyond Medicine are committed to finding solutions beyond conventional offerings and availability. We combine knowledge from various modalities of life, both medical and natural, to overcome day to day challenges of health, disease and living. More often, than not, conventional supplies, medicines and/or equipment or a wide spectrum of foods simply are not accessible or affordable. Our approach is to empower the individual, the family, the community through addressing the cause of disease, to educate on natural self-care, better nutrition and how to grow/prepare foods and remedies within the continuum of what is custom, affordable, and available. We use natural, sustainable, alternative, functional, and integrated medical approaches to overcome acute and chronic disease.

Home Remedies is a treatment to cure a disease or ailment that employs certain spices, vegetables, or other common items. Home remedies may or may not have medicinal properties that treat or cure the disease or ailment in question, as they are typically passed along by laypersons.

Medical Nutrition Therapy is a therapeutic approach to treating medical conditions and their associated symptoms via the use of a specifically tailored diet devised and monitored by a medical doctor physician or registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN). The diet is based upon the patient's medical record, physical examination, functional examination and dietary history.

Let Food be your Medicine and let Medicine be your Food - Vitamins - Minerals

Healing is the process of the restoration of health from an unbalanced, diseased or damaged organism.

Natural (food label meanings) - Natural does not always mean safe.

Natural Health Information (mercola) - Over Consumption (eating too much food)

Vitalism is the theory that the origin and phenomena of life are dependent on a force or principle distinct from purely chemical or physical forces. Vitamins.

Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".a Where vitalism explicitly invokes a vital principle, that element is often referred to as the "vital spark", "energy" or "élan vital", which some equate with the soul.

Vitalist Herbalism and Nutrition

Naturopathy is a form of alternative medicine and a system that uses natural remedies to help the body heal itself. It embraces many therapies, including herbs, massage, acupuncture, exercise, and nutritional counseling. Naturopathy was brought to the United States from Germany in the 1800s, but some of its treatments are centuries old.

Placebos - Positive Thinking - Meditation - Emotion Regulation

Apothecary is a health professional trained in the art of preparing and dispensing drugs. A term for a medical professional who formulates and dispenses materia medica to physicians, surgeons and patients. The modern pharmacist (also colloquially referred to as a chemist in British English) has taken over this role and in some languages and regions the word is still used to refer to a retail pharmacy or a pharmacist who owns one. The apothecaries' investigation of herbal and chemical ingredients was a precursor to the modern sciences of chemistry and pharmacology.

Doctrine of Signatures states that herbs resembling various parts of the body can be used by herbalists to treat ailments of those body parts. A theological justification, as stated by botanists such as William Coles, was that God would have wanted to show men what plants would be useful for.

Mitragyna Speciosa or Kratom, is a tropical evergreen tree in the coffee family native to Southeast Asia. M. speciosa is indigenous to Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Papua New Guinea, where it has been used in traditional medicines since at least the nineteenth century. Kratom has opioid properties and some stimulant-like effects. As of 2018, little is known of kratom's worth or safety as a therapeutic agent, since research into its use has been of poor quality. Some people take it for managing chronic pain, for treating opioid withdrawal symptoms, or – more recently – for recreational purposes. The onset of effects typically begins within five to ten minutes and lasts for two to five hours. The key psychoactive compounds in M. speciosa are mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (7-HMG), but there are more than 40 compounds in M. speciosa leaves, including about 25 alkaloids other than mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine including ajmalicine, mitraphylline, mitragynine pseudoindoxyl, and rhynchophylline. Other active chemicals in M. speciosa include raubasine (best known from Rauvolfia serpentina) and Pausinystalia johimbe alkaloids such as corynantheidine. Mitragynine is about 60% of alkaloid extractions, while 7-hydroxymitragynine is about 2%. Mitragynine is structurally similar to yohimbine and voacangine.

Biopharmaceutical is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources. Different from totally synthesized pharmaceuticals, they include vaccines, blood, blood components, allergenics, somatic cells, gene therapies, tissues, recombinant therapeutic protein, and living cells used in cell therapy. Biologics can be composed of sugars, proteins, or nucleic acids or complex combinations of these substances, or may be living cells or tissues. They (or their precursors or components) are isolated from living sources—human, animal, plant, fungal, or microbial.
North Korean Pharmaceutical.

