Waste to Energy


Waste to Energy is the process of generating energy in the form of electricity and/or heat from the primary treatment of waste or garbage, or from a renewable source like algae.

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Bio-Gas Plant


household biogas septic tank Biogas refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste or food waste. Biogas is a renewable energy source and in many cases exerts a very small carbon footprint.

Composting - Biochar (biomass)

Enzyme Substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which is organic in nature and reacts with a reagent to generate a product. In synthetic and organic chemistry, the substrate is the chemical of interest that is being modified. In biochemistry, an enzyme substrate is the material upon which an enzyme acts. When referring to Le Chatelier's principle, the substrate is the reagent whose concentration is changed.

Anaerobic Digestion is widely used as a source of renewable energy. The process produces a biogas, consisting of methane, carbon dioxide and traces of other ‘contaminant’ gases. This biogas can be used directly as fuel, in combined heat and power gas engines or upgraded to natural gas-quality biomethane. The nutrient-rich digestate also produced can be used as fertilizer. Anaerobic Digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. The process is used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage waste or to produce fuels. Much of the fermentation used industrially to produce food and drink products, as well as home fermentation, uses anaerobic digestion.

Microbes may help astronauts transform human waste into food. Fine-tune our system so that you could get 85 percent of the carbon and nitrogen back from waste into protein without having to use hydroponics or artificial light. Anaerobic digestion of human waste and could be used to grow a different microbe, Methylococcus capsulatus, which is used as animal feed today.

Newtown Wastewater Treatment Plant

Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen (or any halogen). It involves the simultaneous change of chemical composition and physical phase, and is irreversible. The word is coined from the Greek-derived elements pyro "fire" and lysis "separating".

Biomass Gasifier Generators (all power labs)

Converting Biomass by applying Mechanical Force. Nanoscientists discover new mechanism to cleave cellulose effectively and in an efficient, environmentally friendly and cost-effective process for the conversion of biomass.

Composting - Biochar (biomass)

Roger Ruan
How does a Biogas Plant Work? (youtube)
Biodigesters
Liquefied biogas
Bio Gas Technology
American Biogas Council
Swedish Biogas International
Bio-Construct
Turning Organic Wastes into Biogas for Cooking in Cameroon

3 million Biogas Plants in India and 35 million in China.

Household Biogas System (image) - Photo
Home Biogas (biogas plants)
Home Biogas - Turn Waste into Energy

Fukuoka City Central Water Processing Plant, sewage is separated into liquid and solid waste. The solid waste, called sewage sludge, is exactly what it sounds like: a foul-smelling, brown lump. Most sewage sludge is thrown in landfills microorganisms are added to the mix. These microorganisms break down the solid waste, creating biogas, about 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide. Then, workers filter out the CO2 and add water vapor, which creates hydrogen and more CO2. They extract the CO2 again, and voila: pure hydrogen. The Fukuoka plant produces 300 kilograms of hydrogen per day, enough to fuel 65 Mirai vehicles, If all the biogas produced by the plant were converted to hydrogen, that number would jump to 600 cars per day.

Microbial Fuel Cell is a bio-electrochemical system that drives a current by using bacteria and mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature. Microbial Fuel-cell

Electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

Ostara - Fuel Cells

Plantas Autofotosintéticas

Symbiotic Microbial Fuel Cells (youtube)

Citric Acid Cycle is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate. (also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle).

Electron Transport Chain is a series of compounds that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.

WSU researchers discover unique microbial photosynthesis a new type of cooperative photosynthesis that could be used in engineering microbial communities for waste treatment and bioenergy production.

Sugar Alcohol-Based Energy Storage Systems abundant waste product of the food industry mixed with carbon nanotubes.


Bio Energy


waste to fuel Biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter. Biofuels can be derived directly from plants, or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes.

Bioenergy is renewable energy made available from materials derived from biological sources. Biomass is any organic material which has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy. As a fuel it may include wood, wood waste, straw, manure, sugarcane, and many other by products from a variety of agricultural processes. By 2010, there was 35 GW (47,000,000 hp) of globally installed bioenergy capacity for electricity generation, of which 7 GW (9,400,000 hp) was in the United States

Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. Biochar is under investigation as an approach to carbon sequestration to produce negative carbon dioxide emissions. Biochar thus has the potential to help mitigate climate change via carbon sequestration. Independently, biochar can increase soil fertility of acidic soils (low pH soils), increase agricultural productivity, and provide protection against some foliar and soil-borne diseases. Furthermore, biochar reduces pressure on forests. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years.

Biomass is organic matter derived from living, or recently living organisms. Biomass can be used as a source of energy and it most often refers to plants or plant-based materials which are not used for food or feed, and are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass. As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods.

Grass - Hemp - Bamboo - Biomass

Bio-Mass Fuel Plant - Bio Electricity - Bio-Digesters

Bioneers - Biomimicry -Biology

Stanford discovery could lead to sustainable source of the fuel additive ethanol. A recent discovery could lead to a new, more sustainable way to make ethanol without corn or other crops. This promising technology has three basic components: water, carbon dioxide and electricity delivered through a copper catalyst.

Scientists uncover structure of light-driven enzyme with potential biofuel applications. Derived from microscopic algae, the enzyme converts fatty acids into starting ingredients for solvents and fuels. Although many organisms capture and respond to sunlight, enzymes - proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions - are rarely driven by light. A new study captures the full cycle of complex structural changes in an enzyme called FAP as it transforms a fatty acid into alkanes or alkenes.


Algae - Photosynthetic Organisms


Algae is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms which are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic. Included organisms range from unicellular genera, such as Chlorella and the diatoms, to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelp, a large brown alga which may grow up to 50 m in length. Most are aquatic and autotrophic and lack many of the distinct cell and tissue types, such as stomata, xylem, and phloem, which are found in land plants. The largest and most complex marine algae are called seaweeds, while the most complex freshwater forms are the Charophyta, a division of green algae which includes, for example, Spirogyra and the stoneworts. Diatom are a major group of algae, and are among the most common types of phytoplankton. Diatoms are unicellular, although they can form colonies in the shape of filaments or ribbons. Phytoplankton are photosynthesizing microscopic organisms that inhabit the upper sunlit layer of almost all oceans and bodies of fresh water on Earth. Chlorophyll is any of several closely related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants. Chlorophyll is essential in photosynthesis, allowing plants to absorb energy from light. Chlorophyll absorbs light most strongly in the blue portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, followed by the red portion. Conversely, it is a poor absorber of green and near-green portions of the spectrum, which it reflects, producing the green color of chlorophyll-containing tissues. Chlorophyll molecules are specifically arranged in and around photosystems that are embedded in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. Two types of chlorophyll exist in the photosystems of green plants: chlorophyll a and b. The ocean produces oxygen through the plants that live in it, like phytoplankton, kelp, and algal plankton. These plants produce oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis, a process which converts carbon dioxide and sunlight into sugars the organism can use for energy.

Coralline Algae are red algae in the order Corallinales. They are characterized by a thallus that is hard because of calcareous deposits contained within the cell walls. The colors of these algae are most typically pink, or some other shade of red, but other species can be purple, yellow, blue, white or gray-green. Coralline algae play an important role in the ecology of coral reefs.

Green Algae are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyte and Charophyte algae, which are now placed in separate divisions.

Volvox is a polyphyletic genus of chlorophyte green algae in the family Volvocaceae. It forms spherical colonies of up to 50,000 cells. They live in a variety of freshwater habitats, and were first reported by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1700. Volvox diverged from unicellular ancestors approximately 200 million years ago.

Phytoplankton are the autotrophic or self-feeding components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems. Most phytoplankton are too small to be individually seen with the unaided eye. However, when present in high enough numbers, some varieties may be noticeable as colored patches on the water surface due to the presence of chlorophyll within their cells and accessory pigments (such as phycobiliproteins or xanthophylls) in some species. Phytoplankton are a key food item in both aquaculture and mariculture. Both utilize phytoplankton as food for the animals being farmed. In mariculture, the phytoplankton is naturally occurring and is introduced into enclosures with the normal circulation of seawater. In aquaculture, phytoplankton must be obtained and introduced directly. The plankton can either be collected from a body of water or cultured, though the former method is seldom used. The production of phytoplankton under artificial conditions is itself a form of aquaculture. Phytoplankton is cultured for a variety of purposes, including foodstock for other aquacultured organisms, a nutritional supplement for captive invertebrates in aquaria. A 2010 study published in Nature reported that marine phytoplankton had declined substantially in the world's oceans over the past century. Phytoplankton concentrations in surface waters were estimated to have decreased by about 40% since 1950, at a rate of around 1% per year, possibly in response to ocean warming.

Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton (cf. phytoplankton). Plankton are organisms drifting in oceans, seas, and bodies of fresh water. Symmetry.

World’s First Urban Algae Canopy Produces the Oxygen Equivalent of Four Hectares of Woodland Every Day.