Right-To-Try Law provides a pathway for patients to gain access to investigational drugs, biologics and medical devices for serious diseases or conditions.

Compassionate Use or Expanded Access refers to the use of an investigational new drug outside of a clinical trial by patients with serious or life-threatening conditions who do not meet the enrollment criteria for the clinical trial in progress. (pre-approval access).

Informed Consent - Risk - Cancer Therapies

Contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient. Contraindication is the opposite of Indication, which is a reason to use a certain treatment or reason to use a certain test, medication, procedure, or surgery.

Lifestyle Medicine is a branch of medicine dealing with research, prevention and treatment of disorders caused by lifestyle factors such as nutrition, physical inactivity, and chronic stress. In the clinic, major barriers to lifestyle counseling are that physicians feel ill prepared and are skeptical about their patients' receptivity.

Life Style Medicine - Damian Folch

National Center for Natural Products Research says that Callicarpa (beautyberry) Repels Mosquitoes.

Natural Marketing Institute - Green Products

Resources for Natural Remedies

Natural Therapies (meditation)
Natural Healers Directory
Alliance for Natural Health
Natural Solutions
Mother Earth Minerals
Diatomaceous Earth 15 Uses
Foraging for Wild Foods
Holistic Medicine Center
Holistic Online
Holistic Psychology
Holistic Medicine
Homemade Medicine
C. A. M.
Native Remedies
Ayurveda Products
Ayurveda Yoga Retreat
Allopathic Medicine
Micro Greens
Patients Medical
The New Medicine
Peoples Pharmacy
Cure Zone
Vegetalista - Veggie Info
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (wiki)
Alternatives for Healing
Green Med Info

Reiki is a form of alternative medicine developed in 1922 by Mikao Usui. Since originating in Japan, reiki has been adapted into varying cultural traditions across the world. Reiki practitioners use a technique called palm healing or hands-on healing through which a "universal energy" is said to be transferred through the palms of the practitioner to the patient in order to encourage emotional or physical healing. Reiki is a pseudoscience. It is based on qi ("chi"), which practitioners say is a universal life force, although there is no empirical evidence that such a life force exists. Clinical research has not shown reiki to be effective as a treatment for any medical condition. There has been no proof of the effectiveness of reiki therapy compared to placebo. An overview of reiki investigations found that studies reporting positive effects had methodological flaws. The American Cancer Society stated that reiki should not replace conventional cancer treatment, a sentiment echoed by Cancer Research UK and the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health.

Natural Antibiotics: Cinnamon - Garlic - Manuka honey - Coconut oil - Grapefruit seed extract - Oregano oil - Mustard oil - Echinacea - Andrographis - Goldenseal - Colloidal silver - Myrrh. Antibiotics.


Spices Spices is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for Flavoring, coloring or preserving food. Spices are distinguished from Herbs, which are the leaves, flowers, or stems from plants used for flavoring or as a garnish. Sometimes, spices may be ground into a powder for convenience. Many spices have antimicrobial properties. This may explain why spices are more commonly used in warmer climates, which have more infectious diseases, and why the use of spices is prominent in meat, which is particularly susceptible to spoiling. Spices are sometimes used in medicine, religious rituals, cosmetics or perfume production, or as a vegetable.

The Spice House - Herbs

Capsaicin crushed red pepper or ground cayenne. Cayenne Pepper is a type of Capsicum annuum. It is usually a moderately hot chili pepper used to flavor dishes. Cayenne peppers are a group of tapering, 10 to 25 cm long, generally skinny, mostly red-colored peppers, often with a curved tip and somewhat rippled skin, which hang from the bush as opposed to growing upright. Most varieties are generally rated at 30,000 to 50,000 Scoville units. The fruits are generally dried and ground to make the powdered spice of the same name, although cayenne powder may be a blend of different types of peppers, quite often not containing cayenne peppers, and may or may not contain the seeds. Cayenne is used in cooking spicy dishes either as a powder or in its whole form. It is also used as a herbal supplement.

Black Pepper is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. When dried, the fruit is known as a peppercorn.

Salt - Sugar

Ayahuasca is an entheogenic brew made out of Banisteriopsis caapi vine and the Psychotria viridis leaf. The brew is used as a traditional spiritual medicine in ceremonies among the Indigenous peoples of Amazonia.

Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent. Globalized and modernized practices derived from Ayurveda traditions are a type of complementary or alternative medicine. In the Western world, Ayurveda therapies and practices (which are manifold) have been integrated in general wellness applications and as well in some cases in medical use.

Cardamom is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae. Both genera are native to the Indian subcontinent and Indonesia. They are recognized by their small seed pods: triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin, papery outer shell and small, black seeds; Elettaria pods are light green and smaller, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Plantago Major is a species of flowering plant in the plantain family Plantaginaceae. The plant is native to most of Europe and northern and central Asia, but has widely naturalised elsewhere in the world. Plantago major is one of the most abundant and widely distributed medicinal crops in the world. A poultice of the leaves can be applied to wounds, stings, and sores in order to facilitate healing and prevent infection. The active chemical constituents are aucubin (an anti-microbial agent), allantoin (which stimulates cellular growth and tissue regeneration), and mucilage (which reduces pain and discomfort). Plantain has astringent properties, and a tea made from the leaves can be ingested to treat diarrhea and soothe raw internal membranes. Broadleaf plantain is also a highly nutritious wild edible, that is high in calcium and vitamins A, C, and K. The young, tender leaves can be eaten raw, and the older, stringier leaves can be boiled in stews and eaten.

When to Add Salt - Salt is the same whether raw or cooked. Adding salt at the end of cooking will make it taste salty if you add too much salt, rather than seasoning and intensifying flavors. Salt is used to draw the moisture out of sweating vegetables. And it softens them faster. Certainly many foods need salt added during cooking, for convenience sake if nothing else. Most recipes (and culinary schools) advise seasoning food with salt early in the cooking process, not just at the end. Salt is hydrophyllic, so it draws moisture out of foods. In a saute or "sweat" this draws inner flavors out of aromatics (eg carrots) so that flavor can blend with the others. Also it is about penetrating the food. Surface application is going to have a different flavor in your mouth than infusing the salt throughout the dish. Salt diffuses faster when hotter.

Science: When to Add Salt During Cooking—and Why (It Makes a Huge Difference) (youtube)

NaCl is stable molecule. It sublimes on 801 °C (100 °C is boiling point of water). So with normal cooking it is impossible to occur any chemical changes to salt. But if you are using iodized salt for health reasons and cooking your food to death, you might as well use Rock Salt or non-iodine salt. (Iodized Salt prevents rise to hypothyroidism, symptoms of which are extreme fatigue, goitre, mental slowing, depression, weight gain, and low basal body temperatures).

Iodized Salt contains salt of Iodide I- along with NaCl ; it readily oxidizes when you add salt in water. Further more, cooking elevates the reaction. Iodide, when added in water will react with free oxygen molecules in Water to give away Iodine ion which will be sublimed along with cooking vapors (Violet vapors to be exact). That’s how it got name Iodine, Greek Name for violet-colored). So in order to get more Iodine through Iodized salt, you will have to consume more salt (which is not that bad even with popular belief). But consuming more salt may increase blood pressure and other problems. Worst case scenario, you may consume normal amount of salt in heavily cooked food sans iodine and get health disorders related to iodine deficiency. So my suggestion, use salt while cooking to make to savory dishes but have some room to use over the table salt.

"I'm Popeye the Sailor Man, I'm Popeye the Sailor Man, I'm strong to the finich, Cause I eats me spinach, I'm Popeye the Sailor Man." - Popeye the Sailor is a fictional American cartoon character that first appeared in the daily King Features comic strip Thimble Theatre on January 17, 1929. Olive Oyl is a cartoon character created by E. C. Segar in 1919 for his comic strip Thimble Theatre. The strip was later renamed Popeye after the sailor character that became the most popular member of the cast; however, Olive Oyl was a main character for 10 years before Popeye's 1929 appearance. Olive Oyl is named after olive oil, used commonly in cooking or in salads. She is the youngest sibling of Castor Oyl and Crude Oyl. Popeye's comment about her measurements is that she is a perfect 57, 19-19-19. In the cartoons, Olive helps take care of a baby named Swee'Pea, and she usually asks Popeye to take care of him if she's too busy. Popeye The Sailor Man Intro Theme Song - Evergreen Cartoon Series of 1990s (youtube) - Popeye The Sailor Man Classic Collection HD (youtube).

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