Autotroph is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis). They are the producers in a food chain, such as plants on land or algae in water (in contrast to heterotrophs as consumers of autotrophs). They do not need a living source of energy or organic carbon. Autotrophs can reduce carbon dioxide to make organic compounds for biosynthesis and also create a store of chemical energy. Most autotrophs use water as the reducing agent, but some can use other hydrogen compounds such as hydrogen sulfide. Some autotrophs, such as green plants and algae, are phototrophs, meaning that they convert electromagnetic energy from sunlight into chemical energy in the form of reduced carbon. Autotrophs can be photoautotrophs or chemoautotrophs. Phototrophs use light as an energy source, while chemotrophs use electron donors as a source of energy, whether from organic or inorganic sources; however in the case of autotrophs, these electron donors come from inorganic chemical sources. Such chemotrophs are lithotrophs. Lithotrophs use inorganic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur, ammonium and ferrous iron, as reducing agents for biosynthesis and chemical energy storage. Photoautotrophs and lithoautotrophs use a portion of the ATP produced during photosynthesis or the oxidation of inorganic compounds to reduce NADP+ to NADPH to form organic compounds.

Cyanobacteria is a phylum of Bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen. The name "cyanobacteria" comes from the color of the bacteria (Greek: κυανός (kyanós) = blue). Sometimes, they are called blue-green algae, and incorrectly so, because cyanobacteria are prokaryotes and the term "algae" is reserved for eukaryotes.

Microphyte are microscopic algae, typically found in freshwater and marine systems living in both the water column and sediment. They are unicellular species which exist individually, or in chains or groups. Depending on the species, their sizes can range from a few micrometers (µm) to a few hundred micrometers. Unlike higher plants, microalgae do not have roots, stems, or leaves. They are specially adapted to an environment dominated by viscous forces. Microalgae, capable of performing photosynthesis, are important for life on earth; they produce approximately half of the atmospheric oxygen and use simultaneously the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide to grow photoautotrophically. Microalgae, together with bacteria, form the base of the food web and provide energy for all the trophic levels above them. Microalgae biomass is often measured with chlorophyll a concentrations and can provide a useful index of potential production. The standing stock of microphytes is closely related to that of its predators. Without grazing pressures the standing stock of microphytes dramatically decreases.

Halophyte is a plant that grows in waters of high salinity, coming into contact with saline water through its roots or by salt spray, such as in saline semi-deserts, mangrove swamps, marshes and sloughs and seashores. An example of a halophyte is the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass). Relatively few plant species are halophytes—perhaps only 2% of all plant species. The large majority of plant species are glycophytes, which are not salt-tolerant and are damaged fairly easily by high salinity.

Salicornia is a genus of succulent, halophyte (salt tolerant) flowering plants in the family Amaranthaceae that grow in salt marshes, on beaches, and among mangroves. Salicornia species are native to North America, Europe, South Africa, and South Asia. Common names for the genus include glasswort, pickleweed, and marsh samphire; these common names are also used for some species not in Salicornia. The main European species is often eaten, called marsh samphire in Britain, and the main North American species is occasionally sold in grocery stores or appears on restaurant menus, usually as 'sea beans' or samphire greens or sea asparagus.

Bacteria - Viruses

Algae Bioreactor or photobioreactor is used for cultivating algae on purpose to Fix CO2 or produce biomass.

Algae Bio Fuels Solix
Algal Bio Refinery
Petro Algae
Vertigro Algae (youtube)
Algae Industry Magazine

Algae cultivation technique could advance biofuels. Researchers have developed a way to grow algae more efficiently — in days instead of weeks. Oil from the algae can be used as a petroleum alternative and algae also can be used as food, feed, fiber, fertilizer, pigments and pharmaceuticals. Growing and harvesting it in wastewater streams could also reduce the
environmental footprint of many manufacturing processes.

Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor is a type of wastewater treatment process system that consists of an aeration tank (similar to a activated sludge tank) with special plastic carriers that provide a surface where a biofilm can grow.

Researchers have used a nanosecond pulsed electric field to extract hydrocarbons from microalgae. By using the shorter duration pulse, they were able to extract a large amount of hydrocarbons from the microalgae in a shorter amount of time, using less energy, and in a more efficient manner than current methods.

Jonathan Trent: Floating Algae Pods
Nasa Research OMEGA
Live Fuels
NASA Greenlab
Bilal Bomani: GreenLab Research (video)

Biggest Seaweed Bloom in the World. NASA satellite observations to discover the largest bloom of macroalgae in the world called the Great Atlantic Sargassum Belt (GASB).

Originoil Model Algae Appliance
Bacteria Petrol-Like Biofuel
Living Machine
Bio Resource Management
Bio Energy International
Quadrogen
Biofuel matchmaker: Finding the perfect algae for renewable energy

Vanadium Nitrogenase

Wolffia or duckweed, is the fastest-growing plant known, but the genetics underlying this strange little plant's success have long been a mystery to scientists. New findings about the plant's genome explain how it's able to grow so fast.

The way plants produce cellulose research identified several proteins that are essential in the assembly of the protein machinery that makes cellulose.

Lichen is a composite organism that arises from Algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple Fungi in a mutualistic relationship. The combined lichen has properties different from those of its component organisms. Lichens come in many colors, sizes, and forms. The properties are sometimes plant-like, but lichens are not plants. Lichens may have tiny, leafless branches (fruticose), flat leaf-like structures (foliose), flakes that lie on the surface like peeling paint (crustose), a powder-like appearance (leprose), or other growth forms. A macrolichen is a lichen that is either bush-like or leafy; all other lichens are termed microlichens. Here, "macro" and "micro" do not refer to size, but to the growth form. Common names for lichens may contain the word Moss (e.g., "reindeer moss", "Iceland moss"), and lichens may superficially look like and grow with mosses, but lichens are not related to mosses or any plant. Lichens do not have roots that absorb water and nutrients as plants do. But like plants, they produce their own food by photosynthesis. When they grow on plants, they do not live as parasites, but instead use the plants as a substrate. Lichens occur from sea level to high alpine elevations, in many environmental conditions, and can grow on almost any surface. Lichens are abundant growing on bark, leaves, mosses, on other lichens, and hanging from branches "living on thin air" (epiphytes) in rain forests and in temperate woodland. They grow on rock, walls, gravestones, roofs, exposed soil surfaces, and in the soil as part of a biological Soil crust. Different kinds of lichens have adapted to survive in some of the most extreme environments on Earth: arctic tundra, hot dry deserts, rocky coasts, and toxic slag heaps. They can even live inside solid rock, growing between the grains. It is estimated that 6% of Earth's land surface is covered by lichens. There are about 20,000 known species of lichens. Some lichens have lost the ability to reproduce sexually, yet continue to speciate. Lichens can be seen as being relatively self-contained miniature ecosystems, where the fungi, algae, or cyanobacteria have the potential to engage with other microorganisms in a functioning system that may evolve as an even more complex composite organism. Lichens may be long-lived, with some considered to be among the oldest living things. They are among the first living things to grow on fresh rock exposed after an event such as a landslide. The long life-span and slow and regular growth rate of some lichens can be used to date events (lichenometry). pH Litmus Test - Biodiesel Fuels.



Syngas


Wood Gas is a syngas fuel which can be used as a fuel for furnaces, stoves and vehicles in place of gasoline, diesel or other fuels. During the production process biomass or other carbon-containing materials are gasified within the oxygen-limited environment of a wood gas generator to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases can then be burnt as a fuel within an oxygen rich environment to produce carbon dioxide, water and heat. In some gasifiers this process is preceded by pyrolysis, where the biomass or coal is first converted to char, releasing methane and tar rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

Syngas is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.

Wood Gas Generator is a gasification unit which converts timber or charcoal into wood gas, a syngas consisting of atmospheric nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, traces of methane, and other gases, which - after cooling and filtering - can then be used to power an internal combustion engine or for other purposes. Historically wood gas generators were often mounted on vehicles, but present studies and developments concentrate mostly on stationary plants.

Gasification is a process that converts organic or fossil fuel based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

My Wood Stove runs a generator (youtube)
Wood Power Generators
Wood Stove runs a Generator (youtube)

SYNPOL - Biopolymers from Syngas Fermentationan. EU-funded project, has recently developed a technique that could pave the way for such a revolution. Their new technique is based upon pyrolysis, which is a process where organic waste from households and industry is heated until it breaks down and forms hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, collectively known as syngas. This process normally requires expensive high temperatures, but SYNPOL scientists have shown that if they blast the waste with microwaves at the same time they need less heat. This produces a cheaper syngas that is also richer in carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and lower in carbon dioxide, making it even more valuable. These gases are then fed to genetically engineered bacteria which turn them into the building blocks of biodegradable plastics. At the end of the supply chain, SYNPOL also demonstrated that when their bioplastics finally end up on a compost heap, they will completely biodegrade into harmless substances. This would allow municipalities to transform all of their organic waste into syngas, which could then be used to produce cleaner fuel or bioplastics.

Co-Generation combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time. Trigeneration or combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) refers to the simultaneous generation of electricity and useful heating and cooling from the combustion of a fuel or a solar heat collector.

Artificial Leaf successfully produces Clean Gas. artificial leaf is powered by sunlight, although it still works efficiently on cloudy and overcast days. And unlike the current industrial processes for producing syngas, the leaf does not release any additional carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Syngas is currently made from a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and is used to produce a range of commodities, such as fuels, pharmaceuticals, plastics and fertilisers. On the artificial leaf, two light absorbers, similar to the molecules in plants that harvest sunlight, are combined with a catalyst made from the naturally abundant element cobalt. When the device is immersed in water, one light absorber uses the catalyst to produce oxygen. The other carries out the chemical reaction that reduces carbon dioxide and water into carbon monoxide and hydrogen, forming the syngas mixture. Other 'artificial leaf' devices have also been developed, but these usually only produce hydrogen. The Cambridge researchers say the reason they have been able to make theirs produce syngas sustainably is thanks the combination of materials and catalysts they used. These include state-of-the-art perovskite light absorbers, which provide a high photovoltage and electrical current to power the chemical reaction by which carbon dioxide is reduced to carbon monoxide, in comparison to light absorbers made from silicon or dye-sensitised materials. The researchers also used cobalt as their molecular catalyst, instead of platinum or silver. Cobalt is not only lower-cost, but it is better at producing carbon monoxide than other catalysts. Syngas is already used as a building block in the production of liquid fuels.



Urine - Pee Power - Poop as Fuel


2.8 Billion Gallons of Human Urine is produced and wasted each day. Urine consists of approximately 98% water, and 2% urea, which is made up of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen atoms. Thermoelectric.

Pee Powered House - Pee Powered Cellphone - Pee Powered Energy Generator

The taboo secret to healthier plants and people: Molly Winter (video and Text)

Urea is the main nitrogen-containing substance in the urine of mammals. An organic compound with the chemical formula CO(NH2)2. The molecule has two —NH2 groups joined by a carbonyl (C=O) functional group.

Sustainable recovery of nutrients from Urine. Most ammonia capture is done through the Haber-Bosch (HB) process, an energy-intensive technique used to produce fertilizer that accounts for 1-2% of the world's annual energy consumption. Engineers report they have recovered ammonia through a new method with a very low level of energy, approx 1/5 of the energy used by HB. And because the technique recycles ammonia in a closed loop, the ammonia can be recaptured for reuse in fertilizer, household cleaners, etc.

Technology which makes Electricity from Urine also kills Pathogens. Microbial Fuel Cell installed in homes to treat waste, generate electricity and stop harmful organisms making it through to the municipal sewerage network, reducing the burden on water companies to treat effluent.

Urine Power (youtube)

Biggest Pee Power urinal to date located near Pyramid Stage at Glastonbury.

J. Craig Venter Institute - Living Machines - Toilets

Waste = Food (video)

Fuel from Sewage - Americans generate 34 billion gallons of sewage each day.

Hydrothermal Liquefaction is a thermal depolymerization process used to convert wet biomass into crude-like oil -sometimes referred to as bio-oil or biocrude- under moderate temperature and high pressure.

Manure for Fuel: Manure Manager - Manure for Fuel - Composting

Hogs Manure flows into a big pond, called a lagoon. This is the standard form of treatment for hog waste in this part of the country. In the lagoon, bacteria go to work on the manure, breaking it down. The bacterial action releases a biogas that's 60% to 65% methane. On most farms, that gas just goes floating off into the air — and contributes to the overheating of the planet. Methane is a greenhouse gas with a warming impact at least 25 times greater, per pound, than carbon dioxide.

Burning Poop as Fuel

Bacteria that can ‘eat’ pollutants and generate electricity. Bacteria can eat pollution by converting toxic pollutants into less harmful substances and generating electricity in the process. As these bacteria pass their electrons into metals or other solid surfaces, they can produce a stream of electricity that can be used for low-power applications. Most living organisms – including humans – use electrons, which are tiny negatively-charged particles, in a complex chain of chemical reactions to power their bodies. Every organism needs a source of electrons and a place to dump the electrons to live. While we humans get our electrons from sugars in the food we eat and pass them into the oxygen we breathe through our lungs, several types of bacteria dump their electrons to outside metals or minerals, using protruding hair-like wires.

Waste to Energy
Sweden's Waste to Energy (video)
Waste 2 Tricity
Waste Gasification FastOx Gasifier
Plasma Enhanced Melter System

Recovered Energy - Energy Recovery Council
Kudzunol - New Energy and Fuel

Cellulosic Ethanol (wiki)
Mega Flora Trees

SyngasFermentation - Bio-Mass - Land Fills - Garbage

Bio-Fuels - Synthetic Biology - Bio-Energy.



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